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Journal Cover European Thyroid Journal
  [SJR: 0.38]   [H-I: 2]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 2235-0640 - ISSN (Online) 2235-0802
   Published by Karger Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Not Associated with Thyroid Hormone
           Levels and Hypothyroidism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    • Abstract: Background: Whether hypothyroidism is related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear. Thyroid dysfunction is closely related with components of metabolic syndrome. Given the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, several studies have investigated the association between NAFLD and thyroid dysfunction and have demonstrated inconsistent results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better characterize the association between NAFLD and thyroid dysfunction. Methods: MEDLINE and Embase were searched through July 2016. The primary outcome was the association between NAFLD and subclinical, overt, and overall hypothyroidism. The secondary outcome was the difference in thyroid hormone levels (free triiodothyronine [FT3], free thyroxine [FT4], or thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]) between NAFLD patients and non-NAFLD controls. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated using a random-effects model. All continuous data are summarized as the mean difference along with 95% CI. Results: Data were extracted from 14 studies involving 7,191 NAFLD patients and 30,003 controls. NAFLD was not associated with subclinical, overt, or overall hypothyroidism compared with non-NAFLD controls. Patients who had NAFLD did not show a significant difference in FT3, FT4, or TSH compared with non-NAFLD controls. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrates no significant association between NAFLD and subclinical, overt, or overall hypothyroidism, and we also found no significant difference in thyroid hormone levels between participants with and without NAFLD.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • A Cervical Schwannoma Masquerading as a Thyroid Nodule
    • Abstract: Background: We present a case of a cervical schwannoma, likely originating from the pharyngeal plexus of the vagal nerve. The lesion masqueraded as a thyroid nodule and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assisted in preoperative diagnosis. We review the radiographic characteristics of nerve sheath tumors on MRI as well as the diagnostic cytologic stains which can enhance the possibility of a correct preoperative diagnosis. Case: We describe a 60-year-old female with dysphagia and a neck mass consistent with a nodular goiter. The patient's history, diagnostic images, cytology, pathology, and surgical management are presented and analyzed. The preoperative diagnosis of a cervical schwannoma was suspected by the use of MRI which led to additional specialized cytologic stains. Conclusion: Pharyngeal wall schwannomas are important to consider in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules when fine needle aspiration cytology indicates cells of neural origin. Imaging by MRI can assist in identifying lesions of neural origin masquerading as thyroid nodules.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Neither Baseline nor Changes in Serum Triiodothyronine during
           Levothyroxine/Liothyronine Combination Therapy Predict a Positive Response
           to This Treatment Modality in Hypothyroid Patients with Persistent
    • Abstract: Background: Despite biochemical euthyroidism, some levothyroxine (L-T4)-treated hypothyroid patients report persisting symptoms and some of these patients are tentatively treated with a combination of L-T4 and liothyronine (L-T3). Combination therapy and the appropriate choice of blood tests to monitor treatment are highly debated among specialists and patients. Aim: To evaluate whether measuring serum triiodothyronine (S-T3) at baseline or during combination therapy can be used as an indicator of a positive effect from L-T4/L-T3 combination therapy. Materials and Methods: Observational retrospective study of patients (n = 42) with persisting symptoms of hypothyroidism despite L-T4 therapy who had normal TSH levels and did not have any comorbidities that could explain their symptoms. All were then treated with L-T4/L-T3 combination therapy at a dose ratio of 17/1 according to European Thyroid Association guidelines. Based on patient-reported outcome, they were divided into responders and nonresponders. Results: Five patients were lost to follow-up and thus excluded. At the 3-month follow-up, 11 were classified as nonresponders and 26 as responders. At 12 months these figures had changed to 13 (35%) and 24 (65%), respectively. When comparing responders versus nonresponders, no differences were seen at baseline or during follow-up in S-T3 and in free T3 estimates. Further, logistic regression showed no correlation between S-T3 and free T3 estimates and responder/nonresponder status. Conclusion: Our data indicate that serum T3 measurements are not suitable to predict which patient will benefit from L-T4/L-T3 combination therapy, and treatment response cannot be followed by repeated T3 measurements either.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Should Age at Diagnosis Be Included as an Additional Variable in the Risk
           of Recurrence Classification System in Patients with Differentiated
           Thyroid Cancer'
    • Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the influence of age at diagnosis on the frequency of structural incomplete response (SIR) according to the modified risk of recurrence (RR) staging system from the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 268 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) followed up for at least 3 years after initial treatment (total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation). The median follow-up in the whole cohort was 74.3 months (range: 36.1-317.9) and the median age at diagnosis was 45.9 years (range: 18-87). The association between age at diagnosis and the initial and final response to treatment was assessed with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Patients were also divided into several groups considering age younger and older than 40, 50, and 60 years. Results: Age at diagnosis was not associated with either an initial or final statistically significant different SIR to treatment (p = 0.14 and p = 0.58, respectively). Additionally, we did not find any statistically significant differences when the percentages of SIR considering the classification of RR were compared between different groups of patients by using several age cutoffs. Conclusions: When patients are correctly risk stratified, it seems that age at diagnosis is not involved in the frequency of having a SIR at the initial evaluation or at the final follow-up, so it should not be included as an additional variable to be considered in the RR classifications.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Survey of Clinical Practice Patterns in the Management of 992 Hyperthyroid
           Patients in France
    • Abstract: Background: Considerable variations in diagnosis and therapeutic practices are reported for hyperthyroidism (HT) between countries. Methods: A clinical study was conducted among a representative sample of 263 endocrinologists in France. All consecutive patients seen for HT during the study period were included. Diagnosis and treatment modalities were recorded from hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease (GD, n = 802), multinodular goiter (MNG, n = 121), and toxic adenoma (TA, n = 69). Results: Antithyroid antibodies were measured in half of the population (anti-TPO in 48.5% and anti-TSH receptor in 57.8%). Patients had thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy in 93.8 and 40.3%, respectively. Therapeutic management depended on the etiology: for the first episode of GD, antithyroid drugs (ATDs) were the first-line treatment in 91% of the patients, combined with surgery in 6.1% and with radioiodine in 2.9%. Surgery was preferred to radioiodine in MNG (52.6 vs. 22.4%) and TA (59.1 vs. 24.2%). Euthyroid status was achieved after 3 months in 64.4% of GD. A “block and replace” protocol was used in 41.2% of patients. After 3 months, 73% of patients were euthyroid in the “block and replace” group compared to 56.2% in the group with ATDs alone (p = 0.009). For MNG and TA, more than 75% of patients were euthyroid at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: Large discrepancies remain between clinical practice and international guidelines. These results should boost efforts to improve adherence to these guidelines.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • A 2016 Italian Survey about Guidelines and Clinical Management of Thyroid
    • Abstract: Background: While thyroid nodules are frequent in endocrine clinical practice, patients are often asymptomatic and euthyroid, and death is rare in cases of malignancy. Objectives: To evaluate the perception of current international guidelines regarding thyroid nodule management among Italian endocrinologists, and to compare daily clinical practice with suggested recommendations. Methods: Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) members were invited to participate in a Web-based survey. Results: A total of 566 physicians responded. About 50% had read the full text of the guidelines. Over half appreciated the suggested ultrasound (US) risk categories. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was obtained more frequently than recommended. Follow-up of a cytologically benign nodule was largely performed according to the guidelines. Molecular testing would be most commonly requested when cytology reports showed atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) (TIR3A for Italian System). Iodine and/or levothyroxine were largely prescribed for cytologically benign asymptomatic nodules. Laser/radiofrequency ablation and percutaneous ethanol injection were commonly considered as alternatives to surgery (46.2 and 71.4%, respectively). Conclusions: Efforts are needed to make the guidelines more user-friendly and to encourage the use of codified risk categories in thyroid US reports. FNA indications remain a matter of debate as FNA is obtained in clinical practice more often than is recommended. Current US follow-up modalities for a benign nodule are correct, but probably could be performed less frequently without any harm. Molecular testing, if accessible, would be helpful in guiding clinicians' strategies in cases of AUS/FLUS-TIR3A cytologic results. Nonsurgical procedures are favorably embraced.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Variability among TSH Measurements Can Be Reduced by Combining a
           Glycoengineered Calibrator to Epitope-Defined Immunoassays
    • Abstract: Objectives: Measuring protein markers with variable glycosylation, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), with high accuracy is not an easy task. Despite highly sensitive third-generation tests, discrepancies among TSH assays still remain unsolved and are the focus of important standardization efforts. Earlier work from our group showed that a lack of similarity in epitope expression between standards and samples may account for discordant hormone measurements. In this study, we aimed at producing a glycoengineered TSH with serum-type glycosylation and compared its immunological behavior to that of the international standards. Study Design: Recombinant glycoengineered TSH (rgTSH) was produced in glycoengineered Chinese hamster ovary cells to express a highly sialylated TSH and tested in newly designed assays. Two groups of assays targeting defined epitopes were constructed and TSH levels were estimated in a panel of 84 clinical samples (2.1-22.4 mIU/l) based on the use of the current 3rd IS 81/565, the 1st IRP 94/674 and rgTSH calibrations. Results: Calibration based on rgTSH was found to significantly reduce the percentage difference means of assays compared to the pituitary standard. We also found that a switch from a mIU/l (3rd IS 81/565) to ng/l (rgTSH) basis can be established within the normal as well as in the mid to upper normal range of TSH levels. Of interest, TSH assays targeting the main immunogenic region displayed variable TSH values, indicating that, in this region, epitopes should be defined for assays to deliver similar values. Conclusions: A glycoengineered TSH with serum-type glycosylation proved to be a new calibrator efficient in harmonizing TSH values.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Contents Vol. 5, 2016
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:I-VI
  • Author Index Vol. 5, 2016
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:281-282
  • Subject Index Vol. 5, 2016
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:283-284
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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