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Computers & Education
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.626
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 182  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0360-1315
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • How does students' general academic achievement moderate the implications
           of social networking on specific levels of learning performance'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): James Wakefield, Jessica K. Frawley This study examines to what extent the use of social networking sites impacts different levels of learning. In particular, we examine how post-secondary students' general academic achievement, reflected by grade point average scores, moderate these impacts. The impacts of social networking noted in the literature vary considerably, with positive and negative implications on student learning noted. Examining the moderating effects of students' general academic achievement may address the reasons for such inconsistency in impacts observed. To better understand the implications of social networking on student learning, we examine the implications of student time spent in total on Facebook and on different reasons for using Facebook through a series of ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions. The data on students' social networking use is collected via a survey and data retrieved from institution records on student performance. The context of this study is a first year equation and problem solving centric subject, consistent with the subject matter emphasised in business and STEM disciplines. The findings indicate social networking use puts students at risk who are generally lower academic achievers; in particular their performance is lower across the least difficult levels of learning performance with greater Facebook use. In contrast the performance of higher academic achievers is not significantly impacted. The findings highlight the importance of considering students’ general academic achievement as a moderator of the relationship between social networking use and learning performance, and also the importance of considering the impact on specific levels of learning.
  • Distractive effect of multimodal information in multisensory learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Pei-Luen Patrick Rau, Jian Zheng, Yi Wei Multisensory learning has the potential to facilitate learning outcome. However, visual, auditory, and tactile information can be distractive under certain circumstance, and the effect of their combination has not been fully explored. In two experiments, sixty-four participants read Chinese paragraphs and then answered multiple-choice questions with visual, auditory, and tactile distractions, and their combinations. Distractions were discrete in experiment 1 and continuous in experiment 2. Auditory distraction (deviant sounds and music) increased workload most and slowed down reading speed. Tactile distraction also increased workload, but combing tactile distraction with auditory distractions did not further increase the workload. Although visual distraction alone did not affect workload, combining it with auditory and tactile distractions further increased the workload. Auditory distraction affects reading the most, so we should avoid or mask irrelevant sounds in the learning environment. Multisensory learning protocols should be tested before being put into practice.
  • Applying the SOBC paradigm to explain how social media overload affects
           academic performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Eoin Whelan, Stoney Brooks, A.K.M. Najmul Islam Research suggests University students are more disposed than others to develop problematic social media use. Social media overload, the phenomenon where users are exposed to a massive amount of information and communication demands via social media that may require energy and cognitive processing beyond their capabilities, is the specific problem under investigation in this paper. Combining qualitative data with the situation–organism–behavior-consequence paradigm, we develop a research model of the etiology of social media overload and its consequences for student performance in higher education. Using SEM-PLS techniques to analyze survey data from 182 students revealed a fear of missing out (the situation) is associated with feelings of overload (the organism), which in turn is linked to deficient self-regulation (the behavior) and ultimately reduced performance (the consequence). Our study advances the understanding of problematic social media use among students by demonstrating the psychological and behavioral conditions which hinder academic performance. Interventions designed to address social media overload should target the performance antecedents identified in this study.
  • Learning and instruction in the hybrid virtual classroom: An investigation
           of students’ engagement and the effect of quizzes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Annelies Raes, Pieter Vanneste, Marieke Pieters, Ine Windey, Wim Van Den Noortgate, Fien Depaepe To deal with the current need for flexible learning trajectories giving access to a more diverse group of learners, synchronous hybrid virtual classrooms have been designed to connect both on-site students and remote students during synchronous teaching. Given synchronous blended learning is relatively new, there are only few studies that have investigated its use and effectiveness. Furthermore, the existing literature is mostly exploratory and qualitative in nature. This present study meets the need for empirical, theory-driven research. More specific, this study has set up an experiment to investigate how different learning settings can affect students' relatedness, intrinsic motivation and learning achievement in the context of a synchronous learning space. The Self-Determination Theory (SDT) namely stresses that relatedness is a contributing factor for intrinsic motivation and indirectly also predicts learning achievement. Although there are numerous studies using SDT in various contexts, only limited studies used this theory to examine learning in the hybrid virtual classroom comparing different learning settings and its effects on relatedness, intrinsic motivation and learning achievement. The educational setting depends on whether students are physically present and thus attend the lecture face-to-face (F2F) or remotely (virtual), and on whether the setting is the same for all students (pure) or mixed (hybrid). This study presents the results of an experimental within-subjects design study comparing the students' learning experiences as F2F versus virtual student in the pure or hybrid setting. A mixed-methods approach is used including real-time measurements of intrinsic motivation next to retrospective self-report surveys and interviews. Also the effect of quizzes has been consistently investigated. The results show that although the hybrid virtual classroom is promising regarding flexibility in education as it gives students the choice where to attend the course, it is also the most challenging one to teach in and to learn in as a remote participant. It has been found that both the relatedness to peers and the intrinsic motivation is the lowest in the hybrid-virtual setting. Yet, our results show that launching quizzes is positively related to all students’ motivation. Further research that implements different kinds of quizzes and at different time intervals is necessary to validate this finding in the context of the hybrid virtual classroom. Future research should also investigate how relatedness between the remote students and their on-campus counterparts can be improved by means of instructional interventions.
  • Longitudinal assessment of digital literacy in children: Findings from a
           large Dutch single-school study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ard W. Lazonder, Amber Walraven, Hannie Gijlers, Noortje Janssen This article reports on a three-year longitudinal study that portrayed the development of children's digital literacy skills. A sample of 151 fifth- and sixth-graders was tested three times at yearly intervals to monitor how their skills to collect, create, transform, and safely use digital information progressed. Results at the group level showed a steady linear increase in all four skills, but individual children tended to alternate substantial growth in one year with minimal progress during the next or vice versa. Children made most progress in their ability to collect information whereas their ability to create information improved the least. Development of most skills was moderately related and independent of gender, grade level, migration background, and improvements in reading comprehension and math. Children's socioeconomic status was weakly associated with the ability to collect and safely use information, but not with the other two digital literacy skills.
  • Scripts and mastery goal orientation in face-to-face versus
           computer-mediated collaborative learning: Influence on performance,
           affective and motivational outcomes, and social ability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Guan-Yu Lin This experimental study systematically investigates the separate and interactive effects of mastery goal orientation (low versus high), collaboration-script use (with versus without) and computer mediation (face-to-face versus computer-mediated) on performance outcomes (i.e., report grades and lengths), affective outcomes (i.e., process satisfaction and solution satisfaction), motivational outcomes (i.e., collaborative learning self-efficacy, group efficacy, and task value), and social ability. Specifically, 99 undergraduate students identified as having either high or low mastery goal orientations were randomly assigned to use either face-to-face or computer-mediated interaction to complete two group assignments, one with scripted instruction and one with unscripted instruction. Statistical analysis revealed that those using collaboration scripts wrote significantly longer reports, and those participating in face-to-face collaboration had significantly lower grades and co-presence. Computer-mediated collaboration was found to have two significant interactive effects, (1) with collaboration scripts, on satisfaction with the discussion process, and (2) with mastery goal orientation, on report length. Additionally, the study identified a significant three-way interactive effect of collaboration scripts, computer mediation, and mastery goal orientation on group efficacy.
  • The effects of two digital educational games on cognitive and
           non-cognitive math and reading outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Stefanie Vanbecelaere, Katrien Van den Berghe, Frederik Cornillie, Delphine Sasanguie, Bert Reynvoet, Fien Depaepe Digital educational games play an increasingly important role in education. However, multiple questions about the effectiveness of educational games with respect to cognitive and non-cognitive effects remain unclear. The current study, a longitudinal, quasi-experiment with 336 first graders, examined the effects of two digital educational games, Number Sense Game (NSG) and Reading Game (RG). The NSG trained early numerical skills, the RG supported emergent reading. Children were pseudo-randomly assigned to either an experimental condition, comprising eight weeks of intensive game-based training, or a control condition in which they took part in regular education without game-based practice. A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the effects of the intervention on cognitive (digit comparison, number line estimation, letter knowledge, math and reading competence) and non-cognitive outcomes (math and reading anxiety). Delayed cognitive effects on math and reading competence were also investigated two months after the intervention. Furthermore, we examined variances of the impact of the training on cognitive outcomes as a consequence of differences in children's prior knowledge, prior affect and socio-economic status. For cognitive outcomes, results revealed that children who played a game performed better on number line estimation and reading competence, whereas no significant differences were observed for digit comparison, letter knowledge and math competence. Also, children who played a game showed better scores in the delayed reading posttest, but not in the delayed math posttest. For non-cognitive outcomes, game training did not affect math or reading anxiety. Regarding individual differences, children with less prior knowledge in the game play condition performed better on the number line estimation posttest compared to children in the control condition. Children with more prior knowledge in the game play condition still scored better on this test compared to the control condition, but the difference between the conditions was smaller.
  • Learning performance and behavioral patterns of online collaborative
           learning: Impact of cognitive load and affordances of different multimedia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Cixiao Wang, Ting Fang, Yinxuan Gu In online collaborative learning, discussions have been widely utilized as an educational activity, and much research has been conducted on the process and behaviors involved in synchronous or asynchronous discussions. However, research on behavioral patterns in collaborative learning environments with different formats of learning materials has not been addressed in detailed yet. In this study, we designed three versions of media to present the same learning contents: interactive version, video version, and text version. The differences among the above three versions are the form of information organization and the interaction mode between students and the given version. There were 131 eighth graders from three classes participated in this study. They were asked to complete a group worksheet through online discussion while engaging with the given learning materials. In order to explore students' online collaborative behavioral patterns while engaging with different multimedia, this study proposed a verb-dominated coding scheme for synchronous online collaborative learning and conducted a lag sequential analysis. The findings indicate that Class A (interactive version) formed an active learning atmosphere, while Class B (video version) spent more time on showing disagreement due to overloaded working memory caused by improper information presentation. In contrast, Class C (text version) had high efficiency in information exchanges because of the convenience of information acquisition. Besides, Class A gained the highest scores in group worksheet and invested moderate cognitive load. Class B had unsatisfactory learning performance on group worksheet along with the highest cognitive load. Class C invested the lowest cognitive load and had better knowledge retention than Class A, as shown in the results of the post-test a week later.
  • CIDA: A collective inquiry framework to study and support teachers as
           designers in technological environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Konstantinos Michos, Davinia Hernández-Leo The use of new technologies such as learning analytics by teachers is challenging due to the changes they bring to teachers’ practices and their pedagogical interventions. A design approach into teaching has been proposed for mapping pedagogy with technology to effectively integrate these changes. However, limited collective approaches exist in which teachers participate in professional communities to build knowledge for the design and implementation of learning scenarios with learning analytics. In this paper, we propose a framework (CIDA) for collective inquiry in such professional communities of teachers. Based on other collective inquiry frameworks for knowledge building, we propose three interconnected components: the inquiry process, the collective process, and technological support to facilitate and study teachers’ design practices in technological environments. We explain the framework with examples of implemented technologies and present empirical results of three cases; two High schools and a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). Results inform further how our framework can be implemented in practice and its required supports to facilitate knowledge building for inquiry communities of teachers.
  • Learning through experience: Using design based research to redesign
           protocols for blended synchronous learning environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Janet Mannheimer Zydney, Zachary Warner, Lauren Angelone Blended synchronous environments offer benefits to learners in terms of flexibility, but there are technological and pedagogical challenges in implementing this approach. Protocols, which are highly structured discussion strategies designed to promote trust, equity, and diversity, have the potential to address some of these challenges. This exploratory study used a design based research methodology to iteratively design, implement, and assess a blended synchronous learning environment leveraging the use of protocols in a graduate education course. Across three iterations, a combination of qualitative data collection and analysis procedures were used to examine the influence of protocols on the experiences of the instructor and students in a blended synchronous environment. The findings included several assertions. Students appreciated taking on greater leadership roles through facilitating protocols when they perceived the outcome of their facilitation successful. Students became hyperaware of the time when the technology caused timing issues with the protocols. Trust of the protocol was hindered by the unpredictability of the blended synchronous learning environment. And, deep connections to texts were unachievable due to the multitasking required in blended synchronous settings. These findings resulted in a set of contextualized design propositions that contribute to the literature on both protocols and blended synchronous environments. The propositions included: (a) enabling active participation through distributed roles, (b) creating equity through flexible structures, (c) fostering trust through re-norming, and (d) prompting connections with texts by reducing task complexity.
  • A gender issue' - How touch-based interactions with dynamic spatial
           objects support performance and motivation of secondary school students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Steffi Zander, Michael Montag, Stefanie Wetzel, Sven Bertel Mobile devices are seen to incorporate characteristics which can support learning and problem solving in general and specific abilities, such as spatial ones (e.g. mental rotation). Central relevant characteristics of these devices are the availability of multiple representations (e.g. dynamic and static) and the direct interaction via touch, pointing and tracing with displayed information. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of direct interactive, dynamic interactions with spatial tasks on mobile devices as compared to purely static, non-interactive versions of the same tasks. We expected that dynamic, interactive tasks support mental processes while solving spatial tasks would be especially helpful for learners with difficulties in mental rotation and low expectancies regarding their spatial abilities. Therefore, the second focus of the study was to examine whether the expected beneficial effects of dynamic interactions were equally beneficial for both genders. This was motivated by previous studies that revealed gender differences in performance and motivational beliefs regarding spatial tasks to the disadvantage of females. We used a mixed within-between subject design with presentation format (static vs. dynamic) and gender (female vs. male) as factors and success rate, mental effort, intrinsic motivation, and frustration as dependent variables. The study was conducted in four classes (7th grade, N = 46) in two secondary schools. To test gender related pre-assumptions, spatial abilities and motivation were assessed before solving the actual rotation tasks. A MANOVA with single-comparison follow-up tests revealed increased success rates and decreased mental effort for both genders in the dynamic condition, whereas beneficial effects for intrinsic motivation and frustration were restricted to female students. Process data for rotation behavior was registered for dynamic tasks: an analysis hinted at more exploratory ways of solving spatial tasks for females and at more goal-oriented approaches for male students.
  • An overview and comparison of supervised data mining techniques for
           student exam performance prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Nikola Tomasevic, Nikola Gvozdenovic, Sanja Vranes :Recent increase in the availability of learning data has given educational data mining an importance and momentum, in order to better understand and optimize the learning process and environments in which it occurs. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis and comparison of state of the art supervised machine learning techniques applied for solving the task of student exam performance prediction, i.e. discovering students at a “high risk” of dropping out from the course, and predicting their future achievements, such as for instance, the final exam scores. For both classification and regression tasks, the overall highest precision was obtained with artificial neural networks by feeding the student engagement data and past performance data, while the usage of demographic data did not show significant influence on the precision of predictions. To exploit the full potential of the student exam performance prediction, it was concluded that adequate data acquisition functionalities and the student interaction with the learning environment is a prerequisite to ensure sufficient amount of data for analysis.
  • Students’ experiences of anxiety in an assessed, online,
           collaborative project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Jake Hilliard, Karen Kear, Helen Donelan, Caroline Heaney Collaborative learning activities have become a popular method in online education to encourage active learning and equip students with team working skills that are highly valued by employers. However, past research has identified that working with other students online has the potential to cause anxiety for learners, particularly when work is being assessed. There is concern that, as well as the emotional distress this may cause, anxiety may affect students' participation and performance in these activities. This paper investigates these issues by exploring part-time distance learners' experiences of a group project where they were required to collaborate online to create a wiki resource and a website. An online survey and interviews were conducted with students who had recently completed the project. Results revealed that anxiety was commonly experienced, and causes of anxiety included relying on ‘unknown others’, fear of negative evaluation, and worries about non-active group members. It was found that anxiety reduced over the course of the project, as feelings of uncertainty were resolved. Findings also revealed that, although anxiety is often viewed to have detrimental consequences, more learners perceived anxiety to have had a facilitative effect on participation and performance than a debilitative one. Students who employed problem-focused coping strategies, rather than avoidance coping ones, were more likely to experience facilitative effects. These findings will be of value to educators who are designing and running online collaborative activities, and students who are participating in them.
  • The potential of temporal analysis: Combining log data and lag sequential
           analysis to investigate temporal differences between scaffolded and
           non-scaffolded group inquiry-based learning processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Joni Lämsä, Raija Hämäläinen, Pekka Koskinen, Jouni Viiri, Joonas Mannonen This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion about analysing the temporal aspects of learning processes in the educational technology research field. Our main aim was to advance methods for analysing temporal aspects of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) processes by introducing the temporal lag sequential analysis (TLSA) technique and by combining TLSA with temporal log data analysis (TLDA). Our secondary aim was to illustrate the potential of these two analysis techniques to reveal the differences between the face-to-face technology-enhanced collaborative inquiry-based learning (CIBL) processes of three different conditions (non-scaffolded, writing scaffolded and script scaffolded groups). The study involved undergraduate university students (N = 231) in natural sciences. The TLDA was based on timestamps and groups' inputs into a TEL environment, and it focused on the groups' temporal ways of using technological resources. The TLSA was based on screen capture videos and audio recordings of the groups’ CIBL processes, and it focused on the inquiry-based learning (IBL) transition patterns (i.e. the transitions between the different IBL phases) discovered by lag sequential analysis and demonstrated by how the IBL transition patterns temporarily emerged. The TLDA findings demonstrated temporal differences regarding how the groups in the different conditions used the available technological resources. The TLSA findings revealed three temporarily distinct IBL transition pattern clusters whose content and temporal emergence varied depending on the condition. Parallel temporal analysis of the log data and the IBL transition patterns indicated that the use of the technological resources temporarily mediated IBL transition patterns. Specifically, we found advantages similar to those of asynchronous online discussions (think before acting) when face-to-face interaction was enhanced with the writing scaffold. The article concludes with a general discussion of the necessity and potential of temporal analysis.
  • Investigating learners’ behaviors and discourse content in MOOC
           course reviews
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Xian Peng, Qinmei Xu In MOOCs, course reviews serve as a new interactive tool that has not yet been sufficiently exploited. Therefore, this study investigated learners' explicit behaviors and implicit discourse content derived from reviews by using a mixed approach of text mining and statistical analysis. We proposed an improved topic model called Behavior–Emotion Topic Model (BETM) to detect reviews' semantic content between two achievement groups (completers and non-completers). Then we performed statistical analysis to investigate differences in the two groups' discourse behaviors and content. Results showed significant differences in discourse behaviors and focused topics between completers and non-completers. Specifically, posting reviews was a significant behavior for completers, while replying and giving peers' reviews “thumps up” were significant behaviors for non-completers. Furthermore, completers tended to express appreciation of course-related content by posting reviews and, afterward, showing certificates, whereas non-completers tended to hold negative attitudes toward the platform construction's technical issues by replying. Finally, we conducted an evolutionary analysis to explore the dynamics of learners' focused content throughout the course over 3 years; this can provide instructors new insights for the development of online course, thus meeting future learners' needs by adjusting the teaching process.
  • A visual learning analytics (VLA) approach to video-based teacher
           professional development: Impact on teachers’ beliefs, self-efficacy,
           and classroom talk practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Gaowei Chen To address the challenge of overwhelming data inherent in classroom lesson videos, this study proposed a visual learning analytics (VLA) approach to video-based teacher professional development (TPD). Using a two-year experimental design, 46 secondary mathematics teachers were divided randomly into a treatment group (N = 24) and a control group (N = 22) to learn about and integrate academically productive talk into their teaching. The treatment teachers participated in a VLA-supported TPD program, while the control teachers participated in conventional knowledge-based workshops. Results show that teachers in the treatment group had more positive beliefs and higher self-efficacy in the post-test and delayed-post-test, while the control group improved, but not significantly, in their beliefs about the usefulness of classroom talk. In addition, although the control group made a significant improvement in their self-efficacy in guiding classroom talk in the post-test, this improvement was not sustained to the delayed post-test. Moreover, the coding of classroom teaching behaviour revealed that teachers in the treatment group relative to the control group significantly increased their use of academically productive talk in the post-test lessons to encourage the students' elaboration, reasoning, and thinking with others in the classroom. The results suggest that, while attending knowledge-based workshops had, to some degree, positive effects on the control teachers' beliefs and self-efficacy, these effects were not sustainable over time. In contrast, the use of visual learning analytics to support the treatment group's reflection on the classroom data not only had significant and sustained effects on the teachers' beliefs and self-efficacy but also significantly influenced their actual classroom teaching behaviour. Implications for designing VLA to support teacher learning and professional development are discussed.
  • Towards a generalized competency model of collaborative problem solving
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chen Sun, Valerie J. Shute, Angela Stewart, Jade Yonehiro, Nicholas Duran, Sidney D'Mello Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is an essential skill in the 21st century. There is a need for an appropriate framework and operationalization of CPS to guide its assessment and support and across multiple domains. Accordingly, we synthesized prior research on CPS to construct a generalized CPS competency model (i.e., skills and abilities) consisting of the following core facets: constructing shared knowledge, negotiation/coordination, and maintaining team function. Each facet has two sub-facets, which in turn, have multiple verbal and nonverbal indicators. We validated our model in two empirical studies involving triadic CPS, but in very different contexts – middle-school students playing an educational game in a 3-h, face-to-face session vs. college students engaging in a visual programming task for 20 min via videoconferencing. We used principal component analysis to investigate whether the empirical data aligned with our theorized model. Correlational analyses provided evidence on the orthogonality of the facets and their independence to individual differences in prior knowledge, intelligence and personality and regression analyses indicated that the facets predicted both subjective and objective outcome measures controlling for several covariates. Thus we provide initial evidence for the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of our model by using two different CPS contexts and student populations. This shows promise towards generalizing across various human-human CPS interactive environments.
  • Effects of a review video and practice in video-based statistics training
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hans van der Meij, Paul Dunkel : This study investigated the effectiveness of video-based statistics training. An experiment is reported in which conditions were systematically varied for the presence or absence of review videos and practice opportunities. Three main types of dependent measures were recorded: engagement, motivation, and knowledge. Seventy students participated in training and were assessed afterwards. Video play measures revealed nearly complete (94.1%) views for original videos, and lower but still substantial views for the review video (60.5%). The results for time spent on the videos were in line with these findings. There was no effect of condition on these engagement measures. Motivation scores were high for task relevance and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy scores were significantly higher when a review video and/or practice opportunity was available. Practice scores were uniformly high in the two practice conditions. The practice conditions scored significantly better than the no-practice conditions on a procedural knowledge post-test. There was no difference between conditions on a declarative knowledge post-test, nor on a transfer test. The conclusion draws attention to the possibility of improving the effectiveness of existing video-based statistics training by adding a complementary review video and arranging for practice with external feedback.
  • On the role of interaction mode and story structure in virtual reality
           serious games
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chris Ferguson, Egon L. van den Broek, Herre van Oostendorp Educational Environmental Narrative (EEN) games in Virtual Reality (VR) provide rich, high-fidelity environments that provide a fully immersive and interactive storytelling experience for use in teaching. Yet, it is not fully known how learning experience is affected by freely exploring the environment (interaction mode) and having an explicit story structure. A randomized controlled 2 × 2 study with 42 adolescents was performed to correct this omission and find the effect that these two factors have on recalling important information and on how a player feels when playing a game. They explored an EEN VR game with different interaction modes (active vs passive) and story structures (explicit vs implicit) and then completed a knowledge test and standardized questionnaires, regarding their sense of presence, cognitive interest and engagement during the game. Results show that allowing players to navigate freely through the game has positive effects on cognitive interest and a feeling of presence. An implicitly structured game leads to increased recall of spatial information. However, for optimal learning of factual knowledge, guidance is beneficial.
  • Profiling self-regulation behaviors in STEM learning of engineering design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Juan Zheng, Wanli Xing, Gaoxia Zhu, Guanhua Chen, Henglv Zhao, Charles Xie Engineering design is a complex process which requires science, technology, engineering, and mathematic (STEM) knowledge. Students' self-regulation plays a critical role in interdisciplinary tasks. However, there is limited research investigating whether and how self-regulation leads to different learning outcomes among students in engineering design. This study analyzes the engineering design behaviors of 108 ninth-grade U.S. students using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. It classifies the students into four distinct types: competent, cognitive-oriented, reflective-oriented, and minimally self-regulated learners. Competent self-regulated learners perceived themselves as the most self-regulated learners and had the greatest learning gains, although they did not perform best in the task. Cognitive-oriented self-regulated learners perceived themselves as the least self-regulated learners although they were the second best in both the performance of the task and learning gains. In contrast, reflective learners had the best performance in the task. Minimally self-regulated learners did not perform well in the task and had the lowest learning gains. The results revealed that the competent self-regulated learners had an appropriate assessment of themselves to obtain knowledge, cognitive-oriented self-regulated learners underestimated themselves, reflective learners focused on the results of the task, and minimally self-regulated learners overestimated themselves and exerted the least effort. The results also offer new insights into STEM education and self-regulated learning with emerging learning analytics.
  • The effect of automated feedback on revision behavior and learning gains
           in formative assessment of scientific argument writing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Mengxiao Zhu, Ou Lydia Liu, Hee-Sun Lee Application of new automated scoring technologies, such as natural language processing and machine learning, makes it possible to provide automated feedback on students' short written responses. Even though many studies investigated the automated feedback in the computer-mediated learning environments, most of them focused on the multiple-choice items instead of the constructed response items. This study focuses on the latter and investigates a formative feedback system integrated into an online science curriculum module teaching climate change. The feedback system incorporates automated scoring technologies to support students’ revision of scientific arguments. By analyzing the log files from the climate module, we explore how student revisions enabled by the formative feedback system correlate with student performance and learning gains. We also compare the impact of generic feedback (context-independent) vs. contextualized feedback (context-dependent). Our results showed that (1) students with higher initial scores on average were more likely to revise after the automated feedback, (2) revisions were positively related to score increases, and (3) contextualized feedback was more effective in assisting learning. The findings of this study provide insights into the use of automated feedback to improve scientific argumentation writing as part of classroom instruction.
  • All the same or different' Revisiting measures of teachers’
           technology acceptance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ronny Scherer, Fazilat Siddiq, Jo Tondeur Technology acceptance has been widely discussed and examined in educational contexts. Despite the variety of models and measures describing teachers' technology acceptance, two key assumptions persist in the existing body of literature: First, the technology acceptance construct can be represented by a set of diverse, yet correlated attitudes and beliefs. Second, the effects of technology acceptance on the intentions to use technology and technology use—two commonly studied outcome variables—follow a cascade. The existing evidence backing these assumptions is, however, diverse, as the considerable between-study variation in the relations between the technology acceptance and outcome variables shows. This variation remained largely unexplained, and the present study offers an explanation from the perspective of construct validity. Analyzing a large meta-analytic sample (N = 37211 teachers) obtained from a previous meta-analysis, we synthesized the correlations among measures of teachers' technology acceptance and found support for the existence of a common trait that underlies all technology acceptance variables. This finding remained even after distinguishing between different teacher samples (i.e., pre-vs. in-service teachers) and types of technology (i.e., technology in general vs. specific technologies). There was no convincing evidence for the hypothesized cascade of effects, due to a weak and insignificant link between usage intentions and technology use. Our findings provide evidence for the representation of teachers’ technology acceptance as a single latent variable and consequently offer a way to describe its relations to usage intentions and technology use without compromising the validity of the inferences drawn from them.
  • Gamification in the classroom: Examining the impact of gamified quizzes on
           student learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Diana R. Sanchez, Markus Langer, Rupinder Kaur Gamification is emerging as a method aimed at enhancing instructional contents in educational settings. However, theoretical underpinnings of the proposed effects of gamification are lacking. This paper applies the theory of gamified learning and extends research exploring the benefits of gamification on student learning through the testing effect. In a quasi-experimental design, university students (N = 473) prepared for three tests using traditional quizzes (i.e., a question, four response options) or gamified online quizzes (i.e., a wager option, a progress bar, encouraging messages). We assumed that students completing gamified quizzes would complete more quizzes and, through the benefits of the testing effect, would demonstrate better learning. Findings supported the testing effect in that students who completed more quizzes performed better on subsequent tests. Furthermore, students who completed the gamified quizzes had significantly better scores on the first test. However, this effect was not due to students completing more quizzes in the gamification group. Additionally, the beneficial effect of gamification did not persist for subsequent tests. This supports that gamification might work through a novelty effect where its influence may not be sustainable. Further analyses showed that higher achieving students benefited more from gamification than lower achieving students. Overall, the results (a) imply that gamification may be a viable option for short-term assignments, (b) highlight concerns of a novelty effect possibly recommending instructors not to use the same gamification method permanently, and (c) indicate that there are contexts where gamification might not be adequate to target low achieving students. Given these results we call for longitudinal studies investigating the novelty effects of gamification and research examining individual differences moderating the effects of gamification.
  • The effects of video caption types and advance organizers on incidental L2
           collocation learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): (Mark) Feng Teng This study examined the effects of captioned videos and an advance-organizer strategy in incidental learning of collocations. Videos were enhanced by (1) inserting various types of captions (i.e., full captioning, keyword captioning, and no captioning); (2) administering or not administering an advance-organizer activity prior to video viewing; and (3) the combined effects of these two variables. This study adopted a 2 (+/− advance-organizer strategy) × 3 (types of captioning) between-subjects design, resulting in six possible conditions. A total of 361 Chinese primary school students learning English as a second language (L2) each watched a series of four videos in one of the six conditions. Data from the post-intervention test revealed that full captioning led to better performance in incidental learning of collocations than keyword captioning or no captioning. Administering the advance-organizer strategy resulted in better collocation learning gains compared to no administration. Learners who completed the advance-organizer strategy in the full-captioning condition achieved the best results on incidental learning of collocations. Incidental learning of collocations occurs at a rate similar to the learning of single words. This article highlights the importance of fully captioned videos and an advance-organizer strategy for incidental learning of collocations among primary school L2 learners.
  • Accessibility and emotionality of online assessment feedback: Using
           emoticons to enhance student perceptions of marker competence and warmth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Robyn L. Moffitt, Christine Padgett, Rachel Grieve Assessment feedback is one of the most powerful learning tools, and in higher education this feedback is increasingly being provided online. The current study investigated the inclusion of emoticons as a method through which to enhance student perceptions of the accessibility and emotionality of written online assessment feedback. Undergraduate students (N = 241) were presented with an online faux essay along with associated written feedback typical of the comments students would receive in the higher education context. The feedback was identical except for the inclusion of emoticons. Using a between-groups design, emoticons were manipulated in two ways: frequency (none, 1, 3, or 6) and valence (happy, sad, or confused). The use of happy emoticons produced significantly higher perceptions of marker warmth when compared to no emoticons, or when negatively valenced emoticons were included. Furthermore, marker competence was significantly higher when 3 happy face emoticons were presented in the feedback than when 3 sad or confused faces were included. Student perceptions of feedback quality and marker professionalism were not affected by emoticon use. Thus, the results suggest that instructors can use positively valenced emoticons to inject some fun, warmth, and emotionality in written online assessment feedback without sacrificing feedback quality or professional integrity.
  • Using a pedagogical agent to deliver conversational style instruction:
           What benefits can you obtain'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Lijia Lin, Paul Ginns, Tianhui Wang, Peilin Zhang The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential effects of two social cues on learning outcomes, cognitive load, and intrinsic motivation in a computer-based environment in an Asian context. A total of 98 Chinese college students were randomly assigned into one of four experimental conditions formed by a 2 (agent vs. no agent) X 2 (conversational style vs. formal style) factorial design. Results revealed that (a) learning with a pedagogical agent was more interesting than learning without a pedagogical agent; (b) learning from a lesson written in a conversational style enhanced retention but also resulted in increased pressure; and (c) a pedagogical agent delivering instruction in a conversational style led to an increase in mental effort, but instruction delivered in this style without a pedagogical agent led learners to perceive it as less difficult. These findings support the use of a pedagogical agent to deliver instruction in a conversational style to Chinese learners. But parsimonious instructional designs, such as a design to deliver instruction in a conversational style without an animated pedagogical agent, also have advantages under some circumstances, particularly when the learning materials are not so difficult and when advanced technology cannot be utilized or afforded.
  • Differentiated processing strategies for science reading among sixth-grade
           students: Exploration of eye movements using cluster analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yu-Cin Jian, Jia-Han Su, Yong-Ru Hsiao This study used eye-tracking technology to investigate the different types of reading strategies that sixth graders adopt to comprehend illustrated science articles, as well as the relationship between reading process and reading comprehension. The participants were 122 sixth-grade students whose eye movements were monitored during silent reading of a science article containing one representational diagram and one explanatory diagram. Cluster analysis was performed based on five eye movement indices: first-pass (initial processing)/look-back (late-stage processing) total fixation duration on texts and diagrams, and number of saccades between text and diagram. Results showed that sixth graders adopted four types of reading strategy to read science article: Initial-global-scan students (21%) reading the science text and examining the science diagram for the first time tend to quickly scan the material, then read it carefully, and engage in saccade behavior. Shallow-processing students (58%) spent little time on the text or diagram during their first-pass and second-pass reading, and they also seldom engage in saccade behavior. Words-dominated students (12%) spend a long time reading the text during the first-pass reading. Diagram-dominated students (9%) spent considerable time and effort on diagrams during the first-pass reading, and outperformed the other three groups in the reading comprehension test. Students who were proficient at using diagram information could distinguish the importance of various types of science diagrams; they also spent much mental effort on the explanatory diagram compared with the representational diagram. A multiple regression analysis indicated first-pass total fixation durations on the diagram predicted reading comprehension performance.
  • On the relationships between behaviors and achievement in
           technology-mediated flipped classrooms: A two-phase online behavioral
           PLS-SEM model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Feng Hsu Wang It is argued that flipped classrooms could create a learning environment that facilitates learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) and improves learners' engagement and achievement. However, little research was conducted on how learners' behavioral engagement with in-class and out-of-class activities could relate to achievement in the flipped classroom model. The present study investigates learners' online behavioral engagement in nine flipped courses with a total of 431 undergraduates of a university in Taiwan. All the courses were conducted in a blended way, supported by the Moodle platform. The log data was analyzed using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) method. Main findings include (1) no significant direct effect of in-class problem solving on achievement was found; (2) out-of-class problem solving had a direct positive effect on achievement; (3) in-class behavioral engagement had a direct positive effect on out-of-class behavioral engagement, (4) in-class behavioral engagement had a direct positive effect on engagement in self-reflection and self-assessment, (5) engagement in self-reflection and self-assessment had a direct positive effect on out-of-class behavioral engagement, and (6) the effect of in-class problem solving on achievement was mediated by the engagement in out-of-class problem solving. The results suggest that in-class problem solving may play a role of motivating follow-up out-of-class learning behavior, and out-of-class problem solving may play the role of consolidating what is learnt. Theoretical contributions and implications for practice, research and future research of this study are discussed.
  • Introducing tablet computers to a rural primary school: An Activity Theory
           case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hamood Al-Huneini, S. Aisha Walker, Richard Badger This paper reports on a case study investigating the introduction of tablet computers into a rural primary school in Oman. The school is unusual in that it is in an economically-disadvantaged, mountainous region which is prone to flooding. There is little infrastructure, with no internet and there is a high turnover of staff. The project to introduce tablets was a personal initiative of the head teacher who needed to convince the Ministry of Education, her staff and parents of the pupils. The study used Activity Theory to explore the introduction of the tablet computers, seeing the school and the classrooms as Activity Systems. The Activity Theory analysis made it possible to see how changing one aspect of an Activity System, by introducing new mediational tools, affected the agents, the community, the rules and the division of labour. The study found that the tablets changed the working culture of staff in the project and the behaviour and responsibilities of the pupils.The significance of the study lies in the fact that the school was such an unlikely setting for such an innovation and the consequent effects such as staff collaboration and partnership between teachers and pupils – which might have been standard practice in an affluent urban setting – constituted radical changes in the culture of the school and classrooms. The study also innovates in the use of Activity Theory to examine all components of the System in order to understand the unexpected impacts of an innovation such as tablet computers in education.
  • An Arabic assessment tool to measure Technological Pedagogical and Content
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hanaa Eid Alharbi Issues associated with classroom technology integration have become an interest of various educational research communities worldwide. To guide research into teachers' integration of technology, several important theoretical frameworks have emerged recently, one of which is the Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) conceptual model. However, current research on methodological assessments adopting this model has indicated a need for developing a valid and reliable Arabic assessment for assessing Arabic-speaking secondary preservice teachers' TPACK. Therefore, an Arabic survey instrument was designed and administered to 350 secondary preservice teachers who were studying in a postgraduate teachers preparation program. The instrument includes 27 items and can be gathered under 7 factors representing the conceptual framework domains. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that the designed Arabic instrument is a reliable and valid assessment for determining the TPACK of secondary preservice teachers in the context of the study location. Recommendations and implications have been given for future research and practices.
  • The impact of Facebook Addiction and self-esteem on students’ academic
           performance: A multi-group analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Abdelsalam H. Busalim, Maslin Masrom, Wan Normeza Binti Wan Zakaria As Facebook is still the most popular online social network, several studies confirm that the excessive use of Facebook leads to addictive behavior, especially among the younger generation. This study aims to explore the effect of Facebook addiction, and self-esteem on students' academic performance. Using the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem scale, online survey was developed to collect data from one public university in Malaysia. A total of n = 240 students participated in the study. The results of the study revealed that addicted students differ statistically in self-esteem from non-addicted students. Moreover, the results showed that Facebook addiction has significant effect on students' academic performance for both samples, and frequency of Facebook use also was found to be a positive predictor of Facebook addiction. The findings of the study provide empirical evidences for the effect of Facebook addiction on students' academic performance. The results also provide a better understanding of self-esteem factor that significantly effect on student's Facebook addiction and academic performance.
  • A test-based approach of Modeling and Measuring Technological Pedagogical
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Andreas Lachner, Iris Backfisch, Kathleen Stürmer Teachers' technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) is regarded as a critical prerequisite to effectively use technology during teaching across content domains. Previous findings on the availability of TPK, and its relation to other corresponding components of teachers' professional knowledge, however, were relatively mixed, probably because previous research most exclusively relied on indirect measures, such as self-reports of teacher knowledge. By applying a newly developed test-based instrument to assess teachers' conceptual and situational TPK, we investigated the cognitive conditions accounting for the availability of TPK. In Study 1 (N = 284), we demonstrated that the availability of TPK depended on the level of teacher expertise. In Study 2 (N = 120), we examined the connectedness of TPK to its corresponding knowledge components (i.e., technological knowledge, pedagogical knowledge). We showed that teachers’ TPK was only related to their pedagogical knowledge. The findings demonstrate that pedagogical expertise is a crucial prerequisite for TPK, which enables teachers to judge the potentials of technologies for varying teaching situations.
  • Review of ontology-based recommender systems in e-learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Gina George, Anisha M. Lal In recent years there has been an enormous increase in learning resources available online through massive open online courses and learning management systems. In this context, personalized resource recommendation has become an even more significant challenge, thereby increasing research in that direction. Recommender systems use ontology, artificial intelligence, among other techniques to provide personalized recommendations. Ontology is a way to model learners and learning resources, among others, which helps to retrieve details. This, in turn, generates more relevant materials to learners. Ontologies have benefits of reusability, reasoning ability, and supports inference mechanisms, which helps to provide enhanced recommendations. The comprehensive survey in this paper gives an overview of the research in progress using ontology to achieve personalization in recommender systems in the e-learning domain.
  • Instructional support for learning with agent-based simulations: A tale of
           vicarious and guided-exploration learning approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ilana Dubovi, Victor R. Lee Science content knowledge is essential for many applied practices within health-care professions. With this aim in mind, the current study seeks to promote in-depth conceptual understanding of science pharmacology content among students from health-care programs—nursing, nutrition, and health education—by introducing learning with agent-based models. While the literature shows that learning with agent-based models promotes better conceptual understanding than more traditional approaches, to achieve these potential benefits, instructional supports are needed. This study employed an experimental pre- and posttest design comparing two forms of instructional approaches for learning with agent-based models: one group learned with agent-based models using the vicarious approach, where pairs observed and collaboratively discussed recordings of others' learning with agent-based models; the other group explored agent-based models in pairs while collaboratively discussing a set of text-based prompts, the guided-exploration approach. The results revealed significantly higher pharmacology learning gains following the vicarious instructional approach compared with the guided exploration of agent-based models. Thus, findings suggest that learning from observation can be comparable and even superior to the guided-exploration approach with regard to the immediate knowledge gains when collaborative dialoguing with a peer while observing dialogue of others takes place. Future research should evaluate this instructional effect on knowledge retention and with long-term interventions.
  • GAMESIT: A gamified system for information technology training
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Juneyoung Park, De Liu, Mun Y. Yi, Radhika Santhanam Gamified learning systems can enhance both learning outcomes and engagement, but research findings on the effectiveness of such systems are mixed, and there is inadequate attention to theory-grounded designs of gamified learning systems. We address these gaps by conducting a theory-grounded design, development, and evaluation of a gamified e-training system for technology learning. Called GAMESIT, this e-training system has an added gamification layer. Drawing upon Malone's theory of intrinsically motivating instruction, we choose and design gamification elements (e.g., levels, avatar evolution, and distinct visuals) to create appropriate motivational drivers, namely, challenge, curiosity, and fantasy, for learning tasks. We follow a design science framework to iteratively develop GAMESIT and evaluate its effectiveness. In a laboratory experiment, participants using GAMESIT, when compared to those using the non-gamified e-training system, showed improvement in learning outcomes, measured as learners' knowledge comprehension and task performance, and higher engagement, captured through learners' cognitive effort.
  • Computer-supported collaborative concept mapping: The effects of different
           instructional designs on conceptual understanding and knowledge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Mohammadreza Farrokhnia, Héctor J. Pijeira-Díaz, Omid Noroozi, Javad Hatami Computer-supported collaborative concept mapping (CSCCM) leverages technology and concept mapping to support conceptual understanding, as well as collaborative learning to foster knowledge co-construction. This article investigated the effect of different instructional designs using CSCCM on students' conceptual understanding, and on the type of processes of knowledge co-construction that students engage. Participants (N = 120) were 10th graders enrolled in their physics course, randomly distributed in dyads. They were asked to draw concept maps related to the conservation of energy law, by using CSCCM with different instructional designs (i.e., control, Exp. 1 and Exp. 2). In the control condition, dyads worked collaboratively all the time. In both Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, dyads worked first individually (one week) and then collaboratively (two weeks). However, in Exp. 2, the individual concept map was shared with the peer before collaborating. Conceptual understanding improved significantly for learners in all three experimental conditions, especially in Exp. 2. Statistically significant differences were found in students’ knowledge co-construction among the three conditions. Dyads in the control group showed a significantly higher use of quick consensus-building. Dyads in Exp. 1 showed a significantly higher reliance on externalization and elicitation. Dyads in Exp. 2 showed a significantly higher enacting of integration- and conflict-oriented consensus building. Accordingly, an instructional design like Exp. 2 optimizes CSCCM learning outcomes in terms of conceptual understanding and knowledge co-construction.
  • To reward and beyond: Analyzing the effect of reward-based strategies in a
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Alejandro Ortega-Arranz, Miguel L. Bote-Lorenzo, Juan I. Asensio-Pérez, Alejandra Martínez-Monés, Eduardo Gómez-Sánchez, Yannis Dimitriadis Despite the benefits of MOOCs (e.g., open access to education offered by prestigious universities), the low level of student engagement remains as an important issue causing massive dropouts in such courses. The use of reward-based gamification strategies is one approach to promote student engagement and prevent dropout. However, there is a lack of solid empirical studies analyzing the effects of rewards in MOOC environments. This paper reports a between-subjects design study conducted in a MOOC to analyze the effects of badges and redeemable rewards on student retention and engagement. Results show that the implemented reward strategies had not significant effect on student retention and behavioral engagement measured through the number of pageviews, task submissions, and student activity time. However, it was found that learners able to earn badges and redeemable rewards participated more in gamified tasks than those learners in the control group. Additionally, results reveal that the participants in the redeemable reward condition requested and earned earlier the rewards than those participants in the badge condition. The potential implications of these findings in the instructional design of future gamified MOOCs are also discussed.
  • Effects of anonymity on online peer review in second-language writing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Anne Hester van den Bos, Esther Tan This paper investigates the effect of anonymity in online peer review on feedback types (directive, non-directive, higher-order concern, lower-order concern) and students' revisions (processed, partly processed and not processed) in second-language writing. Participants were 114 Dutch second-year university students. They were assigned to two experimental conditions: anonymous and non-anonymous. Results showed that students in the anonymous condition provided significantly more feedback on higher-order concerns and offered significantly different types of feedback than students in the non-anonymous condition. As for revision, overall findings showed that assessees in the anonymous condition did not process more feedback (i.e., the adoption rate) than their non-identified peers, however, assessees in the anonymous condition processed significantly more directive higher-order feedback and scored significantly higher final grades for the writing module than their non-anonymous peers. These results might imply that anonymity could enable learners to provide unreservedly more higher-order concerns feedback type. On the self-same note, the adoption and revision of these higher-order feedback items was instrumental in the improved writing performance of students in the anonymous condition.
  • Increased emotional engagement in game-based learning – A machine
           learning approach on facial emotion detection data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): M. Ninaus, S. Greipl, K. Kiili, A. Lindstedt, S. Huber, E. Klein, H.-O. Karnath, K. Moeller It is often argued that game-based learning is particularly effective because of the emotionally engaging nature of games. We employed both automatic facial emotion detection as well as subjective ratings to evaluate emotional engagement of adult participants completing either a game-based numerical task or a non-game-based equivalent. Using a machine learning approach on facial emotion detection data we were able to predict whether individual participants were engaged in the game-based or non-game-based task with classification accuracy significantly above chance level. Moreover, facial emotion detection as well as subjective ratings consistently indicated increased positive as well as negative emotions during game-based learning. These results substantiate that the emotionally engaging nature of games facilitates learning.
  • Making in the classroom: Longitudinal evidence of increases in
           self-efficacy and STEM possible selves over time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Rebecca J. Schlegel, Sharon L. Chu, Kaiyuan Chen, Elizabeth Deuermeyer, Andrew G. Christy, Francis Quek1. Making refers to the hands-on practice of creating technology-based artifacts that typically involves things like electronics, programming, and 3D printing. Practices in Making have been spearheaded by the rise of the Maker movement, resulting in the spread of Makerspaces for both young people and adults worldwide. However, Making is also being increasingly incorporated into school settings. This is despite the fact that little research has evaluated the potential consequences of Making in schools. We present a two-year longitudinal study investigating the effects of integrating Making into existing school curricula at a public elementary school that primarily serves students from underrepresented groups in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics). We focused on whether engaging in Making led to changes in self-efficacy, interest, and identification with both Making and science. We further examined more distal potential changes in STEM career interest and STEM possible selves. Results showed that students exposed to a Making-based science curriculum evidenced significant increases in four of the eight dependent variables tested (Making self-efficacy, science self-efficacy, science identity, and STEM possible selves). These findings demonstrate the utility of curriculum-aligned Making, particularly in terms of fostering self-efficacy, science identity, and possible selves among students from underrepresented groups.
  • Integrating augmented reality into problem based learning: The effects on
           learning achievement and attitude in physics education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Fidan Mustafa, Meric Tuncel This study investigates the effects of Problem Based Learning (PBL) assisted with Augmented Reality (AR) on learning achievement and attitude towards physics subjects as a part of science education. The sample of the study included 91 seventh graders from a province in the north of Turkey. A quasi-experimental design with two experimental groups and a control group was utilized. Based upon marker-based AR technologies, FenAR software was developed to support with PBL activities in the classroom. The experimental results indicated that integrating AR into PBL activities both increased students' learning achievement and promoted their positive attitudes towards physics subjects. This technology contributed to students' long-term retention of the concepts in the field of physics. In semi-structured interviews, the students emphasized that AR applications were more useful, realistic, and interesting for their learning; helped them to understand and analyse the problem scenarios. Apart from educational advantages, AR applications may lead to physical disorders among some of the students. It has been suggested that AR technology can be a potential and effective tool for activating students’ positive emotions in PBL process. Moreover, implications on use of AR for physics education and recommendations for further studies are also discussed in the study.
  • Designing sociable online learning environments and enhancing social
           presence: An affordance enrichment approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Joshua Weidlich, Theo J. Bastiaens Due to the unique characteristics of online distance learning, socio-emotional aspects are an important design consideration but, at the same time, often challenging to realize. This study is concerned with the sociability of online learning environments and reports on a field-setting pre-/posttest quasi-experiment (n = 143) with a novel approach to designing sociable learning environments and fostering socio-emotional variables like social presence. After enriching the learning environment with social affordances, technically realized through Moodle plugins (“Meet the Students”, “Course Contacts”, and “Dialogue”), students of a one-month long online course reported the learning environment to be significantly more sociable than in the control condition. Downstream effects on other socio-emotional variables of the SIPS model (Sociability, Social Interaction, Social Presence, Social Space) were also observed. Students also reported the learning experience to be more satisfying. Interestingly, actually engaging with the plugins was not related to these perceptions, possibly suggesting a veneer of sociability instead of a deep-seated social fabric. Lastly, we found no effect on learning achievement. These findings are a first step in experimentally validating the ecological approach to designing sociable learning environments. Implications, open questions, and avenues for future research are discussed.
  • Examining the role of learning support in blended learning for adults’
           social inclusion and social capital
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Céline Cocquyt, Chang Zhu, Anh Nguyet Diep, Maurice De Greef, Tom Vanwing In a digitalized society blended learning has become a favorable approach in adult education. Blended learning is showing promise as a teaching approach because of the variety of learning opportunities that can be created. Furthermore, participation in adult education can contribute to social benefits for adults, of whom a certain amount is at risk of social exclusion. However, scholars have not yet fully uncovered the educational factors in a blended learning environment that contribute to these social benefits. The present study, therefore, examines whether and how various types of learning support in blended courses are related to adults' social inclusion and social capital. A questionnaire (N = 139) measured adults' perceptions of diverse types of learning support, social inclusion and social capital. The results revealed that instructional support consists of two factors, namely informational support and process guidance. Informational support is negatively related to social participation, whereas process guidance positively determines social participation. In addition, transfer and peer support are positively associated with social connectedness and social capital. The results advance empirical knowledge by establishing that instructors should offer several types of support and facilitate peer support throughout blended learning in order to achieve positive changes in adults’ social inclusion and social capital.
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