Journal Cover Computers & Education
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0360-1315
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Assessing children's interpersonal emotion regulation with virtual agents:
           The serious game Emodiscovery
    • Authors: Daniela Pacella; Belén López-Pérez
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 123
      Author(s): Daniela Pacella, Belén López-Pérez
      Emotion regulation (ER) is key for children's development and it has recently been considered in many serious games and e-learning technologies. However, these tools have focused on children's efforts to change their own emotions (intrapersonal ER), overlooking how children may engage in modifying the emotions of others (interpersonal ER). To address this gap, we have developed a multiplatform online serious game, Emodiscovery, which evaluates whether children (8-11 year-olds) tend to use different adaptive and maladaptive regulation strategies to change others' negative emotions with the use of 3D animated characters. The game is organized into levels, each representing a different scenario, where the child is asked to interact with the character three times choosing an appropriate regulation strategy to cheer him or her up from four possible options, being two adaptive and two maladaptive strategies. To test the effectiveness of the game, a sample of English children played three scenarios depicting a character feeling sadness, anger, and fear, respectively. Results showed that most children chose adaptive strategies to improve the character's emotion across the different emotion scenarios. Furthermore, emotion recognition was not positively related to children's choices of regulation strategies. The implications and applications of the games are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T14:31:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Impact of slide-based lectures on undergraduate students’ learning:
           Mixed effects of accessibility to slides, differences in note-taking, and
           memory term
    • Authors: Hyeyoun Kim
      Pages: 13 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 123
      Author(s): Hyeyoun Kim
      This paper addresses the effects of access to slide copies during lectures using PowerPoint® for undergraduate students on their learning outcomes depending on the quantity of notes they take and immediate vs. delayed testing. Seventy-one students repeatedly participated in the following six lecture conditions: accessibility to slides (full, partial, and no slide copy) × memory term (immediate and delayed test). Thus, the present study adopted a 3 × 2 within-subjects design with two note-taking covariates (the quantity of words and markers in notes). A mixed-effects model and counterbalancing method were applied to control idiosyncrasies and order effects caused by repeated measurement. The results revealed that accessibility to slide copies and students' note-taking predicted their learning outcomes. The effects of no slide copy were significant in both short- and long-term memory conditions as compared to those of access to full and partial copies. Access to full and partial slide copies did not have significantly different results. However, according to the interaction results between accessibility and memory term, the long-term encoding effect was assumed for the partial slide copy condition. Regarding note-taking variables, students’ performance was considerably impacted by the number of markers but none of the number of words. The findings suggest educational implications for the way slides are prepared and provided and the way students take notes during slide-based lectures from a perspective of writing-to-learn.

      PubDate: 2018-05-01T16:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Factors that influence secondary mathematics teachers' integration of
           technology in mathematics lessons
    • Authors: Allison W. McCulloch; Karen Hollebrands; Hollylynne Lee; Taylor Harrison; Asli Mutlu
      Pages: 26 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 123
      Author(s): Allison W. McCulloch, Karen Hollebrands, Hollylynne Lee, Taylor Harrison, Asli Mutlu
      While many studies describe the use of technology in the mathematics classroom, few explore the factors that influence teacher decisions around its use. The participants in this study were 21 early career secondary mathematics teachers who had completed an undergraduate mathematics teacher preparation program in the USA with a strong emphasis on the use of technology to teach mathematics. In this qualitative study, interview data were collected and analyzed with attention toward why teachers choose to use technology to teach mathematics, what tools they chose to use and why, as well as the general factors they consider when selecting particular technology tools. Findings indicate that one of the most important factors when deciding whether to use technology was how well it aligned with the goals of a lesson. The range of technology used spanned mathematical action tools, collaboration tools, assessment tools, and communication tools. When selecting particular tools teachers most heavily considered ease of use for both themselves and their students. These findings suggest that when considering how to infuse technology into teacher education programs we suggest that it is important to focus more broadly on types of tools, ways teachers can position them, and how particular activities align with specific mathematics learning objectives.

      PubDate: 2018-05-01T16:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • The effects of a digital formative assessment tool on spelling
           achievement: Results of a randomized experiment
    • Authors: Janke M. Faber; Adrie J. Visscher
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Janke M. Faber, Adrie J. Visscher
      In this study, a randomized experimental design was used to examine the effects of a digital formative assessment tool on spelling achievement of third grade students (eight-to nine-years-olds). The sample consisted of 30 experimental schools (n = 619) and 39 control schools (n = 986). Experimental schools used a digital formative assessment tool, whereas control schools used their regular spelling instruction and materials. Data included standardized achievement pre-posttest data, the number of total assignments completed, and the percentage of adaptive assignments completed by students. Although the results did not show that the use of a digital formative assessment tool affected spelling achievement, the findings point to important issues upon which future research can build.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Learning engagement and persistence in massive open online courses (MOOCS)
    • Authors: Yeonji Jung; Jeongmin Lee
      Pages: 9 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018
      Source:Computers & Education
      Author(s): Yeonji Jung, Jeongmin Lee
      The purpose of this study was to investigate how to facilitate learners' engagement and persistence in massive open online courses (MOOCs). Specifically, this study used structural equation modeling to examine the structural relationships among academic self-efficacy, teaching presence, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use, learning engagement, and learning persistence in MOOCs. For the data analysis, we selected as the research subjects 306 learners who were taking MOOCs in South Korea. The results indicated that academic self-efficacy, teaching presence, and perceived usefulness had significant direct effects on learning engagement. Furthermore, teaching presence and perceived ease of use had direct effects on learning persistence. Finally, learning engagement had indirect effects on the relationships between academic self-efficacy, teaching presence, perceived usefulness, and learning persistence. These findings suggest implications for designing and developing effective instructional and learning strategies in MOOCs in terms of learners’ perceptions of themselves, instructors, and learning support systems.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Realistic details in visualizations require color cues to foster retention
    • Authors: Alexander Skulmowski; Günter Daniel Rey
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Alexander Skulmowski, Günter Daniel Rey
      Research on visualizations suggests that realism can be distracting and cognitively demanding, thereby lowering learning performance. These results have been explained using cognitive load theory, assuming that realistic details act as unnecessary mental load. Recent findings from disfluency research, however, imply that under certain circumstances harder-to-perceive learning materials are able to keep learners' attention focused and trigger them to invest more effort. We contrasted these conflicting results by assessing the role of realistic details on learning. For the study, we generated a fictional bone model and varied the level of arbitrary detail (low vs. high). As previous research has revealed positive effects of color coding on visual attention, we used color coding as a second experimental factor (with vs. without) and hypothesized that color coding will primarily help participants learning with a detailed model. We conducted a 2 × 2-factorial between-subjects study (n = 108) and found an interaction between the level of detail and color coding: Highly detailed renderings result in a high retention performance when color coding is available, while color coding on a low-detail model even lowered retention scores. These findings suggest that realistic visualizations require appropriate visual aids in order to be effective.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • A multilevel analysis of what matters in the training of pre-service
           teacher's ICT competencies
    • Authors: Jo Tondeur; Koen Aesaert; Sarah Prestridge; Els Consuegra
      Pages: 32 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Jo Tondeur, Koen Aesaert, Sarah Prestridge, Els Consuegra
      Few empirical studies investigate the impact of pre-service teachers' background and ICT profile in combination with the support they receive from their teacher training institution on their ICT competencies. Moreover, research focusing on preparing future teachers for ICT integration is generally limited to the impact of one single strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test a model to explain pre-service teachers' perceived ICT competencies that integrates pre-service teachers' background characteristics (age and gender), their ICT profile (e.g., attitudes towards ICT) and the multiple strategies pre-service teachers experience in their teacher training institution: 1) using teacher educators as role models, 2) reflecting on the role of technology in education, 3) learning how to use technology by design, 4) collaboration with peers, 5) scaffolding authentic technology experiences, and 6) continuous feedback. Based on a survey among 931 final-year pre-service teachers in Flanders (Belgium), the multilevel analyses indicated a positive association between the strategies and pre-service teachers' ICT competencies. The more pre-service teachers perceive the occurrences of the strategies during their teacher education, the higher their perceived competence to use ICT for learning processes and to strengthen their instructional practice. Gender and age did not affect pre-service teachers' ICT competence for educational practice. Furthermore, the results revealed a positive impact of pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards ICT (in education) and ease of use, on their ICT competence for educational practice. These results can provide guidance for the preparation of pre-service teachers for the 21st century learning environments with new technologies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • The mediation effects of gaming motives between game involvement and
           problematic Internet use: Escapism, advancement and socializing
    • Authors: Shan-Mei Chang; Grace M.Y. Hsieh; Sunny S.J. Lin
      Pages: 43 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Shan-Mei Chang, Grace M.Y. Hsieh, Sunny S.J. Lin
      The main purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal mediation effects of multiple gaming motives from online game involvement to problematic Internet use (PIU). In terms of mediators, the present study included three specific gaming motivations - escapism, advancement, and socializing. A sample of 389 gamers participated in the study from freshman to junior college years. Gaming involvement was collected at the freshman year, motives at sophomore, and PIU at junior. Initially, the three gaming motives were examined separately for their longitudinal mediation effects in a series of single-mediator models. Next, the three motives were simultaneously included in a multiple-mediator model to compare the relative levels of their mediation effects from gaming involvement to PIU across a period of two years. In the multiple-mediator model, the most compelling results showed that escapism and advancement were positively associated with PIU, yet socializing was not; socializing failed to significantly predict later PIU. Also, the direct effect of gaming involvement on PIU was weak and failed to reach significant level, contradicting to the findings of previous cross-sectional studies. Many game players experience great pleasure from immersing themselves in a virtual world, and often to the extent of developing addictive symptoms. This phenomenon is referred to as “pull” effect which is considered comparable to the motive of “pursuing in-game advancement” in the present study. Conversely, frustrations or other negative experiences in real life might also bring about a “push” effect that tugs players into gaming. The motive of escapism from the real-life in this study resembles the so-called “push” effect. The authors suggest when gamers demonstrated social motive during game time, such as participating in a gamer community and collaborating with the others despite being socially withdrawn in real life, it would be less reasonably to be regarded as PIU. During game time, if gamers experience a temporary sense of well-being, it might help to vent their real-life frustration. However, an excessive use of this emotion-focused coping strategy might still increase the risk of PIU.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Use of the ARCS model in education: A literature review
    • Authors: Kun Li; John M. Keller
      Pages: 54 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Kun Li, John M. Keller
      This article reviews empirical research on applying the Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (ARCS) model to real educational settings, including computer-based learning approaches. This review focuses on three aspects: (1) how the ARCS model was applied to what specific educational settings; (2) what research methods were used; and (3) what outcomes were reported in these studies. Our findings indicate that the ARCS model was applied to a variety of countries and educational settings. The course component(s) in which the ARCS model was incorporated included single course component (e.g. course email), multiple course components, and other programs (e.g. specific software or game). Quantitative methods were used more than qualitative and mixed methods in these reviewed studies. Four major research outcomes were found in regard to participants’ affective domain, cognitive domain, learning behaviors, and psychological traits. We also summarized the studies in this review and provided future research directions. The latter includes applications of design-based research to educational problems that the ARCS model might address, especially in the context of computer-based learning.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Mental effort detection using EEG data in E-learning contexts
    • Authors: Fu-Ren Lin; Chien-Min Kao
      Pages: 63 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Fu-Ren Lin, Chien-Min Kao
      E-learning becomes an alternative learning mode since the prevalence of the Internet. Especially, the advance of MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) technology enables a course to enroll tens of thousands of online learners. How to improve learners' online learning experiences on MOOC platforms becomes a crucial task for platform providers. In this research, based on Cognitive Load Theory, we built a system to capture and tag a user's mental states while s/he is watching online videos with a commercial EEG device, and used different normalization schemes and time window lengths to process EEG signals recorded from the EEG device. Finally, we adopted different supervised learning algorithms to train and test the classifiers, and then evaluated their classification performance. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively process EEG data to train classifiers, which achieve high accuracy, precision and recall rates compared with those of previous studies. This system can effectively facilitate users' self-awareness of mental efforts in online learning contexts to enable the automatic feedback in synchronous and asynchronous learning contexts, especially taking MOOCs as an example.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Understanding students’ preferences toward the smart classroom learning
           environment: Development and validation of an instrument
    • Authors: Jason MacLeod; Harrison Hao Yang; Sha Zhu; Yanhong Li
      Pages: 80 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Jason MacLeod, Harrison Hao Yang, Sha Zhu, Yanhong Li
      This article presents the rationale for developing an instrument and initial evidence of validity and reliability in a higher education context. The 40-item instrument measures students' preferences toward the smart classroom learning environment from eight constructs that are characteristic for this environment, including: Student Negotiation, Inquiry Learning, Reflective Thinking, Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Multiple Sources, Connectedness, and Functional Design. Data was purposely collected from a group of 462 college students enrolled in at least one smart classroom course during the time of this study. The results showed no difference in preferences between genders and concluded that the instrument was a valid and reliable tool for measuring college students’ preferences toward a smart classroom learning environment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Unfamiliar technology: Reaction of international students to blended
           learning
    • Authors: P.W.C. Prasad; Angelika Maag; Margaret Redestowicz; Lau Siong Hoe
      Pages: 92 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): P.W.C. Prasad, Angelika Maag, Margaret Redestowicz, Lau Siong Hoe
      This study enquires into learners’ behavioural intentions towards the use of a blended learning program designed for post-graduate international IT students. The aim of this research is to develop a testing mechanism to measure the extent to which international students have built up digital capital. We use the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) as a framework for this investigation, built around social influence (behavioural intention) performance and effort expectancy (attitude), and facilitating conditions (ease and usefulness), using a critical theoretical approach. We further attempt to understand whether motivation for engagement with blended learning comes from intrinsic or extrinsic sources. For this study, 95 Project Management students were introduced to a blended learning approach using Blackboard, a Learning Management System. Following an introductory session, data on attitude, social influence and facilitating conditions was gathered. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to assess the influence of each variable in determining first behavioural intentions and latter attitude towards blended learning. This study contributes to the body of knowledge through identifying that social influence has a strong impact on both performance and effort expectation as well as behavioural intentions. This suggests that, overall, the social environments from which the cohort originated provided sufficient economic, social and cultural capital to also develop some digital capital.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • On the Nth presence for the Community of Inquiry framework
    • Authors: Kadir Kozan; Secil Caskurlu
      Pages: 104 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Kadir Kozan, Secil Caskurlu
      The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive and descriptive review of the earlier research done on the refinement of the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000, 2001, 2010) that has greatly influenced both research and practice in online education so far. To this end, the current review included peer-reviewed journal articles only by handling them both individually and determining their common theoretical and methodological aspects. The results revealed that previous research produced very significant insights into the revision of the framework by producing four new presence types and seven presence dimensions. However, there were some theoretical, methodological and empirical gaps that need to be addressed in the future. Specifically speaking, these gaps ranged from addressing certain educational contexts to focusing on statistical significance only in some of earlier research. Accordingly, all the findings led to the conclusion that addressing the existing gaps in further research would enrich our understanding of the Community of Inquiry framework thereby adding to the contributions of previous revision studies done on it and positively impacting online learning research and practice.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Visual learning analytics of educational data: A systematic literature
           review and research agenda
    • Authors: Camilo Vieira; Paul Parsons; Vetria Byrd
      Pages: 119 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Camilo Vieira, Paul Parsons, Vetria Byrd
      We present a systematic literature review of the emerging field of visual learning analytics. We review existing work in this field from two perspectives: First, we analyze existing approaches, audiences, purposes, contexts, and data sources—both individually and in relation to one another—that designers and researchers have used to visualize educational data. Second, we examine how established literature in the fields of information visualization and education has been used to inform the design of visual learning analytics tools and to discuss research findings. We characterize the reviewed literature based on three dimensions: (a) connection with visualization background; (b) connection with educational theory; and (c) sophistication of visualization(s). The results from this systematic review suggest that: (1) little work has been done to bring visual learning analytics tools into classroom settings; (2) few studies consider background information from the students, such as demographics or prior performance; (3) traditional statistical visualization techniques, such as bar plots and scatter plots, are still the most commonly used in learning analytics contexts, while more advanced or novel techniques are rarely used; (4) while some studies employ sophisticated visualizations, and some engage deeply with educational theories, there is a lack of studies that both employ sophisticated visualizations and engage deeply with educational theories. Finally, we present a brief research agenda for the field of visual learning analytics based on the findings of our literature review.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Learner support in MOOCs: Identifying variables linked to completion
    • Authors: Elena Barberà Gregori; Jingjing Zhang; Cristina Galván-Fernández; Francisco de Asís Fernández-Navarro
      Pages: 153 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Elena Barberà Gregori, Jingjing Zhang, Cristina Galván-Fernández, Francisco de Asís Fernández-Navarro
      This study investigated learner support strategies that enable the success and completion of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). It examined five MOOCs categorised into three groups according to their pedagogical approach and used in different learning settings: formal MOOCs, conventional MOOCs and professional MOOCs. A total of 4,202,974 units of variables (student behaviours and MOOC features) were analysed using Semi-Supervised Extreme Learning Machine (SSELM) and Global Sensitivity Analysis. In this study, the use of SSELM was compared to the state-of-art models (e.g. ELM, KELM, OP-ELM, PCA-ELM), and SSELM yielded 97.24% accuracy. Using unlabelled students helped improve the learning accuracy for the model, which confirms that SSELM is a good model to predict completion in MOOCs, considering the difficulty of labelling students in such an open and flexible learning environment. The findings show that designers and teachers should pay special attention to their students during the second quartile of the course (independently of the type of MOOC). The teachers’ presence during the course, his or her interactions with students and the quality of the videos presented are significant determinants of course completion.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Demographic data of MOOC learners: Can alternative survey deliveries
           improve current understandings'
    • Authors: Karmijn van de Oudeweetering; Orhan Agirdag
      Pages: 169 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Karmijn van de Oudeweetering, Orhan Agirdag
      Although demographic data in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have regularly been reported, these data are mainly retrieved through email-based surveys with very low response rates. This indicates an increased risk of misrepresentation. This study examined whether a survey embedded in the MOOC environment could yield higher response rates, could affect the representation of demographics and influence the estimated effects of demographics on learning outcomes. In six MOOCs, learners (N = 3834) were randomly assigned to receive a demographic survey only by email or to receive the embedded survey too. Results showed that the inclusion of the embedded survey caused response to increase from 6.9% to 61.5%. Although survey delivery barely affected the representation of demographics, it did influence the estimated effects of parental education and country of residence on learning outcomes. The findings raise awareness about the importance of survey delivery for response rates and data quality in MOOCs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • An exploratory study of blending the virtual world and the laboratory
           experience in secondary chemistry classrooms
    • Authors: Georgia Wood Hodges; Lu Wang; Juyeon Lee; Allan Cohen; Yoonsun Jang
      Pages: 179 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Georgia Wood Hodges, Lu Wang, Juyeon Lee, Allan Cohen, Yoonsun Jang
      Research suggests that serious educational games may support learning of microscopic phenomena by making the invisible visible. The current study presents a novel instructional approach that blends a traditional lab experience with a serious educational game (SEG) to engage students with the hands-on laboratory experience while examining the molecular level mechanisms that cause the phenomena. We conducted a mixed methods study to examine teacher use of the blended reality environment (BRE) that utilizes a real-time data capture system and the learning gains associated with use of the BRE with chemistry students (n = 578) in a public high school in the southeast. The results demonstrate that students who experienced the blended reality environment (a) experienced significantly higher learning gains than students who experienced the business as usual (BAU) condition and (b) improved on specific scientific practices outlined in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) by practicing science skills in an authentic environment as scientists do. Analysis also reveals the explanatory power of examining student interaction within the BRE. Thematic analysis of teacher interviews identified three strengths of the BRE environment: (a) a coherent explanation of scientific phenomena, (2) an authentic science inquiry, and (3) a connection between the student and teacher within the learning environment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Instructor presence effect: Liking does not always lead to learning
    • Authors: Kristin E. Wilson; Mark Martinez; Caitlin Mills; Sidney D'Mello; Daniel Smilek; Evan F. Risko
      Pages: 205 - 220
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Kristin E. Wilson, Mark Martinez, Caitlin Mills, Sidney D'Mello, Daniel Smilek, Evan F. Risko
      Online education provides the opportunity to present lecture material to students in different formats or modalities, however there is debate about which lecture formats are best. Here, we conducted four experiments with 19–68 year old online participants to address the question of whether visuals of the instructor in online video lectures benefit learning. In Experiments 1 (N = 168) and 2 (N = 206) participants were presented with a lecture in one of three modalities (audio, audio with text, or audio with visuals of the instructor). Participants reported on their attentiveness – mind wandering (MW) – throughout the lecture and then completed a comprehension test. We found no evidence of an advantage for video lectures with visuals of the instructor in terms of a reduction in MW or increase in comprehension. In fact, we found evidence of a comprehension cost, suggesting that visuals of instructors in video lectures may act as a distractor. In Experiments 3 (N = 88) and 4 (N = 109) we explored learners' subjective evaluations of lecture formats across 4 different lecture formats (audio, text, audio + text, audio + instructor, audio + text + instructor). The results revealed learners not only find online lectures with visuals of the instructor more enjoyable and interesting, they believe this format most facilitates their learning. Taken together, these results suggest visuals of the instructor potentially impairs comprehension, but learners prefer and believe they learn most effectively with this format. We refer to as the Instructor Presence Effect and discuss implications for multimedia learning and instructional design.

      PubDate: 2018-05-01T16:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Learning communities in the crowd: Characteristics of content related
           interactions and social relationships in MOOC discussion forums
    • Authors: Alyssa Friend Wise; Yi Cui
      Pages: 221 - 242
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Alyssa Friend Wise, Yi Cui
      This mixed method study used social network analysis (SNA) and inductive qualitative analysis to compare social relationships and the underlying interactions they represent in discussions related and unrelated to the learning of course content in a statistics MOOC. It additionally examined the impact of how social relationships are conceptualized (via network tie definition) on resultant network structures and properties. Using a previously developed natural language classifier, 817 threads containing 3124 discussion posts from 567 forum participants were characterized as either related to the course content or not. Content, non-content, and overall interaction networks were constructed based on five different tie definitions: Direct Reply, Star, Direct Reply + Star, Limited Copresence, and Total Copresence. Results showed network properties were robust to differences in tie definition with the notable exception of Total Copresence. Comparison of content and non-content networks showed key differences at the network, community, and node (individual) levels. The two networks consisted of largely different people, and participants in the content network and communities had more repeated interactions with a larger number of peers. Analysis of the contributing threads helped to explain factors leading to some of these differences, showing the content discussions to be more diverse and complex in their communication purposes, conversation structures, and participants' interaction techniques. Within content discussions, the network of learners surrounding each of the two instructors showed distinct characteristics that appeared related to the instructor's facilitation approach. Finally, a group of learners tightly connected to each other through content discussions showed nascent learning community-like characteristics. This work contributes to the literature by (1) deepening understanding of MOOC discussion learning processes; (2) drawing connections between network structures and specific discussion practices; (3) providing evidence demonstrating the importance of separately examining content and non-content discussions; and (4) drawing attention to the empirical impact of the choice of tie definition in SNA studies of MOOC forums.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • The impact of an iPad-supported annotation and sharing technology on
           university students' learning
    • Authors: James Wakefield; Jessica K. Frawley; Jonathan Tyler; Laurel E. Dyson
      Pages: 243 - 259
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): James Wakefield, Jessica K. Frawley, Jonathan Tyler, Laurel E. Dyson
      iPads, or more generally tablet computers, have received rapid and widespread uptake across higher education. Despite this, there is limited evidence of how their use affects student learning within this context. This study focuses on the use of a tablet by the instructor to support the annotation and in-class sharing of students' work to create a collaborative learning environment within a first year undergraduate subject. This paper reports the results of an empirical study looking at the effect this tablet technology has on student performance using a sample of 741 first-year accounting students. The study uses data from enrolment and attendance records, end of semester examination results and student perceptions from a survey. Results indicate that class sharing of the instructor's and students' annotation of homework through the use of a tablet is associated with an improvement in student performance on procedural or equation-based questions as well as increased student engagement. However, contrary to expectations, the introduction of in class annotations was associated with a decline in student performance on theoretical, extended response questions. The authors argue that affordances of the tablet, when used in a student-centred way, can introduce a bias towards some kinds of interactions over others. This large-scale study of in-class tablet use suggests that though the tablets may be positively associated with student engagement and satisfaction, caution must be exercised in how the use by the instructor affects the classroom environment and what students learn. These findings have particular relevance to university learning contexts with equation-centric subjects such as those in Business and STEM.

      PubDate: 2018-05-01T16:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Examination of relationships among students' self-determination,
           technology acceptance, satisfaction, and continuance intention to use
           K-MOOCs
    • Authors: Young Ju Joo; Hyo-Jeong So; Nam Hee Kim
      Pages: 260 - 272
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Young Ju Joo, Hyo-Jeong So, Nam Hee Kim
      Recognizing the recent MOOC movement in higher education, this study aims to examine credit-receiving university students' motivation to use K-MOOCs. In the hypothesized model, we posit three student-level variables, namely self-determination, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and satisfaction as a mediating variable, and examine how these variables affect students' continuance intention to use K-MOOCs. This study hypothesizes: 1) perceived ease of use has a positive influence on perceived usefulness; 2) self-determination, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness has a positive influence on satisfaction; and 3) satisfaction has a positive influence on continuance intention to use K-MOOCs. The participants include 222 university students who took the K-MOOC course offered by a large-sized university in Korea. For data collection and analysis, we adapted the existing instruments to fit into our research goals and conducted structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships among the latent variables. The results indicate that both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness had a positive influence on students' satisfaction with the K-MOOC course. Satisfaction with the K-MOOC course significantly had a positive influence on students' continuance intention to use. The perceived ease of use and the perceived usefulness, mediated by satisfaction, had indirect effects on the continuance intention to use K-MOOCs. Unexpectedly, students' self-determination did not have a significant influence on satisfaction with the K-MOOC course. The contribution of this study is that it provides empirical evidence regarding what factors are likely to influence credit-receiving students' continuance intention to use K-MOOCs and the motivational factors underlying students' intention to earn credits rather than intrinsic motivation.

      PubDate: 2018-05-01T16:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • E-learning success determinants: Brazilian empirical study
    • Authors: Wilmar Audye Cidral; Tiago Oliveira; Massimo Di Felice; Manuela Aparicio
      Pages: 273 - 290
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 122
      Author(s): Wilmar Audye Cidral, Tiago Oliveira, Massimo Di Felice, Manuela Aparicio
      E-learning is a web-based learning ecosystem for the dissemination of information, communication, and knowledge for education and training. Understanding the impact of e-learning on society, as well as its benefits, is important to link e-learning systems to their success drivers. The aim of this study is to find the determinants of user perceived satisfaction, use, and individual impact of e-learning. This study proposes a theoretical model integrating theories of information systems' satisfaction and success in the e-learning systems. The model was empirically validated in higher education institutions and university centers in Brazil through a quantitative method of structural equation modeling. Collaboration quality, information quality, and user perceived satisfaction explain e-learning use. The drivers of user perceived satisfaction are information quality, system quality, instructor attitude toward e-learning, diversity in assessment, and learner perceived interaction with others. System quality, use, and user perceived satisfaction explain individual impact.

      PubDate: 2018-05-01T16:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Enhancing student learning experience with technology-mediated
           gamification: An empirical study
    • Authors: Crystal Han-Huei Tsay; Alexander Kofinas; Jing Luo
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Computers & Education
      Author(s): Crystal Han-Huei Tsay, Alexander Kofinas, Jing Luo
      We evaluated the use of gamification to facilitate a student-centered learning environment within an undergraduate Year 2 Personal and Professional Development (PPD) course. In addition to face-to-face classroom practices, an information technology-based gamified system with a range of online learning activities was presented to students as support material. The implementation of the gamified course lasted two academic terms. The subsequent evaluation from a cohort of 136 students indicated that student performance was significantly higher among those who participated in the gamified system than in those who engaged with the nongamified, traditional delivery, while behavioral engagement in online learning activities was positively related to course performance, after controlling for gender, attendance, and Year 1 PPD performance. Two interesting phenomena appeared when we examined the influence of student background: female students participated significantly more in online learning activities than male students, and students with jobs engaged significantly more in online learning activities than students without jobs. The gamified course design advocated in this work may have significant implications for educators who wish to develop engaging technology-mediated learning environments that enhance students’ learning, or for a broader base of professionals who wish to engage a population of potential users, such as managers engaging employees or marketers engaging customers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:47:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • The effects of metacognition on online learning interest and continuance
           to learn with MOOCs
    • Authors: Ya-hsun Tsai; Chien-hung Lin; Jon-chao Hong; Kai-hsin Tai
      Pages: 18 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 121
      Author(s): Ya-hsun Tsai, Chien-hung Lin, Jon-chao Hong, Kai-hsin Tai
      Developments in technology have made online teacher training applicable to MOOCs, but the validation of MOOCs presents some challenges, including the high dropout rate and low continuance intention to learn via MOOCs. The purpose of this study is to propose a unified model integrating metacognition and learning interest to investigate continuance intention to learn via MOOCs. Data of 126 respondents were collected and subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, the relationships were tested with structural equation modeling and the results revealed that metacognition was positively related to three levels of learning interest (i.e., liking, enjoyment, and engagement). The three levels of learning interest were positively related to continuance intention to use MOOCs. The findings imply that enhancing learners' metacognition can contribute to increased online learning interest and continuance to learn with MOOCs, thereby reinforcing the benefits of developing teacher training programs via MOOCs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • A model of factors affecting learning performance through the use of
           social media in Malaysian higher education
    • Authors: Waleed Mugahed Al-Rahmi; Norma Alias; Mohd Shahizan Othman; Victoria I. Marin; Gemma Tur
      Pages: 59 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 121
      Author(s): Waleed Mugahed Al-Rahmi, Norma Alias, Mohd Shahizan Othman, Victoria I. Marin, Gemma Tur
      This study attempted to mitigate the gap in literature concerning the use of social media for active collaborative learning and engagement and its effect on the research students' learning performance in the context of Malaysia. A questionnaire based on Constructivism Theory and the Technology Acceptance Model was employed as the main data collection method, which was distributed to 723 research students in five Malaysian research universities. Based on the obtained results, male and female students' satisfaction of social media use for collaborative learning and engagement positively affected their learning performance, although in the case of females, they were not fully satisfied with perceived ease of use and usefulness. The study concludes that overall, active collaborative learning and engagement through social media enriches the learning activities of students and facilitates group discussions, and hence, their use should be encouraged in learning and teaching processes in higher education institutions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Applying game mechanics and student-generated questions to an online
           puzzle-based game learning system to promote algorithmic thinking skills
    • Authors: Chih-Chao Hsu; Tzone-I. Wang
      Pages: 73 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 121
      Author(s): Chih-Chao Hsu, Tzone-I. Wang
      Algorithmic thinking is a core skill for constructing algorithms to solve problems and for understanding computer science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using game mechanics and a student-generated questions strategy to promote algorithmic thinking skills in an online puzzle-based game learning system. An online puzzle-based game learning system, TGTS (Turtle Graphics Tutorial System), was developed to help students learn algorithmic thinking skills by allowing them to solve puzzles. A quasi-experiment was conducted to examine the effectiveness of using game mechanics alone and using game mechanics plus a student-generated questions strategy. Nine fourth-grade elementary classes (n = 242) were used to form three treatment groups, including one without game mechanics, one using game mechanics, and one using game mechanics plus a student-generated questions strategy. The results indicate that TGTS with game mechanics significantly enhanced algorithmic thinking skills and puzzle-solving performance. Furthermore, although TGTS with game mechanics plus the student-generated questions strategy is less effective than TGTS with only game mechanics in puzzle solving, it is in fact more effective in enhancing the algorithmic thinking skills. Additionally, this study demonstrated that TGTS with game mechanics plus the student-generated questions strategy can enhance students' engagement experiences and willingness to participate. This study can be a reference for designing learning activities and developing an online puzzle-based game learning system to promote students’ learning of algorithmic thinking skills.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • AugmentedWorld: Facilitating the creation of location-based questions
    • Authors: Miri Barak; Shadi Asakle
      Pages: 89 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018
      Source:Computers & Education
      Author(s): Miri Barak, Shadi Asakle
      This paper presents AugmentedWorld, an open and adaptive location-based platform, designed to facilitate the creation of multimedia-rich questions while connecting scientific topics to relevant locations, real-world applications, and learners' daily life. Prior to its implementation in schools, we conducted a study among 98 prospective science teachers to examine the quality of location-based questions and participants' epistemic views. Data were collected through encoding of questions' quality, participants' grades, and semi-structured interviews. The findings indicated medium results for the quality of location-based questions, with multimedia design as the weakest feature. The participants' early experience in exam-writing and gender were found as significant predictors of the quality of questions. In addition, the data indicated a significant relationship between the questions' quality and participants' technological and pedagogical knowledge. Four competencies were identified with reference to the educational importance of location-based questions: contextualization, creativity, critical thinking, and information and communication technology (ICT) literacy. The current study underlines the importance of location-based questions as a form of learning and alternative assessment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • How feedback provided by voluntary electronic quizzes affects learning
           outcomes of university students in large classes
    • Authors: Manuel Förster; Constantin Weiser; Andreas Maur
      Pages: 100 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 121
      Author(s): Manuel Förster, Constantin Weiser, Andreas Maur
      In view of the increasing number of university students attending large statistics classes as a requirement for their degree courses, the use of an online learning environment is indispensable for delivering immediate and frequent feedback. However, results of research on the value of technological tools and blended courses in various academic disciplines are not consistent and only point to minimal effects on academic achievement. To fill this gap, in this study, participation in optional electronic quizzes and its effects on exam grades in large statistics classes depending on gender and previous statistics- and mathematics-related abilities are investigated. Overall, participation in the electronic quizzes yielded a positive effect on final grades. However, particularly the groups who participated less in the electronic quizzes – i.e. poor performing students and males - benefitted more from quiz participation than high performing and female students. The large variability in effect sizes of feedback on performance suggests that additional moderators such as specific situation- and task-related characteristics and individual affective preconditions such as effort, motivation, and self-esteem should be analyzed in future research.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Are digital natives open to change' Examining flexible thinking and
           resistance to change
    • Authors: Miri Barak
      Pages: 115 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 121
      Author(s): Miri Barak
      The goal of this study was to examine university students' flexible thinking and resistance to change (as an opposite trait) according to their expertise in information and communication technology (ICT). An exploratory study was conducted, wherein an online questionnaire was administered to undergraduates (N = 679) from two higher education institutions. The findings show that undergraduates who are inclined to adapt to new learning situations are less likely to seek routine, react emotionally, and have short-term focus. The findings also indicated that technology proficient students are more likely to be flexible in thought and less inclined to resist change than those who are less technology savvy. Moreover, technology proficient students who prefer to learn in collaboration reported the highest inclination to think flexibly. This may indicate the importance of integrating collaborative technology as means for facilitating flexible thinking; thus preparing higher education students to a world of online communication and teamwork.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Multivariate characterization of university students using the ICT for
           learning
    • Authors: María-Concepción Vega-Hernández; María-Carmen Patino-Alonso; María-Purificación Galindo-Villardón
      Pages: 124 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 121
      Author(s): María-Concepción Vega-Hernández, María-Carmen Patino-Alonso, María-Purificación Galindo-Villardón
      The new European training model has led to innovations in Higher Education as the incorporation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to learning processes. Each student learns in a different way and therefore the ways of studying are very relevant in the academic development. This fact has revealed the need for the use of ICT in the university environment. It has been a quantitative research using the questionnaire REATIC using a sample (N = 2117) of students from the five areas of knowledge at the University of Salamanca, to know the use and opinion they have about ICT in their learning. The results presented students management above all basic and personal interrelation programs, search engines in the network, online video portals and virtual libraries. They value the help and importance of ICT in their learning process and consider positively them as relevant tools. The results showed significant differences in the use and consideration of ICT in the five areas of knowledge. Health Sciences students present the highest preference level in use of ICT. Four well-differentiated clusters were identified by applying the factor analysis to obtain a multivariate characterization of the students: One was formed by students with a medium-low level of ICT consideration and use, another by the graduates with a high level of ICT consideration and use, to a third consisting of students with a medium-high level of ICT consideration and use and to final covering students with low level of ICT consideration and medium-low level of ICT use.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Development and measurement validity of an instrument for the impact of
           technology-mediated learning on learning processes
    • Authors: Sufen Wang; Kejing Zhang; Ming Du; Zhijun Wang
      Pages: 131 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 121
      Author(s): Sufen Wang, Kejing Zhang, Ming Du, Zhijun Wang
      Technology-mediated learning (TML) has turned out to be essential in classroom in higher education. How to evaluate the effect of TML has become a critical issue in research and practice. Yet, there exists very little understanding of how to measure the effect of TML on learning process. The existing research results are difficult to be used in teaching design. This paper develops an instrument as a diagnostic tool to comprehensively evaluate the effect of TML on learning process. This instrument focuses on the relationship among IT, cognitive information processing, and instructional process. Based on cognitive information processing theory and Gagné’s instructional theory, definition and measurement of 8 constructs are identified and designed. In a sample of 181 undergraduates in nine majors, the study finds that this instrument has higher reliability, better convergent validity and discriminant validity. This instrument can help provide rich information about whether and how TML affects instructional events and learning activities effectively. At the same time, it can be a guiding tool for more effective applications of TML in instructional event design.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Teachers as digital citizens: The influence of individual backgrounds,
           internet use and psychological characteristics on teachers’ levels of
           digital citizenship
    • Authors: Moonsun Choi; Dean Cristol; Belinda Gimbert
      Pages: 143 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 121
      Author(s): Moonsun Choi, Dean Cristol, Belinda Gimbert
      The purpose of this study is to identify factors that influence teachers' levels of digital citizenship, defined in terms of individuals' thinking, skills, and behaviors with regard to Internet use. Variables included: (1) teachers' individual backgrounds (age, gender, years of work experience, years of teaching experience, subject, and teaching level); (2) Internet use (where to obtain information, the main purpose of using the Internet, and use of SNSs for teaching); and (3) psychological characteristics (Internet self-efficacy and Internet anxiety). The study unfolded in four phases. First, an in-depth literature view identified a need to study classroom teachers' perception of themselves as digital citizens in relation to use of the Internet. Next, 348 in-service classroom teachers were recruited from high need, hard to staff U.S. school district and completed a validated survey. Then, descriptive, correlation, and multiple regression analyses revealed three findings: (1) teachers demonstrated relatively lower levels of two Digital Citizenship sub-factors, Internet Political Activism and Critical Perspective; (2) there was a strong relation between Internet self-efficacy and Digital Citizenship; and (3) three variables (years of work experience, use of SNSs for teaching, and Internet self-efficacy) significantly influenced teachers’ perceptions of digital citizenship. Last, this study offers recommendations to equip educators with knowledge, skills, and behaviors as digital citizens in the current digital and global age.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Teaching in a Digital Environment (TIDE): Defining and measuring teachers'
           capacity to develop students' digital information and communication skills
           
    • Authors: Magdalena Claro; Alvaro Salinas; Tania Cabello-Hutt; Ernesto San Martín; David D. Preiss; Susana Valenzuela; Ignacio Jara
      Pages: 162 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 121
      Author(s): Magdalena Claro, Alvaro Salinas, Tania Cabello-Hutt, Ernesto San Martín, David D. Preiss, Susana Valenzuela, Ignacio Jara
      The study presented in this paper consisted in defining a Teaching in a Digital Environment (TIDE) capacity construct and developing a performance-based test to measure Chilean teachers' ability to teach students how to solve information and communication tasks in a digital environment. The test was applied to a sample of 828 in-service teachers in Chile, together with a characterization questionnaire. Results showed that very few Chilean teachers mastered all the tasks and that only one third were able to provide students with orientations in solving information and communication tasks, revealing that the majority are not playing a mediation role in a digital environment. In relation to explaining variables, science and younger teachers with more years of teaching experience performed better in the test. Nevertheless the low explanation provided by the variables included suggests that variables that have previously accounted for teachers ICT integration are not as good in predicting TIDE capacity. This shows the relevance of developing mixed methods research that together with quantitative data provides qualitative data to help explain this capacity in greater depth.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Implementing flipped classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system
           into learning process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018
      Source:Computers & Education
      Author(s): Hafidi Mohamed, Mahnane Lamia
      Students nowadays are hard to be motivated to solve logical problems with traditional teaching methods. Computers, Smartphone's, tablets and other smart devices disturb their attention. But those smart devices can be used as auxiliary tools of modern teaching methods. The flipped classroom is one such innovative method that moves the solving problems outside the classroom via technology and reinforces solving problems inside the classroom via learning activities. In this paper, the authors implement flipped classroom as an element of Internet of Things (IOT) into learning process of mathematical logic course. In the flipped classroom, an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) was used to help students work with the problems in the course outside the classroom. This study showed that perceived usefulness, self-efficacy, compatibility, and perceived support for enhancing social ties are important antecedents to continuance intention to use flipped classroom.

      PubDate: 2018-05-17T21:55:41Z
       
  • The role of motivation, ability, and opportunity in university teachers’
           continuance use intention for flipped teaching
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018
      Source:Computers & Education
      Author(s): Hui-Min Lai, Yu-Lin Hsiao, Pi-Jung Hsieh
      On-site teaching practice is changing due to the development of digital technology. Traditional lecturing has long focused on instructor-based teaching but now has transitioned to a flipped classroom that emphasizes student learning. In the past, quasi-experimental methods or qualitative interviews were primarily used to explore learners' learning performance, learning satisfaction, and the interaction between teachers and students. Studies on teachers' points of view are rare, as are studies on factors that influence teachers to continue flipped teaching. Thus, the empirical results of this innovative teaching strategy must be assessed to confirm the expectations of practice and theory. Drawing on theories of self-determination and motivation-opportunity-ability, this paper proposes and empirically supports the notion that teachers' motivational factors, perceived self-efficacy, and supportive flipped teaching resources interact to perpetuate flipped teaching in the higher education context. To test the proposed research model, a survey was conducted among 169 university teachers. The results indicate that intrinsic challenge motivation and extrinsic compensation motivation are critical predictors of teachers' continuance use intention for flipped teaching. Perceived self-efficacy was also shown to critically moderate teachers' continuance use intention for flipped teaching. Specifically, when teachers have high perceived self-efficacy, challenge motivation leads to continuance use intention. Conversely, when teachers have low perceived self-efficacy, compensation motivation leads to continuance intention. Further, the results also suggest that teachers’ continuance use intention for flipped teaching is highest when challenge motivation, perceived self-efficacy, and supportive flipped teaching resources are all sufficient and mutually reinforcing.

      PubDate: 2018-05-17T21:55:41Z
       
  • Exploring the impacts of interactions, social presence and emotional
           engagement on active collaborative learning in a social web-based
           environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 123
      Author(s): Sebastian Molinillo, Rocío Aguilar-Illescas, Rafael Anaya-Sánchez, María Vallespín-Arán
      This study examines the influence of social presence, interactions (student-student and teacher-student) and emotional engagement on active learning within the context of social web-based collaborative learning (SWBCL). In order to accomplish this objective, an empirical study was conducted with 416 students from two universities, organized into groups of 4 or 5 students, who were instructed to complete a collaborative project over the course of one semester. At the end of the project, the students filled out a questionnaire and the resulting data was analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) technique. The results suggest that social presence and teacher-student interaction have a positive influence on students' active learning, both directly and indirectly, through emotional engagement. This variable also mediates the influence of student-student interactions, which have a less significant impact on active learning than the other analyzed variables. Consequently, this study offers important contributions to the study and practice of active learning in a SWBCL environment.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T21:54:20Z
       
  • Evaluating a tactile and a tangible multi-tablet gamified quiz system for
           collaborative learning in primary education
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 123
      Author(s): Fernando Garcia-Sanjuan, Sandra Jurdi, Javier Jaen, Vicente Nacher
      Gamification has been identified as an interesting technique to foster collaboration in educational contexts. However, there are not many approaches that tackle this in primary school learning environments. The most popular technologies in the classroom are still traditional video consoles and desktop computers, which complicate the design of collaborative activities since they are essentially mono-user. The recent popularization of handheld devices such as tablets and smartphones has made it possible to build affordable, scalable, and improvised collaborative gamified activities by creating a multi-tablet environment. In this paper we present Quizbot, a collaborative gamified quiz application to practice different subjects, which can be defined by educators beforehand. Two versions of the system are implemented: a tactile for tablets laid on a table, in which all the elements are digital; and a tangible in which the tablets are scattered on the floor and the components are both digital and physical objects. Both versions of Quizbot are evaluated and compared in a study with eighty primary-schooled children in terms of user experience and quality of collaboration supported. Results indicate that both versions of Quizbot are essentially equally fun and easy to use, and can effectively support collaboration, with the tangible version outperforming the other one with respect to make the children reach consensus after a discussion, split and parallelize work, and treat each other with more respect, but also presenting a poorer time management.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T21:54:20Z
       
  • Mood-affect congruency. Exploring the relation between learners’ mood
           and the affective charge of educational videos
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 123
      Author(s): Maik Beege, Sascha Schneider, Steve Nebel, Alexandra Häßler, Günter Daniel Rey
      In the educational context, the influences of the emotional charge of audiovisual media are rarely investigated. Additionally, the mood of the learner influences learning with multimedia. This study aims to investigate the influence of both variables on learning with videos. Therefore, 162 school students watched educational videos which were manipulated in terms of emotional charge. The participants were randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (learners mood: positive vs. negative) × 2 (emotional charge of the educational video: positive vs. negative) between-subjects factorial design. Retention and transfer performance were measured in order to examine learning effects. Furthermore, mental load, mental effort, and affective variables were collected. Results revealed that the mood of the learner did not influence learning outcomes and cognitive assessments. The positive emotional charge of the video fostered retention performance and led to a reduced mental load. Transfer performance was fostered in the conditions with congruence between learners mood and the emotional charge of the video. Results are discussed by considering the emotion-as-facilitator hypothesis and the mood congruency effect.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T21:54:20Z
       
  • Study on student performance estimation, student progress analysis, and
           student potential prediction based on data mining
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 123
      Author(s): Fan Yang, Frederick W.B. Li
      Student performance, student progress and student potential are critical for measuring learning results, selecting learning materials and learning activities. However, existing work doesn't provide enough analysis tools to analyze how students performed, which factors would affect their performance, in which way students can make progress, and whether students have potential to perform better. To solve those problems, we have provided multiple analysis tools to analyze student performance, student progress and student potentials in different ways. First, this paper formulates student model with performance related attributes and non-performance related attributes by Student Attribute Matrix (SAM), which quantifies student attributes, so that we can use it to make further analysis. Second, this paper provides a student performance estimation tools using Back Propagation Neural Network (BP-NN) based on classification, which can estimate student performance/attributes according to students' prior knowledge as well as the performance/attributes of other students who have similar characteristics. Third, this paper proposes student progress indicators and attribute causal relationship predicator based on BP-NN to comprehensively describe student progress on various aspects together with their causal relationships. Those indicators and predicator can tell how much a factor would affect student performance, so that we can train up students on purpose. Finally, this paper proposes a student potential function that evaluates student achievement and development of such attributes. We have illustrated our analysis tools by using real academic performance data collected from 60 high school students. Evaluation results show that the proposed tools can give correct and more accurate results, and also offer a better understanding on student progress.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T21:54:20Z
       
  • Augmented reality for STEM learning: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 123
      Author(s): María-Blanca Ibáñez, Carlos Delgado-Kloos
      This study presents a systematic review of the literature on the use of augmented reality technology to support science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) learning. It synthesizes a set of 28 publications from 2010 to 2017. A qualitative content analysis is used to investigate the general characteristics of augmented reality applications in STEM education, the instructional strategies and techniques deployed in the studies reviewed, and the evaluation approaches followed in the interventions. This review found that most augmented reality applications for STEM learning offered exploration or simulation activities. The applications reviewed offered a number of similar design features based on digital knowledge discovery mechanisms to consume information through the interaction with digital elements. However, few studies provided students with assistance in carrying out learning activities. Most of the studies reviewed evaluated the effects of augmented reality technology in fostering students' conceptual understanding, followed by those that investigated affective learning outcomes. A number of suggestions for future research arose from this review. Researchers need to design features that allow students to acquire basic competences related with STEM disciplines, and future applications need to include metacognitive scaffolding and experimental support for inquiry-based learning activities. Finally, it would be useful to explore how augmented reality learning activities can be part of blended instructional strategies such as the flipped classroom.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T21:54:20Z
       
  • Comparing trained and untrained teachers on their use of LMS tools using
           the Rasch analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Computers & Education, Volume 123
      Author(s): Joseph Chow, Ada Tse, Christine Armatas
      Measuring training outcomes is important given the resources universities invest in staff learning management system (LMS) training. In this paper we show how the effect of LMS training on LMS usage can be evaluated using Rasch analysis of teachers' LMS usage activity logs by making comparisons between teachers who have attended training and those who have not. Our analysis showed that teachers who attended LMS training workshops had higher LMS activity level compared with the untrained teachers. In particular, trained teachers tended to make relatively more use of ‘grade centre’ and of ‘assessment tool’ but relatively less use of ‘content’ in their teaching compared with teachers who did not attend training. The results support Rasch analysis as a useful approach for evaluating the effect of training across a large number of courses and extend understanding from findings from self-report studies of training effectiveness. They also provide insights that inform training practice and highlight its importance for development of online teaching. Implications for professional development of online teaching and the evaluation are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T21:54:20Z
       
  • Systematic literature review: Self-Regulated Learning strategies using
           e-learning tools for Computer Science
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018
      Source:Computers & Education
      Author(s): Rita Garcia, Katrina Falkner, Rebecca Vivian
      In 1986, Barry Zimmerman and Manuel Martinez-Pons presented a taxonomy containing 14 categories on Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) strategies performed by high school students when studying. Since this study, researchers have used the taxonomy as a framework for their research on students' SRL strategies and behaviours. When the taxonomy was constructed in the mid-1980s, these categories did not consider students’ SRL behaviours while using digital technologies to study. The goals of this systematic literature review are to understand if the original SRL strategies are addressed in modern Computer Science e-learning tools and to determine if tools have emerged that support SRL strategies not captured by the original taxonomy. This review organises the e-learning tools within the SRL categories. It shows that a preponderance of research has been done on certain SRL skills, with limited focus on other categories. The systematic literature review concludes with suggestions for future research opportunities pertaining to tools that support the original categories, as well as tools that support SRL strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-05-14T21:54:20Z
       
 
 
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