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Journal Cover European Thyroid Journal
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   ISSN (Print) 2235-0640 - ISSN (Online) 2235-0802
   Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Lenvatinib for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer and Lenvatinib-Induced Thyroid
    • Abstract: Background: Lenvatinib is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has an anticancer action in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer that is refractory to radioiodine. Knowledge of the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is limited. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors frequently cause hypothyroidism, but the incidence of hypothyroidism with lenvatinib is unclear. Objectives: We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in ATC. Methods: Five patients with unresectable ATC were enrolled. Lenvatinib 24 mg once daily was administered until disease progression, unmanageable toxicity, withdrawal, or death occurred. We retrospectively analyzed the objective response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP), overall survival, and safety. Results: Three of the 5 patients (60%) had a partial response, and 5 (40%) had stable disease. The ORR was 60%. Median TTP was 88 days, and overall survival was 165 days. Hypothyroidism was a common treatment-related adverse effect; 4 patients (80%) had hypothyroidism of any grade. These 4 patients had not undergone total thyroidectomy prior to lenvatinib administration, and the other patient had undergone total thyroidectomy. Treatment-related adverse effects of any grade were hypertension in 80% of patients, diarrhea in 40%, fatigue in 80%, and decreased appetite in 80%. Conclusions: Lenvatinib is an effective treatment and may improve the prognosis of unresectable ATC. Four of the 5 patients had hypothyroidism, which may have been associated with treatment-induced injury of the thyroid gland. There were many treatment-related adverse effects, most of which were manageable by dose modification and medical therapy.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Successful Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma with
           Transaxillary Robotic Surgery and Radioiodine: The First European
    • Abstract: Objectives: Transaxillary robotic thyroidectomy surgery (TARS) has been reported to be a safe approach in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and oncological responses are promising. Study Design: This study aimed to evaluate the oncological outcomes of TARS followed by radioiodine (RAI) therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Between 2011 and 2016, patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma by TARS in a single institution, followed by RAI, were retrospectively included. The oncological response was performed according to the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines 6–12 months later and at the last available visit. Results: A total of 42 patients (30 females) were included, with a median tumor size of 20 mm (12 cases of N1a and 5 cases of N1b on initial pathology report). According to ATA classification of recurrence risk after surgery, 17 and 25 patients were classified as low and intermediate risk, respectively. After RAI, all patients had a normal posttherapeutic whole body scan (except 1 patient, who had pathological lymph node uptake), but no unusual uptake was seen. At the 6- to 12-month evaluation (n = 37), 24 patients had excellent response, 8 had indeterminate response, and 5 had incomplete response (2 biological and 3 structural); no distant metastasis was found. At the last evaluation (median follow-up 15.9 months), 35 patients had no evidence of disease and 1 patient had a structural incomplete response. In total, a second open surgery was necessary for 3 patients to treat persistent lymph nodes (all intermediate risk). Conclusion: In this study, TARS followed by RAI therapy seems to be curative, even for patients with lymph node metastases, after good preoperative staging. More studies are required to confirm the findings.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Prevalence of Radiological Signs of Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy in
           Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Active, Moderate-to-Severe,
           and Very Severe Graves Orbitopathy
    • Abstract: Background: Differentiating between dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON), which requires urgent therapy to prevent blindness, and moderate-to-severe Graves orbitopathy (GO) remains challenging. There is no pathognomonic feature of DON in either ophthalmological or radiological examinations. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of radiological signs of DON in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with moderate-to-severe and very severe GO. Methods: Two researchers reassessed MRI scans of 23 consecutive patients (46 eyes) with active, moderate-to-severe GO and 14 patients (23 eyes) with very severe GO. Typical signs of DON in MRI include apical crowding and optic nerve stretching. These were evaluated in the eyes of both groups of patients. Lack of cerebrospinal fluid in the optic nerve sheath as well as muscle index values were also studied. These clinical evaluations and laboratory results were then compared between groups. Results: At least one of the typical radiological features of DON was found in 22 (96%) and 16 (35%) eyes with very severe and moderate-to-severe GO, respectively. Each occurred statistically more often in patients with very severe GO. There were no ophthalmological signs of very severe GO observed in the group of patients with moderate-to-severe GO during the study or its subsequent follow-up (234 weeks). Conclusions: MRI is a useful tool in evaluating very severe GO. However, features typical for DON are also found in up to 35% of eyes in patients with active, moderate-to-severe GO. Therefore, ophthalmological evaluation seems to be most important in the recognition of very severe GO.
      Eur Thyroid J 2018;7:88–94
  • 2018 European Thyroid Association (ETA) Guidelines for the Management of
           Amiodarone-Associated Thyroid Dysfunction
    • Abstract: Treatment with amiodarone is associated with changes in thyroid function tests, but also with thyroid dysfunction (amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, AIH, and amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, AIT). Both AIH and AIT may develop in apparently normal thyroid glands or in the presence of underlying thyroid abnormalities. AIH does not require amiodarone withdrawal, and is treated with levothyroxine replacement if overt, whereas subclinical forms may be followed without treatment. Two main types of AIT are recognized: type 1 AIT (AIT 1), a form of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism occurring in nodular goitres or latent Graves disease, and type 2 AIT (AIT 2), resulting from destructive thyroiditis in a normal thyroid gland. Mixed/indefinite forms exist due to both pathogenic mechanisms. AIT 1 is best treated with thionamides that may be combined for a few weeks with sodium perchlorate to make the thyroid gland more sensitive to thionamides. AIT 2 is treated with oral glucocorticoids. Once euthyroidism has been restored, AIT 2 patients are followed up without treatment, whereas AIT 1 patients should be treated with thyroidectomy or radioiodine. Mixed/indefinite forms of AIT are treated with thionamides. Oral glucocorticoids can be added from the beginning if a precise diagnosis is uncertain, or after a few weeks if response to thionamides alone is poor. The decision to continue or to stop amiodarone in AIT should be individualized in relation to cardiovascular risk stratification and taken jointly by specialist cardiologists and endocrinologists. In the presence of rapidly deteriorating cardiac conditions, emergency thyroidectomy may be required for all forms of AIT.
      Eur Thyroid J 2018;7:55–66
  • Nodules ≤1 cm with Highly Suspicious Ultrasound Features and Papillary
           Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid: Is Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology
           Necessary before Deciding on Active Surveillance'
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Liposarcoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report with a Review of the Literature
    • Abstract: Background: Liposarcomas of the thyroid gland are extremely rare tumors, and, to our knowledge, only 12 cases have been reported in the English literature. An accurate diagnosis is challenging due to the nonspecific clinical presentation of this cancer, frequently defined just by a swelling of the neck. Patient Findings: We present an 82-year-old woman with liposarcoma of the thyroid, complaining of a fast-growing neck mass. MRI and neck ultrasound showed a large lipomatous mass, which corresponded to a cold nodule in the thyroid scan. After performing a total thyroidectomy, the diagnosis of a well-differentiated liposarcoma of the thyroid gland was made, showing an MDM2 amplification in fluorescence in situ hybridization. Since neither a metastasis nor a residual tumor was found, no further adjuvant therapy was needed. Results: We searched the literature for previous case reports and identified only 12 cases worldwide to form our database. A demographic as well as clinical and histopathological analysis was made. In most cases, the liposarcoma occurred in patients #x3e;60 years of age. All histological subtypes, such as well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcomas, and pleomorphic and dedifferentiated liposarcomas, were found in the literature. In only 38.46% of the cases, an infiltration of the adjacent organs was observed. Surgery was the most common treatment chosen. Conclusions: Our review provides clinical and histopathological features of a primary liposarcoma of the thyroid to enable the identifi­cation of this rare tumor entity and assist in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic options and tumor follow-up.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • In Memoriam: Gabriella Morreale de Escobar
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Thyroid Cancer Induction: Nitrates as Independent Risk Factors or Risk
           Modulators after Radiation Exposure, with a Focus on the Chernobyl
    • Abstract: In recent decades, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) incidence has been increasing worldwide. The important contributions to this phenomenon of “overdiagnosis” driven by wider use of improved ultrasound systems are amply documented, notwithstanding the “real” carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, e.g., from the Chernobyl accident or health care interventions. Less well understood is the role of nitrates – as environmental pollutants, in diet, and in medication – in thyroid carcinogenesis. Increasing exposure to nitrates is associated with rising incidence of esophageal, stomach, bladder, and colon cancers. Recent data suggest that in agricultural areas with higher mean nitrate levels in groundwater, DTC risk is also elevated. Our work in Belarus after Chernobyl has shown that children in districts with high nitrate concentrations in drinking water had significantly higher thyroid cancer incidence after irradiation than did their counterparts in areas with lower nitrate concentrations. Notwithstanding thyroid shielding, increasing use of computed tomography and dental X-rays heightens radiation exposure of the salivary glands in the general population, especially in children and adolescents. When nitrate intake is increased, salivary gland irradiation may potentially result in carcinogenic elevations in plasma nitric oxide concentrations. In conclusion, excess nitrate intake seems to be an independent risk factor for DTC. Additionally, we hypothesize from our data that high nitrate levels modulate the carcinogenic effect of radiation on the thyroid. Cohort studies, case-control studies, or both, are needed to quantify the effects of nitrates on DTC risk in the presence or absence of radiation exposure, e.g., that associated with diagnostic or therapeutic health care interventions.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Trends in Costs of Thyroid Disease Treatment in Denmark during
    • Abstract: Background: Iodine fortification (IF) may contribute to changes in costs of thyroid disease treatment through changes in disease patterns. From a health economic perspective, assessment of the development in costs of thyroid disease treatment in the population is pertinent. Objectives: To assess the trends in annual medicine and hospital costs of thyroid disease treatment during 1995–2015 in Denmark, i.e., before and after the introduction of mandatory IF in 2000. Methods: Information on treatments for thyroid disease (antithyroid medication, thyroid hormone therapy, thyroid surgery, and radioiodine treatment) was obtained from nationwide registers. Costs were valued at 2015 prices using sales prices for medicines and the Danish Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) and Danish Ambulatory Grouping System (DAGS) tariffs of surgeries/radioiodine treatments. Results were adjusted for changes in population size and age and sex distribution. Results: The total direct medicine and hospital costs of thyroid disease treatment increased from EUR ∼190,000 per 100,000 persons in 1995 to EUR ∼270,000 per 100,000 persons in 2015. This was mainly due to linearly increased costs of thyroid hormone therapy and increased costs of thyroid surgery since 2008. Costs of antithyroid medication increased slightly and transiently after IF, while costs of radioiodine treatment remained constant. Costs of thyroid hormone therapy and thyroid surgery did not follow the development in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and structural thyroid diseases observed in concurrent studies. Conclusion: The costs of total direct medicine and hospital costs for thyroid disease treatment in Denmark increased from 1995 to 2015. This is possibly due to several factors, e.g., changes in treatment practices, and the direct effect of IF alone remains to be estimated.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Effects of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis on the Clinicopathological
           Features of Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    • Abstract: Background: The effects of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) on the presentation and outcome of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have long been a topic of controversy. Objective: To evaluate the effect of coexistent CLT on the clinicopathological features of PTC. Design: Retrospective study. Patients: All patients with PTC who had been followed by the 2 co-investigators (Juan Rivera and Richard J. Payne) between 2006 and 2011 were included. Results: CLT was present in 35% (166) of the included patients and was associated with a higher proportion of patients with TNM stage I (p = 0.027) and fewer patients with persistent disease (p = 0.014) in comparison with the PTC-only group. Analysis of the data based on age (#x3c;45 or #x3e;45 years) revealed that in the older group, the presence of CLT was associated with fewer patients with persistent disease (p = 0.03) and capsular invasion (p = 0.05). However, in patients #x3c;45 years of age, the presence of CLT was associated with more capsular invasion (p = 0.003) and extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.004) compared with the PTC-only group. Conclusions: CLT in patients with PTC was associated with lower-stage disease and less disease persistence in patients #x3e;45 years of age. In patients #x3c;45 years, the presence of CLT appeared to be associated with unfavorable pathological features.
      Eur Thyroid J
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