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European Thyroid Journal
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 2235-0640 - ISSN (Online) 2235-0802
     Published by Karger Homepage  [104 journals]
  • Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Pregnancy: The Intersection of Science, the
           Art of Medicine, and Public Health Policy
    • Abstract:

  • The TRHR Gene Is Associated with
           Hypothalamo-Pituitary Sensitivity to Levothyroxine
    • Abstract: Background: Thyroidectomized patients need variable doses of levothyroxine (LT4) to obtain target thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Individual feedback set-points have been hypothesized and the influence of several genes in the regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis has been demonstrated. Objectives: We hypothesized that genetic variants of the TRHR gene could be associated with a different hypothalamo-pituitary sensitivity to thyroid hormone feedback. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 84 thyroidectomized patients with no residual thyroid function and undetectable thyroglobulin levels. Patients were evaluated under LT4 resulting in TSH levels detectable but
  • 2014 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of
           Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy and in Children
    • Abstract: This guideline has been produced as the official statement of the European Thyroid Association guideline committee. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy is defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the pregnancy-related reference range with a normal serum thyroxine concentration. Isolated hypothyroxinaemia (defined as a thyroxine level below the 2.5th centile of the pregnancy-related reference range with a normal TSH level) is also recognized in pregnancy. In the majority of SCH the cause is autoimmune thyroiditis but may also be due to iodine deficiency. The cause of isolated hypothyroxinaemia is usually not apparent, but iodine deficiency may be a factor. SCH and isolated hypothyroxinaemia are both associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. Levothyroxine therapy may ameliorate some of these with SCH but not in isolated hypothyroxinaemia. SCH and isolated hypothyroxinaemia are both associated with neuro-intellectual impairment of the child, but there is no evidence that maternal levothyroxine therapy improves this outcome. Targeted antenatal screening for thyroid function will miss a substantial percentage of women with thyroid dysfunction. In children SCH (serum TSH concentration >5.5-10 mU/l) normalizes in >70% and persists in the majority of the remaining patients over the subsequent 5 years, but rarely worsens. There is a lack of studies examining the impact of SCH on the neuropsychological development of children under the age of 3 years. In older children, the evidence for an association between SCH and impaired neuropsychological development is inconsistent. Good quality studies examining the effect of treatment of SCH in children are lacking. © 2014 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

  • Simple Core-Needle Biopsy for Thyroid Nodule, Complicated Tinnitus
    • Abstract: Background: Fine-needle aspiration is the procedure of choice for evaluating thyroid nodules. Core-needle biopsy (CNB) is not included in the American Thyroid Association recommendations for evaluating such nodules. CNB complications are classically bleeding and hematomas. To our knowledge, no case of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) secondary to a CNB has been reported, nor has any case of tinnitus secondary to a post-CNB AVF. Objectives: To make the clinician aware of possible vascular complications caused by CNB and the possibility of difficult pathology reading caused by previous CNB. Methods: A 44-year-old female is described who was referred to our tertiary care center for left-sided pulsatile tinnitus. She did report having had a CNB right before the tinnitus appeared. Conventional angiography demonstrated a focal AVF originating from the left vertebral artery, with reflux to the left vertebral venous plexus. A 6-mm stent was placed over the site of the fistula via an endovascular approach, which solved both the radiological and clinical documented problems. Moreover, CNB greatly complicated pathology reading once total thyroidectomy was later performed. The suspected area of invasion was an artifact due to the previous biopsies. Conclusion: Although many authors recommend a CNB as an alternative modality in cases of inconclusive cytology with fine-needle aspiration, it is not in the American Thyroid Association recommendations. In cases of iatrogenic AVFs caused by a CNB, angiography is recommended both as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality. Stenting the fistula with an endoprosthesis can correct the problem immediately. © 2014 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

  • Recombinant Human Thyrotropin Use Resulting in Ovarian Hyperstimulation:
           An Unusual Side Effect
    • Abstract: A 43-year-old female was administered recombinant human thyrotropin-α (Thyrogen®; Genzyme Corp., Cambridge, Mass., USA) before a fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan as part of an evaluation of thyroid cancer recurrence. She was administered two doses of Thyrogen only 4 weeks before for stimulated thyroglobulin measurement. The PET/CT scan demonstrated enlarged ovaries which on subsequent conservative follow-up resolved. This transient hyperstimulated state of the ovaries was presumed to be related to Thyrogen injections received twice within a space of a month. Thyrogen is being increasingly used for raising the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), besides thyroid hormone withdrawal for suspected recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Ovarian hyperstimulation has been reported as an iatrogenic complication for in vitro fertilization with the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin being invariably associated. Transient gestational thyrotoxicosis has been reported to be related to promiscuous activation of the thyrotropin receptor by chorionic gonadotropin. In our case it is possible that due to the promiscuous stimulation, thyrotropin caused a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-like action resulting in ovarian hyperstimulation. The reason behind this could be the shared sequence identity of the hormone-binding domains of TSH and FSH receptors, or some mutation in the FSH receptor. In conclusion, our case highlights a potential side effect of administering Thyrogen in females of the reproductive age group. © 2014 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

  • A Progress Report of the IFCC Committee for Standardization of Thyroid
           Function Tests
    • Abstract: Background: The IFCC Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests aims at equivalence of laboratory test results for free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH). Objectives: This report describes the phase III method comparison study with clinical samples representing a broad spectrum of thyroid disease. The objective was to expand the feasibility work and explore the impact of standardization/harmonization in the clinically relevant concentration range. Methods: Two sets of serum samples (74 for FT4, 94 for TSH) were obtained in a clinical setting. Eight manufacturers participated in the study (with 13 FT4 and 14 TSH assays). Targets for FT4 were set by the international conventional reference measurement procedure of the IFCC; those for TSH were based on the all-procedure trimmed mean. The manufacturers recalibrated their assays against these targets. Results: All FT4 assays were negatively biased in the mid- to high concentration range, with a maximum interassay discrepancy of approximately 30%. However, in the low range, the maximum deviation was approximately 90%. For TSH, interassay comparability was reasonable in the mid-concentration range, but worse in the pathophysiological ranges. Recalibration was able to eliminate the interassay differences, so that the remaining dispersion of the data was nearly entirely due to within-assay random error components. The impact of recalibration on the numerical results was particularly high for FT4. Conclusions: Standardization and harmonization of FT4 and TSH measurements is feasible from a technical point of view. Because of the impact on the numerical values, the implementation needs careful preparation with the stakeholders. © 2014 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Letter regarding the Paper by Pearce et al. Entitled ‘2013 ETA
           Guideline: Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism'
    • Abstract:
      Eur Thyroid J
  • Historical Note: Many Steps Led to the ‘Discovery' of
           Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
    • Abstract: Finding thyroid-stimulating hormone was a process rather than a circumscribed event, and many talented persons participated over many years. Key early participants were Bennet M. Allen and Philip E. Smith who had the misfortune just prior to World War I of independently and simultaneously starting very similar experiments with tadpoles. This led to a series of back and forth publications attempting to establish priority for finding evidence of a thyrotropic factor in the anterior pituitary. Decades of work by others would be required before sophisticated biochemical techniques would bring us to our modern understanding. © 2014 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel
      Eur Thyroid J
  • The European Thyroid Journal in Its Third Year of Publication: A Thriving
    • Abstract:

  • Clinical Consequences of Mutations in Thyroid Hormone Receptor-α1
    • Abstract: Thyroid hormone (TH) exerts its biological activity via the TH receptors TRα1 and TRβ1/2, which are encoded by the THRA and THRB genes. The first patients with mutations in THRB were identified decades ago. These patients had a clinical syndrome of resistance to TH associated with high serum TH and nonsuppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Until recently, no patients with mutations in THRA had been identified. In an attempt to predict the clinical phenotype of such patients, different TRα1 mutant mouse models have been generated. These mice have a variable phenotype depending on the location and severity of the mutation. Recently, the first humans with mutations in THRA were identified. Their phenotype consists of relatively low serum T4 and high serum T3 levels (and thus an elevated T3/T4 ratio), growth retardation, delayed mental and bone development, and constipation. While, in retrospect, certain features present in humans can also be found in mouse models, the first humans carrying a defect in TRα1 were not suspected of having a THRA gene mutation initially. The current review focuses on the clinical consequences of TRα1 mutations. © 2014 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

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