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Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences    Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2322-2956
     Published by Sjournals Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Herbs/spices as feed additive in aquaculture
    • Authors: O. A. Asimi, N. P. Sahu
      Abstract: Nutrition of fish is an important consideration in fish health management of farmed finfish and shellfish. The shift in some countries from extensive to semi-intensive and intensive farming of fish demands that nutritionally complete feeds be provided by the farmer. The use of nutritionally inadequate feeds can result in reduced growth and production due to stress, but more seriously, the use of such feeds can result in loss of fish from nutritional deficiency syndromes and/or from mortality brought on by increased susceptibility of nutritionally compromised fish to infectious diseases. Medicinal plants are the main sources of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. A large number of plants have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment and control of several diseases. The present article gives an idea about the use of medicinal plants in aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2013-08-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Investigation of 3-D friction coefficient in pinned composite plates
    • Authors: Maziyar Vesal Shirazi, Amin Zare
      Abstract: Connecting composite materials to each other is of great importance. Mechanical joints are widely applied in industries; therefore they are of more attention in designers view. In this kind of joint, determinations of ultimate strength, type of rupture and stress analysis at pin location are vital. The aim of this paper is to study interlaminar stress in mechanical joints and the effect of different stacking sequences on generated stresses between layers and their stress distribution. The effect of friction on stresses between layers in composite plates is also investigated. The problem was modeled three dimensionally in ABAQUS software, considering interlaminar stresses, friction and different stacking sequence. As a result, some remarks are presented; for example: When sequence is symmetry, stress field is symmetry toward middle plate, too. In cross-ply layup, stress fields are symmetry toward bearing and mid-plane. Applying friction in different directions, it was seen that friction coefficient in  direction was higher and more important than in other directions. As a result, radial and tangential stress diagrams for two condition of friction in z direction and without friction were so close and also stress diagrams for two condition of friction  and  have more similarity.
      PubDate: 2013-08-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • On solution of irregular differential equation with boundary conditions
    • Authors: Luma N.M. Tawfiq, Iman I. Gorial
      Abstract: This paper is devoted to the analysis of irregular singular boundary value problems for ordinarydifferential equations with a singularity of the different kinds. We propose asemi - analytic technique using two point osculatory interpolations to constructpolynomial solution, and then discuss the behavior of the solution in theneighborhood of the irregular singular points and its numerical approximation.Also we introduce an example to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency ofthe method.
      PubDate: 2013-08-14
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Assessment of the Impact of Human Settlement on the Heavy Metal
           Concentrations of Lower Cross River, Nigeria
    • Authors: Okon Michael Udoidiong, Etim Effiong Munam, Janet James Bernard
      Abstract: Theimpact of human settlement on heavy metal concentrations was assessed in thesurface waters of Lower Cross River, Nigeria. Samples were collected fromJanuary to August, 2011 from three stations: Station 2 (Itu in Akwa Ibom Statewith intense human activities), station 1 (its upstream at Cross River Statewithout human settlement) and station 3 (the downstream).  The range of these heavy  metals in the river  were 1.0027 – 4.1225mg/l for Mg, 0.0001 – 2.3703 mg/l for Fe, 0.0001 – 0.4118 mg/l for Zn, 0.0855 –3.5701 mg/l for Pb, 0.0011 – 1.2582 mg/l for Cd, 0.0249 – 2.4856 mg/l for Cr,and 0.0001 – 0.9117 mg/l for Ni. The rank profile of metals according to theirmean values was Mg > Pb > Fe > Cr > Cd > Ni > Zn in the studystations. The statistical analysis using the One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)showed that there was significant difference (P<0.01) in the concentrationsof heavy metals at the study, except for Zn and Ni.  Tukey’s pairwise comparism indicated thatStation 1 was basically responsible for the observed significant differences inthe study stations. Except for Zinc, all the other heavy metals exceeded theWHO and SON maximum permitted levels for drinking water indicating pollution. Thiscould be attributed to anthropogenic inputs from upstream and run-off duringwet season. The wet season concentrations were higher than those for dryseason.
      PubDate: 2013-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Some liver function indicators in guinea pigs injected with cyanide
    • Authors: Blessing Oaikhena Idonije
      Abstract:   To determine the lethal effect of cyanide poisoning on the liver cells using ALP, AST, ALT and Bilirubin (Total and Conjugated) as test indicators. Eighteen (18) male guinea pigs, age matched were used for this study. This included 12 guinea pigs which served as test groups and injected with different concentrations of potassium cyanide saline solution while 6 guinea pigs without cyanide injection served as control group. Blood: samples were collected from the guinea pigs three hours after the injections of the cyanide saline solution. The blood samples were analysed for liver enzymes and bilirubin using standard methods. The result of the plasma AST and ALT at the different concentrations showed decreased levels which were significant when compared with the controls. The plasma levels of Total and Conjugated bilirubin were also significantly decreased when compared with controls. However, the levels of the ALP in both test and control groups showed no significant difference. This study therefore highlights the need to determine the levels of these liver function indicators in cases of cyanide poisoning to ensure efficient management of patients who are exposed to the cyanide. 
      PubDate: 2013-07-20
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Impact of wildfires on browse availability in the semi-arid thornveld of
           South-eastern Zimbabwe
    • Authors: R. Mwembe, A.S. Hlatshwayo, P. Nkomboni, B. Tavirimirwa, G. Sisito, D. Nkomboni, S. Ncube, T.S. Ndlovu
      Abstract: The study aimed at investigating the impact of wild fires on browse availability on a thornveld vegetation woody plant community through its effects on woody plant structure and composition. Data was collected from four randomly selected paddocks at Mahiye a thornveld farm affected by annual wildfire outbreaks since 2000. A Point Centre Quarter technique on line transects was used to collect the data. Records taken from the nearest woody plant (≥ 0.3 m) in each quarter was the woody species name, circumference at 30 cm height from the ground and distance from the point to that woody plant. Fifteen woody plant species were present in the study area with Acacia species being the most dominant. Out of the six hundred woody plants sampled, Acacia nilotica contributed 65%, Acacia karoo 10.8%) and Acacia robusta 10.7% with the remainder contributed by the other twelve woody plants. A Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test could not find provides sufficient evidence that the woody plant community structure was homogenous. The height and the diameter structure had a significant variation (P < 0.05) due to the presence of tall and large woody plants (height < 6m and diameter < 12 cm) within the community. Nevertheless, the Lorenz curves depicted less inequality in the height and diameter distribution within the farm (Gini coefficient 0.242 and 0.266 respectively) indicating dominance of a cohort. More than 75% of the recorded stems are greater than 2.4 m high and had a diameter of greater than 8 cm. According to the results, the plant community had high quality browse species but the dominant size compromised accessibility of the browse. Therefore, frequent wildfires reduce browse availability in thornveld rangelands. Further research is required to unveil the amount of unavailable browse.
      PubDate: 2013-07-10
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • 3D CAD for concept design - a case study
    • Authors: S.K. Mandal, P.K. Maji, S. Karmakar
      Abstract: Generally for any new design initially a concept layout in 2D CAD is generated. But sometimes if the geometry of product becomes complicated, then 3D CAD model is preferred. Because 3D CAD model can give us a complete all side view at a time like a real product, but in a virtual world. The present case study will show the utilization of 3D CAD at the concept design stage of a complicated shaped product for a new system. This will also give an idea about cost and time comparison. Thus this paper will describe about the importance of 3D CAD tools for product development. 
      PubDate: 2013-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Design optimization of rotary tiller blades: a critical review
    • Authors: Subrata Kr Mandal, Baudeb Bhattacharyya, Somenath Mukherjee
      Abstract: Tillage is an operation performed to obtain a desirable soil structure for a seedbed or root bed. A granular structure is desirable to allow rapid infiltration and good retention of rainfall and to minimize resistance to root penetration. Rotavator (also called rotary tiller) is a tractor operated cultivating implement that breaks or works the soil with the help of rotating blades. The use of rotavator is increasing due to its versatility in doing a good quality tillage job with minimum number of passes. The rotavator do simultaneous ploughing and harrowing in dry and optimum soil moisture in single operation. The blades are the main critical parts of a rotary tiller which are engaged with soil.  So, wearing takes places at the cutting edges of these blades due to high stresses are coming. In this context a lot of research on rotavator blade has been carried out in different parts of the world. This paper briefly reviews the work done so far on the rotary tillers’ blade design optimization and development.
      PubDate: 2013-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Insight into delinqent and deviant behaviour among students of secondary
           school
    • Authors: Ibrahim Isa Dalhatu, Abdullahi Abubakar Yunusa
      Abstract: The idea for this paper was propelled and came about as a result of the significance of adolescents who constitute the highest population in secondary schools. The developmental level of the learner as an adolescent and his/her role is instrumental to the general growth and development of the society. Delinquency and deviant behaviour among youth is not uncommon as it has extended into institutions of learning especially at the secondary school level. This paper examines the causes, patterns and effects of such behaviours and discover among other things that the causes are numerous and not in any way limited to secondary schools but distributed among other social units such as family, peers etc. Also such behaviour involves both boys and girls which on the whole affect teaching and learning negatively.
       
      PubDate: 2013-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Advertising on social media
    • Authors: Sumit Goyal
      Abstract: This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social media? What is the impact of social media on mainstream media, why to advertise on social media? and what should be the strategy for advertising on social media. The author is of the view that in the year 2013, $4 billion will be spent on social media advertising across the globe and social media industry will generate over 1,00,000 new jobs all around the world.
      PubDate: 2013-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Sub quantum space and interactions properties from photon structure to
           fermions and bosons
    • Authors: Hossein Javadi, Farshid Forouzbakhsh
      Abstract: This article is based on a concept; "During the conversion of energy into mass, the interaction properties between the Sub Quantum Energies (SQEs) are transferred from photon to fermions and bosons". We have accepted that nature of gravity is quantized, but according to the behavior of photons in the gravitational field, we provide a new definition of gravitons. Then we explain the relationship between gravity and electromagnetic energy. According to the experimental observations, we generalize the Maxwell equations of electromagnetism to the gravitational field. We use the pair production and decay to show that a charged particle acts like a generator, the generator input and output are gravitons and virtual photon. The negative charged particle produces positive virtual photon and positive charged particle produces negative virtual photon. A negative and a positive virtual photon combine with each other in the vicinity of a charged particle and cause the charged particle to accelerate. Although this approach to Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is presented, it has some differences. The mechanism of negative and positive virtual photons interaction is easier and more realistic than exchange particles of QFT, and it also has no ambiguities of QFT. After all, we explain the real photon and its structure by using the virtual photons. Regarding the equivalence of mass-energy and the photon structure, structure of matter was explained. Then we will explain the relationship between speed and spontaneous symmetry breaking, when the particles linear speed is reduced, physical symmetry, one after the other is broken spontaneously.
      PubDate: 2013-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Effect of microwave heating time on some bioactive compounds of parsley
           (Petroselinum crispum) and dill (Anethum graveolens) leaves
    • Authors: Sahar Mostafa Kamel
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microwave heating time on some bioactive compounds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and dill (Anethum graveolens) leaves. Water blended parsley and dill were heated for one, two and three min. Total phenols, chlorophyll, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and color indices were determined before and after treatment. Dill leaves had higher total phenols, chlorophyll, carotenoid and antioxidant activity (1287.00 mg / 100g, 33.97 mg/kg, 45.98 mg/kg and 48.14%, respectively) than parsley leaves (1031.39 mg / 100g, 32.47 mg/kg, 40.00mg/kg and 40.10%, respectively). Total phenols and antioxidants activity of water blended parsley leaves were decreased after 2 min by 32.4 and 8%, as well as after 3 min by 80.2 and 38.27% respectively compared to the unheated sample. Meanwhile, total phenols and antioxidants activity of dill sample recorded 23.7and 30.3% decrease after 2 min reached to 33.0 and 54.8% after 3 min. This work indicated that most of the bioactive compounds of parsley and dill were stable only after one min of microwave heating, however, after 3 min of heating a marked decrease was observed in the tested parameters.
      PubDate: 2013-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Evaluation of the hypoglycaemic effect of honey in alloxan-induced
           diabetic wistar rats
    • Authors: A.S. Isa, A.N. Aliyu, E. E. Daniel, A.A. Lawal, M. Dewu, M.S. Muhammad, J.B. Suleiman, I.S. Malgwi, M.N. Ugwu
      Abstract: The use of honey in diabetes have been highly controversial, although studies have shown that honey may be beneficial in diabetic subject because of its low glycaemic index, other researchers have disagreed, largely because it is a source of dietary carbohydrate.  This study was designed to determine the hypoglycaemic effect of honey in experimentally induced-diabetic and normoglycemic Wistar rats.  Fifty (50) healthy adult rats of both sexes with average weight of 180 g were used for this study. They were assigned into two groups: Diabetic and Normoglycaemic group, each group was sub grouped into five groups of five animals each. Hyperglycemia was induced in the diabetic group by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg b w of alloxan dissolved in cold normal saline (0.9%). 72 hours later blood sample was collected and blood glucose measured using one touch glucometer. Rats with blood glucose level greater than 200 mg/dl were considered to be diabetic.
      PubDate: 2013-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Application of geographical information system for farm mechanization
           education and training
    • Authors: R.M. Hudzari, W. Aimrun, M.A.H.A. Ssomad, M.S. Norazean
      Abstract: Precision farming is managing each crop production input such as fertilizer, water, lime, herbicide, insecticide and seed on a site-specific basis to reduce waste, increase profit and maintain the quality of the environment. Without some remarkable enabling assisting technologies, the individual treatment of each plant is impossible and the concept of precision farming would not be feasible. Based on the trip, we can gain more information about the new technology that applies nowadays in agriculture. By using remote sensing that transmitted data from GPS, we can used to determination of generic object type, character and property as well as it’s abstract meaning. Besides, the application of remote sensing has been used in soil electrical conductivity sensor which used for show the variability of soil properties in detail and rapidly using simple equipment with less cost and labor force. Action maps will then be produced for farmers to apply fertilizers at different rates according to the delineated zones.
      PubDate: 2013-04-30
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Numerical simulation and prototype testing of gas turbine with hot
           spinning process
    • Authors: Jeremy (Zheng) Li
      Abstract: The gas turbine is normally operating in high temperature environment and its blades / rotor are constantly contacting gas with extremely high temperature. To prolong the life cycle and improve the function of these critical turbine components, the cooling methods should be applied to reduce the temperature in turbine disc area. But the potential problem is that the cooling methodology reducing the central rotor temperature can enlarge the temperature gradients leading excessive thermal stresses in gas turbine components including turbine wheel. One computational simulation model is introduced in this paper to describe the mechanism of mechanical and thermal stresses produced in gas turbine to illustrate the influence of some important parameters on this gas turbine function and help to optimize the turbine wheel design. Since there are few related numerical analytic simulations that have been done in this research field, this paper intends to provide the numerical simulation methodology to investigate and understand the stress mechanism in gas turbine operation. The turbine model has also been prototyped and tested to compare the numerical simulation results. All these studies can help to optimize future gas turbine design and improve the performance.
      PubDate: 2013-04-30
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Tawanda’s allocation method for the 0-1 knapsack problem
    • Authors: Trust Tawanda
      Abstract: In this paper, a new allocation method to solve the knapsack problems is developed and demonstrated. The method makes use of all possible item combinations to produce the optimal solution.  The allocation method is divided into two sub - allocations procedures namely, the initial allocation procedure and the objective allocation procedure. Existence of combinations is determined by the initial allocation whereas the optimality of allocation is determined by the objective allocation. The method is capable of computing all possible solutions to the problem.
      PubDate: 2013-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Investigation of flow parameters of a non-linearly stretching sheet by
           shooting technique
    • Authors: Massoud Malaki, Mohsen Malaki, Hamid Mesgarani
      Abstract: Shooting method has been applied to investigating different parameters of a 2D viscous flow which is electrically conducting over a non-linear as well as a semi-infinite stretching sheet. In this study, the influences of a chemical reaction and magnetic field have also been considered and analyzed. The governing differential equations, concentration field and heat transfer, are firstly reduced to a set of coupled non-linearly ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and then have been processed and solved numerically by the shooting method. The numerical results of the concentration field and heat transfer are shown through graphs.
      PubDate: 2013-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • The effect of wheat boiling time, bulgur particle size, drying time and
           temperature on some physical properties of hot air dried tarkhineh
    • Authors: Arash Ghaitaranpour, Farideh Tabatabaie Yazdi, Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Seyed Ali Mortazavi, Mohebbat Mohebbi
      Abstract: Tarkineh is one of the traditional products of western part of Iran. This work was carried out to study drying behavior of Tarkineh. The effect of wheat boiling time (0, 1 and 3.5 hours), drying temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), drying time (from 30 to 900 minutes) and bulgur particle size (fine, medium, coarse) on drying behavior of Tarkineh were analyzed. Different mathematical models were applied to evaluate the behavior of Tarkineh during hot air drying and color changes of Tarkineh during hot air drying was assumed using image processing. At the beginning of the drying process, the L* decreased rapidly and b* increasing quickly, but both were relatively stable afterward. a* slightly decreased initially but then depending on the type of sample increased or remain constant. When bulgur particle size increases, generally, the amount of L* increase but a* and b* decrease. The results indicated that At 70 °C, the logarithmic model can present better predictions for the moisture transfer than other models for ultra cooked samples but for raw and cooked samples, the two-term model were appropriate. At 80 and 90 °C, the two-term model was the best descriptive for ultra cooked samples but for raw and cooked samples, the Midilli-Kucuk model were appropriate. Mentioned variables had major effect on the drying behavior of Tarkhineh. For increasing the production rate and improving the color of Tarkineh, boiling of wheat for one hour and drying at 80°C is recommended.
      PubDate: 2013-04-12
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Difficult topics in junior secondary school mathematics: practical aspect
           of teaching and learning trigonometry
    • Authors: M.A. Yusha'u
      Abstract: This paper presented the practical aspect of teaching and learning Trigonometry to serve as a guide to both teachers and students of Mathematics. It is aimed at reducing the level of difficulties teachers and students of mathematics are facing in terms of delivery and comprehension. The paper identifies Trigonometry as a difficult topic alongside simultaneous linear equation, word problems and change of subject of a formula that causes challenges to both Mathematics teachers and educators. Problems of teaching and learning as well as the strategies that could be employed in teaching and learning of Sine, Cosine and Tangent of a triangle were explicitly explained and discussed. The paper recommends that Mathematics teachers should endeavor to teach difficult topics concretely and explicitly.
      PubDate: 2013-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Model prediction to monitor the influence of porosity effect on shigella
           transport to ground water aquifers in elele rivers states of Nigeria
    • Authors: Solomon Ndubuisi Eluozo
      Abstract: Model prediction to monitor the influence of porosity effecton shigella transport to ground water aquifers has been examined, the modelwhere generated from a mathematical equation from an experimental values, themodel equation from an excel plot where resolved to produced a theoreticalvalues, the application of least square method where applied to resolvedpolynomial generated equations, the theoretical values where compared withother  experimental values from differentlocations, both parameters developed a valuable  fit. this implies that the model can be applied to determine that degree of porosity in various formation,high  porosity rate  where found to influence the degree ofshigella concentration, this is confirmed through the deposited degree ofporosity at different formations, high degree of hydraulic conductivity whereexperienced in the study location, base on the deposition of  high degree of porosity recorded between 0.2to 5m, although some proof to be very low, but it can not be  compared when the depth  increased to homogenousfine and coarse formation. The model will definitely be a benchmark to monitordegree of porosity that reflects on the transport of shigella to ground wateraquifers in the study area.
      PubDate: 2013-03-30
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
 
 
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