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Journal Cover International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2008-1421
   Published by Islamic Azad University Homepage  [14 journals]
  • Design Manufacture and Environmental Tests of Battery Pack for Spacecraft

    • Authors: Hossein Bolandi, Moharram Ghahremani Darvish, Masoud Hasanian
      Abstract: The satellite battery pack is one of the important and vital parts that are required for conducting special design with multiple capabilities. Some parameters like the minimum weight, lack of outgassing of parts, avoiding from short- circuit in batteries inside battery pack, the possibility for making series connection in batteries, and prevention from destroying battery pack structure caused by vibrations due to displacement of missile upon launching of a satellite are included in some requirements for design and manufacture of satellite battery pack. In the present essay we have studied on design and manufacture of battery pack structure by considering the above- mentioned requirements in mind. In order to determine the authenticity of design and manufacture of battery pack in real conditions for launching and vacuum conditions, several environmental test of thoroughness such as Thermal Vacuum Testing and Vibration Tests have been carried out on the manufactured structure so the results of batteries performance be purposed within these tests. The results obtained from environmental test and conducted on satellite battery pack structure suggest the fully successful and innovative achievement in design and manufacture of battery pack structure.    
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Injection into Orbit Optimization Using Orthogonal Polynomials

    • Authors: Sedigheh Shahmirzaee Jeshvaghany, Farshad Pazooki, Alireza Basohbat Novinzaddeh
      Abstract: In this study, the problem of determining an optimal trajectory of a nonlinear injection into orbit problem with minimum time was investigated. The method was based on orthogonalpolynomial approximation. This method consists of reducing the optimal control problem to a system of algebraic equations by expanding the state and control vector as Chebyshev or Legendre polynomials with undetermined coefficients. The main characteristic of this technique was that it converted the differential expressions arising from the system dynamics and the performance index into some nonlinear algebraic equations, thereby greatly simplifies the problem solution. Our research effort focuses on applying a Chebyshev series expansion to optimize the trajectory profile of a point-mass Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV).This paper is divided as follows: first, the Chebyshev and Legender series expansion to optimization are introduced. Then, the flight mechanics model of the point-mass SLV is given. Next, our optimization problem is described and optimization results are presented and discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Ultrasonic Assisted Equal Channel Angular ‎Extrusion Process

    • Authors: Hamed Razavi, Yaghoub Tadi Beni, Mohammad Baharvand
      Abstract: Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) is one of the most powerful processes for manufacturing microstructure and nanostructure ‎materials. This process is a kind of severe plastic deformation technique, which requires large extrusion force. In this study, the numerical and experimental investigation of extrusion ‎force in ultrasonic assisted equal channel angular extrusion process (UAECAE) is carried out. ABAQUS Software is used for 2D ‎finite element analysis of the process considering superimposed ultrasonic vibrations to the round billet work material. Experimentally, the conventional and ultrasonic assisted ECAE are performed with copper material to validate simulation results. The reduction in extrusion force is observed due to ultrasonic vibrations. In order to achieve more ‎average force reduction, it is recommended that the ‎extrusion speed decreases and (or) vibrations amplitude ‎increases. Stress and strain distributions are numerically investigated in various vibrational conditions and die angles. The best die angle to obtain optimum force ‎reduction is 120º. In other die angles, vibrations ‎amplitudes of 15‎ μm‎ and higher ‎is necessary. Ultrasonic vibrations lead to oscillatory stresses with reduced ‎average value, but do not influence the amount of plastic strain ‎distribution. Achieving the beneficial products in ‎ECAE requires heavy special equipment, whereas using UAECAE will lead to more accessible equipment. ‎Finally, some optimal process parameters such as die angle, vibrations amplitude are proposed for the proper application of these vibrations.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Design and Optimization of Metal Matrix Composite (MMC’S) Spur Gear

    • Authors: Purushottam Karthik Janaswamy, Rohith Sai Tunuguntla, Sai Praneeth Singu
      Abstract:  Gears are one of the most critical components in power transmission system of an automobile and also many rotating machinery. Many studies have been conducted on optimum gear design. The main objective is to design different aluminium metal matrix composite spur gears before and after optimization. Aluminium metal matrix material composites are preferred mostly due to their low density. Also the high specific mechanical properties make these alloys one of the most interesting material alternatives for the manufacture of lightweight parts for many types of vehicles. With wear resistance and strength equal to cast iron, 67% lower density and three times the thermal conductivity, aluminium MMC alloys are ideal materials for the manufacture of lightweight automotive and other commercial parts.  In the present work materials considered are Al 6061-T6, Al 6106-T6, Al 7075-T651, and Al 7050-T7451. Finite element analysis is performed on different spur gears using above materials and the results will be compared.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow in Random Granular Porous Media using
           Lattice Boltzmann Method

    • Authors: MohamadMehdi Keshtkar
      Abstract: In this paper, fluid flow between two parallel flat plates that is partially filled with two-dimension porous media is investigated numerically using single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) at pore scale. The obstacles are considered random, circular, rigid and granular with uniform diameters. Single component and single-phase viscous Newtonian fluid are considered as the working fluid. There are no overlaps between obstacles. It supposed incompressible, steady and laminar flow and no chemical reaction performed in porous media. Velocity vectors and streamlines in this domain are depicted. The effect of varying Reynolds number on the pressure drop or pressure gradient and Darcy drag are studied. Dimensionless permeability is calculated as a function of porosity and Knudsen number. To vary porosity, obstacles diameter is changed but their places considered being constant. With increasing Knudsen number, the dimensionless permeability is increased. In addition, effect of domain resolution on pressure gradient is investigated. The results demonstrate that lattice Boltzmann method is very useful in fluid flow simulation through porous media.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • The Experimental Study and Finite Element Simulation of Residual Stress in
           Welded Sections of Steel P91Pipes with Multi-pass Welding

    • Authors: Davood Azadi, Nosratollah Solhjoei, SayedAli Mousavi
      Abstract: All the producing and assembling processes exert residual stress on the pieces that may lead to structural failure. Therefore, calculating the residual stress in such structures has been common in recent years. In this article, distribution of temperature and residual stress resulting from arc welding in three-pass butt joint in P91 austenitic stainless steel pipes is calculated and estimated using the finite element method and experimental data. Simulating the welding process has been carried out three-dimensionally using Abaqus software. Distribution of the arc thermal flux has been identified based on the Goldak two-elliptical model using DFLUX subprogram in Abaqus software. The numerical method has been employed by doing thermoelastoplastic analysis and the technique of birth and death of the elements to model the welding passes and the melted elements. Then, using central hole drilling method, residual stress gradient of the thickness at distance 3mm from the welding line on the pipe is measured. Finally, the maximum percentage of error, through the results obtained from experimental measurements and finite element method, was reported 27% which is scientifically reasonable .The results show that the residual environmental stress in the internal surface of the pipe from the welding central line to 8.7mm varies with the gradient of 610MPa from 296MPa to -314MPa. Such a drastic stress distribution leads to genesising some cracks on the welded pipes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Determining Position and Orientation of 6R Robot using Image Processing

    • Authors: Amin Habibnejad Korayem, Ensieh Niyavarani, Saeed Rafee Nekoo, Moharam Habibnejad Korayem
      Abstract: Stereo vision is one of the best image processing softwares to identify the environment of robot and allow its simultaneous process for providing three-dimensional measurement in an acceptable rate. On the one hand, vision measurement has simple structure and on the other hand it is independent from active machine or robot. Appropriate software and efficient programming could improve the performance with same hardware (cameras). In this paper, stereo vision robot localization is used and the main code was developed in open source computer vision (Open CV) environment. The mathematical relationship between the three-dimensional reference coordinates and the local coordinates for entire system are presented. The vision system is an independent unit consists of two high definition (HD) cameras, set in a rotary base. The application of this measurement provides the position and orientation of 6R robot to verify its current measurement system. Stereo vision improved the speed of the image processing in comparison with image processing of MATLAB Toolbox that led to online monitoring of trajectory. Experimental tests of the proposed method express the capability of stereo vision in practical operations as a supervisory section.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Free Vibration Analysis of Nanoplates using Differential Transformation

    • Authors: Sayed Hassan Nourbakhsh, Mohsen Botshekanan Dehkordi, Amir Atrian
      Abstract: In this paper, a free vibration of nano-plates is investigated considering the small scale parameter. The used rectangular nano plate is thin and under different boundary conditions. In order to obtain the natural frequencies of the nano-plates, classical plate theory on the basis of non-local theory is used. The governing equation is solved using a semi-analytical method DTM[1]. The results for free vibration of those plates are compared with the theoretical data published in the literature. Results show that DTM is a powerful, simple, accurate and fast method for solving equations in comparison with other methods. Non-local parameter is very effective in vibration of nano-plates and its influence is different in various boundary conditions. Influence of this parameter in simply supported-clamp boundary condition is higher than other boundary conditions. 
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Kinematic Synthesis of a Novel Parallel Cable Robot as the Artificial Leg

    • Authors: Ebrahim Shahabi, MirAmin Hosseini
      Abstract: Accommodation of mechanism with human being’s physical characteristics creates the possibility of safe and efficient interaction between human being and robot. Regarding the fact that amputation of a limb in human beings causes several mental, economical and social difficulties and problems, need to a substitute limb which has the most efficiency for the person after amputation is a vital need. The cable robots are the kinds of robots that the cable is used instead of rigid link. The cable robots have the simple appearance that some cables connect the motors to the final organ.  In this research a robot with cable mover is designed and modeled as a tool in the case of creating movement with the most accordance for an artificial organ below the knee. In addition, in this mechanism some advantages are also considered that include: creating movement in two axes, its cheapness and lightness. In this research, at first a primary design of the artificial organ is presented. The forward and inverse kinematic relations which are dominant on system are explained, in fact, you can find different features with kinematic robots like dexterity, global condition, local condition, etc., and finally we studied the available workspace for the system. Workspace in cable robots is different from other parallel robots, in this paper, first description about some methods for finding work­space in cable-driven-robots is presented and then we used force-closure workspace to find workspace for this system.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Development of Process Model for Optimal Selection of Process Parameters
           for Geometric Tolerances and Surface Roughness in Stereolithography

    • Authors: Chockalingam Kunjan, Jawahar N, Chandrasekhar U, Praveen J, Karthic M
      Abstract: The accuracy of stereolithography (SL) product is very essential for meeting the intended functional applications. The parameters like layer thickness, hatch spacing, hatch overcure contribute significantly to the accuracy of the SL parts. In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the process parameters that influences on the accuracy of the parts made with CIBA TOOL 5530 and optimize the process parameters. A standard test specimen is designed for this study.  A process model between the geometric tolerance (parallelism, perpendicularity, angularity, radius fillet), surface roughness and the above mentioned process parameters (layer thickness, hatch spacing, hatch overcure) have been developed. It is found that parallelism, perpendicularity, angularity, radius fillet and surface roughness are influenced significantly by hatch spacing, layer thickness, hatch overcure, hatch spacing and layer thickness respectively. The percentage deviation between the experimental and process model values have also been calculated to validate the developed process model.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Estimation of the Time- Dependent Heat Flux using the Temperature
           Distribution at a Point in a Three Layer System With None Homogeneous
           Boundary Conditions

    • Authors: Mohammad Mohammadiun
      Abstract: In this paper, the conjugate gradient method coupled with adjoint problem is used in order to solve the inverse heat conduction problem and estimation of the time- dependent heat flux using the temperature distribution at a point in a three layer system with none homogeneous boundary conditions. Also, the effect of noisy data on final solution is studied. For solving this problem the general coordinate method is used. We solved the inverse heat conduction problem of estimating the transient heat flux, applied on part of the boundary of an irregular region. The present formulation is general and can be applied to the solution of boundary inverse heat conduction problems over any region that can be mapped into a rectangle. The obtained results for few selected examples show the good accuracy of the presented method.  Also the solutions have good stability even if the input data includes noise. Applications of this model are in the thermal protect systems (t.p.s.) and heat shield systems.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
  • Severe Plastic Deformation of Nanostructured Cu-30%Zn Tubes at Increased

    • Authors: V. Tavakoli, Ghader Faraji, M. Afrasiab, M. M. Mashhadi
      Abstract: Severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods were developed for producing of metals and alloys with ultrafine grained (UFG) microstructures having high strength. Parallel tabular channel angular pressing (PTCAP) as a noble severe plastic deformation (SPD) method was used to produce ultrafine grained (UFG) and nanostructured Cu-30%Zn tubes. In this paper, the effect of PTCAP process temperature on the deformation microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated using experimental tests. Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate microstructural evolutions and fractured surface analysis. Microhardness and tensile tests were employed to mechanically characterize the PTCAP processed samples. The results showed the strength and the hardness decrease with increasing process temperature up to 100 ℃, but at 200℃, strength and hardness increase in comparison to that in 100℃. The rise in the strength and hardness of the sample processed at 200℃ compared to that at 100℃ is because of the partial recrystallization, forming new fine grains with high angle boundaries and twin boundaries. Twinning is dominant deformation mechanism of brass material in order to low stacking fault energy (SFE). Observations revealed that the failure mode in PTCAPed brass was a ductile rupture with the existence of deep dimples. It also indicates that the temperature has no obvious effect on the fracture mood.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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