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Journal Cover
Computers & Education
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.626
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 157  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0360-1315
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Improving collaborative learning: Guiding knowledge exchange through the
           provision of information about learning partners and learning contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Melanie Erkens, Daniel Bodemer Various studies have revealed the positive influence of group awareness support on collaborative learning. They attributed this effect to the availability of information about learning partners but did not yet consider learners' prior knowledge activation, possibly caused by additionally provided information about the content of learning material. Moreover, advanced technologies such as text-mining methods enable the automated identification of material-related content of learners' prior knowledge. Providing co-learners with such information might further improve their topic selection and knowledge integration during knowledge exchange due to enhanced activation. Thus, to investigate the individual effects of both types of information and the effects of combining both, the present experimental study (N = 120) systematically varies information about learning partners (available/unavailable) and information about learning contents (specified/unspecified) in a 2 × 2 between-design. We found tendencies that learners with available partner-related information mention more task-specific concepts in explanations, but detected neither effects of specified information about learning contents nor interaction effects. Further 2 × 2 mixed-designs that included co-learners’ prior knowledge levels as within-variables demonstrated that providing specified information about learning contents significantly improves questioning strategies and partner-related information significantly improves audience design in explanations. Finally, a mediation analysis suggested a significant indirect effect claiming that the knowledge integration level and partner modeling accuracy mediate the effect of available partner-related information on knowledge recall if this information is not content-specific. Hence, specified information about learning contents apparently guides metacognitive regulation with regard to identifying and filling own knowledge gaps. By contrast, plain partner-related information apparently evokes deeper cognitive elaboration.
       
  • Supercomputers to improve the performance in higher education: A review of
           the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Computers & Education, Volume 128Author(s): Álvaro Fernández, Camino Fernández, José Ángel Miguel-Dávila, Miguel Ángel Conde, Vicente Matellán The use of Supercomputers is currently very widespread, constituting an essential component in many fields of science. The interest in the use of high performance computation is increasing in a wider and more diverse population of higher education students, mainly senior undergraduates and postgraduates, because the use of these infrastructures allows learners to improve their skills and the results of their training. For this reason, the demand of courses related to supercomputing increases continuously. In this paper we propose, through a wide review of primary studies, several questions that have been considered as a way of knowing the most widely-used contents in Supercomputing training. We have focused on the factors considered for improving training in Supercomputing, in order to improve the results of researchers in higher education organizations, to identify the limitations of Supercomputing training, and to provide solutions for these limitations. During the search procedure for answering research questions, 1911 studies were considered in the first selection. Through the definition of inclusion and exclusion codes in the results of searching databases, 136 published articles were studied. Finally, using quality criteria, 34 studies were identified as relevant in answering the research questions. Several factors were described, such as the way in which courses related to Supercomputing are organized, the adaptations that are currently being applied in curricula related to the students of these techniques, the use of problem-solving training and the qualification of teachers, among the most relevant ones, as well as several limitations of this type of training and the identification of solutions for these limitations. Data was collected by searching keywords related to Supercomputing training and education in the most important databases used in Computational Science, finding empirical evidence to support the positive effect of High Performance Computers (HPC) on educators and researchers. The implications of this study are: first, it provides a summary of the most relevant factors in improving training, as well as the factors that improve the results through the use of a Supercomputer; and second, it provides the analysis of the limitations found for a better performance of learners and the solutions for these limitations.
       
  • Testing the novelty effect of an m-learning tool on internalization and
           achievement: A Self-Determination Theory approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Lucas M. Jeno, Vigdis Vandvik, Sigrunn Eliassen, John-Arvid Grytnes Perceived novelty in mobile applications is an inevitable aspect of today's technologies. Studies suggest that this perceived novelty effect increases motivation but wanes once the user becomes accustomed to the product. Using a Self-Determination Theory approach, the present study investigates how different tools relate to students' motivation, basic psychological needs, and achievement, over and above the effect of perceived novelty. The results from a randomized controlled experiment show that a mobile-learning tool and a digital version of a textbook are perceived as more novel than a traditional textbook. However, only the mobile-learning tool enhances the students' basic psychological needs. Additionally, using path-analysis, we find that the mobile-learning tool, need-satisfaction within the mobile-learning tool, and autonomous motivation account for achievement and internalization, over and above the effect of novelty. We argue that this finding is due to the inherent need-supportive elements within the mobile-learning tool that satisfy the basic psychological needs.
       
  • Learning to code or coding to learn' A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Shahira Popat, Louise Starkey The resurgence of computer programming in the school curriculum brings a promise of preparing students for the future that goes beyond just learning how to code. This study reviewed research to analyse educational outcomes for children learning to code at school. A systematic review was applied to identify relevant articles and a thematic analysis to synthesise the findings. Ten articles were included in the synthesis and an overarching model was developed which depicts the themes. The results demonstrate that although students are learning to code, a range of other educational outcomes can be learnt or practiced through the teaching of coding. These included mathematical problem-solving, critical thinking, social skills, self-management and academic skills. The review also identified the importance of instructional design for developing these educational outcomes through coding.
       
  • Learning to rock: The role of prior experience and explicit instruction on
           learning and transfer in a music videogame
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ali Sakkal, Lee Martin For a moment in time, music-based videogames were tremendously popular, yet we know little about how and when knowledge learned from these games can transfer to other music tasks. This paper presents a study of transfer from the game Rock Band to within-game and non-game musical tasks. Thirty-four undergraduates with low to moderate prior Rock Band experience participated in the study. For initial instruction, they were randomly assigned to either a Drill condition, using the built-in training feature of the videogame, or a teacher-led Lesson condition which focused on strategic and procedural knowledge of drumming techniques. Non-game transfer tasks included: (1) drumming along with music sequencing software (GarageBand), (2) a call and response task, and (3) a task where participants commented on the technique of other drummers. Results showed that prior experience with Rock Band was a significant predictor for the GarageBand transfer tasks but not for the call and response or commenting tasks. Both instructional conditions performed equally well on Rock Band tasks, but those in the Lesson condition performed better on commenting tasks, as well as on GarageBand tasks after controlling for Rock Band skill. These findings replicate and extend prior research on the ability of game play experience to transfer to non-game musical tasks, while adding the finding that traditional lessons can effectively augment in-game learning experiences.
       
  • Instructors’ pointing gestures improve learning regardless of their use
           of directed gaze in video lectures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Zhongling Pi, Yi Zhang, Fangfang Zhu, Ke Xu, Jiumin Yang, Weiping Hu Empirical research to date has not distinguished the effects of the instructor's pointing gestures from directed gaze in video lectures. This study tested the hypothesis that the pointing gesture is superior to directed gaze in enhancing video lecture learning. Participants (n = 120) watched one of four types of video lecture in which the instructor either (a) looked straight into the camera with no gaze shift and without pointing gesture; (b) made occasional gaze shifts and without pointing gesture; (c) looked straight into the camera with no gaze shift and pointed to the relevant areas of the slide; or (d) made occasional gaze shifts accompanied by pointing gestures towards the slides. ANOVAs found that students in the conditions that included the instructor's pointing gesture showed better learning performance, more efficient visual search, and greater attention to the learning content that the instructor was referring to, regardless of her use of directed gaze. The implication for education is that instructors should use pointing gestures, with or without directed gaze, to guide students' attention and improve their learning in video lectures.
       
  • Effective principles of informal online learning design: A theory-building
           metasynthesis of qualitative research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Alison Anderson Holland Informal online learning is the unstructured learning that happens in daily life while people are accessing the internet. Research on the use and design of interactive Web 2.0 platforms for informal learning is minimal, and often platform-specific. This theory-building metasynthesis aims to identify what is known about how informal online learning can be effectively designed outside a formal online course structure. The study reviewed 22 articles that investigated learning that happened primarily online, was self-directed in nature, and had a primarily adult audience. The author brought together the findings of these individual studies to identified two effective principles of informal online learning design that research dissemination organizations can utilize when developing online outreach education programs for adult audiences: (a) interaction opportunities support knowledge construction and learner empowerment; and (b) segmented, titled, and tagged learning objects facilitate personalized learning. The principles identified in this study not only describe what is known about how adults learn informally online, but also provide the common language and goals to frame the interdisciplinary collaboration likely necessary to employ them.
       
  • Implementing Facebook-based instructional approach in pre-service teacher
           education: An empirical investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Charu Saini, Jessy Abraham The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Facebook-based instructional approach on preservice teachers learning achievement and engagement. A pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control group (CG) was employed. The effectiveness of Facebook-based instructional approach was assessed against conventional instructional approach for pedagogy of mathematics course in the pre-service teacher education program. Quantitative data were collected from two intact groups (N = 68) randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests, analysis of variance (ANCOVA), and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The result depicted a significant improvement in learning achievement and engagement levels of pre-service teachers of the intervention group where the Facebook-based instructional approach was used as compared to pre-service teachers of the CG where the conventional instructional approach was used. A closer analysis using MANCOVA and post-hoc comparisons further revealed that the gain in engagement was specifically higher for peer engagement and online engagement for pre-service teachers of the Facebook Intervention Group (FIG).
       
  • College instructors and the digital red pen: An exploratory study
           exploration of factors influencing the adoption and non-adoption of
           digital written feedback technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Cathlin V. Clark-Gordon, Nicholas David Bowman, Alexis Hadden, Brandi Frisby This exploratory study examined a diverse set of college instructors' (N = 215) perceptions regarding the pedagogical use of digital written feedback, via a mixed-methodological online survey. The majority of the sample were adopters of digital written feedback, providing eight strengths and six weaknesses for doing so, as well as additional insight on digital written feedback “diets” (i.e., amount, frequency, and duration). Adopters differed from non-adopters in their preferences for digital written feedback to email, handwritten, and video feedback. Adoption decisions were significantly predicted by instructors' perceived ease of use of the technology and by perceived benefits to students.
       
  • The influence of instructional design on learner control, sense of
           achievement, and perceived effectiveness in a supersize MOOC course
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Eulho Jung, Dongho Kim, Meehyun Yoon, Sang Hoon Park, Barbara Oakley Responding to the lack of empirical studies on the effects of instructional design components on MOOCs, this study explores which instructional design components (e.g., course content, transactional interaction between student and content, structure/organization, assessment) influence learner control, sense of progress in the achievement of learning goals (sense of progress), and perceived effectiveness in a large-scale MOOC course called “Learning How to Learn” hosted in Coursera, a MOOC learning platform. Using an online survey distributed to learners who registered for the current Coursera English-language version of the course, we collected 1364 responses. Three separate hierarchical regression analyses revealed that all course design factors, transactional interaction between student and content (β=.111,p
       
  • Mediating factors that influence the technology integration practices of
           teacher educators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Michael J. Nelson, Rick Voithofer, Sheng-Lun Cheng While the United States federal government and the main teacher education accreditation organization push for the inclusion of technology in teacher education across the curriculum, little attention has been paid to understanding the technology competencies and behaviors of teacher educators. This study explores this gap by investigating what direct and mediating factors predict technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in teacher educators, and how these factors along with TPACK influence the adoption of the ISTE technology standards in teacher education. The findings from a sample of 806 teacher educators across the United States indicate that there are significant differences in both TPACK and ISTE standard alignment across subject areas, and that experience levels positively predict ISTE standard alignment to a small degree. More significant, however, is the finding that technology knowledge and institutional support are important mediators, predicting TPACK and ISTE standard alignment. Additionally, TPACK strongly predicts ISTE standard alignment. These findings suggest that institutions should provide targeted support to teacher educators across disciplines and should adopt coherent technology frameworks for their programs.
       
  • The impact of a flipped classroom approach on student learning experience
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Isaiah T. Awidi, Mark Paynter In this paper we report on our evaluation of the impact of a flipped classroom approach on the learning experience of students undertaking an undergraduate biology course. The flipped sessions comprised pre-recorded lectures, online quizzes and in-class group activities in the course design. The success of the approach was evaluated on the basis of perceptions held by the course coordinator and students on how the new course design influenced the students' learning experience. Data were collected through a questionnaire for the students and structured interviews with the course coordinator. Overall, the students reported a high degree of satisfaction with some elements of the flipped approach; however, some activities were less well regarded and some other concerns raised. A key finding was that the scaffolding elements from the model for student learning design were correlated with student confidence, motivation and engagement. It was concluded that refinement of components of the flipped design, such as the pre-recorded lectures and the structure of the in-class sessions, may further enhance the student learning experience.
       
  • How pre-service English teachers enact TPACK in the context of
           web-conferencing teaching: A design thinking approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Jun-Jie Tseng, Yuh-Show Cheng, Hsi-Nan Yeh Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a teacher knowledge construct in relation to integrating technology into teaching. However, whether this theoretical concept exists in practice remains contentious. To ascertain the nature of TPACK, the present study aimed to understand how six pre-service English teachers enacted various forms of TPACK through design thinking while considering contextual problems that impacted on their web-conferencing teaching over the course of 14 weeks. This study examined the design conversations in which six distance teachers discussed ways to design online teaching materials and activities as well as to solve any contextual problems encountered. Through quantitative content analysis of coded post-teaching discussions and qualitative analysis of interviews, it was found that while the teachers' discussions conspicuously displayed an orientation towards Pedagogical Content Knowledge, as opposed to technology-based knowledge, their discussions were particularly not associated with Technological Pedagogical Knowledge. In addition, two contextual factors were found to influence their web-conferencing teaching: technical problems related to sound quality were identified as a micro-level contextual factor while the teachers' concerns about their students’ prior knowledge and short attention spans were viewed as a student-centric contextual factor. These findings provide insights into how individual TPACK subdomains were enacted through design thinking that enabled the teachers to overcome contextual problems. The present study contributes to our understanding of how TPACK enactment is mediated by the context, empirically validating TPACK construct in practice through design thinking.
       
  • Retraction notice to "Project-based learning in a virtual internship
           programme: A study of the interrelated roles between intern, mentor and
           client" [10.1016/j.compedu.2017.03.011]
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 127Author(s): Dana Ruggiero, Jeffrey D. Boehm
       
  • Corrigendum to Assessing the Effects of Gamification in the Classroom: A
           Longitudinal Study on Intrinsic Motivation, Social Comparison,
           Satisfaction, Effort, and Academic Performance Computers & Education 80
           (2015) Pages 152-161
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 127Author(s): Michael D. Hanus, Jesse Fox
       
  • Affordances of using mobile technology to support experience-sampling
           method in examining college students’ engagement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Kui Xie, Benjamin C. Heddy, Barbara A. Greene In an investigation with 133 undergraduate students, we measured affective, cognitive, behavioral engagement, and self-regulation with a pre-survey, a post-survey, and in the moment of studying using experience-sampling methodology (ESM). We compared within these self-report techniques and also between self-reports and objective measures afforded by ESM. We found similar patterns that differed in detail. Furthermore, the ESM surveys allowed for a more fine-grained exploration of engagement related to studying behavior. Importantly, we compared fixed sampling and event-based sampling and found that the latter significantly improved sampling accuracy. Finally, we posit that a new and useful way to assess student self-regulation is the relationship between when students predict that they will study and when students report actual studying in the moment using ESM, which we call implementation rate. We were able to capture and examine all three dimensions of engagement (behavioral, cognitive and affective engagement) and self-regulation in authentic settings and in the same study, allowing us to examine the relationships among these variables exactly when learning occurs, which has several theoretical and practical implications.
       
  • Analyzing students' perceptions to improve the design of an automated
           assessment tool in online distributed programming
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Thanasis Daradoumis, Joan Manuel Marquès Puig, Marta Arguedas, Laura Calvet Liñan Designing an automated assessment tool in online distributed programming can provide students with a meaningful distributed learning environment that improves their academic performance. However, it is a complex and challenging endeavor that, as far as we know, has not been investigated yet. To address this research gap, this work presents a new automated assessment tool in online distributed programming, called DSLab. The tool was evaluated in a real long-term online educational experience by analyzing students' perceptions with the aim of improving its design. A quantitative analysis method was employed to collect and analyze data concerning students’ perceptions as to whether using the DSLab tool was really a worthwhile experience. Our study shows that the DSLab tool includes acceptable utility and efficiency features. It also identifies factors that influence current design efficiency with the aim of improving DSLab design by suggesting new functionalities and ideas.
       
  • Building word knowledge, learning strategies, and metacognition with the
           Word-Knowledge e-Book
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Carol McDonald Connor, Stephanie L. Day, Elham Zargar, Taffeta S. Wood, Karen S. Taylor, Masha R. Jones, Jin Kyoung Hwang Many children fail to comprehend what they read because they do not monitor their understanding, which requires making accurate judgements of what they know and then employing repair strategies when comprehension fails. Relying on research from learning science and cognitive and developmental psychology, we developed the Word Knowledge e-Book (WKe-Book) to improve children's calibration of their word knowledge, strategy use, and word knowledge overall; skills which are associated with reading comprehension. The WKe-Book, which is read on a tablet computer, is a choose-your-own adventure book where choices require choosing between two rare words (e.g., cogitate vs. procrastinate). Depending on the word chosen, the story follows a different plot. There are also embedded comprehension questions where students receive immediate feedback with consequences for incorrect answers, such as being sent back to reread a few pages. In a randomized controlled trial, we tested whether students (N = 603 in 25 third through fifth grade classrooms in Arizona in the US) reading the WKe-Book would demonstrate improved word knowledge, strategy use, and word knowledge calibration. Classrooms were randomly assigned to read the WKe-Book immediately (treatment) or later (delayed-treatment control), and within classrooms, students were randomly assigned to either participate in a 15-min weekly book club (book club treatment) or to read the WKe-Book independently with no book club (no book club control). Results revealed a significant treatment effect of the WKe-Book on students' word knowledge, word knowledge calibration, and strategy use, which predicted student performance on standardized reading comprehension and vocabulary measures. The effects were greater for students who participated in weekly book clubs compared to students in the no book club control. These findings suggest that the affordances offered by technology, which are unavailable in paper-based books, can support students' development of metacognition, including word knowledge calibration, strategy use, and word learning skills.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Modelling and statistical analysis of YouTube's educational videos: A
           channel Owner's perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Samant saurabh, sanjana Gautam YouTube is one of the most popular websites. It is a vast resource for educational content. To better understand the characteristics and impact of YouTube on education, we have analyzed a popular YouTube channel owned by the author of this paper. It has thousands of subscribers, millions of views, and hundreds of video lectures. We have used our private YouTube analytics data to provide an in-depth study of YouTube educational videos. Our analysis provides valuable information that can have major technical and commercial implications in the field of education. We perform in-depth time-series analysis of the channel data to reveal the trend, seasonality and temporal pattern for the educational videos on YouTube. In our study, we find the relationship between video uploading activity, channel's age and its popularity. We use an entropy-based decision tree classifier to find the features that are most important for the popularity of videos. We show that video rank and number of views follow the Zipf distribution for educational videos. We observe a strong correlation between the geographical location of viewers and the location of industry the channel caters to. Besides, we also provide knowledge regarding the popular devices and operating systems used for viewing the educational videos, main traffic sources, playback locations, translation activity, and demography of viewers. Overall, we believe that the results presented in this paper are crucial in understanding YouTube EDU videos characteristics which can be utilized for making well-informed decisions for improving educational content and learning technologies.
       
  • The impact of multimodal collaborative virtual environments on learning: A
           gamified online debate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ioannis Doumanis, Daphne Economou, Gavin Robert Sim, Stuart Porter Online learning platforms are integrated systems designed to provide students and teachers with information, tools and resources to facilitate and enhance the delivery and management of learning. In recent years platform designers have introduced gamification and multimodal interaction as ways to make online courses more engaging and immersive. Current web-based platforms provide a limited degree of immersion in learning experiences that diminish learning impact. To improve immersion, it is necessary to stimulate some or all of human senses by engaging users in an environment that perceptually surrounds them and allows intuitive and rich interaction with other users and its content. Learning in these collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) can be aided by increasing motivation and engagement through gamification of the educational task. This rich interaction that combines multimodal stimulation and gamification of the learning experience has the potential to draw students into the learning experience and improve learning outcomes. This paper presents the results of an experimental study designed to evaluate the impact of multimodal real-time interaction on user experience and learning of gamified educational tasks completed in a CVE. Secondary school teachers and students between ages 11 and 18 participated in the study. The multimodal CVE is an accurate reconstruction of the European Parliament in Brussels, developed using the REVERIE (Real and Virtual Engagement In Realistic Immersive Environment) framework. In the study, we compared the impact of the VR Parliament to a non-multimodal control (an educational platform called Edu-Simulation) for the same educational tasks. Our experiment results show that the multimodal CVE improves student learning performance and aspects of subjective experience when compared to the non-multimodal control. More specifically it resulted in a more positive effect on the ability of the students to generate ideas compared to a non-multimodal control. It also facilitated some sense of presence for students in the VE in the form of emotional immersion. The paper concludes with a discussion of future work that focusses on combining the best features of both systems in a hybrid system to increase its educational impact and evaluate the prototype in real-world educational scenarios.
       
  • Investigating learning outcomes and subjective experiences in 360-degree
           videos
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Michael A. Rupp, Katy L. Odette, James Kozachuk, Jessica R. Michaelis, Janan A. Smither, Daniel S. McConnell Virtual Reality experiences, particularly the 360-degree video, have become popular in recent years for creating immersive educational experiences. However, much is still unknown regarding the educational effectiveness of this medium. Here we examined pre-to-post changes in well-being, simulator sickness, and learning outcomes across four devices of varying levels of immersion: a smartphone, Google Cardboard, Oculus Rift DK2, and Oculus CV1 using a space-themed 360° educational video. More immersive devices induced greater induction of place illusion, greater positive affect, and better learning outcomes while demonstrating low prevalence of simulator sickness. Greater immersion was also associated with an increased interest in learning more about the video's subject-matter. On the other hand, less immersive technology led to increased simulation sickness which may have led to suboptimal educational experiences. Overall, we found support for the hypothesis that highly immersive experiences using 360° videos provide positive educational experiences.
       
  • Improving quality of teaching and learning in classes by using augmented
           reality video
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Joanne Yip, Sze-Ham Wong, Kit-Lun Yick, Kannass Chan, Ka-Hing Wong This study contributes to enhancing students’ learning experience and increasing their understanding of complex issues by incorporating an augmented reality (AR) mobile application (app) into a sewing workshop in which a threading task was carried out to facilitate better learning relative to a conventional approach. Participants included 46 freshmen. One group of students was provided with a handout, while the other was asked to view an AR video. Questionnaires were then administered, and the results showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of their understanding of the task. This finding was consistent with the post-test scores and the time required to learn the threading task. Several feedback items indicated higher learning efficiency with the use of AR videos.
       
  • How instructors frame students' interactions with educational technologies
           can enhance or reduce learning with multiple representations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Sally P.W. Wu, Jainaba Corr, Martina A. Rau Instructors in STEM classrooms often frame students' interactions with technologies to help them learn content. For instance, in many STEM domains, instructors commonly help students translate physical 3D models into 2D drawings by prompting them to focus on (a) orienting physical 3D models and (b) generating 2D drawings. We investigate whether framing prompts that target either of these practices enhance the effectiveness of an educational technology that supports collaborative translation among multiple representations. To this end, we conducted a quasi-experiment with 565 undergraduate chemistry students. All students collaboratively built physical 3D models of molecules and translated them into 2D drawings. In a business-as-usual control condition, students drew on paper, without support from an educational technology. In two experimental conditions, students drew in an educational technology that provided feedback and prompted collaboration. One condition received framing prompts to focus on physical models (model condition); another received prompts to generate intermediary drawings on paper (draw condition). Compared to the control condition, the model condition showed higher learning gains, but the draw condition showed lower learning gains. Analyses of log data showed that students made more model-based errors, and the prompts in the model condition reduced these model-based errors. However, interviews with instructors showed that they prefer drawing-focused prompts, in contrast to our results. These findings offer theoretical insights into how students learn to translate among representations. Furthermore, they yield practical recommendations for the use of educational technologies that support learning with multiple representations.
       
  • A study on academic staff personality and technology acceptance: The case
           of communication and collaboration applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Catalin Maican, Ana-Maria Cazan, Radu Lixandroiu, Lavinia dovleac Over the recent years, the communication and collaboration based on online applications has been ubiquitous, being used in teaching, learning and research. In this context, the present study analyses the attitudes and perceptions of the teaching staff and researchers from several higher education institutions in Romania with respect to online collaboration and communication applications, and the impact these applications have on their work (teaching and research). The findings have revealed that the email is still the main communication and collaboration application in both teaching and research, but other, newer applications are not far behind. The extent to which these applications are accepted and used seem to depend directly on personal variables, the most significant ones being the technology anxiety and self-efficacy. The relationship between personality traits and the use of online communication and collaboration applications in the professional academic life has been shown to be mediated by work engagement, which enhances the teachers' personal resources, enhancing their levels of achievement. The findings have also demonstrated that the use of online communication and collaboration applications is part of the factors predicting the teachers' and researchers’ success in academic life.
       
  • Learning with multiple online texts as part of scientific inquiry in the
           classroom
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Sarah Sullivan, Sadhana Puntambekar The aim of this study was to investigate how teachers interact with students in order to prepare them to conduct research with multiple online texts as part of the process of scientific inquiry in the classroom. The specific focus of this work was on understanding how teachers used classroom dialogue to create an environment that supports the use of multiple online text-based resources as part of the process of doing science. Data collection for this study occurred in the 6th grade classrooms of two teachers in a Midwestern school district. Each of the teachers taught three science classes for a total of 150 students. A test of students' content knowledge of physics was used in order to evaluate students' understanding of the physics concepts targeted in the curriculum. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the students from one teacher's classes performed significantly better on the physics test than the students of the other teacher (p 
       
  • An in-depth analysis of adult students in blended environments: Do they
           regulate their learning in an ‘old school’ way'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Silke Vanslambrouck, Chang Zhu, Bram Pynoo, Valerie Thomas, Koen Lombaerts, Jo Tondeur Separation in time and place during the learning process reduces the ability of teachers to observe their students' learning behaviours and provide tailored support. This occurs in blended adult education, which challenges students to learn independently. Possessing self-regulation skills is crucial for success in this context. Therefore, the current study aims to address the self-regulation strategies used by adult students in blended environments. A qualitative study that included framework analysis with 16 semi-structured interviews was conducted to explore how students regulated their cognition, behaviour, context and motivation. Results show that they 1) learn by using organising and rehearsal strategies; 2) are flexible regarding time, effort and environment and; 3) report diverse help-seeking strategies. Nevertheless, they preferred offline learning materials and applied few self-motivation strategies. The findings provide tips for teachers to support and promote the students' self-regulation skills and includes tactics such as being an involved role model on forums to facilitate help-seeking processes.
       
  • The technology acceptance model (TAM): A meta-analytic structural equation
           modeling approach to explaining teachers’ adoption of digital technology
           in education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ronny Scherer, Fazilat Siddiq, Jo Tondeur The extent to which teachers adopt technology in their teaching practice has long been in the focus of research. Indeed, a plethora of models exist explaining influential factors and mechanisms of technology use in classrooms, one of which—the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and versions thereof—has dominated the field. Although consensus exists about which factors in the TAM might predict teachers’ technology adoption, the current field abounds in some controversies and inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis seeks to clarify some of these issues by combining meta-analysis with structural equation modeling approaches. Specifically, we synthesized 124 correlation matrices from 114 empirical TAM studies (N = 34,357 teachers) and tested the fit of the TAM and its versions. Overall, the TAM explains technology acceptance well; yet, the role of certain key constructs and the importance of external variables contrast some existing beliefs about the TAM. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
       
  • Effects of a mathematics game-based learning environment on primary school
           students' adaptive number knowledge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Boglárka Brezovszky, Jake McMullen, Koen Veermans, Minna M. Hannula-Sormunen, Gabriela Rodríguez-Aflecht, Nonmanut Pongsakdi, Eero Laakkonen, Erno Lehtinen Developing adaptive expertise with arithmetic problem solving is a much desired aim of primary school mathematics education. However, there are very few practical tools for teachers that would aid reaching this complex mathematical learning goal. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of a game-based learning environment in supporting primary school students' adaptive number knowledge and related arithmetic skills. Participants were 1168 students in grades four, five, and six. Classes were randomized in two conditions: in the experimental group regular mathematics teaching was enriched with gameplay using the Number Navigation Game (NNG), and in the control group students continued according to their regular math curriculum. An experimental design with pre- and post-test was used to measure students' adaptive number knowledge, arithmetic fluency, and pre-algebra knowledge. Overall, results showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group on adaptive number knowledge and math fluency. Results showed varying effects of the training in different grade levels, with more pronounced improvement of students' adaptive number knowledge in grade five. Game performance was related to the experimental group's post-test scores even after controlling for pre-test scores and grade. Results suggest that the NNG is effective in enhancing different types of arithmetic skills and knowledge in different grades of primary school education and can provide teachers with a practical and flexible tool to extend their regular classroom practice.
       
  • Learning to code via tablet applications: An evaluation of Daisy the
           Dinosaur and Kodable as learning tools for young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Sarah Pila, Fashina Aladé, Kelly J. Sheehan, Alexis R. Lauricella, Ellen A. Wartella Despite the growing number of digital apps designed to teach coding skills to young children, we know little about their effectiveness. To formally explore this question, we conducted a naturalistic observation of a one-week program designed to teach foundational coding skills (i.e., sequencing, conditions, loops) to young children (N = 28, Mage = 5.15 years) using two tablet applications: Daisy the Dinosaur and Kodable. Pre- and post-assessments measured familiarity with technology, appeal of coding apps, knowledge of Daisy commands, ability to play Kodable, and conceptual understanding of coding. Participants improved in their knowledge of Daisy commands (i.e., move, grow, jump) and Kodable gameplay (i.e., placing arrows in the correct sequence to move a character through a maze), but did not improve in their ability to verbally explain what coding is. Appeal of the games was significantly related to children's learning of Daisy commands, but child gender was not related to either Daisy or Kodable learning outcomes. Results suggest that young children can learn foundational coding skills via apps, especially when the apps are appealing to children.
       
  • A systematic review on teaching and learning robotics content knowledge in
           K-12
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Liying Xia, Baichang Zhong This paper aims to review high-qualified empirical studies on teaching and learning robotics content knowledge in K-12 and explore future research perspectives of robotics education (RE) based on the reviewed papers. After a systematic search in online database via keyword search and snowballing approach, 22 SSCI journal papers are included in this review. Nine major factors are examined for each paper: sample groups, duration, robot types, robotics content knowledge, study type, intervention approaches, measurement instruments, major findings and instructional suggestions. The results indicate that: (1) most empirical studies were endured less than two months with a small sample size, the largest sample group was elementary school students, and most studies used LEGO robots; (2) more than half of the studies conducted a non-experimental research design, and observation, questionnaire, interview and evaluation of artifacts are commonly-used measurement instruments; and (3) instructional suggestions proposed in the 22 papers can be clustered into four themes: open environment, targeted design, appropriate pedagogy and timely support. Overall, the 22 papers suggest that RE shows great educational potential in K-12, however, there are indeed situations in which RE did not bring significant improvement in student learning. In view of this, we prospect the future research directions of RE and propose that more intervention studies with rigorous research design could be conducted in K-12.
       
  • Facilitating professional mobile learning communities with instant
           messaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Christoph Pimmer, Florian Brühlmann, Titilayo Dorothy Odetola, Deborah Olusola Oluwasola, Oluwafemi Dipeolu, Ademola J. Ajuwon Although Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) is a massive communication phenomenon and its educational use can be seen as a genuine form of mobile learning, it has been studied to a limited extent to date. The present study examined the use of MIM to engage young professionals in mobile learning communities during their school-to-work transition. This transition is one of the most central but also challenging developmental phases marked by the experience of knowledge gaps and a lack of belonging.To assess knowledge and socio-professional learning effects associated with the use of MIM, this study adopted a quasi-experimental, survey-based approach with an intervention and control condition (n = 114) in the setting of an international research project. In the intervention condition, newly graduated nurses from Nigeria participated in WhatsApp groups in which moderators shared knowledge and stimulated professional discussions over a period of 6 months. Data were collected via online surveys and knowledge tests.The findings show that participants in the moderated WhatsApp groups had significantly higher knowledge and exhibited fewer feelings of professional isolation compared with the control group, which was not subject of any treatment. The effects were even more pronounced when controlling for active contributions (writing vs reading messages), which also amounted to significantly higher levels of professional identification. In addition, across intervention and control groups, the self-reported general active use of WhatsApp (outside of the intervention) was positively associated with the measures of professional social capital maintained with school connections, professional identity, (lower) professional isolation, job satisfaction, and the perceived transfer of school knowledge to work practice.Whereas knowledge and socio-professional effects can be triggered through moderated WhatsApp interventions yet the general (and thus informal) use of WhatsApp is associated with socio-professional connectedness. The findings are of particular relevance in the developing context under investigation, which is marked by a lack of alternative support structures.
       
  • Differences in serious game-aided and traditional English vocabulary
           acquisition
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 127Author(s): Yu Zhonggen A number of studies have been devoted to the effectiveness of serious gaming in English vocabulary learning, which has reported different results. Some studies support serious gaming in vocabulary learning, while others oppose. This study used a mixed-design research method through two experiments and two interviews to explore serious gaming in English (English as a foreign language) vocabulary learning. Data were collected from randomly selected participants, who were randomly assigned to three cohorts in both experiments: (1) Cohort A, where they learned English vocabulary through the more interactivity-prone serious games-Hujiang Fun Vocabulary in the first experiment and New Oriental Fun Vocabulary in the second experiment; (2) Cohort B, where they learned English vocabulary aided with the less interactivity-prone serious games-Baicizhan in the first experiment and Kingsoft Vocabulary in the second experiment; (3) Cohort C, where they learned English vocabulary through traditional approaches in both experiments. It is concluded that (1) the interactivity-prone serious gaming is significantly more effective than the less interactivity-prone serious gaming in English vocabulary learning at the significance level p=.05; (2) the less interactivity-prone serious gaming is significantly more effective than the traditional approach in English vocabulary learning at the significance level p=.05; (3) males significantly outperformed females in serious game-aided English vocabulary learning at the significance level p=.05. We also discussed the features that should be considered when a serious game is designed to assist English vocabulary learning. Future research directions were suggested that serious gaming in English vocabulary learning be integrated into interdisciplinary research such as cooperation between computer science, education, psychology, applied linguistics and statistics.
       
  • Immersive virtual reality serious games for evacuation training and
           research: A systematic literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Zhenan Feng, Vicente Gonzalez, Robert Amor, Ruggiero Lovreglio, Guillermo Cabrera-Guerrero An appropriate and safe behavior for exiting a facility is key to reducing injuries and increasing survival when facing an emergency evacuation in a building. Knowledge on the best evacuation practice is commonly delivered by traditional training approaches such as videos, posters, or evacuation drills, but they may become ineffective in terms of knowledge acquisition and retention. Serious games (SGs) are an innovative approach devoted to training and educating people in a gaming environment. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to immersive virtual reality (IVR)-based SGs for evacuation knowledge delivery and behavior assessment because they are highly engaging and promote greater cognitive learning.This paper aims to understand the development and implementation of IVR SGs in the context of building evacuation training and research, applied to various indoor emergencies such as fire and earthquake. Thus, a conceptual framework for effective design and implementation through the systematic literature review method was developed. As a result, this framework integrates critical aspects and provides connections between them, including pedagogical and behavioral impacts, gaming environment development, and outcome and participation experience measures.
       
  • An intelligent diagnostic framework: A scaffolding tool to resolve
           academic reading problems of Thai first-year university students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chayaporn Kaoropthai, Onjaree Natakuatoong, Nagul Cooharojananone To accommodate teaching an English class with varied language abilities, an intelligent diagnostic framework (IDF) employing the twostep clustering (TSC) of data mining technique was proposed. A tailormade diagnostic test on the 10 underlying academic reading skills was constructed. Each skill was measured by four test items using a pass criterion of 75% (≥ 3 out of 4). The TSC was performed on the skill scores and ten personal attributes of 297 first-year university students. The precluster step generated three subclusters. Further analysis (N= 221) created a predictive solution of five clusters with 95.5% accuracy. A final analysis using Pearson's correlation revealed four groups of positive relationships. Lead users from each type were then assigned self-tutoring lessons to learn for two weeks. The results revealed that 56% of lead users had equal or higher scores and 68% of them passed an equal or higher number of skills than in the pretest. Students' types disclosed by the TSC were thus able to predict and the IDF was able to diagnose and scaffold most of the students in academic reading skills. Because the IDF was not so powerful for lower-proficiency students, future research should focus more on those students.
       
  • A study of primary school students' interest, collaboration attitude, and
           programming empowerment in computational thinking education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Siu-Cheung Kong, Ming Ming Chiu, Ming Lai Building on Seymour Papert's view of empowering students by mastering programming, this study conceptualized programming empowerment as consisting of four components: meaningfulness, impact, creative self-efficacy, and programming self-efficacy. A sample of 287 primary school students in grades four to six completed a corresponding survey. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the proposed components of the programming empowerment instrument. A structural equation model indicated that students with greater interest in programming perceived it as more meaningful, had greater impact, had greater creative self-efficacy, and had greater programming self-efficacy. Also, students with attitudes toward collaboration that were more positive than others had greater creative self-efficacy. Boys showed more interest in programming than girls did. Students in higher grade levels than others viewed programming as less meaningful and had lower programming self-efficacy. These results support future studies that evaluate the impacts of interest-driven computational thinking and programming curricula with ample collaboration opportunities.
       
  • Optimum input mode in the modality and redundancy principles for
           university ESL students' multimedia learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yinan Liu, Bong Gee Jang, Zaline Roy-Campbell Richard Mayer's cognitive theory of multimedia learning and multimedia learning principles provide theoretical and empirical foundations for multimedia instruction. However, the theory and the principles were developed based on empirical studies of native English-speaking students and may not apply to English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students. Specifically, the modality and redundancy principles that involve text and audio could become compromised in the ESL context, since ESL students have difficulty fully comprehending L2 (second language) English text and audio. This study sought to identify ESL students' optimum input mode (among graphics + audio, graphics + text, and graphics + audio + text, addressed in the modality and redundancy principles) and to test whether the modality and redundancy principles also apply to their multimedia learning. Empirical studies comparing the input modes for ESL students' learning were reviewed and common limitations were identified. When it came to knowledge retention, no statistically significant differences were found in ESL students' learning outcomes from the three input modes. The findings also indicated that Mayer's modality and redundancy principles had not applied to the learning of ESL students. Explanations for the results and implications for future research were discussed.
       
  • A meta-analysis of Social Network Site use and social support
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Dong Liu, Kevin B. Wright, Baijing Hu Current scholarship knows little about what forms of social support are the major benefits of Social Network Sites (SNSs) use. To solve this problem, this study examined the association of SNSs use and social support by meta-analyzing 73 effects from 31 studies. We also examined several important moderators such as age, gender, and culture. The findings revealed that generic SNS use may be helpful for informational and emotional support, but not for tangible and esteem support. Further moderation analysis demonstrated that SNSs are better set up for online social support, but it also provides offline support benefits. The analyses also showed differences between users who engage in active SNS activities and those who passive consume online content. Moreover, Asians were found to receive more social support via SNS presentation than Europeans and Americans. Older and female students were found to be able to acquire more social support from SNS use.
       
  • Learning analytics to support self-regulated learning in asynchronous
           online courses: A case study at a women's university in South Korea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Dongho Kim, Meehyun Yoon, Il-Hyun Jo, Robert Maribe Branch With the recognition of the importance of self-regulated learning (SRL) in asynchronous online courses, recent research has explored how SRL strategies impact student learning in these learning environments. However, little has been done to examine different patterns of students with different SRL profiles over time, which precludes providing optimal on-going instructional support for individual students. To address the gap in research, we applied learning analytics to analyze log data from 284 undergraduate students enrolled in an asynchronous online statistics course. Specifically, we identified student SRL profiles, and examined the actual student SRL learning patterns.The k-medoids clustering identified three self-regulated learning profiles: self-regulation, partial self-regulation, and non-self-regulation. Self-regulated students showed more study regularity and help-seeking, than did the other two groups of students. The partially self-regulated students showed high study regularity but inactive help-seeking, while the non-self-regulated students exhibited less study regularity and less frequent help-seeking than the other two groups; their self-reported time management scores were significantly lower. The analysis of each week's log variables using the random forest algorithm revealed that self-regulated students studied course content early before exams and sought help during the general exam period, whereas non-self-regulated students studied the course content during the general exam period. Based on our findings, we provide instructional strategies that can be used to support student SRL. We also discuss implications of this study for advanced learning analytics research, and the design of effective asynchronous online courses.
       
  • App clusters: Exploring patterns of multiple app use in primary learning
           contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Sarah K. Howard, Jie Yang, Jun Ma, Karl Maton, Ellie Rennie There has been a continuous and rapid increase in the volume of apps in recent years since tablets became widely available in schools. Tablets contain a wide variety of apps, which are used for a large range of activities and tasks, and they are used in different combinations over time. Yet, there is limited research on young children's real and varied use of apps. The variety and volume of apps accessed by young children contributes to difficulty understanding there use and the consequences of that use. This has limited understanding of how apps contribute to students' learning. Given the importance of high quality early learning experiences, it is essential that the use of apps in schools is better understood. This paper explores young children's real varied app use through a large aggregated Australian dataset of app usage in primary schools, which has been collected automatically from approximately 15,000 Android devices over three years. The data mining methods of clustering and association rules analysis have been used to identify patterns of app use. Results show five distinct patterns of app use. Findings provide important insights into the complexity of multiple app use in the classroom. Implications of different use patterns in relation to learning and teaching are discussed.
       
  • Blood from a stone: Where teachers report finding time for computer-based
           instruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Andrea Kunze, Teomara Rutherford In an era of accountability, implementation of computer-based instruction (CBI) may be attractive to personalize learning and raise test scores. Although prior work has examined how CBI may serve these purposes, we demonstrate that it also has an unintentional impact on how teachers allocate time in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential collateral damage of implementing CBI in elementary classrooms. Using the implementation of the supplemental CBI, Spatial Temporal (ST) Math as a case study, we analyze how 468 teachers report spending instructional minutes in each subject per week, and which subjects are reported as being limited to accommodate the program. Results reveal teachers vary in time spent across subjects and from where they draw time for ST Math. Most time for ST Math comes from a reduction of non-math core subject time with some variation according to grade. We provide initial evidence of teacher autonomy in subject time allocation within the context of CBI implementation; further study is needed to illuminate drivers of teacher's decisions.
       
  • Need-supporting gamification in education: An assessment of motivational
           effects over time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Rob van Roy, Bieke Zaman Although many studies have focused on the potential of implementing gamification in education, the existing literature remains inconclusive about its effectiveness. In order to make sense of the contradictory findings regarding the effectiveness of implementing game design elements in an online learning environment, this paper complements the available body of research by addressing three holes. We have (1) analysed gamification's underlying motivational processes from a Self-Determination Theory-perspective, thereby accounting for the motivational effects of various game design implementations; (2) empirically assessed subtle motivational changes over time, and (3) accounted for the potential individual differences in motivational effects of gamification. Over a period of 15 weeks, we administered four surveys to measure the possible evolution in students' (N = 40) motivational levels in response to interacting with need-supporting game elements that were implemented in Google + Communities used in a university course. Participants' autonomous and controlled motivation was curve linear, showing an initial downward trend that surprisingly shifted to an upward tendency towards the end of the semester. Their controlled motivation stayed stable throughout. The results illustrated the significance of the individual nature of motivational processes, the importance of sensitive longitudinal motivation measurements, and the relevance of the implemented game elements' design characteristics. We end this article by opening the debate on using theoretical lenses when designing gamification, and by providing avenues for future research.
       
  • Listen to the models: Sonified learning models for people who are blind
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Orly Lahav, Nuha Hagab, Sewar Abed El Kader, Sharona T. Levy, Vadim Talis Students who are blind need access to learning materials. This study looks at the learning of science by people who are blind using a curriculum-based textbook compared to their learning using an identical curriculum integrated with the Listening-to-Complexity (L2C), an agent-based model created on NetLogo. The L2C system employs sonified feedback that provides auditory streams synchronically. This study examines acquisition of scientific conceptual knowledge and systems reasoning for the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) of gas and Gas Laws in chemistry. Twenty persons who are blind participated in this research; they were divided into two experimental groups: those using an accessible curriculum-based textbook and those using the same curriculum integrated with L2C agent-based models. Results showed that all research participants gained scientific knowledge; statistically significant differences were found for both experimental research groups between pre-and posttest. Those who learned through the L2C models performed with higher accuracy in the posttest; furthermore, learning using the NetLogo L2C models predicted their success at the posttest. A comparison of learning task accuracy between the two experimental groups showed that the participants who studied using the NetLogo L2C models performed with statistically significant differences in the five learning activities with integrated L2C models, but no differences were found for the learning activities without integrated L2C models. These research results are likely to have a beneficial impact on integrating sonified models in science education as a compensatory aid, allowing hands-on learning experience for students who are blind. Integrating sonified models will support their inclusion in the K–12 academic curriculum on an equal basis.
       
  • Privacy behavior profiles of underage facebook users
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hui-Lien Chou, Yih-Lan Liu, Chien Chou Social network sites (SNSs) provide users many mechanisms to share personal information and to restrict access to disclosure. In this regard, users' privacy-protective and -precarious practices often occur simultaneously. However, past research on SNS privacy issues has often focused on one side of these privacy practices. Additionally, underage students (aged 9–17) constitute a population of SNS users that is less investigated. Many ineligible students (aged less than 13) are in the habit of using Facebook. Their reckless online behaviors sometimes land them in trouble. To investigate underage students' privacy-protective and -precarious practices simultaneously, cross-sectional surveys were given to students in the primary, middle and high schools around Taiwan. We employed cluster analysis and discovered four clusters as a result. The relationships between memberships and demographical variables as well as other variables such as parental mediation or Internet use were explored as a validation of the clustering results. It was found that membership was related to age, gender, network size and parental mediation. Different interventions are suggested based on these profiles.
       
  • Who is better adapted in learning online within the personal learning
           environment' Relating gender differences in cognitive attention
           networks to digital distraction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Jiun-Yu Wu, Tzuying Cheng In response to increasing concerns about digital distraction, we bridged people's cognitive attention to digital distraction within the personal learning environment (PLE). Gender differences were investigated in college students' media-related perceived attention problems (PAP) and their attention self-regulatory strategies (SRS). Also examined were the gender moderating effects on the correlations of attention problems and regulatory strategies with six dimensions of social media usage and four cognitive- and adjustment-related criteria: online search strategies, media-multitasking self-efficacy (MMSE), positive/negative self-esteems, and academic achievement. Participants were 771 undergraduate and graduate students from 10 universities in Taiwan. Gender measurement invariance was established in the research instrument. Males exhibited higher PAP than females. Females demonstrated more versatile strategy use to regulate their attention with increased social media use, while males applied more behavioral strategies over social media use as disorientation increased during online searches. Higher MMSE was associated with higher executive and orienting problems for females, and higher alerting problems for males. Higher orienting problems was associated with more negative self-esteem for males. Females with higher PAP reported poorer academic achievement. Implications for practical intervention of PAPs are discussed for each gender group to promote college students' psychological well-being with regard to social media use and learning performance.
       
  • Designing productively negative experiences with serious game mechanics
           qualitative analysis of game-play and game design in a randomized trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Andrea Gauthier, Jodie Jenkinson Design, rather than medium, ultimately predicts learning outcomes, but the game-based learning literature has had difficulty successfully linking game design decisions to learning behaviours and outcomes. The current research investigates how explicit game design strategies can promote productive negativity (i.e. learning from failure), which has been identified as an important mechanism in both gaming and learning. We performed a randomized controlled trial with undergraduate biology students to investigate how game design might facilitate misconception resolution about random molecular behaviour through productive negativity. Students engaged with either a computer-based interactive simulation (n = 20) or serious game (n = 20) for 30 min, while their computer screens were recorded and click-stream data collected. We described in detail the theoretical framework underpinning our serious game and simulation using the Activity Theory Model of Serious Games (ATMSG); qualitatively coded and analysed video recordings of gameplay; and visually overlaid this data with the ATMSG models to draw conclusions about how game-design decisions influence learning-related behaviours. We found that the serious game resulted in significantly more productively negative experiences, while the interactive simulation allowed for greater exploratory or experimental behaviours. Based on our analyses of the qualitative gameplay data, we were able to recommend three game design strategies to enhance the occurrence of desired game-flow loops (e.g. productive negativity) with respect to an ATMSG framework: 1) including additional game mechanics on the primary game-flow axis of the ATMSG framework (i.e. mandatory interactions) limits the exploratory nature of the application; 2) integrating two or more primary-axis mechanics in a game-flow loop increases the frequency of interaction with this loop; and 3) gameplay loops that involve mechanics that fall off the primary-axis (i.e. non-mandatory mechanics) occur less frequently than those which involve primary-axis (i.e. mandatory) mechanics. This study is one of the first to successfully make direct comparisons between students' interactions in a game and a non-game application to provide concrete and actionable serious game design recommendations.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • A systematic review of design and technology components of educational
           digital resources
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Kui Xie, Gennaro Di Tosto, Sheng-Bo Chen, Vanessa W. Vongkulluksn With the rise of the Internet and the proliferation of online content, the design and evaluation of educational digital resources (EDRs) are pressing and challenging issues. They warrant an investigation of what exactly are the features that increase the quality of EDRs. In a previous professional development program, we trained and supported teachers in evaluating and selecting EDRs with the support of a scientifically validated rubric. In this present study, through quantitative, qualitative, and text-mining methods, we analyzed the review data of 1200 resources produced that professional development program in order to provide a big picture of the quality of currently available products, and to identify the features that characterize quality digital resources. Our findings suggest the need for digital repositories to reflect or make visible how resources fit particular instructional design models.
       
  • Networked learning with professionals boosts students' self-efficacy for
           social networking for professional development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Abram D. Anders Previous research has recognized that networked learning—including the use of social media, blogs, and learning communities—offers unique affordances for supporting the development of self-efficacy. However, additional research is needed to examine applications of networked learning that integrate professional contexts into academic learning experiences. The present study reports on an intervention in which networked learning was used to promote student self-efficacy for social networking and professional development. The learning design integrates three techniques: a focus on developing personal learning networks, a blog-based learning community, and mastery experiences for networking with professionals. The hypothesis was that networked learning among peers in the learning community would help support the gradual development of skills and confidence for social networking, while networking to learn with professionals would amplify the impact of mastery experiences on student self-efficacy. A study of 72 undergraduate business students found that the intervention led to significant gains in self-efficacy for social networking and professional development activities. Students also reported a greater likelihood of engaging in these activities in the following year. Finally, students perceived the learning experience as relevant for their lifelong learning and professional success.
       
  • The effects of an ARCS based e-book on student's achievement, motivation
           and anxiety
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yalin kiliç Türel, Seda Özer Şanal This study investigates how a digital book – or e-book – based on Keller's ARCS model of Motivational Design influenced undergraduate students' sense of achievement, motivation, and anxiety. In the study, we used a mixed methods design to examine the effects of using an e-book versus a printed book or static PDF. Participants in the study were 94 students who were enrolled in a Mathematics-I course at Firat University Technology Faculty in Turkey. Forty-eight of these student volunteers were enrolled in the experimental group and 46 others enrolled in a control group. Data was collected from several sources: students' motivation surveys, mathematics anxiety surveys, mathematics achievement tests, and interviews. Results indicated that students using the e-book based on the ARCS motivation model performed significantly better on the mathematics achievement test and motivation survey. The findings also revealed that the e-book based on ARCS motivation model had a significant effect on reducing students' mathematics anxiety levels. The article also considers numerous digital and e-book empirical studies published in the literature, many of which have reported that the effect of digital books on a variety of different learning outcomes has produced mostly positive results. We hope the findings of this present study will contribute to the future design and implementation of digital books and how they are used in learning environments.
       
  • Cognitive resources allocation in computer-mediated dictionary assisted
           learning: From word meaning to inferential comprehension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): You-Hsuan Chang, Tzu-Chien Liu, Fred Paas Computer-mediated dictionaries have been important and widely used aids in the comprehension of, and learning from online texts. However, despite the convenience of computer-mediated dictionaries in retrieving word meaning, its use may reduce the time that readers spend reading each word and negatively affect word retention. In addition, readers' vocabulary size is a key factor influencing the lookup process, and its effectiveness. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new ‘checking-meaning’ function to optimize word retention and to explain readers' cognitive resources allocation in computer-mediated dictionary assisted learning. We conducted a 2 (checking meaning function: with vs. without) × 2 (vocabulary size: large vs. small) between-subjects design to explore the effectiveness of vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension performance in computer-mediated dictionary-assisted reading. In line with the hypotheses, results revealed that the computer-mediated dictionary with checking-meaning function enhanced small vocabulary size learners' vocabulary acquisition, but negatively influenced large vocabulary size learners' reading comprehension performance. Based on these results, we propose the competition-cooperation relationship to explain readers' cognitive resources allocation in computer-mediated dictionary assisted learning.
       
  • The different relationships between engagement and outcomes across
           participant subgroups in Massive Open Online Courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Qiujie Li, Rachel Baker Previous research has found that early engagement in MOOCs (e.g., watching lectures, contributing to discussion forums, and submitting assignments) can be used to predict course completion and course grade, which may help instructors and administrators to identify at-risk participants and to target interventions. However, most of these analyses have only focused on the average relationships between engagement and achievement, which may mask important heterogeneity among participant subgroups in MOOCs. This study examines how the relationship between engagement and achievement may vary across the four common behaviorally identified participant subgroups (“disengagers,” “auditors,” “quiz-takers,” and “all-rounders”) in three MOOC courses offered on the Coursera platform. For each of these subgroups, we used measures of behavioral and cognitive engagement from the first half of the ten-week courses to predict two outcomes: course grade and overall lecture coverage. Results indicate that the same engagement measure may be oppositely associated with achievement for different subgroups and that some engagement measures predict achievement for one subgroup but not another. These findings provide insight into both the benefits and the complexity of studying patterns of engagement from behavioral data and provide suggestions on the improvement of identification of at-risk participants in MOOCs.
       
  • E-learning critical success factors: Comparing perspectives from academic
           staff and students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Abdullah Alhabeeb, Jennifer Rowley This article advances knowledge on the factors that lead to successful e-learning in universities, through a comparative study of the perspectives of academic staff and students. In particular, it contributes to the limited knowledge bases on the effectiveness of e-learning in Saudi Arabia, and on the differences in perspectives of different groups of stakeholders in e-learning. Based on previous research, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to convenience samples of academic staff and students at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Respondents were invited to express their opinion regarding the importance of a number of factors to the success of e-learning. Principal Component Analysis was conducted on each dataset, in turn, to assess the loading of items onto factors, and the variance explained. The most important finding from this study is that the perspectives of students and academic staff differ, with there being nine factors for academic staff and seven for students. Categories that are common to both groups are: student characteristics, instructor characteristics, ease of access, and support and training. The order for academics is: student characteristics, ease of access, instructor characteristics, and support and training; and, the order foe students is: instructor characteristics, student characteristics, support and training, and ease of access.
       
  • Investigating the effect of learning method and motivation on learning
           performance in a business simulation system context: An experimental study
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hsin-Hui Lin, Wan-Chu Yen, Yi-Shun Wang With the proliferation of business simulation systems used in business education, an understanding of the factors of a simulation-based learning environment that contribute to learning performance within instructional settings is essential. This study aims to explore the effect of learning method (individual mode vs. collaborative mode) and learning motivation (low vs. high) on learning performance in a simulation-based business learning context by conducting an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Virtual Business-Retailing (VBR) software, a business simulation system for convenience store operation, is adopted to build a retailer simulation-based learning environment. Our results reveal that the difference in students' learning performance between individual mode and collaborative mode is significant. However, learning motivation does not have a significant impact on learning performance. Further, learning motivation is an important moderator for the effect of learning method on learning performance. These findings provide several important theoretical and practical implications for the educational use of business simulation systems.
       
  • The role of planning in complex problem solving
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Beate Eichmann, Frank Goldhammer, Samuel Greiff, Liene Pucite, Johannes Naumann Complex problem solving (CPS) is a highly transversal competence needed in educational and vocational settings as well as everyday life. The assessment of CPS is often computer-based, and therefore provides data regarding not only the outcome but also the process of CPS. However, research addressing this issue is scarce. In this article we investigated planning activities in the process of complex problem solving. We operationalized planning through three behavioral measures indicating the duration of the longest planning interval, the delay of the longest planning interval and the variance of intervals between each two successive interactions. We found a significant negative average effect for our delay indicator, indicating that early planning in CPS is more beneficial. However, we also found effects depending on task and interaction effects for all three indicators, suggesting that the effects of different planning behaviors on CPS are highly intertwined.
       
  • Predictors of Academic Dishonesty among undergraduate students in online
           and face-to-face courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yehuda Peled, Yovav Eshet, Casimir Barczyk, Keren Grinautski Unethical behaviors within the academic environment, academic dishonesty (AD), is a well-researched phenomenon. Various factors explain this phenomenon. This study investigates and presents a new structural model for determinants of AD, linking types of motivation, students' attitudes, personality traits, and cultural backgrounds (presented by country according to Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory) as predictors of AD in the context of traditional and distance-learning courses in higher education. This study was conducted using a survey method of 2475 students in six different academic institutes. Using structural equation modeling (SAM) the results indicate that, contrary to the traditional views and the research literature, the surveyed students tend to engage less in AD in online courses than in face-to-face courses. Accordingly, this research has substantial, practical implications for educators, institution and researchers dealing with course design development and institutional policy concerning pedagogical uses of digital technology.
       
 
 
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