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Computers & Education
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.626
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 178  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0360-1315
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Investigating the effect of pre-training when learning through immersive
           virtual reality and video: A media and methods experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Oliver A. Meyer, Magnus K. Omdahl, Guido Makransky Immersive virtual reality (VR) is predicted to have a significant impact on education; but most studies investigating learning with immersive VR have reported mixed results when compared to low-immersion media. In this study, a sample of 118 participants was used to test whether a lesson presented in either immersive VR or as a video could benefit from the pre-training principle, as a means of reducing cognitive load. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two method conditions (with/without pre-training), and one of two media conditions (immersive VR/video). The results showed an interaction between media and method, indicating that pre-training had a positive effect on knowledge (d = 0.81), transfer (d = 0.62), and self-efficacy (d = 0.64) directly following the intervention; and on self-efficacy (d = 0.84) in a one-week delayed post-test in the immersive VR condition. No effect was found for any of these variables within the video condition.
  • Effects of caption and gender on junior high students’ EFL learning from
           iMap-enhanced contextualized learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ming-Puu Chen, Li-Chun Wang, Di Zou, Shu-Yuan Lin, Haoran Xie With the global positioning function, mobile learning technology extends the capacity of modern learning to fulfill location-based learning for learners to learn everywhere contextually. This study developed a digital interactive geographic map (iMap) with GPS function to support location-based contextualized EFL learning. Four classes of ninth-graders from a junior high school voluntarily participated in the 2-session 70-min learning activities using tablet PCs. Two experimental groups (non-caption vs. English-caption) were implemented, and the effects of caption and gender on learning performance and motivation were examined. The results showed that the caption*gender interaction was significant on learning performance, and the male non-caption group outperformed the male English-caption group, while the female learners in both groups performed equally. As for motivation, the participants demonstrated positive motivation in all aspects (i.e., self-efficacy, proactive learning, learning value, achievement goal and environmental incentive), and the non-caption group showed higher degrees of motivation in self-efficacy, learning value and environmental incentive than the English-caption group, while the gender effect was non-significant on these motivation aspects. Furthermore, the caption*gender interaction on proactive learning and achievement goal indicated that captions tended to interfere male learners’ learning intention and sense of achievement, suggesting that the adaption of learning strategies to individual traits and gender differences is imperative. This research extends the investigation on issues concerning the application of iMap-enhanced contextualized learning to the research field of technology-enhanced language learning, and the findings further support the argument that contextualized learning induces high motivation and assists learners in language comprehension and application.
  • Parent-child interaction and children's learning from a coding application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Kelly J. Sheehan, Sarah C. Pila, Alexis R. Lauricella, Ellen A. Wartella Research suggests that children can learn educational concepts from well-designed applications (apps), including foundational science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) concepts. Parents may be important for promoting children's STEM learning from touchscreen apps, as parents can help their children learn from other media. However, little research has explored how parents and children use coding apps together for learning, and whether specific parent-child interactions in these contexts promote children's learning from apps. Therefore, we observed 31 parents and their 4.5- to 5.0-year old children playing a coding app together and coded for spatial talk, question-asking, task-relevant talk, and responsiveness. Results show that parents and children engaged in high-quality interactions during coding app play, with parents and children exhibiting high responsiveness and task-relevant talk, and parents exhibiting a higher proportion of question-asking and spatial talk compared to their children. Importantly, linear regression analyses show that the dyad's ability to stay on task during the coding task predicts children's learning of coding, while question-asking was a negative predictor of children's learning. These results suggest that coding apps may be a rich context for STEM learning, and that specific parent-child interactions can scaffold their children's learning from STEM apps.
  • A case study of immersive virtual field trips in an elementary classroom:
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Kun-Hung Cheng, Chin-Chung Tsai The academic evidence for examining the educational influences of immersive virtual reality (VR) with head-mounted displays (HMD) has been relatively limited until now, in particular for virtual field trips which allow teachers to guide students to explore learning elements in virtual environments. This study therefore invited 24 elementary school students to engage in an immersive virtual field trip which was part of a 2-week summer camp on the learning subject of social studies. The students' learning experiences (i.e., perceived presence, motivational beliefs change, and attitudes) were investigated and the teacher-student interaction behaviors in the learning activity were explored. The results showed that the students' motivation was generally enhanced, particularly for the diminishment of test anxiety. The important role of the perceptions of spatial presence and experienced realism in the students’ motivational beliefs was also addressed. Moreover, different behavioral patterns of teacher-student interactions during the process of the virtual field trips were identified by lag sequential analysis. This work started a pedagogical research to probe how HMD-based VR technology was applied in classrooms for teachers to lead their students on virtual field trips. The proposed instructional strategies for appropriately guiding students to learn during the process of immersive virtual field trips were also the contribution of this study.
  • The impact of Computers & Education measured beyond traditional
           bibliographical metrics.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Alejandro Echeverria, Miguel Nussbaum, Casper J. Albers, Rachelle S. Heller, Chin-Chung Tsai, Johan van Braak
  • Online social networking and subjective well-being: Mediating effects of
           envy and fatigue
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Mingming Zhou, Xiaotian Zhang The primary goal in this exploratory study is to test the theoretical relationships between social networking tools (i.e., Wechat), envy, fatigue and emerging adults’ well-being. We conducted a survey of 503 Chinese university students who are regular Wechat users. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the extensive use of Wechat had both direct and indirect effects on their well-being and that the association between Wechat use and subjective well-being was mediated by envy. These findings contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms through which the use of online social networking tools is related to subjective well-being and suggest the need to attend to the psychological consequences of the extensive use of social networking tools.
  • LOLsquared: When laughing-out-loud and learning-on-line intermingle in a
           computer-mediated classroom discussion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Jane S. Vogler, Sonya E. Munsell, Douglas Knutson The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the relationship that emerges between learning and humor when students are participating in computer-mediated classroom discussions. Graduate students enrolled in one of two sections of a hybrid seminar participated in synchronous online chats as a regular part of class. Conceptualizing learning as a process that reflects psychological change and humor as a social phenomenon that can support psychological well-being, transcripts were analyzed and coded for learning and humor. Analyses revealed that although a single comment was rarely coded for both learning and humor, these two constructs reflect an intermingling relationship throughout the socially-shared and co-created text of the online discussion. These findings contribute to our understanding of how students engaged in a computer-mediated discussion navigate the cognitive and social demands of the online context.
  • Exploring sequences of learner activities in relation to self-regulated
           learning in a massive open online course
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Jacqueline Wong, Mohammad Khalil, Martine Baars, Björn B. de Koning, Fred Paas Self-regulated learning (SRL) refers to how learners steer their own learning. Supporting SRL has been shown to enhance the use of SRL strategies and learning performance in computer-based learning environments. However, little is known about supporting SRL in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In this study, weekly SRL prompts were embedded as videos in a MOOC. We employed a sequential pattern mining algorithm, Sequential Pattern Discovery using Equivalence classes (cSPADE), on gathered log data to explore whether differences exist between learners who viewed the SRL-prompt videos and those who did not. Results showed that SRL-prompt viewers interacted with more course activities and completed these activities in a more similar sequential pattern than non SRL-prompt viewers. Also, SRL-prompt viewers tended to follow the course structure, which has been identified as a behavioral characteristic of students who scored higher on SRL (i.e., comprehensive learners) in previous research. Based on the results, implications for supporting SRL in MOOCs are discussed.
  • Detecting cognitive engagement using word embeddings within an online
           teacher professional development community
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Thushari Atapattu, Menasha Thilakaratne, Rebecca Vivian, Katrina Falkner Research states that effective teacher professional development (PD) engages teachers as active learners and co-creators of content. However, it is yet to be known whether such pedagogy impacts on cognitive engagement. We adopt the ICAP Framework to measure cognitive engagement in a teacher PD Massively Open Online Course (MOOC). We use word embeddings to automate the identification of teachers' community contributions as representing ‘active’ engagement by manipulating course materials, or ‘constructive’ engagement through the generation of new knowledge. We explored individual variation in engagement across units. Our findings demonstrated that the participants' cognitive engagement is influenced by the nature of MOOC tasks. We adopted a manual content analysis approach to explore constructive contributions. From 67 cases considered, all but one case was identified as containing ‘constructive knowledge’, providing a solid basis for replicating our proposed methodology to analyse cognitive engagement within the community-centric MOOC models.
  • Fear of missing out is associated with disrupted activities from receiving
           smartphone notifications and surface learning in college students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Dmiti Rozgonjuk, Jon D. Elhai, Tracii Ryan, Graham G. Scott Digital technologies, such as smartphones and tablets, can be useful in academic settings by allowing browsing for additional information, organizing the study process online, and facilitating communication between peers and instructors. On the other hand, several recent studies have shown that digital technology use can, in some circumstances, be negatively related to academic outcomes for some individuals. Fear of missing out (FOMO) could be one of these factors causing individual differences in how frequently people receive and react to interruptive notifications (INs). The aim of this study was to investigate how FOMO, the frequency of receiving INs, and stopping current activities due to INs, is associated with a surface approach to learning. Three hundred and sixteen U.S. university students responded to a web survey that included items regarding experiencing FOMO, the frequency of receiving INs and daily activity disruptions due to INs, and surface learning. Results showed that FOMO was associated with daily disrupted activities due to INs and surface learning, but not the frequency of receiving INs. Mediation analysis showed that the association between FOMO and surface learning was mediated by the frequency of daily disrupted activities due to INs. However, the nature of the sample somewhat restricts the generalizability of these results. The findings, their implications, and future directions are discussed.
  • Effects of remote labs on cognitive, behavioral, and affective learning
           outcomes in higher education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Lysanne S. Post, Pengyue Guo, Nadira Saab, Wilfried Admiraal This literature review on remote labs in higher education examined the empirical research on learning benefits of such labs. The aim of this study was to investigate what kinds of learning outcomes were examined, how these effects were examined, and which findings these studies provided. Effects that were examined in the reviewed articles (k = 23) concerned cognitive, behavioral, and affective learning outcomes. Overall, results showed positive findings with respect to all three types of learning outcomes: students gained conceptual knowledge, were engaged in the lab, and were satisfied with learning in a remote lab context. However, evaluation approaches of the learning outcomes were quite superficial, because examining the educational benefits of the remote labs was not the main focus of most articles. Future research should address this issue to provide more rigorous evidence about possible benefits of remote labs on student learning in higher education.
  • Investigating students' interaction patterns and dynamic learning
           sentiments in online discussions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chang-Qin Huang, Zhong-Mei Han, Ming-Xi Li, Morris Siu-yung Jong, Chin-Chung Tsai Convincing evidence found by educators and psychologists shows that students' interaction patterns of online discussions significantly affect their learning process, and are related to their learning sentiments. By using both quantitative content and lag sequential analysis, this study investigated students’ interaction patterns and dynamic learning sentiments by performing seven types of learning tasks on an asynchronous discussion platform. The research participants were 38 postgraduate students. The results revealed that, compared to students performing the individual-oriented learning tasks, those performing the group-oriented ones had more diverse learning sentiments and interaction patterns, and deeper interactions with regard to learning sentiments. In addition, their learning sentiments exhibited a periodic feature during the process of online learning. Based on the results, we presented a four-phase model for describing a process of diverse interactions in online learning environments. In particular, this model characterizes the interactions with dynamic learning sentiments including generation, collision and integration, refinement, as well as stability.
  • Digital textbooks are useful but not everyone wants them: The role of
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Silas Formunyuy Verkijika While many theoretical models generally expect a positive relationship between perceived usefulness and the adoption and continuance use of various technologies, the universality of the association has been questionable, suggesting the existence of boundary conditions on the relationship. This study proposes technostress as one such boundary condition and shows that it moderates both the direct and indirect effect of perceived usefulness on the adoption and continuance use of digital textbooks. Two theoretical models (i.e. Adoption model and Continuance use model) were proposed and tested with two samples of students from a South African University. An evaluation of the adoption model showed that the positive direct and indirect effect of perceived usefulness on adoption became non-significant under high levels of technostress. With respect to the continuance use model, it was observed that the direct and indirect effects of perceived usefulness were significant for different levels of technostress; however, the effect was weakest when technostress was high and highest when it was low. Additionally, technostress had a direct negative influence on both the adoption and continuance use of digital textbooks. The findings provide a nuanced understanding of the role of perceived usefulness in the pre and post-adoption phases of digital textbooks.
  • Effects of ASQ-based flipped learning on nurse practitioner learners’
           nursing skills, learning achievement and learning perceptions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hui-Chen Lin, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Yaw-Don Hsu Training and examining healthcare practitioners' nursing skills by situating them in a contextualized environment to interact with trained simulated patients and making required decisions based on the collected information is a widely adopted approach in nursing training. In a nursing skills course, the flipped learning method shifts the lecture time to the before-class time, allowing more time for teachers' guidance and skills practice in the class. However, if students do not have in-depth understanding in the individual learning space, their learning achievement is often not as expected. In this study, an ASQ (Annotation, Summarizing and Questioning)-based flipped learning strategy for nursing skills training is proposed to engage nurse practitioners (NPs) in deep and effective learning. Moreover, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the proposed approach on learners' learning achievement, nursing skills, self-efficacy, cognitive load, and critical thinking tendency. The experimental results showed that the approach not only improved NPs’ nursing skills, but also significantly increased their self-efficacy and critical thinking tendency.
  • More confusion and frustration, better learning: The impact of erroneous
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): J. Elizabeth Richey, Juan Miguel L. Andres-Bray, Michael Mogessie, Richard Scruggs, Juliana M.A.L. Andres, Jon R. Star, Ryan S. Baker, Bruce M. McLaren Prior research suggests students can sometimes learn more effectively by explaining and correcting example problems that have been solved incorrectly, compared to problem-solving practice or studying correct solutions. It remains unclear, however, what role students' affect might play in the process of learning from erroneous examples. Specifically, it may be that students experience greater confusion and frustration while studying erroneous examples, but that their confusion and frustration lead to greater learning. We analyzed student log data from previously published research comparing erroneous example instruction of decimal number mathematics to problem-solving instruction in a computer-based intelligent tutoring system. We created and applied affect detectors for a combination of confusion and frustration (“confrustion”) and compared the role of confrustion across conditions. As predicted, students in the erroneous example condition experienced greater confrustion while working through the instructional materials. However, contrary to predictions, confrustion was negatively correlated with posttest and delayed posttest performance across conditions, though less so for the erroneous example condition. Given that students in the erroneous example condition performed better on the delayed posttest than students in the problem-solving condition, it appears they learned more despite also experiencing greater confrustion rather than because of it. Results suggest that learning from erroneous examples may be an inherently more confusing and frustrating process than traditional problem solving. More generally, this research demonstrates that logging student actions at a step-by-step problem-solving level and analyzing those logs to infer affect can be a powerful way to investigate learning.
  • Student positions and web-based argumentation with the support of the six
           thinking hats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yu-Ren Lin The present study defined four types of stances/positions in students' argumentation regarding socio-scientific issues (SSIs): affirmative (A), oppositional (O), multiple (M), and non-committal (N) positions. The central goal of this study was to examine the effect of students' positions toward an issue on the science conceptual understanding and quality of their arguments. Three types of debates were concerned due to their abundant production of arguments: the debates between the (1) O vs. A, (2) O vs. M, and (3) O vs. N position students. The quasi-experimental design was adopted in which three 11th grade classes totaling 108 students were invited. They were assigned to the three required types of debate according to their positions regarding two given SSIs. The results showed that there were significant differences among the three debates on both the conceptual understanding and arguments produced by the students. The OA debate exhibited the best performance no matter in the conceptual understanding and the use of claims, warrants, and rebuttals. Moreover, the OM debate exhibited the best performance in terms of the use of qualifiers, whereas the ON debate students exhibited the lowest abilities and improvements.
  • Integrating academic type of social media activity with perceived academic
           performance: A role of task-related and non-task-related compulsive
           Internet use
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ching-Ter Chang, Chang-Shu Tu, Jeyhun Hajiyev The use of social media and compulsive Internet use among university students has become debatable concern due to both positive and negative effects on academic performance. Yet, little is known about how students' task-on and task-off Internet as well as social media use may influence their perceived academic performance. This study differentiates task-related and non-task-related compulsive Internet use and utilizes academic type of social media activity that predicts perceived academic performance with inclusion of task value as external variable and academic motivation as moderator. The SEM analysis of data collected from 489 Turkish students shows that academic type of social media activity and task-related compulsive Internet use positively impact perceived academic performance, while non-task-related compulsive Internet use negatively influences perceived academic performance. Perceived academic performance positively predicts task-related compulsive Internet use of students with a moderation effect of academic motivation. Another interesting finding is that perceived task value positively influences perceived academic performance in the context of non-task-related compulsive Internet use but not task-related compulsive Internet use, which is explained to the extent that the type of Internet use defines whether students value the process of learning (e.g., online searching of study materials, resources, academic contents) or the outcome (e.g., academic grades) mostly. Findings can help educators to lead the students appropriately use Internet and social media for academic purpose. Because, academic motivation can significantly contribute to students’ use of Internet for academic purpose regardless their need for relief, comfort in case of bad academic performance and grades.
  • Fostering both extensive and intensive threaded discourse—Discussion
           thread development and class size
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Computers & Education, Volume 139Author(s): Mingzhu Qiu This study aims to explore asynchronous discussion thread initiation and development in length of different class sizes based on analyses of 25 graduate-level courses and 22 interviews. It also targets to generate some suggestions to foster threaded discourse at discussion thread initiation, advancement, summary, and assessment stages from pedagogical, technical and theoretical perspectives. The statistics analyses uncovered that class size does matter in the number of threads and thread lengths by students and instructors, which indicated discussion foci on important topics. Most interviewees felt hard to follow threaded discussions to achieve true collaboration in large classes. Instructors and graduate-students had their preferences to initiate or follow a thread. The instructors used some pedagogical strategies to encourage discussion thread initiation and development. This study may have implications for both practitioners and researchers to develop new software features and design effective pedagogical strategies to achieve more fruitful extensive and intensive knowledge-building discourse.
  • Enhancing metacognitive awareness of undergraduates through using an
           e-educational video environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Serhat Altiok, Zeynep Baser, Erman Yukselturk Video portfolios provide students with opportunities of self-monitoring, evaluating and reflecting on their own performance, and receiving feedback from others such as their peers and teachers. However, the literature was lacking an investigation of the extent to which video portfolios might contribute to developing students' metacognitive awareness level in foreign language learning. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the potential effects of using an e-educational video portfolio environment supported with Kinect technology on enhancing students' metacognitive awareness level in foreign language learning. In order to achieve this goal, a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study was conducted at a state university located in Central Turkey. In total, eighty-five students took part in the study. The students had been divided into two sections at the beginning of the academic year. There were 42 students in Section 1, 43 students in Section 2. For the purposes of the study, the sections were randomly identified as the control and experimental group. The same curriculum was taught to both groups by the same instructor; however, the experimental group followed a video portfolio-integrated course supported with Kinect technology in face-to-face learning environment for 7 weeks in the second half of the semester whilst the control group continued the usual methods. The data was gathered by means of a Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI), which is a five-point likert scale, and three focus group interviews. The results showed that using an e-educational video portfolio environment enhanced students’ metacognitive awareness level and supported foreign language learning process effectively.
  • A meta-analysis of media literacy interventions for deviant behaviors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Xiaochun Xie, Xiaosong Gai, Yong Zhou The present meta-analysis tested the effects of media literacy interventions on deviant behaviors, such as alcohol, smoking, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders. A thorough literature search yielded a sample of 23 studies with 71 effect sizes. Results indicated that media literacy interventions showed a moderate effect size on reducing deviant behaviors. At posttest, Cohen's d = −0.32, 95% CI = [-0.43, −0.21]; at follow-up test, d = −0.23, 95% CI = [-0.31, −0.16]. There was no difference between the posttest and follow-up test. The present meta-analysis illustrates that media literacy interventions decrease deviant behaviors, and media literacy education is necessary for the positive development of children and adolescents.
  • Enhancing creativity through aesthetics-integrated computer-based
           training: The effectiveness of a FACE approach and exploration of
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yu-chu Yeh, Elisa Marie Rega, Szu-Yu Chen The present study proposes an interdisciplinary approach for creativity improvement that integrates Science, Technology, and Art. With the recently developing educational method of STEAM, which adds A (arts) into STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math), the valuableness of arts education and development of creativity enhancement techniques are being empirically evaluated. In concurrence with those endeavors, 76 college students participated in a control-group experimental design investigating the effectiveness of aesthetics-integrated computer-based FACE (Feedback, Aesthetic experience, Creative design, and Evaluation of designed products) training to promote cognitive aesthetic enhancement, for the purpose of improved creative performance on a 3-D coffee shop design. Moreover, emotional creativity and desire for aesthetics were examined as moderators. The findings suggest that the employed training program enhanced college students’ aesthetic understanding, and further improved their creativity through both conscious and unconscious processes. Notably, training that included constructive feedback led to better learning effects than that included informational feedback. In addition, emotional creativity and desire for aesthetics played moderating roles during the learning process of creativity. This study provides a new paradigm for improving creativity and the results support the possibility and importance of integrating aesthetics and creativity enhancement within STEM education to combat future challenges during this epoch of artificial intelligence.
  • Diving into the particle model: Examining the affordances of a single user
           participatory simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Elon Langbeheim, Sharona T. Levy What does participating as an entity in a simulation of a complex system contribute to learning' We compare the learning gains of eighth-grade students in a U.S. public school who used a Single User Participatory Simulation (SUPS) with a comparison group who learned the same concepts using a conventional simulation. We find that the SUPS affords significantly larger learning gains and that it is no more likely than the conventional simulation to cause misconceptions. In addition, we find that users of the participatory simulation report significantly more interest and enjoyment than users of the conventional simulation. Additional qualitative analysis suggests that students perceive participatory simulations as more helpful because they enable a deeper interaction with the model and are more engaging than conventional simulations. Our findings contribute to ongoing research on the contribution of sensomotor modality in reducing cognitive load. In addition is deepens the understanding of design features that enhance emotional engagement while using simulations, and the relation of emotional engagement to the learning gains of the users.
  • Adaptive multimedia: Using gaze-contingent instructional guidance to
           provide personalized processing support
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Katharina Scheiter, Carina Schubert, Anne Schüler, Holger Schmidt, Gottfried Zimmermann, Benjamin Wassermann, Marie-Christin Krebs, Thérése Eder The goal of the study was to develop an adaptive, gaze-contingent learning environment that would support learners in their information-processing behavior when learning from illustrated texts. To this end, three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 (N = 32) three groups of learners were identified based on differences in their eye movements obtained while they were learning with a non-adaptive multimedia learning environment. The group of learners who displayed longer fixations times and higher fixations counts on text and pictures as well as more text-picture transitions had better learning outcomes than a group with a less intense information-processing behavior. These findings were used to develop a gaze-contingent adaptive system. It analyzes learners’ eye movements during learning in real time and - in case of poor information processing (i.e., behavior similar to that of the unsuccessful learner group in Experiment 1) - alters the presentation of the materials in a way that is expected to trigger a more adequate processing (e.g., by highlighting relations between text and pictures). In Experiment 2 (N = 79) and Experiment 3 (N = 62) the adaptive multimedia learning system was compared to a non-adaptive, static presentation of the same materials. Experiment 2 showed no differences between both learning systems in terms of learning outcome. In Experiment 3, where the thresholds for adaptive responses were slightly modified, the gaze-based adaptive system hindered learners with weaker cognitive prerequisites, but tended to support learners with stronger cognitive prerequisites. Possible reasons are discussed and future research directions suggested.
  • Mobile virtual reality for musical genre learning in primary education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Edoardo Degli Innocenti, Michele Geronazzo, Diego Vescovi, Rolf Nordahl, Stefania Seran, Luca Andrea Ludovico, Federico Avanzini Mobile virtual reality (VR) is increasingly becoming popular and accessible to everyone that holds a smartphone. In particular, digital didactics can take advantage of natural interaction and immersion in virtual environments, starting from primary education. This paper investigates the problem of enhancing music learning in primary education through the use of mobile VR. To this end, technical and methodological frameworks were developed, and were tested with two classes in the last year of a primary school (10 years old children). The classes were involved in an evaluation study on music genre identification and learning with a multi-platform mobile application called VR4EDU. Students were immersed in music performances of different genres (e.g., classical, country, jazz, and swing), navigating inside several musical rooms. The evaluation of the didactic protocol shows a statistically significant improvement in learning genre characterization (i.e., typical instruments and their spatial arrangements on stage) compared to traditional lessons with printed materials and passive listening. These results show that the use of mobile VR technologies in synergy with traditional teaching methodologies can improve the music learning experience in primary education, in terms of active listening, attention, and time. The inclusion of pupils with certified special needs strengthened our results.
  • The Teacher Responding Tool: Scaffolding the teacher practice of
           responding to student ideas in mathematics classrooms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): James P. Bywater, Jennifer L. Chiu, James Hong, Vidhya Sankaranarayanan Research in teacher education highlights the importance of responding to student ideas. However, effectively noticing, interpreting, and then responding to students' mathematical ideas can be quite challenging for teachers as they try to balance multiple, competing goals in an authentic classroom setting. This study introduces the Teacher Responding Tool (TRT), and examines its role in scaffolding four high school teachers' responding practice. The TRT leverages natural language processing technology to provide teachers with automated, student-specific recommendations for how to respond to their student's ideas. By comparing teacher responding with and without the TRT recommendations, their interactions with the tool, their think-aloud data, and their post-project interviews, results demonstrate that the TRT recommendations helped teachers notice and respond to nuances in the mathematical ideas of their students. Implications for teaching and learning, responding tool development, and teacher professional development are discussed.
  • Learning to be better at the game: Performance vs. completion contingent
           reward for game-based learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Juneyoung Park, Seunghyun Kim, Auk Kim, Mun Y. Yi The difficulty of designing intrinsically integrated game-based learning systems has led to alternative design strategies based on extrinsic integration. This study extends prior work on extrinsic integration design by examining the effectiveness of alternative reward structures in integrating learning and game. Specifically, a performance-contingent reward is proposed as a new integration mechanism and its effects on learning, motivation, engagement, and system perception are assessed, vis-à-vis a completion-contingent reward. A group of university students (N = 64) were involved in an empirical experiment designed to determine the effectiveness of the new reward structure in the context of English vocabulary learning and arrow-shooting gaming. The results from the experiment show that the proposed reward structure produces a statistically significant increase in the level of learning, motivation, and engagement. The results are highly encouraging for game-based learning research as the proposed approach is easily extendable, with design implications that are directly applicable.
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