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Journal Cover European Thyroid Journal
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   ISSN (Print) 2235-0640 - ISSN (Online) 2235-0802
   Published by Karger Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Serum miRNAs as Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Thyroid
           Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature
    • Abstract: Background/Objectives: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for 1% of cancers. In recent years, there has been much interest in the feasibility of using miRNAs or miRNA panels as biomarkers for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. miRNAs are noncoding RNAs with 21–23 nucleotides that are highly conserved during evolution. They have been proposed as regulators of gene expression, apoptosis, cancer, and cell growth and differentiation. Methods: The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO), and Web of Science were searched. Results: The serum level of miRNAs (miRNA-375, 34a, 145b, 221, 222, 155, Let-7, 181b) can be used as molecular markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer in the serum samples of patients with thyroid glands. Conclusions: Given that most common methods for the screening of thyroid cancer cannot detect the disease in its early stages, identifying miRNAs that are released in the bloodstream during the gradual progression of the disease is considered a key method in the early diagnosis of thyroid cancers.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • TPOAb and Thyroid Function Are Not Associated with Breast Cancer Outcome:
           Evidence from a Large-Scale Study Using Data from the Taxotere as Adjuvant
           Chemotherapy Trial (TACT, CRUK01/001)
    • Abstract: Background: Small-scale studies correlated the presence of thyroid autoimmunity with both improved or worsened breast cancer outcome. Objectives: We aimed to clarify this association in a large cohort using the phase III, randomized, controlled Taxotere as Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial (TACT, CRUK01/001). Methods: TACT women #x3e;18 years old with node-positive or high-risk node-negative early breast cancer (pT1–3a, pN0–1, M0), with stored plasma (n = 1,974), taken 15.5 (median; IQR 7.0–24.0) months after breast surgery were studied. Patients had also received chemotherapy (100%), radiotherapy (1,745/1,974; 88.4%), hormonal therapy (1,378/ 1,974; 69.8%), or trastuzumab (48/1,974; 2.4%). History of thyroid diseases and/or related treatments was not available. The prognostic significance of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb; positive ≥6 kIU/L), free-thyroxine and thyrotropin (combined: euthyroid, hypothyroid, hyperthyroid) was evaluated for disease-free survival (DFS), overall-survival (OS), and time-to-recurrence (TTR), with Cox regression models in univariate and multivariable analyses. The extended median follow-up was 97.5 months. Results: No difference in DFS was found by TPOAb status (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.78–1.19; p = 0.75) and/or thyroid function (unadjusted HR [hypothyroid vs. euthyroid]: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.79–1.68; p = 0.46; unadjusted HR [hyperthyroid vs. euthyroid]: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.82–1.61; p = 0.44). Similar results were obtained for OS, TTR, multivariable analyses, when TPOAb titre by tertiles was considered, and in a subgroup of 123 patients with plasma collected before adjuvant treatments. Conclusions: No evidence for a prognostic role of TPOAb and/or thyroid function in moderate-to-high-risk early breast cancer was found in the largest and longest observational study to date.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Radioiodine Ablation following Thyroidectomy for Differentiated Thyroid
           Cancer: Literature Review of Utility, Dose, and Toxicity

    • Abstract: Management recommendations for differentiated thyroid cancer are evolving. Total thyroidectomy is the backbone of curative-intent therapy, with radioiodine ablation (RAI) of the thyroid remnant routinely performed, in order to facilitate serologic surveillance and reduce recurrence risk. Several single-institution series have identified patient subsets for whom recurrence risk is sufficiently low that RAI may not be indicated. Further, the appropriate dose of RAI specific to variable clinicopathologic presentations remains poorly defined. While recent randomized trials demonstrated equivalent thyroid remnant ablation rates between low- and high-dose RAI, long-term oncologic endpoints remain unreported. While RAI may be employed to facilitate surveillance following total thyroidectomy, cancer recurrence risk reduction is not demonstrated in favorable-risk patients with tumor size ≤1 cm without high-risk pathologic features. When RAI is indicated, in patients without macroscopic residual disease or metastasis, the evidence suggests that the rate of successful remnant ablation following total thyroidectomy is equivalent between doses of 30–50 mCi and doses ≥100 mCi, with fewer acute side effects; however, in the setting of subtotal thyroidectomy or when preablation diagnostic scan uptake is #x3e;2%, higher doses are associated with improved ablation rates. Historical series demonstrate conflicting findings of long-term cancer control rates between dose levels; long-term results from modern series have yet to be reported. For high-risk patients, including those with positive surgical margins, gross extrathyroidal extension, lymph node involvement, subtotal thyroidectomy, or #x3e;5% uptake, higher-dose RAI therapy appears to provide superior rates of ablation and cancer control.

      Eur Thyroid J
  • Tremelimumab-Induced Graves Hyperthyroidism

    • Abstract: Tremelimumab and ipilimumab are monoclonal antibodies directed against the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and have been used as immunotherapies against immune checkpoints that suppress T-cell activation. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody-based therapies have been shown to be effective in treating various cancers including metastatic melanoma. However, a few immune-related adverse events including hypophysitis and thyroid disorder have been reported, mostly developed within the first year of receiving treatment. We report a case of tremelimumab-induced Graves hyperthyroidism in a 55-year-old man who was diagnosed with metastatic melanoma after 8 years of tremelimumab therapy. He had no personal or family history of thyroid or autoimmune diseases. His biochemical profile was in keeping with Graves disease, with raised serum free thyroid hormones, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, and raised thyrotropin receptor antibody level. He was treated with carbimazole as part of the block and replace therapy, without complications. Tremelimumab therapy was temporarily discontinued and recommenced when he was rendered biochemically euthyroid. There has been no further relapse of Graves hyperthyroidism since the discontinuation of block and replace therapy. The mechanistic profile of anti-CTLA-4-induced thyroid dysfunction and the long-term endocrine safety of this therapeutic approach remain unclear. It is important to monitor thyroid functions in patients receiving anti-CTLA-4 therapies, as their effects on endocrine systems could be more latent or prolonged than the data from current clinical trials suggest. Antithyroid drug therapy was safe and effective alongside anti-CTLA-4 therapy without compromising antitumour treatment efficacy.

      Eur Thyroid J
  • Lymph Node Metastases in Papillary and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Are
           Independent of Intratumoral Lymphatic Vessel Density
    • Abstract: Background: Blood and lymph vessel invasion are well-recognized markers of tumor aggressiveness, as these are the routes that lead to metastases. Thyroid tumors, depending on the histological variant, tend to have distinctive biological behaviors and use different vascular routes to metastasize, yet the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process are still poorly understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess how the lymph vessel density (LVD) in different histological types of thyroid tumors, and in their surrounding tissue, correlate with the presence of lymph node metastases (LNM) and tumor pathological features. Methods: Lymph vessels of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), of the classical (CVPTC, n = 50) and follicular variants (FVPTC, n = 18), and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC, n = 34) were immunohistochemically stained against antigen D2-40. The stained area was quantified using a computerized morphometric analysis tool and correlated with the tumor pathological characteristics. Results: LVD within all analyzed thyroid tumor subtypes was significantly lower than in the surrounding thyroid tissues (p < 0.001). Despite intratumoral LVD being significantly higher in CVPTC than in FVPTC, and peritumoral LVD being significantly higher in MTC than in PTC (p < 0.05), no correlations were found between LVD (either intratumoral or peritumoral) and the presence of lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: As no LVD differences were found amongst thyroid tumors with or without LNM, dissemination is more likely to depend on the tumor ability to invade the abundant lymph vessel network of the surrounding thyroid tissue than on the ability of the tumor to promote de novo lymphangiogenesis.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Nodular Thyroid Disease and Thyroid Cancer in the Era of Precision
    • Abstract: The management of thyroid nodules, one of the main clinical challenges in endocrine clinical practice, is usually straightforward. Although the most important concern is ruling out malignancy, there are grey areas where uncertainty is frequently present: the nodules labelled as indeterminate by cytology and the extent of therapy when thyroid cancer is diagnosed pathologically. There is evidence that the current available precision medicine tools (from all the “-omics” to molecular analysis, fine-tuning imaging or artificial intelligence) may help to fill present gaps in the future. We present here a commentary on some of the current challenges faced by endocrinologists in the field of thyroid nodules and cancer, and illustrate how precision medicine may improve their diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the future.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Selenium in the Treatment of Thyroid Diseases
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Successful Pretreatment Using Plasma Exchange before Thyroidectomy in a
           Patient with Amiodarone-Induced Thyrotoxicosis
    • Abstract: Introduction: Amiodarone, used for the management of tachyarrhythmias, is associated with both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. Total thyroidectomy is an effective procedure for promptly reducing circulating thyroid hormone levels. It has been proposed in patients who have severe amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) or are refractory to medical therapy, or when such therapy is contraindicated. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) may be considered as a pretreatment for restoring a euthyroid state preoperatively, thereby reducing a patient's symptoms and the potential perioperative risk associated with thyrotoxicosis. Case Report: We describe the case of a 62-year-old man with type 2 AIT who presented with severe unremitting thyrotoxicosis after 8 weeks of medical therapy with glucocorticosteroids, thiamazole, and potassium perchlorate. Given the severity of his presentation, a total thyroidectomy was indicated. TPE was performed preoperatively and was successful in rapidly restoring euthyroidism. This dramatically improved the patient's symptoms which had been suggestive of ischemic heart disease. Subsequently, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy under general anesthesia without any major complications. Conclusion: TPE is successful in rapidly restoring a clinical and biochemical euthyroid state, and may be used to decrease the perioperative risks associated with thyroidectomy in patients with life-threatening thyrotoxicosis or in cases refractory to medical treatment.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • The European Thyroid Journal Reaches Its Sixth Year of Publication with
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J 2017;6:1-2
  • Reference Values for TSH and Free Thyroid Hormones in Healthy Pregnant
           Women in Poland: A Prospective, Multicenter Study
    • Abstract: Objectives: The diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases in pregnant women remains a challenge. Various medical associations recommend establishing the reference intervals for thyroid hormones by a local laboratory. Considering differences within geophysical, socioeconomic conditions, and iodine prophylaxis in various populations, it is advisable to assess reference intervals for thyroid hormones specific to a region of residence. The objective was to assess trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH, fT3, and fT4 for pregnant women in the Polish population. Methods and Results: We conducted a prospective study in 4 centers representing different regions of Poland (Krakow, Warsaw, Poznan, and Bialystok). Our study included consecutive, healthy pregnant women (172 patients), with an age range of 27-47 years. All women had a negative history for thyroid diseases, normal thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, and proper iodine prophylaxis. All newborns had TSH levels in the appropriate reference range. Serum TSH, fT3, fT4, and thyroid-peroxidase antibodies were measured in each trimester. The reference intervals were calculated using the percentile method, as recommended by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. The reference values calculated were 0.009-3.177, 0.05-3.442, and 0.11-3.53 mIU/L for TSH; 3.63-6.55, 3.29-5.45, and 3.1-5.37 pmol/L for fT3; and 11.99-21.89, 10.46-16.67, and 8.96-17.23 pmol/L for fT4 in consecutive trimesters of pregnancy. Reference intervals for pregnant women when compared to the general population showed a lower concentration of TSH in every trimester of pregnancy and lower fT4 in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Conclusions: Using appropriate trimester-specific reference intervals may improve care of pregnant women by preventing misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment.
      Eur Thyroid J
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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