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  Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2322-2956
   Published by Sjournals Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Improvisation: an alternative approach to solving the problem of
           ill-equipped biology and agricultural science laboratories in senior
           secondary schools, Nigeria

    • Authors: R. Muhammad, N. I. Lawal
      Abstract: Effective teaching for quality science education can only be achieved through “learning by doing” (practical) in well-equipped laboratory. However, ill-equipped science laboratories have reached an alarming level thereby making learning by doing impossible. This paper takes a look at the concept and skills or techniques of improvising biology teaching equipment (instructional materials) in Agricultural science as a viable alternative and a panacea to ill-equipped laboratories in post-basic education in Nigeria. The paper concludes that ill-equipped laboratories is one of the myriad of problems currently facing the teaching and learning of Biology and Agricultural science in Nigerian Senior Secondary Schools that needs urgent attention from all stakeholders in science  education as government alone cannot solve the problem.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Sustainable Development of Bioheat from Agricultural Wastes and
           Environment

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: This Article discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impact of biomass technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated but especially in remote rural areas.
      PubDate: 2015-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Energy efficient for refrigeration and air conditioning

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows.
      PubDate: 2015-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Kinetics of biogas production from fermentation broth of wild cocoyam
           co-digested with cow paunch in batch mode

    • Authors: I.C.E. Umeghalu, D.O. Onukwuli, I.F. Okonkwo, J.O. Ngini
      Abstract: Mathematical models are useful in solving the stability problems often exhibited by anaerobic digestion process. Kinetics of batch anaerobic digestion of cocoyam waste mixed with cow paunch for biogas production in batch mode was studied for 30 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). Data from cumulative biogas yield obtained during the experimental stages was fitted to C-NIKBRAN mathematical model based on first order reaction which adequately predicted the kinetic behavior of the substrate’s anaerobic biodegradability. The validity of the applied model was also verified through application of the regression model (ReG) (Least Square Method using Excel Version 2003) in predicting the trend of the experimental results. Comparative analysis of Figs. 7-10 show very close alignment of curves which precisely translated into significantly similar trend of data point’s distribution for experimental (ExD), derived model (MoD) and regression model-predicted (ReG) results of cumulative biogas yield. Also, critical analysis of data obtained from experiment and derived model show low deviations on the part of the model-predicted values relative to values obtained from the experiment. This necessitated the introduction of correction factor, to bring the model-predicted cumulative biogas yield to those of the corresponding experimental values. Deviational analysis from strongly indicates that cumulative biogas yield was most reliable based on the associated admissible deviation of the model-predicted cumulative biogas yield from the corresponding experimental values); 9.2% within the pH range. The values of cumulative biogas yield within the highlighted deviation indicates over 90% confidence level for the applied model and over 0.9 effective dependency coefficients (EDC) of cumulative biogas yield on pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total viable count (TVC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Also, deviation of model-predicted cumulative biogas yield from corresponding experimental results indicates a maximum deviation of 7.17%. This translated into over 92% operational confidence for the derived model as well as over 0.92 effective dependency coefficients (EDC) of cumulative biogas yield on pH, chemical oxygen demand, total viable count, and total dissolved solids.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Gender differentiated climate change discourse in rural communities in
           developing countries

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: The discourse on climate change should provide adequate attention to gender differentiated roles and vunerability, either at the local community level and international climate change negotiations because the impact of climate change affects women and men differently.  There is a missing link to scientific assessment of climate change and responses to climate through a gender dimension and the policies enacted to mitigate and adapt to its impacts. Currently, there is insufficient knowledge regarding gender differentiated impacts of climate change worldover. However, there has been a consensus that in trying to understand climate change in general, we need to appreciate gender and gender relations. The discussion explores the gender dimension of climate change and the policies enacted to mitigate and adapt to its impacts with the aim of developing gender sensitive approaches with regards to mitigation measures and adaptation strategies in rural communities in developing countrie.  Women and men in most developing countries are especially vulnerable to climate when they are highly dependent on local natural resources for their livelihood. It is important to remember, however, that both men and women are not only vulnerable to climate change but they are also effective actors or agents of change in relation to both mitigation and adaptation. The relationship between women and the environment revolves around their concerns for providing family food security, fuel, water, and health care. As climate change research knowledge is accumulating at a remarkable pace, it is intersecting with disasters regarding developing nations in fascinating ways. Yet, there remains a significant gap in integrated quantitative and qualitative methods for studying climate change perception and policy support in rural communities. Men and women extensive theoretical and practical knowledge of the environment and resource conservation should be given due consideration. Their potential contribution to climate mitigation by being part of the intervention strategy should be sufficiently exploited.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Combination of Engineering Physics and Modern Scientific Management in
           High Technology Achievements

    • Authors: Arezu Jahanshir, Amirhosein Jahanshir
      Abstract: Studying and contemplating the current managerial structure of developed countries show that management and its strategic results have lost their own traditional and usual concept. In these countries, modern management has been developed depending on the knowledge-based infrastructures. In other words, long-term and short-term modern management in all fields is founded upon the predetermined ordered scientific principles and structures that has entered different scientific concepts, wishes and objectives into this field and affects both  and non-organizational managerial procedure observed widely in each field of sciences. For this reason, the results and achievements of knowledge-based management of developed countries indicate the significant development of a kind of modern management in the basic and human sciences. While it is doubtlessly true that developed countries are better endowed more than others to compete in the global knowledge high technologies and new equipment management, the problem is rarely that the fewer successful countries lack sufficient scientific high technologies management.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Safety and health instruction in mechanics provided using Job Safety
           Analysis technique

    • Authors: Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh, Yahya Rasoulzadeh, Saber Valizadeh, Parisa Moshashaie
      Abstract: Annually a large numbers of workers in different countries are injured or die. According to statistics provided by the ILO in 2000, the number of occupational accidents in the world has been announced abaut 25 million items that one million people have died as a result of them. In Iran more than 17 million people are working in two million workshops. According to studies, about 80% to 90% of accidents are caused because of employee unsafe behaviors and only cause of 10% to 20% of them is the unsafe conditions. According to the statistics provided in 2005, each year 2.2 million people, men and women, due to work-related accidents and illnesses are deprived from their rights. Work-related deaths and injuries impose heavy costs on societies especially in developing countries.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Efficient smart system fuzzy logic model for determining candidates’
           performances for university admission in Nigeria

    • Authors: P. O. Adebayo, W. B. Yahya, E. E. Akpan, M. K. Garba
      Abstract: This paper depicts adaptation of expert systems technology using fuzzy logic to handle qualitative and uncertain facts in the decision making process. Over the years, performance evaluations of students are based on qualitative facts, which are now becoming numerically inestimable as a result of uncertainty factors. Through fuzzy logic the qualitative terms like; low, medium and high; low, moderate and high were numerically weighted during the final decision making on students’ performance. The key parameters were given weights according to their priorities through mapping of numeric results from uncertain knowledge. Mathematical formulae were applied to calculate the numeric results at the final stage. In this way, the developed fuzzy expert system was demonstrated to be an effective tool for evaluating the performances of candidates seeking for admission into Nigeria tertiary institutions. This may also be adopted as a useful tool by stakeholders in government and Industry to predict the standard and long term expectations in the nation-building enterprise.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Optimal design for count data

    • Authors: Muritala Abdulkabir, Udokang Anietie Edem, Bello Latifat Kemi
      Abstract: Optimal designs for generalized linear models (GLM) have received increasing attention in recent years. Most of this research focuses on binary data model. This research extends to count data models. The aim and objectives of this research work to determine the appropriate generalized linear model (GLM) that is suitable for count data and identify a design that is best according to statistical optimality criteria, the data use for this research work are simulated data from R statistical package using uniform distribution with sample size 300. The simplest distribution use for modeling count data is Poisson distribution, quasi Poisson were carried out to test for over dispersion in the Poisson regression model and the formal way of dealing with over dispersion is negative binomial regression model, thus AIC was use to compare the two models, the Poisson regression model shows the best with minimum AIC. Furthermore optimal design were carried out using the optimality criterion that is the A and D optimality criterion, using design efficiency to compare the two (2) designs the optimality criterion with the highest efficiency is the best, thus D optimality criterion shows the best design.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Implementation a method to provide quality in MANET and survey the effect
           of that at decreasing Route Discovering time of DSR and AODV routing
           protocols

    • Authors: Ali Akbar Arjomand Hashjin
      Abstract: In Ad-Hoc wireless networks nodes change their situations proximately,  that means this situation requires routing protocols that have ability to adaptability with this changes. Providing the QoS in this networks is intolerable, through topology changes and use the joint media by the network nodes. The most routing protocols that designed for this networks, only find the route by the scales of step and don’t consider the QoS of created routes. In this cases for providing QoS , we decided to apply one of the methods of providing the QoS that named : resources reserve on the routing protocols. For this reason,  in this essay we use two different scenarios in a MANET’s example environment, which they have (500*500)M and (1000*1000)M dimensions. The scenarios have fifty nodes. The AODV and DSR are usable routing protocols and the work styles of these protocols are like the followings: At first we implement the RSVP protocol on the mentioned routing protocols and we compare the route discovering time of them when RSVP protocol applied to when protocol have not applied. Scenarios that implemented and evaluated by Opnet 14 simulator and simulation results are fully described. Simulation results show this fact that when we apply RSVP on AODV and DSR routing protocol, route discovery time is reduced. Also AODV has a better performance.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Consequences of stage of lactation on yield and milk composition in sheep

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: The stage of lactation was an important source of variation  on the contents of all milk components in most studies. A systematic studies  on the influence of lactation stage on milk yield and milk composition  is of foremost importance to evaluate the milk production ability of milking animals. However, it  logical to note that  the shape of the lactation curve that describes the level of milk yield in the course of lactation differs among the different species. The highest total solids and fat contents were observed in the late lactation stage, which might be due to low milk yield. There was no variation in solids non-fat  content during the different lactation stages,  which implies that  the variation in total solids  was actually influenced by the variation in milk fat. Therefore, the present discussion attempt to explore the influence of stage of lactation on milk yield and milk composition  in sheep.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • The study of atmospheric movement patterns and its effect on heavy
           rainfalls in Iran: case study (January 6th of 1998)

    • Authors: I. Salehvand, H. Atai, M. Moemeni, M. Montazeri
      Abstract: Iranian Plateau due to its specific location is at the transition point than large-scale general circulation models of the troposphere and is seating location of the extra tropical, subtropical and tropical systems. The aim of this study is the synoptic analysis of the atmospheric conditions concurrent with the heavy precipitations of Lorestan, Fars and Hormozgan provinces and determination of the temporal and spatial distribution of them. the objective of this scheme is that heavy rainfall on soil and water resources is a bad influence and the study area is located in an arid region, the floods impact on the region is enormous.heavy precipitation in January 1998 to 2014 were selected. In January 1998, a special precipitation was heavy rainfall That happened in many provinces. And the reason for this day to study.the Studied  regionswere provinces: Charmahal, Bushehr, Fars, Hormozgan, Khoozestan, Kohkilooye, Lorestan and Ilam In this study rainfall with greater than 30 mm considered as the criterion of days with heavy rainfall that their information was collected of synoptic and climatology stations of studied provinces.Requested atmospheric data for this research was taken from databases related to the National Organization of Atmosphere and Oceanology of United States. More maps of the site were taken. Then the Earth's surface, 500,700 and 850 Hecto Pascal maps, orbital and meridional winds, earth temperature of earth surface and top of the atmosphere were prepared in Grads software and some of maps were drawn in GIS software.The following results were obtained: On the earth surface map, the main and controller role is with the Siberian high pressure, the Azores's dynamic high pressure and integrated mode of the Sudan and the Mediterranean low pressure systems. The main controller role in high levels is with the high altitude center of Azores in   the back of the system, the high altitude center of Arabia in the front of the system and deep traffic of North Africa. Another important factor is the moisture mixture of Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Indian Ocean. Air rise factor with enhancing meridional winds that causes to subsidence of cold air, rising warm air and strengthening the polar front is one of the heavy rainfall conditions too. Eastern winds cause to entering of moisture from the Indian Ocean and western winds cause to strengthen of cyclones and heavy rainfall in the region.
      PubDate: 2014-12-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol using zeolite modified carbon paste
           electrode

    • Authors: Maryam Abrishamkar, Kobra Varnaseri
      Abstract: In this research application of synthesized ZSM-5 zeolite to prepare the modified carbon paste electrodes was studied. To prepare of modified electrode, the nickel ions as mediator for electrochemical oxidation of ethanol were doped to ZSM-5 zeolite framework through ion exchange mechanism and oxidation of ethanol on the surface of proposed electrode in the alkaline solution was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods. Also, the catalytic rate constant for oxidation of ethanol (k) was reported.
      PubDate: 2014-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Electrocatalytic behavior of modified carbon paste electrode with
           Ni(ii)-zeolite for oxidation of methanol in a basic solution

    • Authors: Maryam Abrishamkar, Nassrin Kiamehr
      Abstract: In this research, the electrochemical behavior of Ni-zeolite modified carbon paste electrode in the form of Ni/NiZSM-5/CPE and unmodified carbon paste electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric techniques. It was found that methanol was oxidized by NiOOH generated with further electrooxidation of Ni ions which were doped in modified electrode during the anodic sweep. Also, the rate constant for the catalytic reaction (K) of methanol was calculated 2.64* 10⁵cm³s⁻¹mol⁻¹ via Cottrell equation.
      PubDate: 2014-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Investigation and analysis of barriers to investment in the tourism
           industry in Kurdistan province

    • Authors: Sara Alipour, Ebrahim Abbasi
      Abstract: The tourism industry is one of the largest and most economic activities in the world, high efficiency, which is the highest amount of added value created and directly and indirectly, other economic and cultural activities affect them. Tourism is one of the major sources of compensation and job creation in the world comes to fly most of it as the first industry in the world .One of the areas currently causing the lack of development of the tourism industry in our country as well as the province of Kurdistan is the lack of capital and the lack of willingness of the Government and investors to invest in the tourism industry can be. In this section investigate how private capital investment, considering the tourism industry in the province of Kurdistan from factors such as economic, administrative bureaucracy failed to amani, social and cultural factors and the geographical position we review, research methodology based on data type definitions and type of work.
      PubDate: 2014-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Opportunities and challenges in enhancing food production and security in
           the context of climate change effects in sub Saharan Africa

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: This discussion  explores the opportunities and challenges in enhancing  food production and security in the context of  climatic variability in Sub Saharan Africa. The promotion of sustainable use of plant and animal products with emphasis on satisfying basic human needs, improving people’s standard of living, enhancing food security and reducing poverty have taken a center stage in Sub Saharan Africa. However, the efforts in this direction  are being impacted negatively by climate change,  through animal and crop production which have not been spared due to the natural disasters and environmental challenges which have affected all regions of Sub Saharan Africa indiscriminately. Climate is a particularly important driver of food production systems performance at the agriculture end of the food chain. It can affect the quantities and types of food produced as well as production-related income especially for the poor resource farmers. In order to be able to adequately address food production and security in the context of climate,  there is need for the region to carry out thorough climatic vulnerability and adaptation assessments. Supporting research and  training of experts to carry out vulnerability and adaptation assessments on crop and  livestock production is crucial in order for respective  countries to develop climate change adaptation measures to meet the obligation on food production and  security. Sub Saharan Africa’s agro-ecological regions are variable and need to develop specific adaptive measures to reduce vulnerability to climate change. Due to the changing climatic conditions which the continent  has already witnessed many severe climatic induced vulnerability such as decline in rainfall amounts and intensity, reduced length of rain season and increasing warm and occasionally very hot conditions has affected food production and security. Crop and livestock production systems will need to adapt to higher ambient temperatures, lower nutritional value of feed resources and new diseases and parasites occurrence. It can be seen that the present crop and livestock production systems based on pastoral or rangeland grazing husbandry systems, ecological destruction through climatic variability and overgrazing due to high stocking rates in areas where feed and water has been compromised due to high temperatures caused by climate change does not augur well for future livestock productivity. The understanding of climate change variables  and their impacts is the first step in climate change research and prerequisite for defining appropriate adaptive responses by local crop and livestock farmers. Sustainable crop and livestock production supporting rural development  should be compatible with the goals of curbing the effects of climate change. Production priorities should be directed towards promoting local crop and  livestock genetic resources by providing comprehensive research support services on the impact of climate change. Both crops and livestock play important roles in farming systems, as they offer opportunities for risk coping, farm diversification and intensification, and provide significant livelihood benefits and food security.  The discussion  therefore, concludes that the effectiveness of biophysical responses of crop and livestock production systems to specific environmental challenges that are anticipated as a result of climate change, and then the range of adaptive measures that might be taken by local  producers to ameliorate their effects will be the prerequisite for defining appropriate societal responses and meet food security targets.
      PubDate: 2014-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Hamiltonian multiplex interaction based on excitons effect in
           semiconductor QCs

    • Authors: Arezu Jahanshir
      Abstract: The subject of modern technology has been the focus of extensive theoretical investigations in semiconducting nanostructures which we know as quantum dots (QCs). The possibility of monitoring and controlling the properties of QCs attracted considerable attention to these objects, as an important basic system in future technology. So, the quantum-mechanical effects play a significant role in the description of the formation mechanism QCs, determination of mass spectrum, binding energy and other characteristics. Based on QFT and by using oscillator representation method (ORM) and operator product expansion technique developed in QFT, we study the properties of electron-hole QDs, determine mass spectrum and peruse spin-spin interactions in exciton system and its multiple pair systems. This method has applications to calculate the binding energy of exciton system in ground and excited states with semi-nuclear structure in semiconductor QCs or cold atomic few-body systems and develop the general calculation’s theory of few-body systems based on the Coulomb interaction between particles by forming excitonic pairs in semiconductor QCs. We investigate the binding energy of exciton bound states. It is shown that fermion particles have a very small mass, and after bonding together by dynamically force, constituent particles become massive, which is analogous to what happens in QCD.
      PubDate: 2014-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Development of small and medium enterprises to export to external barriers

    • Authors: Saeed Ranjbar, Ebrahim Abbasi
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore the current exportchallenges for SMEs in Pakistan and how these barriers affect the SMEs. Oneindustry (textile) was selected for this study. Findings of this study showedthat internal barriers are more influential than external barriers. This studyis limited to one industry . This study disseminates the attention of SMEsexport managers towards the genuine and main problems coming across the SMEexports so they can deal with these barriers to magnify their exports asinternal barriers are more controllable as compared to external barriers. Thisstudy offers insights into SME export barriers in  iran.Keywords:SMEs; ExportBarriers;
      PubDate: 2014-10-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Analyzing the constraints to private investment in manufacturing industry

    • Authors: Hojat Ranjbar, Ebrahim Abassi
      Abstract: This paper identifiesthe main impediments to investment and industrial productivity, which have ledto a decline in growth. This is done by analyzing the impediments andconstraints to productivity and investment using the World Bank’s 2007Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) data at the seven of level main industrialzones. An inadequate workforce, access to raw materials, and corruption wereranked third, fourth, and fifth, respectively. Will a market economy alwayssupply funds for profitable investment projects?The answer to this question isimportant for policy makers seeking economic efficiency at the micro level, andfor our understanding of the business cycle at the macro level. The purpose ofthis paper is to investigate the presence and the economic importance of creditmarket imperfections within a structural model of firm investment.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Study of export to external barriers of small and medium enterprises (Case
           Study of Kurdistan Province)

    • Authors: Saeed Ranjbar, Ebrahim Abbasi
      Abstract: Globalization in recent decades due to rapid and complex changescan be found. The international trade and technology to the global market on the component tasks of Governments is increasing due to the complexity of tradeand global markets to all countries in search of the right way to enter andcompete in this arena are. Given that the export is one of the most importantbeing international strategy both for companies and for the national economy inthe world markets and due to the importance of small and medium-sizedenterprises on the production and export of these obstacles to job creation,corporate recognition of the special importance.The results of the research indicate that all psychologicalresearch hypotheses were confirmed. So the outer barriers on reduction ofexport development of small and medium enterprises, there is a positive impact.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
 
 
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