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Journal Cover European Thyroid Journal
  [SJR: 0.38]   [H-I: 2]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2235-0640 - ISSN (Online) 2235-0802
   Published by Karger Homepage  [101 journals]
  • Effect of an Outreach Programme on Vandetanib Safety in Medullary Thyroid
    • Abstract: Objectives: Effective management of adverse events (AEs) following vandetanib treatment is important to maximize clinical benefits. We examined whether more frequent contact with vandetanib-treated patients reduced AEs of CTCAE grade 2 or higher. Study Design: In this open-label, multicentre, phase III study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer were randomized to a patient outreach programme (outreach) or a standard AE monitoring schedule (vandetanib control) for 52 weeks. In addition to standard AE monitoring, patients in the outreach arm were contacted every 2 weeks by telephone/during their clinic visit for specific AE questioning related to diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, headache and rash. Patients received vandetanib at 200 or 300 mg/day, depending on the creatinine levels at screening. Results: Altogether, 205 patients were randomized (outreach, n = 103; vandetanib control, n = 102). This study did not meet its primary objective; the mean percentage of time patients experienced at least one AE of grade 2 or higher was higher for the outreach group (51.65%) than for the vandetanib control group (45.19%); the difference was not statistically significant (t statistic: 1.29; 95% CI -3.44 to 16.37%; p = 0.199). The most frequently reported AEs were diarrhoea (56.9% for the outreach group vs. 46.6% for the vandetanib controls), hypertension (36.3 vs. 31.1%), rash (25.5 vs. 24.3%) and nausea (25.5% vs. 18.4%), and the most frequently reported AEs of grade 2 or higher were hypertension (33.3 vs. 23.3%), diarrhoea (26.5 vs. 24.3%) and dermatitis acneiform (11.8 vs. 9.7%). Conclusions: Additional outreach to patients treated with vandetanib had no impact on the rate or severity of AEs compared to the standard AE monitoring schedule. AEs were consistent with the known safety profile of vandetanib.
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:187-194
      PubDate: 2016-09-10T00:00:00+02:00
  • An Unusual Case of Malignant Struma Ovarii Causing Thyrotoxicosis
    • Abstract: Background: Struma ovarii (SO) is a specialized monodermal teratoma predominantly composed of mature thyroid tissue, accounting for approximately 5% of all ovarian teratomas. Thyrotoxicosis is seen in about 8% of patients with SO. Most SO cases are benign with only 5-10% being malignant, and malignant SO causing thyrotoxicosis is very uncommon. Case: A 64-year-old woman had been diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis 2 years previously. The thyroid gland was palpable with a micronodular texture, and the patient was euthyroid under carbimazole. She presented with abdominal pain and progressive enlargement of the abdomen over a 2-month period. An abdominal ultrasonography revealed a pelvic mass and a large fluid collection. Additional imaging confirmed the presence of a complex right ovarian mass measuring 13 cm. The patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy and appendectomy. The histological examination revealed the presence of ‘follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in an SO of the right ovary, with metastatic infiltration in the tissue fragments from the pouch of Douglas'. Antithyroid treatment was discontinued 1 month after surgery in light of the pathology result. During the 4-year follow-up, the patient remained euthyroid. Conclusion: There has been controversy about the management of malignant SO, which is a rare entity. Malignant SO causing thyrotoxicosis is even more uncommon. As clinical signs are nonspecific, other causes of thyrotoxicosis must be considered for a differential diagnosis. Our case is one of the very few cases ever reported.
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:207-211
      PubDate: 2016-09-08T00:00:00+02:00
  • Correction of Hypothyroidism Leads to Change in Lean Body Mass without
           Altering Insulin Resistance
    • Abstract: Background: Hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and abnormal body composition. This study assessed changes in body composition and insulin resistance after thyroxine (T4) replacement in overt hypothyroidism. Methods: In this prospective longitudinal study carried out in a tertiary care center, adult nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism were rendered euthyroid on T4. Anthropometry including skinfold thickness (SFT) at the triceps and subscapularis was recorded. Patients underwent testing for fasting plasma glucose, creatinine, serum insulin, T4, thyrotropin (TSH) and body composition analysis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) both before and at 2 months after restoration to the euthyroid state. Results: Twenty-seven patients (20 female and 7 male) aged 35.3 ± 11.0 years (min-max: 17-59 years) with overt hypothyroidism were recruited. Serum T4 at the time of recruitment was 48.9 ± 24.6 nmol/l (normal range = 64.4-142 nmol/l). All patients had TSH ≥50 µIU/l. Following treatment, there was a mean body weight reduction of 1.7 kg (p = 0.01). Waist circumference as well as triceps and subscapularis SFT decreased significantly (p < 0.001). There was no change in fat mass (FM), percentage of fat (%FM) or bone mineral content in any of the specified regions or in the body as a whole. In contrast, mean lean body mass (LBM) decreased significantly by 0.8 kg (p < 0.01) in the trunk and 1.3 kg (p < 0.01) in the whole body. Insulin resistance and level of glycemia were not affected by treatment with T4. Conclusion: LBM decreases significantly without affecting FM after correction of hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance was not influenced by T4 treatment.
      Eur Thyroid J
      PubDate: 2016-09-08T00:00:00+02:00
  • Painful Radiation Thyroiditis after 131I Therapy for Graves'
           Hyperthyroidism: Clinical Features and Ultrasonographic Findings in Five
    • Abstract: Background: Radiation thyroiditis caused by 131I therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism is asymptomatic in most patients and is rarely associated with pain or fever. Currently, there are few reports on the ultrasonographic findings of radiation thyroiditis after 131I therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. Case Report: We herein report 5 cases with painful radiation thyroiditis (including 2 febrile cases) after 131I therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. The cases included 4 women, aged 49, 50, 76, and 81 years, and 1 man, aged 60 years. Anterior neck pain developed 0-10 days after 131I administration (fixed dose of 481 MBq). Each patient visited our clinic 0-4 days after the development of anterior neck pain. The thyroid glands were noticeably enlarged (increasing from 18 g at 131I administration to 35 g after the development of anterior neck pain in 1 patient, and from 20 to 33 g, 21 to 39 g, 21 to 51 g, and 40 to 51 g in the other patients) and tender. The echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma was increased, and the parenchyma was more heterogeneous. Granular hyperechoic lesions were scattered throughout the thyroid gland in the most severe case. The border between the thyroid gland and the surrounding tissue was blurred, and the surrounding tissue was hyperechoic. Conclusion: Painful radiation thyroiditis should be reacknowledged as one of the complications of 131I therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. Ultrasonography demonstrated the characteristic changes caused by 131I-induced radiation thyroiditis.
      Eur Thyroid J
      PubDate: 2016-09-06T00:00:00+02:00
  • Periodic Granulocyte Count Measuring Is Useful for Detecting Asymptomatic
    • Abstract: Objective: Finding agranulocytosis (AG) at an early stage is important to improve outcome, but periodic granulocyte count monitoring is not generally recommended for patients with Graves' disease, because AG develops suddenly. Method: At the Kuma Hospital, Graves' patients under antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment in an outpatient clinic have a granulocyte count examination during each visit, and if it is
      PubDate: 2016-09-06T00:00:00+02:00
  • In Memoriam Professor Peter M. Laurberg
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J
      PubDate: 2016-09-02T00:00:00+02:00
  • Thyroid Function and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in
           Cross-Sectional Results from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult
           Health (ELSA-Brasil): Effect of Adiposity and Insulin Resistance
    • Abstract: Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but little information is available about its association with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Objectives: This study aims to analyze the association between SCH and hs-CRP using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods: The study has a cross-sectional design. We included subjects with normal thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH, 0.4-4.0 μIU/ml and normal free thyroxine, fT4, 10.3-24.45 pmol/l) and SCH (TSH >4.0 μIU/ml and normal fT4) who were evaluated for hs-CRP. We excluded individuals on medications that affect thyroid function and those who had prevalent cardiovascular disease. Multivariate linear regression evaluated hs-CRP and TSH as continuous variables, and logistic regression models assessed hs-CRP ≥19.05 nmol/l as the dependent variable and crescent quintiles of TSH as the independent variables adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: We included 12,284 subjects with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range = 45-57); 6,408 (52.2%) were female, 11,589 (94.3%) were euthyroid, and 695 (5.7%) had SCH. Bivariate analyses of participants stratified into quintiles of TSH revealed differences according to hs-CRP but not the Framingham risk score. The fifth quintile of TSH was not associated with elevated hs-CRP, odds ratio = 1.11 (95% confidence interval = 0.98-1.26), p = 0.102, in a fully adjusted logistic model, also consistent with the linear model (β = 0.024, p = 0.145). Conclusions: TSH is not associated with hs-CRP. Obesity and insulin resistance are very important confounders in the study of the association between SCH and hs-CRP.
      Eur Thyroid J
      PubDate: 2016-09-02T00:00:00+02:00
  • BRAFV600E Mutation: Has It a Role in Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of
           Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    • Abstract: Background: The BRAFV600E mutation is common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Lymph node metastasis (LNM) may be associated with poor prognosis. However, the LNM mechanism remains unclear. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of the BRAFV600E mutation in primary tumors and accompanying LNM at the time of diagnosis. Methods: This retrospective study included 51 PTC patients (40 women, 11 men; mean age 40.0 ± 16.5 years; range 6-81) who underwent total thyroidectomy accompanied by a lateral neck dissection due to preoperatively detected LNM. Real-time PCR was used for the detection of the BRAFV600E mutation in specimens from primary thyroid tumors and metastatic lymph node tumors. Results: The prevalence of the BRAFV600E mutation was 64.7% (n = 33) in primary tumors and 47.1% (n = 24) in metastatic lymph nodes. Of 33 patients with BRAFV600E-positive primary tumors, 18 (54.5%) had BRAFV600E-positive metastatic lymph nodes. Of 18 patients with BRAFV600E-negative primary tumors, 6 (33.3%) had BRAFV600E-positive metastatic lymph nodes. The presence of the BRAFV600E mutation in the primary tumor did not affect the tumor size, but the diameter of metastatic lymph nodes significantly increased (by nearly 3 mm) with the presence of BRAFV600E in LNM (p = 0.01). Conclusions: In our study, the BRAFV600E mutation did not show a one-to-one correspondence. This indicates that the presence of BRAFV600E in the primary tumor is not clonal and addresses the role of intratumor heterogeneity in PTC tumorigenesis. This supports the theses that mutations occur in the later stages of tumorigenesis, might be subclonal, and develop de novo, or that some other factors may be involved in the development of metastasis.
      Eur Thyroid J
      PubDate: 2016-08-20T00:00:00+02:00
  • Relational Stability of Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Subjects and
           Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease
    • Abstract: Background/Aim: Operating far from its equilibrium resting point, the thyroid gland requires stimulation via feedback-controlled pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) secretion to maintain adequate hormone supply. We explored and defined variations in the expression of control mechanisms and physiological responses across the euthyroid reference range. Methods: We analyzed the relational equilibria between thyroid parameters defining thyroid production and thyroid conversion in a group of 271 thyroid-healthy subjects and 86 untreated patients with thyroid autoimmune disease. Results: In the euthyroid controls, the FT3-FT4 (free triiodothyronine-free thyroxine) ratio was strongly associated with the FT4-TSH ratio (tau = -0.22, p < 0.001, even after correcting for spurious correlation), linking T4 to T3 conversion with TSH-standardized T4 production. Using a homeostatic model, we estimated both global deiodinase activity and maximum thyroid capacity. Both parameters were nonlinearly and inversely associated, trending in opposite directions across the euthyroid reference range. Within the panel of controls, the subgroup with a relatively lower thyroid capacity (
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T00:00:00+02:00
  • Minimizing the Health Effects of the Nuclear Accident in Fukushima on
    • Abstract: Results of the Screening of Thyroids: Because of the March 2011 nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, the Fukushima Prefecture initiated a thyroid ultrasound examination program. The first cycle of examinations on all children (more than 300,000) of the Fukushima Prefecture identified 116 patients as having malignant or suspected malignant thyroid nodules, and in the second cycle 59 new cases were identified. According to the available data, the thyroid cancers found by the screening are unlikely to be due to radiation, but the possibility cannot be excluded. Urgent Measures: The current thyroid ultrasound examination program has been detecting thyroid cancers, regardless of the cause, in all children in the Fukushima Prefecture. Fukushima Prefecture is already taking measures against thyroid cancer, even if an increase occurs in radiation-induced thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. Therefore, the urgent challenge is how to treat children with thyroid cancer found by the screening. Future Directions of the Measures: At the end of each cycle, the findings must be carefully discussed with experts around the world and among stakeholders in Fukushima, and a consensus must be reached regarding whether the current program will be continued or needs improvement. In addition, the survey should be improved as an epidemiological follow-up research program. Before starting this, a consensus must be reached with the inhabitants with regard to carrying out epidemiological research for several decades. Dialogue absolutely must continue among all stakeholders to determine how best to formulate a program to deal with urgent matters and to determine the next stage of any epidemiological research.
      Eur Thyroid J
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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