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Journal Cover European Thyroid Journal
  [SJR: 0.38]   [H-I: 2]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 2235-0640 - ISSN (Online) 2235-0802
   Published by Karger Homepage  [101 journals]
  • Should Age at Diagnosis Be Included as an Additional Variable in the Risk
           of Recurrence Classification System in Patients with Differentiated
           Thyroid Cancer'
    • Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the influence of age at diagnosis on the frequency of structural incomplete response (SIR) according to the modified risk of recurrence (RR) staging system from the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 268 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) followed up for at least 3 years after initial treatment (total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation). The median follow-up in the whole cohort was 74.3 months (range: 36.1-317.9) and the median age at diagnosis was 45.9 years (range: 18-87). The association between age at diagnosis and the initial and final response to treatment was assessed with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Patients were also divided into several groups considering age younger and older than 40, 50, and 60 years. Results: Age at diagnosis was not associated with either an initial or final statistically significant different SIR to treatment (p = 0.14 and p = 0.58, respectively). Additionally, we did not find any statistically significant differences when the percentages of SIR considering the classification of RR were compared between different groups of patients by using several age cutoffs. Conclusions: When patients are correctly risk stratified, it seems that age at diagnosis is not involved in the frequency of having a SIR at the initial evaluation or at the final follow-up, so it should not be included as an additional variable to be considered in the RR classifications.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Survey of Clinical Practice Patterns in the Management of 992 Hyperthyroid
           Patients in France
    • Abstract: Background: Considerable variations in diagnosis and therapeutic practices are reported for hyperthyroidism (HT) between countries. Methods: A clinical study was conducted among a representative sample of 263 endocrinologists in France. All consecutive patients seen for HT during the study period were included. Diagnosis and treatment modalities were recorded from hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease (GD, n = 802), multinodular goiter (MNG, n = 121), and toxic adenoma (TA, n = 69). Results: Antithyroid antibodies were measured in half of the population (anti-TPO in 48.5% and anti-TSH receptor in 57.8%). Patients had thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy in 93.8 and 40.3%, respectively. Therapeutic management depended on the etiology: for the first episode of GD, antithyroid drugs (ATDs) were the first-line treatment in 91% of the patients, combined with surgery in 6.1% and with radioiodine in 2.9%. Surgery was preferred to radioiodine in MNG (52.6 vs. 22.4%) and TA (59.1 vs. 24.2%). Euthyroid status was achieved after 3 months in 64.4% of GD. A “block and replace” protocol was used in 41.2% of patients. After 3 months, 73% of patients were euthyroid in the “block and replace” group compared to 56.2% in the group with ATDs alone (p = 0.009). For MNG and TA, more than 75% of patients were euthyroid at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: Large discrepancies remain between clinical practice and international guidelines. These results should boost efforts to improve adherence to these guidelines.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • A 2016 Italian Survey about Guidelines and Clinical Management of Thyroid
    • Abstract: Background: While thyroid nodules are frequent in endocrine clinical practice, patients are often asymptomatic and euthyroid, and death is rare in cases of malignancy. Objectives: To evaluate the perception of current international guidelines regarding thyroid nodule management among Italian endocrinologists, and to compare daily clinical practice with suggested recommendations. Methods: Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) members were invited to participate in a Web-based survey. Results: A total of 566 physicians responded. About 50% had read the full text of the guidelines. Over half appreciated the suggested ultrasound (US) risk categories. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was obtained more frequently than recommended. Follow-up of a cytologically benign nodule was largely performed according to the guidelines. Molecular testing would be most commonly requested when cytology reports showed atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) (TIR3A for Italian System). Iodine and/or levothyroxine were largely prescribed for cytologically benign asymptomatic nodules. Laser/radiofrequency ablation and percutaneous ethanol injection were commonly considered as alternatives to surgery (46.2 and 71.4%, respectively). Conclusions: Efforts are needed to make the guidelines more user-friendly and to encourage the use of codified risk categories in thyroid US reports. FNA indications remain a matter of debate as FNA is obtained in clinical practice more often than is recommended. Current US follow-up modalities for a benign nodule are correct, but probably could be performed less frequently without any harm. Molecular testing, if accessible, would be helpful in guiding clinicians' strategies in cases of AUS/FLUS-TIR3A cytologic results. Nonsurgical procedures are favorably embraced.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Variability among TSH Measurements Can Be Reduced by Combining a
           Glycoengineered Calibrator to Epitope-Defined Immunoassays
    • Abstract: Objectives: Measuring protein markers with variable glycosylation, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), with high accuracy is not an easy task. Despite highly sensitive third-generation tests, discrepancies among TSH assays still remain unsolved and are the focus of important standardization efforts. Earlier work from our group showed that a lack of similarity in epitope expression between standards and samples may account for discordant hormone measurements. In this study, we aimed at producing a glycoengineered TSH with serum-type glycosylation and compared its immunological behavior to that of the international standards. Study Design: Recombinant glycoengineered TSH (rgTSH) was produced in glycoengineered Chinese hamster ovary cells to express a highly sialylated TSH and tested in newly designed assays. Two groups of assays targeting defined epitopes were constructed and TSH levels were estimated in a panel of 84 clinical samples (2.1-22.4 mIU/l) based on the use of the current 3rd IS 81/565, the 1st IRP 94/674 and rgTSH calibrations. Results: Calibration based on rgTSH was found to significantly reduce the percentage difference means of assays compared to the pituitary standard. We also found that a switch from a mIU/l (3rd IS 81/565) to ng/l (rgTSH) basis can be established within the normal as well as in the mid to upper normal range of TSH levels. Of interest, TSH assays targeting the main immunogenic region displayed variable TSH values, indicating that, in this region, epitopes should be defined for assays to deliver similar values. Conclusions: A glycoengineered TSH with serum-type glycosylation proved to be a new calibrator efficient in harmonizing TSH values.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Contents Vol. 5, 2016
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:I-VI
  • Author Index Vol. 5, 2016
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:281-282
  • Subject Index Vol. 5, 2016
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:283-284
  • “Nodule in Nodule” on Thyroid Ultrasonography: Possibility of
           Follicular Carcinoma Transformed from Benign Thyroid Tumor
    • Abstract: Background: It is generally considered impossible to differentiate follicular carcinomas from follicular adenomas by means of ultrasonography or cytology before surgery. Therefore, follicular carcinoma is histopathologically diagnosed by verifying capsular and/or vascular invasion after surgery. However, ultrasonography may play an important role in diagnosing follicular carcinoma preoperatively in a small number of cases. Case Description: Four cases of follicular carcinoma or follicular neoplasm that transformed from a benign thyroid tumor and demonstrated a “nodule in nodule” appearance on ultrasonography are presented in this report. Characteristic ultrasound features of such patients are: (1) a “nodule in nodule” appearance, (2) a well-defined boundary line between the nodules, and (3) separate distribution of blood signals within each nodule. Conclusion: A small number of patients with follicular carcinomas or follicular neoplasms may present with a “nodule in nodule” appearance on ultrasonography. It was suggested a long time ago that follicular carcinomas may develop from benign thyroid tumors. The fact that follicular carcinomas appear within benign tumors may be evidence of thyroid tumorigenesis.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • When Is Thyroidectomy the Right Choice Comparison between Fine-Needle
           Aspiration and Final Histology in a Single Institution Experience
    • Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare SIAPEC-IAP-based cytological reports with their corresponding histological diagnoses to establish when thyroidectomy is the right choice in the management of thyroid diseases. Study Design: This is a retrospective review of all the consecutive thyroidectomies/lobectomies performed at Maria Vittoria Hospital during the 10-year period between January 2005 and December 2015. Patients who underwent both fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and surgical procedures in our institution were included in the study. Results: A total of 260 patients underwent both FNA and a thyroid surgical procedure at Maria Vittoria Hospital; 111 (42.69%) had a malignant histological report. The final cytological diagnosis was nondiagnostic (TIR-1) in 19 cases (7.31%), benign (TIR-2) in 83 cases (31.92%), indeterminate (TIR-3) in 96 cases (36.92%), suspicious for malignancy (TIR-4) in 22 cases (8.46%), and diagnostic for malignancy (TIR-5) in 40 cases (15.38%). Among the 96 cases with TIR-3 cytology, after the review, 44 (16.92%) were classified as TIR-3A and 52 (20%) as TIR-3B. The prevalence of malignancy among TIR-3A cases was 20.45% (9/44) and among TIR-3B cases 53.85% (28/52). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0007). Conclusions: Our data suggest that follow-up alone is not sufficient in TIR-3A patients given the high prevalence of malignancy within that diagnostic category (20.45%) and the low sensitivity (75.68%) and specificity (59.32%) in the distinction between TIR-3A and TIR-3B. Regarding patients with a multinodular goiter and TIR-2 at FNA, the surgical approach should not be excluded.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Immunoglobulin G4-Related Thyroid Diseases
    • Abstract: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a new disease category involving many organ systems, including the endocrine system in general and the thyroid in particular. Since an initial association was made between hypothyroidism and autoimmune (IgG4-related) pancreatitis, more forms of IgG4-related thyroid disease (IgG4-RTD) have been recognized. Four subcategories of IgG4-RTD have so far been identified: Riedel thyroiditis (RT), fibrosing variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis (FVHT), IgG4-related Hashimoto thyroiditis, and Graves disease with elevated IgG4 levels. Although a male predominance is seen for IgG4-RD in general, RT and FVHT have a female preponderance. The pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is not completely understood; however, genetic factors, antigen-antibody reactions, and an allergic phenomenon have been described. Diagnosis of IgG4-RD requires a combination of clinical features, serological evidence, and histological features. Histology is the mainstay of diagnosis, with IgG4 immunostaining. Although serum IgG4 levels are usually elevated in IgG4-RD, raised serum IgG4 is neither necessary nor adequate for diagnosis. Imaging supports the diagnosis and is a useful tool in disease monitoring. Management of IgG4-RTD is both medical and surgical. Steroids are the first-line treatment and may produce a swift response. Tamoxifen and rituximab are second-line agents used in steroid-resistant patients. Surgical debulking is carried out in RT solely as a procedure to relieve obstruction. Other endocrine associations described with IgG4-RD are hypophysitis and Hashimoto encephalopathy. IgG4-RTD is an uncommon disease entity, and prompt diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:231-239
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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