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Computers & Education
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.626
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 212  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0360-1315
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3182 journals]
  • Examining supervising field instructors’ reporting and assessment of
           technology use by pre-service teachers on school placement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Oliver McGarr, Ciarán Ó. Gallchóir This study examines supervising field instructors' reporting and assessment of technology use on School Placement. The research examined a sample of reports by supervising field instructors containing their assessment of pre-service teachers' use of technology in their teaching. Findings highlight that technology was seen exclusively as a presentation aid for teaching and concerns were expressed by the field instructors about ‘overuse’ of technology by the pre-service teachers. While highlighting the need for further professional development, the paper also highlights the complex interplay of both school-related and university-related factors that influence how pre-service teachers use technology.
  • Digital competencies: A review of the literature and applications in the
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Maren Oberländer, Andrea Beinicke, Tanja Bipp In today's organisations and politics, there is a growing awareness of the gap between existing and needed digital competencies of the workforce to master the challenges of the digitalised future at work. Nevertheless, no comprehensive framework or definition of digital competencies at work has been proposed so far. Our aim is to offer a holistic view and broaden the scope of the concept of digital competencies, thereby focussing on applications at work. We combine diverse methods to integrate different perspectives on digital competencies. By conducting an extensive literature review about definitions and frameworks of digital competencies that might be applicable at work, we provide an overview of the current state of the art in research on digital competencies. Additionally, eleven half-structured interviews based on the critical incidents technique (CIT) were conducted to gain insights into the perspectives of professionals with expertise in digitalisation processes and digital competencies. Subsequently, researchers with different educational backgrounds clustered the results from both approaches and agreed on twenty-five dimensions that constitute digital competencies for white-collar workers with office jobs, encompassing a large variety of knowledge, skills, and abilities. The results of this research indicate that even though there is overlapping content, each perspective adds unique content to the concept of digital competencies at work. By creating a coherent and detailed framework and a definition, our research enhances the applicability of professional learning and development of digital competencies at work.
  • Effects of peer assessment within the context of spherical video-based
           virtual reality on EFL students’ English-Speaking performance and
           learning perceptions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Shu-Yun Chien, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Morris Siu-Yung Jong English has been recognized as a means of communication around the globe. However, owing to the lack of realistic English practicing contexts, EFL (English as Foreign Language) students generally have few opportunities to communicate with people in English, not to mention to get feedback from others for making reflections. In this study, a spherical video-based virtual reality (SVVR) environment was developed to situate students in authentic English-speaking contexts; moreover, the peer assessment (PA) strategy was employed for guiding students to provide comments on peers' speaking performance and to make reflections on their own performance. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted in a high school English course. The experiment results reveal more positive effects of the peer-assessment-based SVVR approach compared with the non-peer-assessment-based SVVR approach in terms of the learners' English speaking, learning motivation, and critical thinking skills, as well as reducing their English learning anxiety. Moreover, it was found that the ratings of the students were statistically correlated with those of the teacher. This study further analyzed the types of peer comments by categorizing them into four types: Praise, Criticism, Opinion, and Irrelevant. It was found that Praise feedback was helpful for the students' English-speaking performance, while Criticism feedback might have been unfavorable in this case. Additionally, Irrelevant feedback was not significantly correlated with the students’ performance in the earlier PA stage, but had a significantly negative correlation in the later stage.
  • Impact of graph technologies in K-12 science and mathematics education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Dermot Francis Donnelly-Hermosillo, Libby F. Gerard, Marcia C. Linn Graph technologies are now widely available in K-12 science and mathematics classrooms. These technologies have the potential to impact the learning of science and mathematics, especially by supporting student investigations. We use meta-analysis to analyze 42 design and comparison studies involving data from 7699 students spanning over 35 years. In these studies, graphing technologies include computer software such as simulations; online tools such as graph utilities; and sensors such as temperature probes. We characterize the assessments used to measure graphing. We describe the investigative activities that graphing supports including generating hypotheses or predictions, collecting data, analyzing or interpreting data, and reflecting. Studies show that graphing technologies impact learning of mathematics and science topics as well as graphing itself. These technologies are especially advantageous for learning complex topics where students need to conduct investigations to interpret change over time or position such as functions, kinematics, and thermodynamics. Recent studies take advantage of logs of student interactions to study the design of automated guidance for graphing. We discuss the implications of these findings for instruction at the K-12 level.
  • Can children benefit from early internet exposure' Short- and
           long-term links between internet use, digital skill, and academic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Lisa B. Hurwitz, Kelly L. Schmitt Educational policymakers are optimistic that providing young children access to technology can catalyze academic achievement and eventual positive labor market outcomes. However, possessing digital skill – or the ability to use technology effectively – might be necessary for young children to realize measurable benefits from the Internet. In the present longitudinal study, we explored whether Internet use and digital skill in early childhood predicted academic performance in middle childhood. We surveyed 101 US parents when their children were roughly 5 years and 11 years, collecting data on children's Internet use, digital skill, and academic performance. Structural equation modeling revealed that children's time online in early childhood was a marginally significant negative predictor of middle childhood academic performance, but digital skill in early childhood was a marginally significant positive predictor (ps 
  • Does “Measure Up!” measure up' Evaluation of an iPad app to teach
           preschoolers measurement concepts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Katerina Schenke, Elizabeth J.K.H. Redman, Gregory K.W.K. Chung, Sandy M. Chang, Tianying Feng, Charles B. Parks, Jeremy Roberts Understanding digital supports for early learning is paramount for school readiness and later mathematics learning. We present results from a randomized control trial evaluating a digital app (Measure Up!) and a parent companion app (Super Vision) designed to teach children measurement concepts, a skill that many teachers do not feel comfortable teaching. Ninety-nine 4- and 5-year-old children were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Measure Up! Super Vision + Measure Up! or a control game. Analyses revealed a statistically significant effect of being in the treatment group (Measure Up! or Measure Up! + Super Vision) on children's posttest scores (about two additional questions correct), controlling for the pretest and demographic characteristics (gender, SES). In particular, gains were made for children's understanding of pan balances. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups. Results suggest that apps can be designed to help children learn important mathematics skills; however, more research needs to be done to understand how parent supports can be better designed. Implications for evaluation and design of game-based learning tools are discussed.
  • Learning with multimedia: The effects of gender, type of multimedia
           learning resources, and spatial ability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Misook Heo, Natalie Toomey The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gender and type of multimedia resource on learning outcomes while controlling for the effect of spatial ability. This study also aimed to investigate the differences in learning outcomes between retention and transfer questions. The independent variables for the study were gender and type of multimedia resources (static versus animated), and the covariate was spatial ability. The dependent variables for the first study goal were learning outcomes measured by performance scores in two procedural learning tasks (functioning of a toilet cistern and a car brake system). The dependent variables for the second study goal were learning outcomes measured by retention and transfer performance scores in the two procedural learning tasks. A total of 245 undergraduate students completed participation online. As anticipated, spatial ability had the most significant overall influence on learning outcomes. Gender differences were also found, even after controlling for spatial ability. The study, however, failed to identify effects of multimedia type in learning outcomes. Male participants consistently outperformed female participants in all learning tasks, regardless of the multimedia type. While the scores from the transfer questions were lower than the scores from retention questions, as expected, this decline was significantly less for males in the car brakes task. This was not the case in the toilet cistern task however, implying a potential subject domain effect. Overall, this study is significant in that it offers empirical evidence of gender effects, separate from spatial ability, when learning with multimedia resources.
  • Design principles for fostering pedagogical provenance through research in
           technology supported learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Keith Turvey, Norbert Pachler This paper contributes new critical and theoretical approaches that build the capacity to link research and practice in the field of educational technology. Building on a recent meta-narrative review of the problematic concepts of impact and measurability of educational technologies, we explore the case for methodological design principles that could have the effect of increasing the pedagogical provenance of research into technology supported learning. We extend our previous review by exploring how the design principles we have delineated can contribute to evidence, that increases pedagogical provenance. We also extend this work through critical reflection on how meta-narrative approaches to reviews have the potential to contribute to increased pedagogical provenance in ways that systematic reviews often fall short.
  • What are you doing over there' Divergent collaboration and learner
           transitions from unproductive to productive states in open-ended inquiry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Mike Tissenbaum While open-ended and tinkering-based learning environments offer considerable support for developing STEM-based reasoning and collaboration skills, understanding how and when learners are engaged in productive or unproductive exploration is a pressing challenge. This is particularly true in museums where dwell times are short and visitors can enter and exit exhibits at varying times. In response, this work aimed to answer two questions: 1) How can we combine learning analytics and qualitative approaches to understand how learners move from unproductive to productive states during open-ended inquiry' 2) What role do interactions with others play in supporting participants' transitions to productive states' To answer these questions, this study examined how combining a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and interaction analysis together can reveal important elements of participants’ collaboration and exploration that would likely be lost if each method were applied in isolation. The methods were applied to visitors participating at an interactive multi-touch exhibit (named Oztoc). The application of HMM successfully captured when participants transitioned from persistent unproductive to productive states, while interaction analysis using the Divergent Collaborative Learning Mechanisms framework (DCLM) showed how specific divergent collaborative interactions supported these transitions. In particular, we reveal the role that visitors engaging in Boundary Spanning Perception and Boundary Spanning Action played in these transitions. More broadly, this work shows how designs that provide opportunities for these kinds of interactions may help learners effectively transition out of sustained states of unproductive persistence.
  • The Summer Learning Journey: Ameliorating the summer learning effect using
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Rachel Williamson, Rebecca Jesson, Daisy Shepherd The present study was conducted to meet the needs of a group of schools in a low-income community which have sought to enhance student engagement and achievement through digital learning, but whose continued success is hampered by an ongoing Summer Learning Effect (SLE). This study contributes to understandings about how to design a summer blogging program that both engages students and supports ongoing literacy learning over summer. Existing small-scale studies provide reason to expect that continuation of a school blogging approach is likely to be an effective component to ameliorating the effect of summer for economically disadvantaged students. Here we build on those attempts by investigating how to design such a program to maximise participation and engagement, and then test the efficacy of that design. Program development was a multi-phased, iterative process consistent with a design-based approach to educational research (Anderson & Shattuck, 2012). Learning design needed to be both appealing, to promote sign up, and engaging, to promote ongoing use. Results suggest that blogging in response to well-designed activities had an impact on the summer learning effect in writing and in reading.
  • The role of gamified e-quizzes on student learning and engagement: An
           interactive gamification solution for a formative assessment system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Zamzami Zainuddin, Muhammad Shujahat, Hussein Haruna, Samuel Kai Wah Chu This study investigated the differences in learners' performance and perceived engagement between three intervention groups in a Science class, using two types of pedagogical intervention: traditional instruction with paper-based quizzes and gamified instruction with gamified e-quizzes as formative assessments. With respect to the gamified instruction, three types of gamification applications were employed: Socrative, Quizizz, and iSpring Learn LMS. The effects of the instructional intervention (n = 94), as well as evaluative feedback, were obtained with the aid of formative quizzes, post-questionnaire surveys, and personal interviews. The results showed that the employment of innovative gamified e-quiz applications (i.e., Socrative, Quizizz, and iSpring Learn LMS) and paper-based quizzes were effective in evaluating students' learning performance, particularly as formative assessment after completing each topic. Finding ways to apply games or game concepts in the classroom can be a promising and innovative tool for educators to engage their students in creative learning skills and attractive competition.
  • Students’ behavioral intention to use and achievements in ICT-Integrated
           mathematics remedial instruction: Case study of a calculus course
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chen Chiu-Liang, Wu Cheng-Chih Mathematics remedial instruction is a mathematics education topic worthy of attention; therefore, studying how to effectively implement remedial instruction is essential. A Grade 12 calculus course was used as a case study for exploring the effects of information and communication technology (ICT)-integrated mathematics remedial instruction and factors affecting students' intention to use. A within-group design was adopted to examine whether students' grades on the same type of question in a posttest were significantly higher than in a pretest using a paired samples t-test. Results showed that when ICT-integrated mathematics remedial instruction was not implemented, students' scores in the posttest were not significantly higher; however, after implementing ICT-integrated mathematics remedial instruction, the grades in the posttest were significantly higher. Regarding students' intention to use ICT-integrated mathematics remedial instruction, the research model was developed from the technology acceptance model. This study analyzed data collected from questionnaires using the partial-least-squares structural equation modeling multivariate data analysis method. The results indicated that (1) perceived usefulness significantly affected attitude toward use and behavioral intention to use; (2) attitude toward use significantly affected behavioral intention to use; and (3) attitude toward use exhibited significant mediating effects between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention to use, indicating that perceived usefulness primarily affected students’ behavioral intention to use through attitude toward use. The results may facilitate the application of technology to implement mathematics remedial instruction.
  • Children's reading comprehension and metacomprehension on screen versus on
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Vered Halamish, Elisya Elbaz On-screen reading is becoming increasingly prevalent in educational settings, and children are now are expected to comprehend texts that they read on screens. However, research suggests that reading on screen impairs comprehension compared to reading on paper. Furthermore, this medium effect is not reflected in adults' metacomprehension judgments, which often reflect greater overconfidence when reading on screen. Adults are therefore usually metacognitively unaware of the detrimental effect that on-screen reading has on their comprehension. Whether and how the medium affects children's metacomprehension has not been examined before. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of the medium used for reading (screen vs. paper) on children's reading comprehension and metacomprehension. Fifth grade children (N = 38) read short texts, estimated their comprehension of each text, and answered a reading comprehension test. They completed this task on paper for two texts and on screen for two other texts. Results suggested that the children's reading comprehension was better when reading on paper than on screen, although initial reading time was equivalent. This paper advantage was independent of medium preferences, computer usage habits, or reading skills. Children's metacomprehension judgments were insensitive to the effect of medium, and their medium preferences further suggested that they were indifferent to the medium used for reading, both before and after experiencing the task on both media. These results suggest that children, like adults, are metacognitively unaware of the detrimental effect that on-screen reading has on their comprehension, and they are likely to make ineffective medium choices for their reading tasks.
  • Exploring group interactions in synchronous mobile computer-supported
           learning activities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Martina Holenko Dlab, Ivica Boticki, Natasa Hoic-Bozic, Chee Kit Looi This paper presents the results of a study of synchronous mobile computer-supported collaborative learning (mCSCL) that emphasized levels of pre-structuring in the context of primary school participants who need more guidance to benefit from the collaborative work. The male and female participants, who were, on average, 8-year-old primary school students, used Internet-connected mobile devices to work synchronously in small groups on mathematics tasks. The study examined two mCSCL interaction modes. In the first mode, each group member is assigned a role, and should have completed one part of the task before the group members negotiated their solutions. In the second mode, all group members completed parts of the task individually, and then negotiated their solutions to progress through the activity. The two interaction modes were compared in terms of student task completion attempts and incorrect completion attempts. The study results are of medium to large effect size and indicated that for tasks of lower difficulty, task distribution using roles led to statistically significantly more incorrect task completion attempts compared to the design without roles. For tasks of greater difficulty, there were more incorrect task completion attempts in groups with no explicit distribution of work compared to the groups with roles. The design of synchronous mCSCL technology emphasizes the importance of state preservation mechanisms, synchronization mechanisms, and immediate feedback messages. Practical implications of this study are that teachers must actively consider the type of mCSCL design they choose when preparing their mobile collaborative lessons, and choose an adequate design for the planned task difficulty level.
  • Development and validation of Second Language Online Reading Strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Jie Li Past second language (L2) reading research has widely discussed reading strategies and developed measures within traditional reading contexts. However, few have included technology and its novel features to cope with changes in reading contexts. Even fewer were developed for use by adult and tertiary-level L2 readers. This paper describes the development and validation of a new self-report instrument, the Second Language Online Reading Strategies Inventory (SLORSI), which is designed to measure adult and tertiary-level readers' use of online reading strategies when reading academic or study-related materials in a L2 learning context. Validation was carried out by means of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A second-order modeling approach was adopted to capture the underlying structures of online reading strategies. Results of EFA and CFA suggest a 29 item, four-factor scale which comprises two second-order factors, ‘new strategies’ and ‘traditional strategies’ and two first-order factors, ‘evaluating’ and ‘communicative strategies’. The new strategies encompass four first-order factors, namely, locating, synthesizing, saving and navigating strategies while the traditional strategies include three first-order factors, inferring, skimming and translating strategies. The instrument meets validity and reliability criteria. Applications of the instrument are discussed, as are the implications for teaching, learning and research.
  • Investigating acceptance of mobile library application with extended
           technology acceptance model (TAM)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hamaad Rafique, Azra Shamim, Fozia Anwar Mobile applications are getting a great deal of interest among researchers due to their proliferation and pervasiveness, especially in the context of digital libraries of educational institutes. However, their low acceptance and usage are observed, hence, in-depth investigations are required in order to understand the factors behind low acceptance and intention to use mobile library application (MLA). Therefore, the aim of this work is to empirically explore the acceptance of MLA with a proposed model that is evolved from the technology acceptance model (TAM). The study objects to deliver empirical provision on acceptance of MLA. A self-administrated cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted to gather data from 340 users of MLA. Structural equation model (SEM) with an analysis of moment structure (AMOS) software was conducted to examine quantitative data. Results revealed that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are direct significant predictors with the intention to use MLA whereas system quality and habit are the influencing factors toward the usage intention of MLA. The findings help as a guide for effective decision in the design and development of MLA. Further, the outcomes can be utilized in the resource allocation process for ensuring the success of library's vision and mission.
  • Impact of augmented reality technology on academic achievement and
           motivation of students from public and private Mexican schools. A case
           study in a middle-school geometry course
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): María Blanca Ibáñez, Aldo Uriarte Portillo, Ramón Zatarain Cabada, María Lucía Barrón In this paper, the authors show that augmented reality technology has a positive impact on learning-related outcomes of middle-school Mexican students. However, the impact varies depending on whether students were enrolled in public or private schools.The authors designed an augmented reality application for students to practice the basic principles of geometry, and a similar application which encompasses identical learning objectives and content deployed in a Web-based learning environment. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design was employed with 93 participants to investigate the effect of type of technology (web, augmented reality), type of school (private, public), and time of assessment (pre, post) on motivation, and declarative learning. The results show that: (1) there is an interactive effect of type of technology, type of school, and time of assessment when students' achievement scores are measured; (2) students using the augmented reality-based learning environments scored higher in post-test than those using the web-based application; (3) the augmented reality learning environment was more learning effective compared with the web-based learning environment in public schools, but not in private schools; (4) there is not an interactive effect of type of technology, type of school and time of assessment when students’ motivation is measured; (5) students from private schools reported higher levels of motivation compared with those from public schools when using the augmented reality learning environment. The research findings imply that in Mexico, augmented reality technology can be exploited as an effective learning environment for helping middle-school students from public and private schools to practice the basic principles of Geometry.
  • Editorial: Educational technology and addictions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Carolina Melo Hurtado, Leonardo Madariaga, Miguel Nussbaum, Rachelle Heller, Sue Bennett, Chin-Chung Tsai, Johan van Braak
  • Exploring student information problem solving behaviour using fine-grained
           concept map and search tool data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Alexander Whitelock-Wainwright, Nathan Laan, Dunwei Wen, Dragan Gašević For learners to be successful in an information problem solving task, they should be able to effectively regulate their own behaviour. Despite views that such behaviour may come naturally to an individual, research generally shows that some learners do experience problems with information problem solving that may stem from such things as limited prior knowledge. As a means of addressing this challenge, the authors explored how the provision of both a concept map and search tool could overcome barriers to effective information problem solving. This was explored in the current study using data collected from 111 undergraduate students who completed an information problem solving activity, wherein a concept map and search tool were provided to help them write two short essays. Through the use of event-sequence analysis and hierarchical clustering, two information problem solving strategy groups were identified (High Engagement and Low Engagement), which differed across time-on-task and essay grades. Additional analyses were undertaken to explore self-reported prior knowledge or motivation as predictors of group assignment. The findings show that even when presented with opportunities (i.e., concept map) to support effective information problem solving, not all learners will take advantage or glean the benefits of such tools. Trace data methodology is shown to be a promising approach to explore information problem solving behaviour that can overcome the limitations of solely relying upon self-report measures.
  • Multi-touch, gesture-based simulations: Impacts on learning optical
           imaging and mental model development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Cheng-Yu Hung, Wei-Wei Xu, Yu-Ren Lin This study examines the effects of different simulation interface designs on students' conceptual understanding of optical imaging and mental model development, and clarifies these design implications on students' behavioral performance and average residence time. We developed simulations of two different interfaces—gesture- and mouse-based simulations—to collect and compare data from two respective student groups. We utilized a quasi-experimental design, and selected and assigned 64 sixth-grade students to the gesture-and mouse-based simulation groups. The results showed a significant difference between the mental model tests (MMT) of the two groups. Specifically, among the three aspects of a mental model, answer (phenomenon) and explanations (which explain the phenomenon) showed more significant differences with the use of gesture-based than mouse-based simulations. The multivariate analysis of variance results indicated that students using gesture-based simulations demonstrated a longer average residence time than those using mouse-based simulations. Further, the study results suggest that compared to a traditional mouse-based interface, the application of multi-touch gestures in optical imaging concept learning enabled not only the development of a more complete mental model but also the improvement of students’ science explanation skills.
  • Considering cultural variables in the instructional design process: A
           knowledge-based advisor system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Isabelle Savard, Jacqueline Bourdeau, Gilbert Paquette This article presents research works in which a cultural adaptation method and a knowledge-based advisor to help instructional designers in considering cultural variables during the instructional design process have been developed. To do so, a conceptual model of Culture was elaborated, cultural variables were identified and knowledge regarding these variables was modeled via an ontology that served to create the “Cultural Diversity” knowledge base integrating knowledge regarding five cultures. The advisor tool uses this knowledge to advise instructional designers on how to adapt a pedagogical scenario to a culture other than their own or for learners with a culture that is different from the one for which a pedagogical scenario was originally designed. The methodology used is Design-Based Research (DBR) and contains five iterations.
  • Temporal analysis for dropout prediction using self-regulated learning
           strategies in self-paced MOOCs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Pedro Manuel Moreno-Marcos, Pedro J. Muñoz-Merino, Jorge Maldonado-Mahauad, Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, Carlos Alario-Hoyos, Carlos Delgado Kloos MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have usually high dropout rates. Many articles have proposed predictive models in order to early detect learners at risk to alleviate this issue. Nevertheless, existing models do not consider complex high-level variables, such as self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies, which can have an important effect on learners' success. In addition, predictions are often carried out in instructor-paced MOOCs, where contents are released gradually, but not in self-paced MOOCs, where all materials are available from the beginning and users can enroll at any time. For self-paced MOOCs, existing predictive models are limited in the way they deal with the flexibility offered by the course start date, which is learner dependent. Therefore, they need to be adapted so as to predict with little information short after each learner starts engaging with the MOOC. To solve these issues, this paper contributes with the study of how SRL strategies could be included in predictive models for self-paced MOOCs. Particularly, self-reported and event-based SRL strategies are evaluated and compared to measure their effect for dropout prediction. Also, the paper contributes with a new methodology to analyze self-paced MOOCs when carrying out a temporal analysis to discover how early prediction models can serve to detect learners at risk. Results of this article show that event-based SRL strategies show a very high predictive power, although variables related to learners' interactions with exercises are still the best predictors. That is, event-based SRL strategies can be useful to predict if e.g., variables related to learners’ interactions with exercises are not available. Furthermore, results show that this methodology serves to achieve early powerful predictions from about 25 to 33% of the theoretical course duration. The proposed methodology presents a new approach to predict dropouts in self-paced MOOCs, considering complex variables that go beyond the classic trace-data directly captured by the MOOC platforms.
  • Investigating the reliability and validity of the community of inquiry
           framework: An analysis of categories within each presence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Géraldine Heilporn, Sawsen Lakhal In online or blended environments, the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework sets that a meaningful educational experience derives from the interrelation of teaching, social and cognitive presences. Each presence is subdivided, resulting in a structure in ten categories at the basis for the CoI survey instrument. Although the survey structure in three presences was repeatedly validated in the literature, the categories within presences were not and were consequently investigated in this study. High internal consistencies between items of each category demonstrated that the structure is reliable. Its convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses, that further allowed to reinforce the construct validation by evaluating its factorial invariance across independent samples collected in two universities and varying in gender and age (n1 = 343; n2 =  420). To assess its discriminant validity and because high estimated correlations between categories were observed, alternative structures in eight, seven and six factors were also compared to the original ten-category structure. They were all valid despite yielding inferior fits. The partial structural invariance of CoI structures in categories were also confirmed across groups. Next, a CoI structure in three presences resulted in an insufficient fit to data across independent groups. Much more conclusively, a second-order structure including both presences and categories demonstrated a very good fit to the data, highlighting the importance of categories to reflect students’ perceptions. This paper, although presented at a conceptual level, enlightens the potential of studying the influence of categories on each other, learning outcomes, or to identify areas of improvement in online and blended courses by relying on meaningful and trustful categories that further characterize the well-known presences.
  • Effects of student-generated feedback corresponding to answers to online
           student-generated questions on learning: What, why, and how'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Fu-Yun Yu, Wan-Shan Wu The theoretical underpinnings of and learning processes activated by student-generated feedback corresponding to potential answers given to student-generated questions (SGQ) were explicated, and its learning effects were examined. Four classes of seventh-graders (n = 109) participated in a non-equivalent pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research study that lasted nine weeks. The results from the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and content analysis of student-generated feedback supported the finding that significantly more benefits were gained from students engaging in feedback-generation for SGQ. These benefits were noted in terms of increases in the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies, the promotion of better question-generation quality, and the fostering of perspective-taking abilities. Suggestions and implications for instruction and future studies as well as caveats for implementing teachers are provided.
  • Design fictions for learning: A method for supporting students in
           reflecting on technology in Human-Computer Interaction courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Amon Rapp Design fictions describe non-existing prototype devices and services, encouraging reflection on technology matters. However, until now most of the fictional design work has been carried out either by “experts” to foster critical thinking within the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) community, or by user groups to mostly define requirements for creating novel devices. In this article, we aim to use design fictions as a method for supporting students in thinking of the assumptions and consequences of emerging technologies. We report a multi-year experience in using fictional design in the context of academic education to show that such method can be employed to both teach fundamental elements of technology design and HCI and, at the same time, elicit a critical thinking, helping students reflect on the ramifications of their creations and their role as designers. We discuss the methodological implications, pointing out the opportunities this method opens as well as its weaknesses. Finally, we propose a series of methodological suggestions addressed to facilitate the use of design fictions as a “tool for reflection.”
  • What predicts student satisfaction with MOOCs: A gradient boosting trees
           supervised machine learning and sentiment analysis approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Khe Foon Hew, Xiang Hu, Chen Qiao, Ying Tang This study defines MOOC success as the extent of student satisfaction with the course. Having more satisfied MOOC students can extend the reach of an institution to more people, build the brand name of the institution, and even help the institution use MOOCs as a source of revenue. Traditionally, student completion rate is frequently used to define MOOC success, which however, is often inaccurate because many students have no intention of finishing a MOOC. Informed by Moore's theory of transactional distance, this study adopted supervised machine learning algorithm, sentiment analysis and hierarchical linear modelling to analyze the course features of 249 randomly sampled MOOCs and 6393 students' perceptions of these MOOCs. The results showed that course instructor, content, assessment, and schedule play significant roles in explaining student satisfaction, while course structure, major, duration, video, interaction, perceived course workload and perceived difficulty play no significant roles. This study adds to the extant literature by examining specific learner-level and course-level factors that can predict MOOC learner satisfaction and estimating their relative effects. Implications for MOOC instructors and practitioners are also provided.
  • Learning to evaluate: An intervention in civic online reasoning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Sarah McGrew Students turn to the Internet for information but often struggle to evaluate the trustworthiness of what they find. Teachers should help students develop effective evaluation strategies in order to ensure that students have access to reliable information on which to base decisions. This study reports on the results of an attempt to teach students to reason about online information. Students were taught strategies for evaluating digital content that were based on the practices of professional fact checkers.Eight lessons were devoted to teaching students strategies to effectively evaluate digital content. Pre- and posttests, each composed of four brief, constructed-response items, were administered to 68 eleventh grade students who participated in the study. Students' scores improved significantly from pre-to posttest on three of the four tasks: students demonstrated an improved ability to investigate the source of a website, critique evidence, and locate reliable sources during an open Internet research. These results are promising and suggest that explicit instruction on fact-checking strategies may help students develop more effective online evaluation strategies.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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