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Journal Cover European Thyroid Journal
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2235-0640 - ISSN (Online) 2235-0802
   Published by Karger Homepage  [101 journals]
  • Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen Receptor-α and Progesterone
           Receptor in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    • Abstract: Background: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) prevalence is nearly 3 times higher in females than in males. This gender difference suggests that growth and progression of PTC might be influenced by female sex hormones. Objectives: To analyze the expression of both estrogen receptor (ER)-α and progesterone receptor (PR) by immunohistochemistry in 203 PTC patients. Methods: ER-α and PR expression was evaluated in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples of 45 males and 158 females followed up for 7.2 ± 3.7 years. Results: ER-α was expressed in 52 (25.6%) patients (41 females and 11 males) and PR in 94 (46.3%) patients (75 females and 19 males). ER-α and PR were coexpressed in 31 (15.3%) patients (27 females and 4 males). ER-α expression correlated significantly with tumor size in the whole sample (ER-α positive 22.8 ± 11.8 mm vs. ER-α negative 15.1 ± 12.4 mm; p = 0.02) and in the subgroup of women (ER-α positive 18.8 ± 12.8 mm vs. ER-α negative 14.9 ± 12.3 mm; p = 0.048). In addition, ER-α expression significantly correlated with remission of the disease. In fact, of the 192 patients followed up, 50/153 (32.7%) disease-free patients were ER-α positive, in contrast to only 3/39 (7.7%) with evidence of disease persistence/recurrence (#x03C7;2 = 8.5, p = 0.0036). PR expression was not associated with any of the parameters analyzed. Conclusions: The present study confirmed recent data indicating that ER-α and PR expression is a common finding in thyroid tumor tissue. However, in contrast to previous reports, we observed an association between ER-α expression and a more favorable outcome in PTC patients.
      Eur Thyroid J 2016;5:224-230
  • Pseudomalabsorption of Levothyroxine: A Challenge for the Endocrinologist
           in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism
    • Abstract: Background: Hypothyroidism due to non-compliance with levothyroxine therapy (pseudomalabsorption) is rare. The diagnosis is considered in patients with persistent severe hypothyroidism despite treatment with large doses of levothyroxine. Intestinal malabsorption, drug and dietary interference with levothyroxine absorption and nephrotic syndrome should be excluded. The diagnosis of pseudomalabsorption can be demonstrated by using “an oral 1,000 µg of levothyroxine test” showing a rapid decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone and increase in thyroxine. There are however few data on the sensitivity and specificity of the test in large cohorts of hypothyroid patients. Treatment of pseudomalabsorption is controversial, with reports using parenteral, intramuscular or single weekly oral dosing of levothyroxine. Cases: We report 3 patients who presented with persistent clinical and biochemical signs of hypothyroidism despite replacement therapy with high doses of levothyroxine. Pseudomalabsorption was diagnosed by a systematic approach, including prior exclusion of digestive, liver and kidney diseases. A peroral challenge test was positive in all cases. Patients denied non-compliance, and a psychiatric approach was elusive. Two of the patients were treated successfully with a single supervised weekly 1,000-µg administration of levothyroxine, while non-supervised weekly administration resulted in hypothyroidism confirming pseudomalabsorption. Conclusions: Non-compliance with medical therapy should be considered in patients with treatment-refractory hypothyroidism. Supervised once weekly levothyroxine treatment is a safe and well-tolerated treatment option, obviating the need for parenteral administration of the drug. Apart from the medical treatment, there is also a need for psychiatric evaluation and care.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Pre-Operative Lugol's Iodine Treatment in the Management of Patients
           Undergoing Thyroidectomy for Graves' Disease: A Review of the Literature
    • Abstract: Objective: To undertake a review of the relevant English literature published on the pre-operative use of Lugol's iodine in the management of patients undergoing thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. Search Strategy: We reviewed all relevant papers found through Ovid Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and the American Thyroid Association website. Searches were limited to the English language only. Evaluation Method: The critical appraisal tool CASP was used to help analyse the papers. Following this, the evidence was ranked using the Harbour and Miller classification of hierarchy. Results: Four papers were deemed appropriate for analysis. The evidence contained within the review is considered weak. The literature available in the public domain regarding the use of iodinated solutions in the pre-operative period for those patients about to undergo thyroidectomy for Graves' disease is scant. Conclusion: Having undertaken an extensive literature review, we are of the opinion that the evidence on which the American Thyroid Association's guidance on the use of preoperative Lugol's iodine is based is tenuous. There appears to be little in the way of sound clinical evidence that post-operative outcomes are any different following a course of Lugol's iodine. Given the lack of robust clinical evidence regarding the clinical need for iodine solution in the pre-operative period, it appears clear that a larger, prospective, randomised controlled trial of all relevant outcomes - clinical and scientific - is required to answer whether or not patient preparation with Lugol's iodine is in fact necessary prior to operative intervention for Graves' disease.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • An Invitation to Join the Consortium on Thyroid and Pregnancy
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Association between Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Visceral
           Adipose Tissue: A Population-Based Study in Northeast Germany
    • Abstract: Background: Abdominal obesity is a major driver for adverse medical conditions. While an interaction between adipose tissue and thyroid function is thought to exist, to our knowledge, no study has examined the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a population-based context. Objective: We determined an association between serum TSH levels and VAT. Methods: A sample of 1,021 female and 956 male adults aged 20-79 years was drawn from registry offices in the cross-sectional, population-based Study of Health in Pomerania Trend (SHIP Trend) in Northeast Germany from 2008 to 2012. Our main exposure was serum TSH levels. Our main outcome was VAT measured using magnetic resonance imaging. The possibly mediating role of leptin on the TSH-VAT association was also assessed. Results: A total of 1,719 participants (87.9%) had serum TSH levels within the reference range. The mean volume of VAT was 5.33 liters for men and 2.83 liters for women. No association between TSH and VAT (β = 0.06, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.14) was observed, and there were no differences detected between sexes. VAT was strongly associated with leptin with a greater effect in women than in men. Leptin was strongly associated with TSH. Conclusions: No association between TSH and VAT was observed. Other biomarkers such as leptin may play a role in the relationship between thyroid function and metabolic risk.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Thirty-Five Years of Thyroid Cancer Experience in a Paediatric Population:
           Incidence Trends in Lithuania between 1980 and 2014
    • Abstract: Background: Thyroid cancer (TC) is a rare condition in children. It may be associated with radiation, iodine deficiency or familial inheritance. Aims: The objectives of this study were to analyse the prevalence and incidence trends over 3 decades and clinical features of TC in the paediatric population in Lithuania. Methods: We reviewed all TC cases diagnosed in children aged less than 18 years during the period 1980-2014 using medical records from 3 main hospitals in Lithuania where such TC cases are managed. Results: During the 35-year period (1980-2014) there were 57 cases (45 females) of TC in children in Lithuania. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 14.51 ± 0.52 years. The crude incidence rate of TC ranged from 0 to 0.93 cases per 100,000 children per year and the mean annual increase was 5.26% (p < 0.001). Papillary carcinoma was the most common histological type (73.7%). No association was found between the incidence of TC and the reported areas of radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident. In total, 8.8% of patients had secondary TC after initial radiotherapy of a primary oncologic disease. Conclusion: The incidence of TC in the Lithuanian paediatric population between 1980 and 2014 ranged from 0 to 0.93 cases per 100,000 children per year and there was a 5.26% annual increase (p < 0.001), most probably related to the increased use of ultrasound testing.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma - Distinction towards Neuroectodermal Tumours:
           Reply to the Letter by Paschou and Vryonidou
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Origin of Thyroid C Cells: Clinical Interpretation
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Trends and Predictors of Chemotherapy Use among Thyroid Cancer Patients in
           the National Cancer Database (2004-2013)
    • Abstract: Background/Aim: Beginning in 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) for medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs), and in 2013 MKIs were approved for metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs). However, little is known about the use of chemotherapy in thyroid cancer patients. Thus, the goal of our study was to describe patterns of chemotherapy use, including MKIs, among DTC and MTC patients in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Methods: Chemotherapy use, along with other treatment types (surgery and radiation), was assessed between 2004 and 2013. The primary predictor was the year of diagnosis (2004-2010 and 2011-2013), based on the FDA's approval of chemotherapy for MTC (2011). Baseline use of MKIs in DTCs in 2013 was also examined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI of receipt of chemotherapy. Results: Overall, 199,654 patients were included in our analytic sample with 194,667 nonmetastatic DTCs, 1,633 metastatic DTCs, and 3,354 MTCs. Among MTCs, chemotherapy use significantly increased from 3.1% in 2004-2010 to 5.0% in 2011-2013 (p = 0.018) in unadjusted and adjusted (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.36) analyses. In metastatic DTCs, 4.9% of patients received chemotherapy in 2013, which was not significantly higher than in previous years (p = 0.755). Conclusions: Overall, chemotherapy use among MTCs increased marginally following the FDA's approval of MKIs in 2011, although their use remains very low. MKIs were infrequently used in metastatic DTCs in 2013. Future studies examining patterns of chemotherapy in thyroid cancer patients are warranted.
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Can the American Thyroid Association Risk of Recurrence Predict
           Radioiodine Refractory Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer'
    • Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the TNM staging system and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) recurrence risk classification in predicting radioiodine refractory disease (RRD) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to analyze the correlation of stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and rate of Tg elevation with the standardized uptake value on 18F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT scan. Methods: RRD was indicated through the retrospective analysis of consecutive 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in DTC with stimulated Tg >10 ng/ml and negative 131I NaI whole-body scans (WBS). Tg elevation velocity was compared to the likelihood of a positive scan. The ATA recurrence risk and TNM staging system were compared to see which of them better predicted the subsequent development of RRD. Results: Fifty-eight of 636 subjects developed RRD: 52 papillary and 6 follicular thyroid cancer. The median time between diagnosis and a negative WBS was 24 months (range 12-240). RRD developed in 11 low-risk, 32 intermediate-risk and 15 high-risk patients. A better response to therapy was seen in the low-risk versus the intermediate- and high-risk groups. 18F-FDG PET/CT scans had a diagnostic accuracy of 94.8%, sensitivity of 97.7%, specificity of 85.7%, positive predictive value of 95.6% and negative predictive value of 92%. There was no correlation between the Tg level or rate of rise and a positive scan. Overall, PET-CT upstaged 18 (31%) cases, leading to a change in management in 20 (35%) cases. Conclusion: The TNM and ATA staging systems show no significant difference in predicting the development of RRD. RRD is less likely in stage I, II and low-risk patients. There is no correlation between the level or rate of Tg rise and a positive 18F-FDG PET/CT scan.
      Eur Thyroid J
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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