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Computers & Education
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.626
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 156  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0360-1315
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • Exploring the relationship between online discourse and commitment in
           Twitter professional learning communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Wanli Xing, Fei Gao Educators show great interest in participating in social-media communities, such as Twitter, to support their professional development and learning. The majority of the research into Twitter-based professional learning communities has investigated why educators choose to use Twitter for professional development and learning and what they actually do in these communities. However, few studies have examined why certain community members remain committed and others gradually drop out. To fill this gap in the research, this study investigated how some key features of online discourse influenced the continued participation of the members of a Twitter-based professional learning community. More than 600,000 tweets generated over six years under the hashtag #edchat were gathered. Online discourse was deconstructed to the cognitive dimension, the interactive dimension, and the social dimension. Text-mining methods were then used to automatically identify these dimensions in the tweets. Finally, survival analysis was used to quantify the influences of these dimensions on users' commitment time to the Twitter community. The implications of the results and findings are then discussed.Wanli Xing is an Assistant Professor in Instructional Technology at Texas Tech University, USA with background in learning sciences, statistics, computer science and mathematical modeling. His research interests are educational data mining, learning analytics, and CSCL.Gao Fei is an Associate Professor at Bowling Green State University. Her current research involves examining the types of interaction and learning enabled by online social technologies, designing technology-mediated environments that encourage meaningful social interaction, and exploring pedagogical methods that promote deep learning in such environments.
  • Networked learning with professionals boosts students' self-efficacy for
           social networking for professional development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Abram D. Anders Previous research has recognized that networked learning—including the use of social media, blogs, and learning communities—offers unique affordances for supporting the development of self-efficacy. However, additional research is needed to examine applications of networked learning that integrate professional contexts into academic learning experiences. The present study reports on an intervention in which networked learning was used to promote student self-efficacy for social networking and professional development. The learning design integrates three techniques: a focus on developing personal learning networks, a blog-based learning community, and mastery experiences for networking with professionals. The hypothesis was that networked learning among peers in the learning community would help support the gradual development of skills and confidence for social networking, while networking to learn with professionals would amplify the impact of mastery experiences on student self-efficacy. A study of 72 undergraduate business students found that the intervention led to significant gains in self-efficacy for social networking and professional development activities. Students also reported a greater likelihood of engaging in these activities in the following year. Finally, students perceived the learning experience as relevant for their lifelong learning and professional success.
  • The effects of an ARCS based e-book on student's achievement, motivation
           and anxiety
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yalin kiliç Türel, Seda Özer Şanal This study investigates how a digital book – or e-book – based on Keller's ARCS model of Motivational Design influenced undergraduate students' sense of achievement, motivation, and anxiety. In the study, we used a mixed methods design to examine the effects of using an e-book versus a printed book or static PDF. Participants in the study were 94 students who were enrolled in a Mathematics-I course at Firat University Technology Faculty in Turkey. Forty-eight of these student volunteers were enrolled in the experimental group and 46 others enrolled in a control group. Data was collected from several sources: students' motivation surveys, mathematics anxiety surveys, mathematics achievement tests, and interviews. Results indicated that students using the e-book based on the ARCS motivation model performed significantly better on the mathematics achievement test and motivation survey. The findings also revealed that the e-book based on ARCS motivation model had a significant effect on reducing students' mathematics anxiety levels. The article also considers numerous digital and e-book empirical studies published in the literature, many of which have reported that the effect of digital books on a variety of different learning outcomes has produced mostly positive results. We hope the findings of this present study will contribute to the future design and implementation of digital books and how they are used in learning environments.
  • Cognitive resources allocation in computer-mediated dictionary assisted
           learning: From word meaning to inferential comprehension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): You-Hsuan Chang, Tzu-Chien Liu, Fred Paas Computer-mediated dictionaries have been important and widely used aids in the comprehension of, and learning from online texts. However, despite the convenience of computer-mediated dictionaries in retrieving word meaning, its use may reduce the time that readers spend reading each word and negatively affect word retention. In addition, readers' vocabulary size is a key factor influencing the lookup process, and its effectiveness. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new ‘checking-meaning’ function to optimize word retention and to explain readers' cognitive resources allocation in computer-mediated dictionary assisted learning. We conducted a 2 (checking meaning function: with vs. without) × 2 (vocabulary size: large vs. small) between-subjects design to explore the effectiveness of vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension performance in computer-mediated dictionary-assisted reading. In line with the hypotheses, results revealed that the computer-mediated dictionary with checking-meaning function enhanced small vocabulary size learners' vocabulary acquisition, but negatively influenced large vocabulary size learners' reading comprehension performance. Based on these results, we propose the competition-cooperation relationship to explain readers' cognitive resources allocation in computer-mediated dictionary assisted learning.
  • Learning through intuitive interface: A case study on preschool learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ngan Kuen Lai, Tan Fong Ang, Lip Yee Por, Chee Sun Liew For a child, playing is not only an act of fun, but also a way of learning. Long hours of study in a classroom without playing only serve to make the children detest learning. A current interest of research is to integrate the learning process with the latest technology to engage children with learning and playing. Game-based learning (GBL) is one of the approaches that utilises the gaming environment to attract the student's attention and increase participation throughout the process of learning. We proposed an intervention program that used voice and gesture-based interactive virtual learning environment (VGVLE) based on GBL framework to teach colour and shape to preschool children. The program with quasi-experimental design (N = 84) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in promoting preschool learning when compared with the traditional classroom teaching approach. Our findings show that pre-schoolers who learnt with the proposed approach surpassed those who learnt with the classroom approach. Besides that, the gap in learning performance was also reduced.
  • The different relationships between engagement and outcomes across
           participant subgroups in Massive Open Online Courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Qiujie Li, Rachel Baker Previous research has found that early engagement in MOOCs (e.g., watching lectures, contributing to discussion forums, and submitting assignments) can be used to predict course completion and course grade, which may help instructors and administrators to identify at-risk participants and to target interventions. However, most of these analyses have only focused on the average relationships between engagement and achievement, which may mask important heterogeneity among participant subgroups in MOOCs. This study examines how the relationship between engagement and achievement may vary across the four common behaviorally identified participant subgroups (“disengagers,” “auditors,” “quiz-takers,” and “all-rounders”) in three MOOC courses offered on the Coursera platform. For each of these subgroups, we used measures of behavioral and cognitive engagement from the first half of the ten-week courses to predict two outcomes: course grade and overall lecture coverage. Results indicate that the same engagement measure may be oppositely associated with achievement for different subgroups and that some engagement measures predict achievement for one subgroup but not another. These findings provide insight into both the benefits and the complexity of studying patterns of engagement from behavioral data and provide suggestions on the improvement of identification of at-risk participants in MOOCs.
  • E-learning critical success factors: Comparing perspectives from academic
           staff and students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Abdullah Alhabeeb, Jennifer Rowley This article advances knowledge on the factors that lead to successful e-learning in universities, through a comparative study of the perspectives of academic staff and students. In particular, it contributes to the limited knowledge bases on the effectiveness of e-learning in Saudi Arabia, and on the differences in perspectives of different groups of stakeholders in e-learning. Based on previous research, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to convenience samples of academic staff and students at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Respondents were invited to express their opinion regarding the importance of a number of factors to the success of e-learning. Principal Component Analysis was conducted on each dataset, in turn, to assess the loading of items onto factors, and the variance explained. The most important finding from this study is that the perspectives of students and academic staff differ, with there being nine factors for academic staff and seven for students. Categories that are common to both groups are: student characteristics, instructor characteristics, ease of access, and support and training. The order for academics is: student characteristics, ease of access, instructor characteristics, and support and training; and, the order foe students is: instructor characteristics, student characteristics, support and training, and ease of access.
  • Investigating the effect of learning method and motivation on learning
           performance in a business simulation system context: An experimental study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hsin-Hui Lin, Wan-Chu Yen, Yi-Shun Wang With the proliferation of business simulation systems used in business education, an understanding of the factors of a simulation-based learning environment that contribute to learning performance within instructional settings is essential. This study aims to explore the effect of learning method (individual mode vs. collaborative mode) and learning motivation (low vs. high) on learning performance in a simulation-based business learning context by conducting an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Virtual Business-Retailing (VBR) software, a business simulation system for convenience store operation, is adopted to build a retailer simulation-based learning environment. Our results reveal that the difference in students' learning performance between individual mode and collaborative mode is significant. However, learning motivation does not have a significant impact on learning performance. Further, learning motivation is an important moderator for the effect of learning method on learning performance. These findings provide several important theoretical and practical implications for the educational use of business simulation systems.
  • The role of planning in complex problem solving
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Beate Eichmann, Frank Goldhammer, Samuel Greiff, Liene Pucite, Johannes Naumann Complex problem solving (CPS) is a highly transversal competence needed in educational and vocational settings as well as everyday life. The assessment of CPS is often computer-based, and therefore provides data regarding not only the outcome but also the process of CPS. However, research addressing this issue is scarce. In this article we investigated planning activities in the process of complex problem solving. We operationalized planning through three behavioral measures indicating the duration of the longest planning interval, the delay of the longest planning interval and the variance of intervals between each two successive interactions. We found a significant negative average effect for our delay indicator, indicating that early planning in CPS is more beneficial. However, we also found effects depending on task and interaction effects for all three indicators, suggesting that the effects of different planning behaviors on CPS are highly intertwined.
  • Does teaching with PowerPoint increase students' learning' A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): James P. Baker, Alan K. Goodboy, Nicholas D. Bowman, Alyssa A. Wright PowerPoint has become a ubiquitous tool for instructors who teach college students. Almost two decades of student learning research has examined the impact of traditional instruction (i.e., chalk and talk) versus instruction aided by PowerPoint. This research has revealed inconsistent and contrasting results. To probe this inconsistency, a meta-analysis of 48 studies was conducted to determine if students learn more when taught the same material using PowerPoint compared to traditional instruction. Results revealed that on average, there was no difference in students' learning based on the type of instruction they received (Hedges' g = 0.067; 95% CI: −0.103 to 0.236). Moderation analyses revealed that the sampling frame, such as a focus on K-12 versus college students, explained heterogeneity in the findings. Specifically, K-12 students' cognitive learning increased as a result of PowerPoint instruction, but this effect did not emerge for college students. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that researchers should move past strictly comparing the absence or presence of this instructional tool, to instead examine how instructors are integrating features of PowerPoint in ways that help students learn.
  • The role of teacher capacity and instructional practice in the integration
           of educational technology for emergent bilingual students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Jennifer Darling-Aduana, Carolyn J. Heinrich This mixed methods study examines the extent to which the use, and intensity of use, of educational technology is associated with improved academic outcomes for English language learners (ELLs) in both English/Spanish bilingual and traditional English-only classrooms. We also explore the role of teacher capacity and practice in integrating educational technology by student population and instructional setting across six schools serving a student population of predominately low-income ELLs. Building on limited prior work on technology integration with elementary school ELLs, the analysis draws on district administrative data, teacher surveys, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. In econometric analyses of academic outcomes associated with exposure to varying intensities of technology use, we identified positive associations of technology use in reading, starting at around 40 min of weekly use in bilingual classrooms versus 1 h of weekly use in traditional classrooms. While the average reading effect size topped out at 0.20 for students with 2 h of weekly technology use in reading in traditional classrooms, the reading effect size continued to rise in bilingual classrooms to over 0.50 for students in classrooms using technology for 3 h a week in reading. We also found that technology use in reading—where teachers were observed more frequently using blended instructional strategies—was more effective for students in bilingual classes than technology use in math. Our findings suggest that alignment of technology with constructivist teaching strategies, which connect student learning to culturally relevant experiences and provide opportunities for interactivity and collaboration, is key to transforming the learning process and outcomes of emergent bilingual students.
  • The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Gökçe Akçayır, Murat Akçayır This study presents a large-scale systematic review of the literature on the flipped classroom, with the goals of examining its reported advantages and challenges for both students and instructors, and to note potentially useful areas of future research on the flipped model's in and out-of-class activities. The full range of Social Sciences Citation Indexed journals was surveyed through the Web of Science site, and a total of 71 research articles were selected for the review. The findings reveal that the most frequently reported advantage of the flipped classroom is the improvement of student learning performance. We also found a number of challenges in this model. The majority of these are related to out-of-class activities, such as much reported inadequate student preparation prior to class. Several other challenges and the numerous advantages of the flipped classroom are discussed in detail. We then offer suggestions for future research on flipped model activities.
  • The essential applications of educational robot: Requirement analysis from
           the perspectives of experts, researchers and instructors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ya-Wen Cheng, Pei-Chen Sun, Nian-Shing Chen Robots can benefit education in many ways, and robotics holds great promise as a learning technology. However, the use of robots in education remains largely unknown to both researchers and educators. Many educators and developers have questions regarding the essential applications for robots used in education. Thus, this study aims to identify the essential applications of educational robots. To gain insight from the perspectives of researchers, experts and educators, we investigate the requirements of educational robots in all levels of education through 3 approaches: systematic literature review, expert interviews and instructor surveys. We review the extant literature that addresses the use of robots in education and adopted data from one of them, and conduct interviews with industry experts, scholars and instructors. We also conduct an online survey that invites instructors from six different levels of education to respond. We find the following to be the top five essential applications for educational robots: language education, robotics education, teaching assistance, social skill development and special education, and guided learning through feedback.
  • A peer assessment method to provide feedback, consistent grading and
           reduce students' burden in massive teaching settings
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Oscar Luaces, Jorge Díez, Antonio Bahamonde To grade open-response answers in a massive course is an important task that cannot be handled without the assistance of an intelligent system able to extend the abilities of experts. A peer assessment method may be used for this. The students who wrote the answers also play the role of graders for a reduced set of answers provided by other students. The grades thus obtained should be aggregated to provide a reasonable overall grade for each answer. However, these systems present two clear disadvantages for students: they increase their already heavy workload, and the grades that students finally receive lack feedback explaining the reasons for their scores. The contribution of this paper comprises a proposal to overcome these shortcomings. The students acting as graders are asked to evaluate a number of different aspects. One of them is the overall grade, but there are other annotations that can be included to explain the overall grade. Moreover, we represent the responses given by the students (text documents) as the inputs in a learning task, in which the outputs are the aspects to be assessed (labels with an ordinal level). Our proposal is to learn all these labels at once employing a multitask approach that uses matrix factorization. The method presented in this paper shows that peer assessment can provide feedback and can additionally be extended to grade the responses of students not involved in the peer assessment loop, thus significantly reducing the burden on students. We present the details of the method, as well as a number of experiments carried out using three data sets obtained from courses belonging to different fields at our university.
  • Statistical semi-supervised system for grading multiple peer-reviewed
           open-ended works
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Juan Ramón Rico-Juan, Antonio-Javier Gallego, Jose J. Valero-Mas, Jorge Calvo-Zaragoza In the education context, open-ended works generally entail a series of benefits as the possibility of develop original ideas and a more productive learning process to the student rather than closed-answer activities. Nevertheless, such works suppose a significant correction workload to the teacher in contrast to the latter ones that can be self-corrected. Furthermore, such workload turns to be intractable with large groups of students. In order to maintain the advantages of open-ended works with a reasonable amount of correction effort, this article proposes a novel methodology: students perform the corrections using a rubric (closed Likert scale) as a guideline in a peer-review fashion; then, their markings are automatically analyzed with statistical tools to detect possible biased scorings; finally, in the event the statistical analysis detects a biased case, the teacher is required to intervene to manually correct the assignment. This methodology has been tested on two different assignments with two heterogeneous groups of people to assess the robustness and reliability of the proposal. As a result, we obtain values over 95% in the confidence of the intra-class correlation test (ICC) between the grades computed by our proposal and those directly resulting from the manual correction of the teacher. These figures confirm that the evaluation obtained with the proposed methodology is statistically similar to that of the manual correction of the teacher with a remarkable decrease in terms of effort.
  • Understanding mobile English-learning gaming adopters in the self-learning
           market: The Uses and Gratification Expectancy Model
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Chih-Ping Chen Innovative technology potentially offers new opportunities for booming self-learning markets in Taiwan. The advancement of mobile English-learning games has expedited the idea of self-learning by reducing time, space limitations, and anxiety (e.g., Technology phobia, English anxiety) that come with knowledge acquisition. This study offers a Uses and Gratification Expectancy Model (UGEM) to fill the gap of knowledge between mobile gaming and self-learning by investigating the potential variables (perceived mobile anxiety, perceived second language anxiety, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness) and examining how confirmation and gratification both affect adopters' continuance intention toward using mobile English-learning games. The study gathered data from Taiwanese university students after their adoption and practice with mobile English-learning games via a self-reporting survey questionnaire. Data collected from 1121 respondents in Taiwan was used to examine the research UGEM model using a variance analysis approach to provide new insights to the self-learning taking place when mobile English-learning games are adopted. Theoretical and practical implications are also offered.
  • How digital environments in schools might be used to boost social skills:
           Developing a conditional augmentation hypothesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Stuart McNaughton, Naomi Rosedale, Rebecca Ngaire Jesson, Rashina Hoda, Lin Sophie Teng The use of online devices, tools and technologies in schools are seen as being able to promote ‘21st century’ skills, specifically inter personal (e.g., being empathetic, taking others' perspectives, cooperation and collaboration) and intra personal skills (e.g., persistence and self-control). We review theoretical rationales for and, where available, research evidence about the impact of digital tools and technologies on the development of these skills under two conditions. One is where there are direct effects of access to and use of digital technologies relatively independently from other influences of the teacher. The evidence suggests powerful mechanisms are afforded directly, such as feedback, social learning, agentive learning and play (game-based learning), but that effects are variable and there are both positive and negative influences on skills. The second condition is when the digital environments are mediated by teaching. The evidence is that both effectiveness and the consistency of effects of digital environments depend on the deliberate design and management of the tools and their functions. Explanations relate to the mediating effects of the activity structures and how they are designed, the role of the teacher in both that design and specific instructional acts, and the guided actions of interlocutors through digital devices. We propose a teacher ‘conditional augmentation’ hypothesis: teachers' augmentation adds instructional power to the direct effects of digital technologies.
  • Students' exploration strategies in computer-simulated complex problem
           Environments:A latent class approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Samuel Greiff, Gyöngyvér Molnár, Romain Martin, Johannes Zimmermann, Benő Csapó Complex problem solving (CPS) is considered an important educational achievement indicator. Previous research has indicated that CPS performance depends to a substantial extent on the way students explore problem environments. In this study, we investigated qualitative differences in the way students interact with such environments. In a sample of N = 2226 Hungarian students in Grades 6 to 8, we applied a latent class approach to investigate the use of the principle of isolated variation as an exploration strategy across six CPS tasks that were developed within the MicroDYN approach. Six qualitatively different class profiles emerged: proficient explorers, intermediate explorers, low-performing explorers, rapid learners, emerging explorers, and nonpersisting explorers. We further validated the profiles by comparing the latent classes with regard to students' overall CPS performance and additional indicators of task exploration. In analyzing age-related and gender differences on a cross-sectional level, there was only a small progression toward better performing class profiles from Grade 6 to Grade 8 (e.g., 14.6% of students in Grade 6 were proficient explorers vs. 24.6% in Grade 8; 27.1% of students in Grade 6 were low-performing explorers vs. 25.8% in Grade 8), and there were no substantial gender differences. This study contributes to the understanding of how students interact with complex problems and is the first to address whether variations in these behaviors indicate qualitatively different levels of strategic behavior. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings and potential of identifying class profiles of students' exploration behavior in the field of educational psychology.
  • A negotiation-based adaptive learning system for regulating help-seeking
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Chih-Yueh Chou, K. Robert Lai, Po-Yao Chao, Shu-Fen Tseng, Ting-Yi Liao Help-seeking is an important aspect of self-regulated learning (SRL), but students may have ineffective help-seeking behaviors. For example, some students are unaware of their need to seek help, and some often seek executive help merely to obtain the correct answer. This study proposes a negotiation-based adaptive learning system with a help-seeking negotiation mechanism to form the co-regulation of help-seeking between a student and the system. The system provides external feedback on SRL as scaffolding for help-seeking by prompting students to seek help or even actively offering help when they need it and reminding students not to seek too much help. An experiment was conducted with student participants divided into control and experimental groups. Students in the control group were allowed to seek help at will, whereas the help-seeking of students in the experimental group was regulated by the system. The results indicated that the students in the experimental group had better help-seeking behaviors (a higher ratio of steps solved by themselves and a lower ratio of steps solved with executive help) than the students in the control group.
  • Students' learning performance and perceived motivation in gamified
           flipped-class instruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Zamzami Zainuddin This is a pilot study aimed at examining students' learning performance and perceived motivation between a gamified flipped classroom and a non-gamified flipped classroom instructional model, based on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). This study employed a mixed-method research approach, using three formative assessments or a post-test only design to examine students' learning achievement. Questionnaires and personal interviews were employed to support the data collection process in terms of students' perceived motivation. Fifty-six students were the respondents involved in a non-randomized experiment with a control group design. The results reveal that assessment 1 showed no significant difference between the two groups of the gamified flipped and non-gamified flipped classroom instruction (t = 1.68, p.474), while assessment 2 and 3 were significantly different (t = 5.54, p = .007 
  • Integrating self-regulation principles with flipped classroom pedagogy for
           first year university students
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Eugenia M.W. Ng Flipped classroom is a new blended type of pedagogy. This study attempts to examine whether flipped classroom, with reference to self-regulation principles, is a good pedagogy for enhancing formative learning outcomes for first year university students. A total of 73 students, enrolled on a teacher education program, participated in this study. Data were collected from different sources in three phases. In the first phase, data were collected from pre- and post-tests, and the number of viewings of the assigned online videos were logged. Techniques in editing images applied by the group and the individual were examined in the second phase. Finally, opinions related to flipped classroom were collected from focus group interviews in the third phase. The results suggest that students are able to apply their self-learned knowledge to editing images both together and individually. They were very positive about flipped classroom activities and all 7 self-regulated (SR) learning principles were achieved. While students embraced the flexibility of learning online, they missed the face-to-face interaction with the teacher and their learning peers. This was especially the case when they did not understand the content of the online videos. This study provides an additional lens of SR principles.
  • Investigation of community of inquiry framework in regard to
           self-regulation, metacognition and motivation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Selcan Kilis, Zahide Yıldırım Following theoretical frameworks including social-cognitive theory, constructivism and creating collaborative learning community, this correlational study elucidates the community of inquiry framework in regard to self-regulation, metacognition, and motivation in an online learning setting. Data were collected from 1535 students enrolled to an online Information and Communication Technology-I course offered by the Department of Informatics at a well-known public university. The data were collected online through Survey Monkey and then analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics using multiple linear regression analysis through SPSS version 23 statistical software. The findings notably revealed that self-regulation, metacognition, and motivation significantly contributed to the prediction of community of inquiry and its three presence types. The findings highlighted the importance of self-regulation for overall community of inquiry and its three presence types due to its significantly valuable contribution. This study resulted in a new tentative model, adding a new construct of regulatory presence, addressing learners' self-regulation. Further research could concentrate on this new tentative model in addition to the new construct.
  • The influences of self-regulated learning support and prior knowledge on
           improving learning performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Tzu-Chi Yang, Meng Chang Chen, Sherry Y. Chen Self-regulated learning (SRL) is helpful to students. On the other hand, prior knowledge has great effects on students' self-regulation and learning performance. To this end, this study aimed to examine how high prior knowledge students (HPKs) and low prior knowledge students (LPKs) behaved differently when interacting with a SRL environment. To achieve this aim, we proposed a self-regulated learning support system (SRLSS) for a mathematical course. The results showed that the gap of learning performance between the HPKs and LPKs was removed after a long-term learning process. Moreover, the LPKs and HPKs behaved similarly in the forethought and self-reflection phases but some behavior differences were found in the performance phase, where the LPKs relied on the notes and sought support the dashboard and quiz records while the HPKs did not demonstrate such a tendency. Our results' theoretical and methodological implications and possible applications for further research are also discussed.
  • Measuring digital literacies: Junior high-school students' perceived
           competencies versus actual performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Erez Porat, Ina Blau, Azy Barak The widespread belief is that youth, "digital natives", who live their entire lives in media-rich digital environments and are ubiquitously connected through social networks, naturally develop digital competencies. This study investigated digital literacies among 280 junior-high-school students with the aim of comparing participants' perceived digital literacy competencies and their actual performance in relevant digital tasks. The findings showed that only a few of participants' perceived skills were related to their actual performance. Generally, participants displayed high confidence in their digital literacies and significantly over-estimated their actual competencies. This gap was most evident in social-emotional skills, which were, on average, perceived by students as their strongest skills, while their actual level of performance was very low. Positive strong correlations were found between participants' self-reported evaluations of different digital skills, indicating their perception as a single factor, while actual performance tests revealed low-to medium-size correlations between different literacies. For educational decision-makers, the findings highlight the importance of designing training programs aimed to develop students' digital literacies, with a special emphasis on social-emotional competencies. Such training may enhance important competencies needed, reduce unfounded self-perceptions, and thus, develop efficient digital functioning in contemporary society.
  • Does self-generating a graphic organizer while reading improve students'
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Tiphaine Colliot, Éric Jamet To understand a document, learners must select the relevant information, organize this information into a coherent representation, and integrate it with their prior knowledge. One way of facilitating these cognitive processes is to display a graphic organizer alongside the document, showing the main items of information contained in the text and the links between them. To ensure students' active engagement in these processes, they can also be asked to self-generate an organizer (generative processing). However, this kind of task can be too demanding and overload their cognitive capacity (extraneous processing). We therefore compared the learning of students who were instructed to study an illustrated text either on its own or accompanied by a readymade graphic organizer (displayed statically or step-by-step). In another group, students had to self-generate the organizer while reading. As predicted, providing a graphic organizer improved students' recall compared with that of the control group. Contrary to the generative hypothesis and consistent with the cognitive load hypothesis, the self-generated organizer group 1) performed more poorly on the recall test than the readymade organizer groups, and 2) achieved lower transfer scores.
  • Profiling of English language teachers as trainees in an online course and
           ensuing implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Anna Mavroudi, Dina Tsagari The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of profiling English Language Teachers' preferences and experiences of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in order to inform the design of an online teacher training programme in Language Testing and Assessment and the relevant teacher training research. The findings revealed that the participant teachers received very well a variety of formats and also, they indicated methods as well as types of tasks and activities they would find most favourable in an online training course. Teachers were diverse but mediocre on average with regard to the level of confidence of their competencies in using ICT in their classrooms. Small differences were also revealed between teachers with regard to their ICT competency levels on the basis of their previous participation in online training courses but strong correlations among the different ICT competencies investigated. The findings point to the need to incorporate scaffolds in the design of online training environments that will help teachers feel confident in the online training environment and especially empower those that have not participated in such training courses before. Overall the study advocates for good practices that can be relevant and informative for higher education authorities and teacher training institutions responsible for designing (blended or online) professional training schemes for pre- and in-service English language teachers.
  • Females in computing: Understanding stereotypes through collaborative
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Tessa Berg, Alexander Sharpe, Emma Aitkin This study investigates attitudes and perceived stereotypes that children have towards female computer scientists. Research was conducted within 2 high schools in Scotland across 7 workshops including 96 participants. Stereotype patterns and social expectations were identified giving insight into gendered world views. Data was derived through picturing. Collaborative picture drawing, as a means to investigate multiple opinions, is a powerful activity that has the capacity to break down barriers of education, language and culture. By use of content analysis on 24 workshop pictures three key areas were identified as significant when determining attitudes towards computing as a career choice for females; gender stereotypes, role models, and media influence. The conclusion determines there are stereotype misconceptions regarding physical appearance, personality type, and digital ability projected onto young females. These can influence their academic decisions resulting in poor uptake of computing science as a career choice. We determine that Computing Science is seen as a male gendered subject with females who select to work or study in this field having low self-worth, a sense of being different, a sense of being atypical, and a sense of being unattractive We further determine that positive role models and positive gender balanced media influences can broaden identities in computing.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Investigating social vulnerability in children using computer mediated
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Toni L. Fallon, Ruth Aylett, Helen Minnis, Gnanathusharan Rajendran Here, we report a study using computer role-play to investigate Disinhibited Social Engagement in 54 typically developing children aged 6, 8 and 10 years. Children completed 22 (theme-matched) vignettes and computerised scenarios that captured the themes of the specific symptoms of Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSM V, APA, 2013). Our newly created 22 "Paper pencil" vignettes and computer role-play scenarios were used in conjunction with the Strange Stories (O'Hare, Bremner, Nash, Happé & Pettigrew, 2009) and Parents and Teachers completed versions of the Relationship Problems Questionnaire (RPQ: Minnis et al., 2007). Our findings revealed the developmental (age) differences of social vulnerability/indiscriminate friendliness and potential advantages of computermediated role-play in comparison to “paper pencil” tasks. We argue that using a method of children role playing characters gives a better insight into children's true vulnerabilities. We discuss our findings in relation to using this methodology for clinicians and researchers to improve social skills in the most socially vulnerable children.
  • Examining competitive, collaborative and adaptive gamification in young
           learners' math learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Tomislav Jagušt, Ivica Botički, Hyo-Jeong So This paper presents the results of an empirical study conducted on three different types of gamified learning activities—namely competitive, collaborative, and adaptive—in lower primary mathematics classes. The participants were students from two second-grade and one third-grade classes who used tablet computers and digital learning lessons for learning mathematics. The study included a non-gamified and competitive, adaptive, and collaborative gamified conditions, which were integrated into lesson plans. The collected log data were used to calculate the changes in performance levels through the dimensions of task completion and time under each condition, and the data were further analyzed and compared across conditions. The quantitative analysis results were triangulated with interview data from the students. Overall, the results show that gamified activities contributed to increased student performance levels in math learning. Significantly higher performance levels appeared in a gamified condition combining competition, a narrative, and adaptivity with individual performance game elements. Although the highest performance levels appeared in conjunction with the most incorrect attempts by the students, the total number of correct attempts was unaffected. Our findings suggest that whether gamification works or not is not the result of individual game elements but rather the consequence of their balanced combination.
  • Borders of change: A holistic exploration of teaching in one-to-one
           computing programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Arnon Hershkovitz, Orly Karni This qualitative study takes a holistic approach to the effects of one-to-one computing initiatives on teachers in elementary and middle schools. Participants (N = 14) were asked about the entirety of their teaching (before, during, and after lessons). There are two major findings. First, a shift to learner-centered teaching is evident in one-to-one lessons, but the practice is bounded by existing classroom practices. Second, the realization of the benefits of learner-centered approach did not lead teachers to adopt it in other lessons. The findings suggest that a technology-driven approach to teaching does not result in meaningful change.
  • A systematic review of eye tracking research on multimedia learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Ecenaz Alemdag, Kursat Cagiltay This study provides a current systematic review of eye tracking research in the domain of multimedia learning. The particular aim of the review is to explore how cognitive processes in multimedia learning are studied with relevant variables through eye tracking technology. To this end, 52 articles, including 58 studies, were analyzed. Remarkable results are that (1) there is a burgeoning interest in the use of eye tracking technology in multimedia learning research; (2) studies were mostly conducted with college students, science materials, and the temporal and count scales of eye tracking measurements; (3) eye movement measurements provided inferences about the cognitive processes of selecting, organizing, and integrating; (4) multimedia learning principles, multimedia content, individual differences, metacognition, and emotions were the potential factors that can affect eye movement measurements; and (5) findings were available for supporting the association between cognitive processes inferred by eye tracking measurements and learning performance. Specific gaps in the literature and implications of existing findings on multimedia learning design were also determined to offer suggestions for future research and practices.
  • Technology Acceptance Model in M-learning context: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Mostafa Al-Emran, Vitaliy Mezhuyev, Adzhar Kamaludin Various review studies were conducted to provide valuable insights into the current research trend of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Nevertheless, this issue still needs to be investigated from further directions. It has been noticed that research overlooks the investigation of TAM with regard to Mobile learning (M-learning) studies from the standpoint of different perspectives. The present study systematically reviews and synthesizes the TAM studies related to M-learning aiming to provide a comprehensive analysis of 87 research articles from 2006 to 2018. The main findings include that most of the TAM studies involving M-learning focused on extending the TAM with external variables, followed by the studies that extended the model by factors from other theories/models. In addition, the main research problem that was frequently tackled among all the analyzed studies was to examine the acceptance of M-learning among students. Moreover, questionnaire surveys were the primarily relied research methods for data collection. Additionally, most of the analyzed studies were undertaken in Taiwan, this is followed by Spain, China, and Malaysia, respectively among the other countries. Besides, most of the analyzed studies were frequently conducted in humanities and educational context, followed by IT and computer science context, respectively among the other contexts. Most of the analyzed studies were carried out in the higher educational settings. To that end, the findings of this review study provide an insight into the current trend of TAM research involving M-learning studies and form an essential reference for scholars in the M-learning context.
  • When two computer-supported learning strategies are better than one: An
           eye-tracking study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Héctor R. Ponce, Richard E. Mayer, María Soledad Loyola, Mario J. López, Ester E. Méndez The aim of this study is to examine the effects of using one or two computer-supported learning strategies on learning processes (as measured by integrative eye movements through eye-tracking methodology) and learning outcome (as measured by memory and comprehension tests). Sixth-grade students selected from four schools located in Santiago, Chile read a two-paragraph text on a computer screen and were asked either to read it (read-only group), highlight text as they read (highlighting group), type notes from the text into a textbox as they read (notetaking group), fill in an interactive graphic organizer (graphic organizer group), highlight first and then take notes from the text (highlighting + notetaking group) or highlight first and then fill in an interactive graphic organizer (highlighting + graphic organizer group). The graphic organizer group, highlighting + graphic organizer group, and highlighting + notetaking group each made significantly more integrative eye movements between the two paragraphs during learning (indicating better learning processes) and produced higher comprehension test scores (indicating better learning outcomes) as compared to the read-only group, whereas the highlighting group and notetaking group did not. Results are consistent with the idea that filling in graphic organizers is a generative learning strategy, whereas highlighting and typing notes into a textbox are not generative learning strategies. Similarly using two learning strategies together (notetaking and highlighting) leads to generative learning even though using either one of those strategies alone does not, so in this case two learning strategies are better than one.
  • E-Reader apps and reading engagement: A descriptive case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Ayesha K. Hashim, Vanessa W. Vongkulluksn E-readers are becoming a common tool in the classroom, yet little is known about how teachers and students are using these tools to support reading motivation and comprehension. Drawing on sociocultural theory and data collected from fourth-grade teachers and students, we find that teachers used e-readers to monitor student comprehension of assigned readings, but provided little motivational support. While this instructional approach helped students self-regulate their learning, it was disruptive to students' reading enjoyment and contributed to adverse learning behaviors. We situate these findings in rich contextual detail on teachers and students. Our findings shed light on affordances and constraints that teachers can experience when using e-readers for instruction.
  • Why students engage in cyber-cheating through a collective movement: A
           case of deviance and collusion
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Rachida F. Parks, Paul Benjamin Lowry, Rolf T. Wigand, Nitin Agarwal, Therese L. Williams The use of social networking sites (SNS) such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube has contributed to improving teaching and learning in contemporary educational systems. Unfortunately, online social networks are among the many emerging technology artefacts that introduce new and potentially serious risks to academic environments and therefore have also been credited with the increased prevalence of academic cheating, or cyber-cheating, among students. Recent media attention has focused on how social media has added another medium that can facilitate many collective movements, such as recent uprisings in the Arab world. However, limited research focus has been afforded to the role SNS plays in the pervasiveness of cheating in non-Western cultural settings. Given the continuing growth in social media and advanced technologies, it is necessary to explore and understand academic cheating in the era of digital technology and cultural complexity.In this research, we conduct a case study of ‘Tasribat’, a Facebook page that facilitates cyber-cheating among certain social groups of students in Morocco. Using an interpretive case study approach, we explore why students collectively engage in cyber-cheating. We leverage both interviews as well digital footprints to explore this collective cheating movement on Facebook. We focus on the intertwined relationship between individual and collective cyber-cheating behaviours with an emphasis on ethical and cultural complexity. The paper's major contribution resides in its analysis and conceptualisation through our emerging model—the Collective Action Cyber-Cheating Model—that integrates collective action and social learning theories. We conclude by discussing this study's contributions to research and practice and its associated future research opportunities.
  • What influences the effect of texting-based instruction on vocabulary
           acquisition' Learners’ behavior and perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Jia Li, Qizhen Deng Text messaging has become enormously popular as the primary means of written communication among adolescents and young adults from different first language (L1) backgrounds. A growing body of research has reported on the positive effects of texting-based instruction on English language learners' (ELLs) vocabulary learning. This article investigates the role of ELLs' learning behavior interacting with and their perception of texting-based instruction for their academic vocabulary acquisition. A total of 108 undergraduate ELLs registered in six English for academic purpose (EAP) classes from a large Canada university participated in a 2-month intervention study that aimed to teach academic and low frequency words embedded within their assigned course readings. Correlation and regression analyses were applied to students' learning behaviors and perceptions, and their learning gain of target vocabulary (direct effect) and its subsequent impact on academic vocabulary learning (transfer effect). The results indicated that the frequency of their reading of text messages with word instruction is positively correlated with and a predictor of their target vocabulary learning outcome. The findings are discussed along with pedagogical implications and suggestions for future research.
  • Impact of repetitive listening, listening-aid and podcast length on EFL
           podcast listening
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Serkan Şendağ, Nuray Gedik, Sacip Toker Repeated listening to English as a Foreign Language (EFL)/second language (L2) podcast has been recognized as cognitively beneficial, while it is usually perceived as boring by learners. As part of a two-year project funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, Grant No:113K727), the present study examined the effects of EFL-podcast length, repetitive listening and a listening aid on the listening comprehension of Turkish pre-service EFL teachers. The study was conducted using a repeated measure experimental design with 29 pre-service EFL teachers and 24 different “listening treatments”. The listening activities were delivered via Tablet PCs in Lab conditions. Qualitative data was compiled at the end of the experiment as a complement to quantitative data in order to better understand the perceived attentional and motivational factors identified during the study. Data showed that podcast length, repetitive listening and use of a listening aid had a significant impact on listening comprehension. Although repetitive listening was perceived as boring, it helped to improve comprehension and attention, and podcast topics and the use of Tablet PCs were perceived as motivating. These findings highlight the notion that using a listening aid can facilitate listening comprehension and help to reduce the number of repetitions required to achieve similar levels of comprehension.
  • Implementing a theory-driven gamification model in higher education
           flipped courses: Effects on out-of-class activity completion and quality
           of artifacts
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Biyun Huang, Khe Foon Hew :Flipped learning can provide more in-class time for students to practice and apply knowledge and to receive feedback from peers and teachers. However, empirical studies have reported several problems that may occur with flipped classroom activities, including the failure of students to access out-of-class learning materials. Students who do not complete out-of-class work benefit little from the subsequent in-class discussion and problem-solving activities. This study offers a new contribution by exploring whether gamification could be a strategy to motivate students to participate in more out-of-class activities without forfeiting quality of work. We applied crucial aspects of five motivation theories to propose a goal-access-feedback-challenge-collaboration (GAFCC) gamification design model. We then implemented and tested this theory-driven model in two quasi-experimental studies involving postgraduate students. Collective results from the two experiments revealed that (a) the GAFCC class completed significantly more pre- and post-class activities than the control class and (b) the GAFCC class produced higher quality work than the control class. Participants’ perceptions of gamification were also collected through interviews, and reported in this study. This evidence supports a call for further research into the use of the GAFCC model in flipped classroom implementation.
  • Is facebook involvement associated with academic engagement among Filipino
           university students' A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Jesus Alfonso D. Datu, Weipeng Yang, Jana Patricia M. Valdez, Samuel Kai Wah Chu The use of Facebook among university students is a controversial issue in the literature as studies point to both positive and negative impacts of this social networking platform. However, little is known about how students’ personal Facebook use may relate to specific domains of academic engagement. In this study, the association of Facebook intensity dimensions (i.e., persistence, boredom, overuse and self-expression) with domains of academic engagement (i.e., agentic, behavioural, cognitive and emotional engagement) was assessed among 700 Filipino undergraduate students (nfemale = 402 female and nmale = 298 male; Mage = 19.80, SDage = 4.26). The results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that self-expression positively predicted agentic engagement even after controlling for relevant demographic covariates such as age, gender and year level. Boredom positively predicted behavioural engagement, while overuse negatively predicted behavioural engagement. The results provide interesting insights into the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of Facebook involvement in the academic context.
  • Speed reading on virtual reality and augmented reality
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Pei-Luen Patrick Rau, Jian Zheng, Zhi Guo, Jiaqi Li Many virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) applications in education require speed reading. The current study aimed to explore whether the reading performance on VR and AR is different from that on traditional desktop display, and whether the difference is moderated by the reading speed. Sixty-three college students read Chinese passages at normal (650–750 characters per minute [cpm]) or fast speeds (1000–1400 cpm), and then answered multiple-choice questions. They spent approximately 10% more time in making choice on VR and AR than they did on the desktop display. Teachers should be aware of this difference and allow 10% more time when using VR and AR applications containing text components.
  • Impacts of an augmented reality-based flipped learning guiding approach on
           students’ scientific project performance and perceptions
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Shao-Chen Chang, Gwo-Jen Hwang In recent years, flipped learning has received increasing emphasis; it engages students in deriving basic knowledge through instructional videos before the class, and hence more time is available for practicing, applying knowledge, or student-teacher interaction in class. Many scholars have pointed out that, with such a learning approach, teachers can design more effective in-class activities by guiding students to have higher order thinking as well as interactions with peers and teachers. In the meantime, researchers have also indicated that employing proper educational technologies or learning strategies could further improve students’ performance. Therefore, in this study, an Augmented Reality (AR)-based learning guiding mode is proposed for developing a flipped learning system. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted in a natural science learning activity of an elementary school using the developed system. The participants were four classes of 111 fifth graders. Two classes were assigned to the experimental group, while the others were the control group. Those learning in the experimental group used the AR-based flipped learning mode, while those in the control group learned with the conventional flipped learning mode. From the experimental results, it was found that the AR-based flipped learning guiding approach not only benefited the students in terms of promoting their project performance, but also improved their learning motivation, critical thinking tendency, and group self-efficacy.
  • Measuring technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) through
           performance assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Didem Akyuz Despite many studies conducted on TPACK, the relationships between the components of the framework and how to perform TPACK assessment remain to be important research questions. The aim of this study is to shed light on these two questions by analyzing lesson plans collected from 138 preservice mathematics teachers obtained from a technology-integration course over a period of five years. An instrument that describes each component of the TPACK framework was developed and applied to performance-assessment of preservice teachers. The analysis is augmented by a self-assessment survey to compare and contrast the differences between the two. According to the results, four knowledge domains within the TPACK framework could be distinguished, which are denoted as Core, Tech, TPACK-P, and TPACK-C. The performance- and self-assessment based measures were found to yield similar results except for pedagogy related knowledge domains, in particular for pedagogical knowledge (PK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), and the TPACK.
  • The effectiveness of multimedia for teaching drug mechanisms of action to
           undergraduate health students
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Hannah Hartman, Peter Johnson Educators are increasingly turning to multimedia presentations as a means to convey complex information. Pharmacological mechanisms of action are dynamic processes that may be effectively represented as animations. Drug mechanisms of action were described in four different presentation formats: text only; text and static images; animation and text; or animation with narration. A comparison of these presentation modes found no significant difference on performance on a best answer multiple choice quiz. In addition, there was no significant effect of individual learning style. When learning about material related to their discipline of study, students may possess the ability to construct mental models that obviate the need for multimedia. Resources currently invested in the development of multimedia materials may be better diverted elsewhere. Furthermore, the results from this study do not support the routine assessment of individual learning styles in education.
  • Scaffolding of motivation in learning using a social robot
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Andrea Deublein, Anne Pfeifer, Katinka Merbach, Katharina Bruckner, Christoph Mengelkamp, Birgit Lugrin
  • Linkages between course status, perceived course value, and students’
           preference for traditional versus non-traditional learning environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Karen E. Clayton, Fran C. Blumberg, Jared A. Anthony This study assessed undergraduate and graduate students' preferences for course delivery via traditional classroom, hybrid, or wholly online learning format as influenced by the status of the course as a prerequisite, elective, or core offering and perceptions of its utility and importance. Students also were asked to justify their choice of learning format. Overall, students preferred traditional classes across all course statuses and justified their choices by citing them as engaging and interactive. Across all students, perceptions of the usefulness and importance of each course status did not significantly influence their selection of a specific learning environment. Collectively, these findings have ramifications for understanding factors that impact students’ responses to online learning environments.
  • Contextualised MALL: L2 Chinese students in target and non-target country
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Orit Ezra, Anat Cohen Contextualised Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) has been known for its potential in language learning pedagogies. However, investigation of relations between variables and MALL components, are seemingly missing. This research aims to explore variables that influence contextualised MALL – target country (Taiwan/Israel) and language learning orientation (generic/dedicated). Accordingly, device mobility and real world and real life context level variables were quantitatively compared between Taiwan – target language environment and Israel – non-target language environment, and between generic and dedicated activities. Empirical data was collected using a structured interview from 53 Chinese L2 students in Taiwan and Israel, encompassing 296 types of students’ MALL activities. Findings show that contextualised MALL was significantly higher in the target country but only in generic activities. Furthermore, the findings support the existence of similarities and differences between real world and real life context definitions. The findings contribute to missing data about definitions and relations among MALL constituents.
  • Exploring the development and impact of learning styles: An empirical
           investigation based on explicit and implicit measures
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Stephanie Moser, Joerg Zumbach It is still controversial whether learning styles are unchangeable dispositions or flexible characteristics. Research on the development of learning styles is therefore in high demand. We suggest a conceptual model that describes both explicit and implicit cognitive processes involved in processing instructional material. We also propose an implicit association test (learning styles IAT). In a first study (N = 126), we evaluate the stimulus material for the IAT. In a second study (N = 104), we investigate the correlations between the implicit and explicit measures used. We further examine interactions between learning styles and learning outcomes as well as cognitive load. Two versions of a computer-based learning program (verbal vs. visual presentation of information) were used. The results reveal that matching learning styles and learning materials neither leads to better learning outcomes nor to a lower cognitive load. Additionally, neither implicit nor explicit measures were able to predict learning outcomes.
  • Regulation of collaboration in project-based learning mediated by CSCL
           scripting reflection
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Jin Michael Splichal, Jun Oshima, Ritsuko Oshima Many studies attempt to effectively support student regulation of collaboration using CSCL tools to enrich learning outcomes. However, few studies are aimed at facilitating development of students' internal scripts for regulation of collaboration. This study focuses on developing and evaluating a computer-mediated learning environment for project-based learning to facilitate student internal scripts for regulation by designing external scripts for effective reflection. Forty-eight first-year university students participated in this study as part of their curriculum. Our analyses of their internal scripts before and after PBL participation revealed that significantly more students who encountered an unfamiliar situation during collaboration constructed new regulation scripts. Moreover, in case studies, we found that students augmented their scripts for socially shared regulation when recognizing socio-cognitive challenges, whereas they augmented co-regulation and self-regulation scripts when recognizing socio-emotional challenges.
  • Impact of partially flipped instruction on immediate and subsequent course
           performance in a large undergraduate chemistry course
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Wenliang He, Amanda J. Holton, George Farkas Conducted in two sections of an introductory chemistry course, the current study assesses the impact of a partially flipped course compared to traditional lectures on student academic performance, motivation, and perceptions. Although the partially flipped course had little impact on student final exam performance in the current course, it had an overall positive effect on student grades in a subsequent course with presence of interaction effect favoring students with lower high school GPA. By implication, the partially flipped course structure has the potential to bridge the achievement gap over time. Similarly, flipped instruction had an overall positive effect on end-of-quarter student motivation, and academically weaker students showed relatively higher motivation increases. Treatment students rated the flipped course much more positively regarding instructional clarity, instructor quality, and course quality. Compared to the student reflections received in our previous study, negative comments were much less in scope and severity in the current study, owing to a “gentler” approach for introducing flipped instruction. The gentler approach might allow student to adapt to the format over time. Additionally, greater accountability due to increased assignments of the pre-class work contributed to higher student preparation and improved perceptions.
  • Mobile-based assessment: A literature review of publications in major
           referred journals from 2009 to 2018
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Stavros A. Nikou, Anastasios A. Economides Mobile devices not only provide a medium for delivering personalized and context-aware learning but also facilitate the delivery of assessment activities anytime and anywhere. With the growing adoption of the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) practices in education, Mobile-Based Assessment (MBA) is an emerging field in the context of mobile learning research. Although a considerable number of literature reviews exists about mobile learning, there is no such review study to provide insight into mobile-based assessment. The current study is a review of forty-three (43) articles about mobile-based assessment published in seven major educational technology research journals from January 2009 to February 2018. Major findings include that most mobile-based assessment studies focused on formative assessments with elementary students and in STEM subjects. Most of the reviewed articles reported a significant positive impact on student learning performance, motivation and attitudes. Moreover, the study identified several gaps in the mobile assessment literature. More research is needed to investigate issues and concerns related to negative perceptions against mobile assessment, especially form the teachers’ point of view. Also, a stronger alignment needs to be developed between student motivation and different mobile-based assessment practices. The study can be a valuable reference for educators and researchers working in the field of mobile-based assessment.
  • Strengthening dialogic peer feedback aiming for deep learning in SPOCs
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Renée M. Filius, Renske A.M. de Kleijn, Sabine G. Uijl, Frans J. Prins, Harold V.M. van Rijen, Diederick E. Grobbee This study is focused on how peer feedback in SPOCs (Small Private Online Courses) can effectively lead to deep learning. Promoting deep learning in online courses, such as SPOCs, is often a challenge. We aimed for deep learning by reinforcement of ‘feedback dialogue’ as scalable intervention.Students provided peer feedback as a dialogue, both individually and as a group. They were instructed to rate each other's feedback, which was aimed at deep learning. Data from questionnaires from 41 students of a master epidemiology course were used to measure for each feedback assignment to what extent deep learning was perceived. The feedback received by students who scored extremely high or low on the questionnaire was analyzed in order to find out which features of the feedback led to deep learning. In addition, students were interviewed to retrieve information about the underlying mechanisms.The results support the view that peer feedback instruction and peer feedback rating lead to peer feedback dialogues that, in turn, promote deep learning in SPOCs. The value of peer feedback appears to predominantly result from the dialogue it triggers, rather than the feedback itself. Especially helpful for students is the constant attention to how one provides peer feedback: by instruction, by having to rate feedback and therefore by repeatedly having to reflect. The dialogue is strengthened because students question feedback from peers in contrast to feedback from their instructor. As a result, they continue to think longer and deeper, which enables deep learning.
  • Using enhanced OER videos to facilitate English L2 learners’
           multicultural competence
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Yu-Ju Lin, Hung-Chun Wang This study investigated whether applying enhanced open educational resource (OER) videos in English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classes could improve university students' multicultural competence, and it also explored their perceptions of OERs. The study was implemented with 65 students who were enrolled in two General English classes at a public university in Taiwan. Videos of two TED Talks that carried different multicultural themes were adopted for the purpose of developing the students' multicultural competence and English skills. For each of the videos, the students watched a presentation before class and discussed it with their peers in the class meeting. Data collected from an Intercultural Competence Scale, OER Perception Survey, and post-intervention interviews were analyzed to address the research issues. Results showed that the OER intervention was particularly helpful to the students' use of communicative strategies and attentive preparation for multicultural encounters. The intervention also reinforced their beliefs in the educational value of OERs. Based on the results, pedagogical implications are discussed to provide insights into how to integrate OERs into EFL curricula to facilitate students’ multicultural competence.
  • A critical examination of the relationship among research, theory, and
           practice: Technology and reading instruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Xinyuan Yang, Li-Jen Kuo, Xuejun Ji, Erin McTigue Recent technological advancements have changed how literacy is perceived, and it is no longer confined to the interaction with print text. The evolving definition of literacy has been reflected in the increasing number of teachers who are incorporating technology into their reading instruction. However, less is known about the extent to which these technology-integrated instructional practices are supported by reading theories. The purpose of this study is to systematically review how technology has been implemented in reading instruction and to explore how transitions of instructional practice from traditional classrooms to digital settings have been grounded in reading theories. The present study reviewed articles published over the past twelve years in flagship practitioner journals to examine the connections and the gaps between theory and practice. Our review uncovered that technology has served in reading instruction primarily in three ways: 1) to increase reading motivation, 2) to present information in multi-modalities, and 3) to promote collaborative learning. Consistent with other domains of reading instruction, social theories were found to be the prominent theoretical bases supporting technology-integrated practices; dual-coding theory has also emerged in recent years as the theoretical basis for technology use in reading instruction. However, most of the theories were rarely referred explicitly. Implications for researchers and practitioners were provided based on the gaps between theory and practice revealed in the current review.
  • Engaged in learning neurorehabilitation: Development and validation of a
           serious game with user-centered design
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Federica Savazzi, Sara Isernia, Johanna Jonsdottir, Sonia Di Tella, Stefania Pazzi, Francesca Baglio The presence of Serious Games (SGs) in the medical educational field is spreading due to their beneficial results in terms of learning outcomes and user' engagement. The effectiveness of these tools for physical therapy students is, however, still to be proven and prototypes for this user target are lacking. We adopted a user-centered design (UCD) approach to develop and validate a SG on dual task motor and cognitive rehabilitation for junior physical therapists training. The SG development and validation consisted in two phases: a design-evaluation-redesign phase with two groups of junior and senior physiotherapists (group 1, N = 10; group 2, N = 28), and the SG prototype testing phase comparing outcomes of junior physiotherapists in lab (N = 20) and physical therapy students in real context (N = 23). Usability, motivation, flow state, affective engagement and learning were tested. Results showed a high usability of the tool together with good levels of engagement in all groups. Interestingly, we observed a decrease in physiotherapists' negative affect and an increment of students' positive affect after experiencing the prototype. The adoption of the UCD for the validation of a SG on neurorehabilitation allowed the development of a usable and engaging prototype. Future research on SG topics should include a rehabilitation paradigm in their content.
  • An empirical study on gender, video game play, academic success and
           complex problem solving skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Muhterem Dindar This study investigated the video gaming behaviors of 479 high school students with respect to gender-based differences, as well as the relationship between video gaming, academic success and Complex Problem Solving skills (CPS). Video gaming was measured under the gaming experience, gaming time, gaming frequency, perceived gaming skills, playing alone vs. playing with a team, and game genre dimensions. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 Creative Problem Solving test was utilized to measure CPS. Findings showed that the sampled males had more experience and skills in video gaming and spent more time on video games than their female counterparts. On the other hand, it emerged that the females actually played video games more often than the males. No relationship of practical significance was found between any of the video gaming variables investigated in the study and CPS or academic success. The current findings contribute to the limited empirical evidence on the relationship between video gaming and CPS, and demonstrate that the transferal of video gaming skills to real-life problem solving might not be as obvious as is claimed in the literature.
  • Learner-generated materials in a flipped pronunciation class: A sequential
           explanatory mixed-methods study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 125Author(s): Arif Bakla As a relatively popular practice in recent years, the flipped learning model moves traditional lecturing outside the class, yet it might prove challenging to find appropriate in-class activities that promote research, active learning and higher-order thinking skills. This study attempts to investigate if learner-generated materials could promote active and inquiry-based learning in such a class and help develop positive attitudes towards flipped learning in general. It also seeks to understand the role, perceived value and ease of using authoring tools used to build learning materials in facilitating inquiry-based active learning in the classroom. It adopts a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design, in which 40 intermediate Turkish learners of English studied various topics in phonetics and phonology by creating learning materials in teams. The analysis of the data from a post-instruction survey and follow-up interviews with 8 participants imply that learner-generated materials produced using user-friendly authoring tools seem to be a good option for learners to get involved in research in a flipped class. The findings also revealed that although the learners reported mostly positive attitudes and that the higher and lower scorers (Moodle Scores) viewed the flipped learning model almost equally valuable, the higher scorers talked more positively about how the course was delivered. However, as the findings indicated, radical changes introduced by both the use of the flipped model itself and new software and a lesson sequence based on thinking, production and research might constitute a major challenge for students that are accustomed to traditional methods.
  • Does Gen Z's emotional intelligence promote iCheating (cheating with
           iPhone) yet curb iCheating through reduced nomophobia'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Elodie Gentina, Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Pierre-François Dancoine Due to the popularity of smartphone (mobile phone) technology and new consumer products, parents, teachers, and researchers have grave concerns over adolescents' iPhone overuse and many iDisorders, including the decrease of self-esteem and social interactions and the increase of depression, sleep disturbances, nomophobia, and iCheating—academic cheating using iPhone. Little research has addressed these issues. Although emotional intelligence can help individuals achieve success in interpersonal relationships and performance, we ask two provocative questions: Does Generation Z (Gen Z) adolescents' emotional intelligence (EI) provoke iCheating' Can emotional intelligence curb nomophobia and thereby mitigate academic iCheating' We propose a formative SEM theoretical model, empirically test the relationships between emotional intelligence and iCheating, treat nomophobia as a mediator, and simultaneously investigate both direct and indirect paths. Data collected from 472 teenagers in three middle schools (grades 10–12, average age = 16.21) of an urban region in northern France reveal two innovative findings. Emotional intelligence (framed in the context of positive self-esteem)—directly fosters iCheating (the dark side). However, EI powerfully reduces nomophobia, the mediator—framed in the context of sleep disturbances, and indirectly curbs iCheating (the bright side). The combination of the dark and bright sides of emotional intelligence leads to a slight overall increase of iCheating. Emotional intelligence has its limits. Business executives, policy makers, and parents may identify strategies to promote the bright side and reduce the dark side of emotional intelligence, help Gen Z teenagers avoid nomophobia and reduce unethical behaviors/dishonesty—iCheating.
  • Impact of a remote lab on teaching practices and students learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Clara Viegas, Ana Pavani, Natércia Lima, Arcelina Marques, Isabel Pozzo, Elsa Dobboletta, Vanessa Atencia, Daniel Barreto, Felipe Calliari, André Fidalgo, Guilherme Temporão, Gustavo Alves Remote Laboratories have become part of current teaching and learning, particularly in engineering. Their potential to aid students beyond their hands-on lab classes has been a matter of discussion in literature. Teachers and researchers are aware that the thorough analysis of both strengths and shortcomings of remote labs in didactical implementations may not only lead to the improvement of these resources but also of the pedagogical implications in engineering classes. The present study was carried out in a Higher Education Institution in Brazil in two different courses during three consecutive semesters where a remote lab (VISIR) addressing electric and electronic topics was implemented, yielding 471 students' academic results and opinions. These students' results (while using VISIR) cross-analysed with the course characteristics, reveal some factors teachers may tackle to foster student learning and motivation. The conclusions point to the need for VISIR interface modernization and showed it is more useful in basic courses than in more advanced ones, when dealing with classic lab experiments. Results also show that teachers' involvement plus their ability to brief students on VISIR's usefulness have a significant influence not only on students' performance but also on their perception of learning and satisfaction with the tool. In the analysed cases, the students with more learning needs seemed to be the ones who could benefit more from VISIR.
  • The impact of a forfeit-or-prize gamified teaching on e-learners’
           learning performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Zi-Gang Ge The present study aims to explore the impact of three reward strategies on adult e-learners’ learning performance in a gamified teaching process. One hundred and eighty participants who were recruited for the experiment were evenly assigned to three groups, with Group A adopting the forfeit-or-prize reward strategy, Group B employing the prize-only reward strategy, and Group C applying the no-prize-no-forfeit strategy. A pretest, an immediate posttest, a delayed posttest and two questionnaires were adopted as instruments for the study. The results showed that the forfeit-or-prize pattern and the prize-only pattern could exert a significantly better impact on the e-learners’ learning than the no-prize-no-forfeit pattern. Additionally, the forfeit-or-prize pattern elicited better knowledge retention than the prize-only pattern. The two questionnaires revealed that the forfeit-or-prize pattern and the prize-only pattern could stimulate students' motivation in learning, although a high-level anxiety was perceived by the subjects assigned to the forfeit-or-prize pattern. Possible explanations and implications are discussed.
  • To ban or not to ban' The effect of permissive versus restrictive
           laptop policies on student outcomes and teaching evaluations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Lauren R. Elliott-Dorans As technologies have become more portable, scholars have turned their attention to whether the use of electronic devices during lecture positively or negatively affects student performance in the class. In this study, I investigate the effects of banning laptops in the classroom through an experiment conducted over two semesters in an introductory American politics course at a large, public four-year university. Overall, I find that banning laptops is more likely to hinder student performance in the class than help. Although students find many elements of the course to be more helpful to their learning in the laptop-free sections, this does not translate to greater student achievement or lead to significantly different evaluations on the official university teaching evaluations. Overall, these findings suggest that although instructors are not penalized for banning laptops from their classrooms, they ought to carefully consider the extent to which such policies are helpful to student progress in large lecture classes.
  • The influence of learners' perceptions of virtual humans on learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Noah L. Schroeder, Fan Yang, Tanvi Banerjee, William L. Romine, Scotty D. Craig Virtual humans are often integrated into novel multimedia learning environments. However, little is known about learner's perceptions of the agents or the relationship between the perceptions and learning. In this study, the authors revise the Agent Persona Instrument, a measurement tool designed to examine how learners perceive pedagogical agents. The factor structure of the revised instrument was evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis. Next, k-means clustering was used to examine how participants' ratings on the instrument cluster into groups based on their perceptions of the virtual human. After describing the qualities of the clusters within the data, linear regression was used to examine to what extent the cluster membership influenced participant's scores on a transfer test of learning. The results indicated that cluster membership only explained a small amount of variance in transfer test scores. This study provides a revised instrument for measuring pedagogical agent persona. It implemented a novel method for investigating perceptions of pedagogical agents using k-means clustering which was able to identify two unique groups of participants based on their perceptions of the agent. Finally, it presents empirical results indicating that learner's perceptions of the agent had a small influence on their learning outcome scores.
  • Developing meta-discourse through reflective assessment in knowledge
           building environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chunlin Lei, Carol K.K. Chan This study examined how reflective assessment supported by principles facilitated metadiscourse for knowledge advances mediated by Knowledge Forum® (KF). Participants were 60 tertiary students in two classes engaging in knowledge building and reflecting on their collaborative knowledge building using e-portfolios; one class was a principle-based knowledge-building environment (KBP, n = 30), and the other a regular knowledge-building environment (KBR, n = 30). The KF embedded assessment tools, the Analytical Toolkit and Applet, showed increased KF participation and connectedness during the year. Regression analysis showed that KF participation predicted conceptual understanding for both classes. Analyses of e-portfolios revealed that the students adopted nine reflective strategies in knowledge building, and that reflective metadiscourse strategies involving metacognitive and collective processes were related with deeper conceptual understanding. Analyses of online discourse threads further showed that metadiscourse involving collective processes was associated with higher levels of knowledge advances. Both classes showed improvement and the KBP class outperformed the KBR class on KF participation, metadiscourse processes and conceptual understanding. This study has theoretical implications advancing the idea of metadiscourse, discourse about discourse, for enriching research on knowledge building and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). There are also design implications for using principle-based e-portfolios to facilitate collective reflection and metadiscourse to address issues of fragmented online discussion, and for promoting sustained inquiry.
  • Virtual learning environment engagement and learning outcomes at a
           ‘bricks-and-mortar’ university
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chris A. Boulton, Carmel Kent, Hywel T.P. Williams In this study, we analyse the relationship between engagement in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and module grades at a ‘bricks-and-mortar’ university in the United Kingdom. We measure VLE activity for students enrolled in 38 different credit-bearing modules, each of which are compulsory components of six degree programmes. Overall we find that high VLE activity is associated with high grades, but low activity does not necessarily imply low grades. Analysis of individual modules shows a wide range of relationships between the two quantities. Grouping module-level relationships by programme suggests that science-based subjects have a higher dependency on VLE activity. Considering learning design (LD), we find that VLE usage is more important in modules that adopt an instruction-based learning style. We also test the predictive power of VLE usage in determining grades, again finding variation between degree programmes and potential for predicting a student's final grade weeks in advance of assessment. Our findings suggest that student engagement with learning at a bricks-and-mortar university is in general hard to determine by VLE usage alone, due to the predominance of other “offline” learning activities, but that VLE usage can nonetheless help to predict performance for some disciplines.
  • Using design-based research methodology to develop a pedagogy for teaching
           and learning of Chinese writing with wiki among Chinese upper primary
           school students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Xuanxi Li, Samuel K.W. Chu In this research, a conceptual model of a wiki-based collaborative process writing pedagogy (WCPWP) is developed using a design-based research (DBR) methodology. The intention is to help the teaching and learning of Chinese writing among mainland Chinese upper primary school students. The wiki-based learning environment Joyous Writing Club (JWC) ( was designed and developed. The study was conducted in a primary school in Shenzhen, China, and divided into three iterative research phases spanning one and a half years (three semesters). Over this time the WCPWP was developed and refined. In this study, both quantitative and qualitative methods, including online wiki documents, a course feedback questionnaire, observations, interviews, and a teacher's questionnaire, were used to collect data. The results indicated that the Chinese language teachers and most of the students had positive attitudes and perceptions toward WCPWP. They perceived that the WCPWP had positive effects on students' writing ability, writing attitudes, collaboration, reading, and oral expression. This study illustrates in detail the process of improving the WCPWP, and is a good example of how DBR can be used to design and develop pedagogy. The resulting development of a conceptual model of a high-grade WCPWP may help primary school teachers enrich the pedagogical knowledge related to wikis and Chinese writing.
  • Predictors of Academic Dishonesty among undergraduate students in online
           and face-to-face courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yehuda Peled, Yovav Eshet, Casimir Barczyk, Keren Grinautski Unethical behaviors within the academic environment, academic dishonesty (AD), is a well-researched phenomenon. Various factors explain this phenomenon. This study investigates and presents a new structural model for determinants of AD, linking types of motivation, students' attitudes, personality traits, and cultural backgrounds (presented by country according to Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory) as predictors of AD in the context of traditional and distance-learning courses in higher education. This study was conducted using a survey method of 2475 students in six different academic institutes. Using structural equation modeling (SAM) the results indicate that, contrary to the traditional views and the research literature, the surveyed students tend to engage less in AD in online courses than in face-to-face courses. Accordingly, this research has substantial, practical implications for educators, institution and researchers dealing with course design development and institutional policy concerning pedagogical uses of digital technology.
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