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Journal Cover European Thyroid Journal
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 2235-0640 - ISSN (Online) 2235-0802
     Published by Karger Homepage  [104 journals]
  • Short-Call Abstracts
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2014;3(suppl 1):249–250
       
  • Author Index Vol. 3, 2014
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2014;3:283-284
       
  • Subject Index Vol. 3, 2014
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2014;3:285-286
       
  • Contents Vol. 3, 2014
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2014;3:I-IV
       
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: A Key Factor in the Pathogenesis of
           Graves' Ophthalmopathy and Potential Target for Treatment
    • Abstract: Activation of orbital fibroblasts resulting in excessive proliferation, cytokine and hyaluronan production and differentiation into adipocytes, is a main determinant of orbital tissue inflammation and tissue expansion in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). During the last years we have shown that the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB are increased in orbital tissue from GO patients with active and inactive disease. These PDGF isoforms exhibit the capacity to stimulate proliferation, hyaluronan and cytokine/chemokine production by orbital fibroblasts. Moreover, PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB increase thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression by orbital fibroblasts, which enhances the orbital fibroblast activating capacity of the THSR stimulatory autoantibodies present in Graves' disease (GD) patients. Of these PDGF isoforms PDGF-BB exhibits the strongest orbital fibroblast activating effects, which is likely related to its ability to bind both the PDGF-receptor (PDGF-R)α and PDGF-Rβ chains. Thus the PDGF-system fulfills important roles in orbital fibroblast activation in both active and inactive GO, which supports a therapeutic rationale for blocking PDGF signaling in GO. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be candidates to target PDGF signaling. Of several TKIs tested dasatinib exhibited the highest potency to block PDGF-R signaling in orbital fibroblasts and may represent a promising compound for the treatment of GO as it was effective at low dosage and is associated with less side effects compared to imatinib mesylate and nilotinib. In this review the contribution of PDGF to the pathophysiology of GO as well as therapeutic approaches to target this PDGF-system will be addressed.

       
  • Recombinant Human Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone-Aided Remnant Ablation
           Achieves a Response to Treatment Comparable to That with Thyroid Hormone
           Withdrawal in Patients with Clinically Relevant Lymph Node Metastases
    • Abstract: It has already been shown that remnant ablation in patients with thyroid cancer and lymph node (LN) metastases has similar results when patients are prepared after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) therapy or thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). Due to the current changes in the risk-of-recurrence classifications, we decided to evaluate the initial response to treatment and the outcome at medium-term follow-up in 40 consecutive patients with clinically relevant lymph nodes who received radioiodine remnant ablation after rhTSH therapy (n = 20) or THW (n = 20). Each patient received either 100 or 150 mCi 131-I for ablation based on TNM status, and the mean amounts of 131-I used in the 2 groups were not significantly different. An excellent response to treatment was observed in 45% of the patients prepared after rhTSH therapy compared to 20% of those prepared after THW (p = 0.08). Three patients (2 in the THW group and 1 in the rhTSH group) who had N1a in the initial surgery presented with structural persistence as an initial response to treatment. One patient in the THW group had a follow-up of the persistent disease with no surgical treatment, and 2 others received a lateral LN dissection. When the status at final follow-up was considered (median follow-up 3.3 years, range 3-4.2), 60% of the patients ablated after rhTSH therapy were considered with no evidence of disease, compared to 30% of those who underwent THW. The frequency of structural persistence (metastatic LN) was similar in the 2 groups (15 vs. 25%), and the distribution of the responses at final follow-up was not statistically significantly different (p = 0.12). We conclude that preparation after rhTSH therapy seems to be as effective as after THW for patients with clinically relevant LN metastases.

       
  • Retrospective Analysis of 255 Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas ≤2 cm:
           Clinicohistological Features and Prognostic Factors
    • Abstract: Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer. The widespread use of neck ultrasound (US) and US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology is triggering an overdiagnosis of PTC. Objective: To evaluate clinical behavior and outcomes of patients with PTCs ≤2 cm, seeking for possible prognostic factors. Methods: Clinical records of cases with histological diagnosis of PTC ≤2 cm followed at the Endocrine Department of Instituto Português de Oncologia, Lisbon between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: We identified 255 PTCs, 111 were microcarcinomas. Most patients underwent near-total thyroidectomy, with lymph node dissections in 55 cases (21.6%). Radioiodine therapy was administered in 184 patients. At the last evaluation, 38 (14.9%) had evidence of disease. Two deaths were attributed to PTC. Median (±SD) follow-up was 74 (±23) months. Multivariate analysis identified vascular invasion, lymph node and systemic metastases significantly associated with recurrence/persistence of disease. In addition, lymph node involvement was significantly associated with extrathyroidal extension and angioinvasion. Median (±SD) disease-free survival (DFS) was estimated as 106 (±3) months and the 5-year DFS rate was 87.5%. Univariate Cox analysis identified some relevant parameters for DFS, but multivariate regression only identified lymph node and systemic metastases as significant independent factors. The median DFS estimated for lymph node and systemic metastases was 75 and 0 months, respectively. Conclusions: In the setting of small PTCs, vascular invasion, extrathyroidal extension and lymph node and/or systemic metastases may confer worse prognosis, perhaps justifying more aggressive therapeutic and follow-up approaches in such cases.

       
  • Tandem Germline RET Mutations in a Family Pathogenetic for Multiple
           Endocrine Neoplasia 2B, Confirmed by a Natural Experiment
    • Abstract: A family with germline tandem V804M/Y806C mutations in the RET proto-oncogene was reported. The in vitro study results showing that these mutations were on the same allele and that RET with these mutations had a moderate transforming activity were confirmed by the clinical features of the offspring as a natural experiment. Thus, the tandem double RET mutations are pathogenetic for MEN 2B.

       
  • Cervical Lymph Nodes, Thyroiditis and Ophthalmopathy: The Pleomorphic Face
           of an Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease
    • Abstract: We report a case of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) presenting with a clinical course suggestive of fibrosing thyroiditis and endocrine ophthalmopathy associated with enlarged cervical lymph nodes. This clinical presentation should prompt a search for associated systemic disorders, including an IgG4-RD. The clue to the exact diagnosis of the underlying disease is histological examination showing an IgG4 plasmatocytic infiltrate in the inflammatory organs involved.
      Eur Thyroid J
       
  • Concurrent Medullary, Papillary, and Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas and
           Simultaneous Cushing's Syndrome
    • Abstract: Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid cancer (85%). Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most common type of thyroid cancer, accounting for up to 10% of all thyroid cancers. Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for only 5-8% of thyroid cancers. Concurrent medullary, follicular, and papillary carcinomas of the thyroid gland are extremely rare and reported scarcely. Case Report: A 72-year-old male presented with nonspecific neck pain. The workup revealed a nodular thyroid gland with a follicular lesion on fine-needle aspiration. Total thyroidectomy was performed and pathological examination identified a 25-mm follicular carcinoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and two medullary microcarcinomas. The genetic workup was negative and no other family members were diagnosed with any endocrinopathy. Two months after surgery, the patient was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome that was treated with laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. On 3-year follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrent disease. Conclusion: We present a rare case of a patient with follicular, papillary, and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and Cushing's syndrome. To date, no known genetic mutation or syndrome can account for this combination of neoplastic thyroid and adrenal pathologies, although future research may prove differently.
      Eur Thyroid J
       
 
 
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