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Journal Cover Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 2322-2956
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  • Critical review of academic assessment of students with special needs in

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: The purpose of this review was to interrogate critical issues that relate to the academic assessment of students with special needs in inclusive settings. It was noted from literature that fair assessment procedures for students with special needs are those that are premised on the principles of inclusion. Since students with special needs are exposed to the same curriculum, accommodations, adaptation and modifications are necessary if the assessment procedures, including grading systems are to be sensitive of the unique and varied needs of students with special needs without compromising quality and standards. From this review, I concluded that assessment of students with special needs at whatever level is complex and varied since it depends on a multiplicity of factors. This review argues that, if reasonable accommodations and adaptations are to be achieved and the needs of the students with special needs are to be met, then governments should be committed to policies that harmonise the instructional and assessment processes to avoid content and culturally invalid assessments. These policies should also come up with alternative pathways to the livelihoods of the students. Ultimately, such change processes would call for governments, particularly in developing countries, to be prepared to increase their funding of inclusion and related expectations.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Review the HSE-related programs in several cities of the world

    • Authors: Zahra Sahat Fardi, Nabiollah Mansouri, Azita Behbahaninia
      Abstract: Joining cities to sustainable cities is one of the most important objectives of municipality of the world. Around the world, many efforts are done to select and use the appropriate tools for achieving sustainable development. The aim of this study is investigating HSE plans and programs of the major cities and comparing with each other. Accordingly, HSE plans of ten large cities namely Vancouver, Munich, Sydney, London, Stockholm, Toronto, New York, Abu Dhabi, Moscow, Tehran were investigated. Comparing results the HSE management plans and programs in various cities are shown that most urban activities are focused on health, safety and environmental issues individually. Meanwhile in Tehran, established HSE management system is balanced to all health, safety and environmental issuses.
      PubDate: 2016-05-15
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Perceptions of sign language among teachers in schools that enroll deaf
           children in Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda, Sylod Chimhenga
      Abstract: The study set out to establish and analyse how teachers in schools that enroll deaf children in Bulawayo (Zimbabwe) perceived Sign language. A sample of 30 specialist and 30 mainstream teachers participated in the study which utilized descriptive and comparative survey designs. A Self-Designed Sign Language Perception Thematic Scale was used for data collection. The data were summarized into tables and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicated that teachers in schools that enroll deaf children in Bulawayo were aware that Sign language is the language for deaf children but perceived it as difficult to learn/teach and as a set of gestures which could only be used for expressing simple concrete ideas. The teachers were also not fully aware of the official status of Sign language. From the findings, it was also clear that the teachers did not appreciate the native and natural status of Sign language and were not sure whether it has its own proper grammatical structure which is adequate to express abstract ideas. A Chi-Square analysis confirmed these results but showed that despite findings to the contrary, specialist teachers perceived Sign language more positively than mainstream teachers. The main conclusion from these results was that deaf children in schools in Bulawayo were not exposed to the full linguistic structure of Sign language and were consequently denied development of their Deaf culture. This compromised their education. On these bases, the study recommended staff development of teachers, establishment of Sign language resource centers, and harmonization of policies with the new Constitution and a similar but in-depth study of a national magnitude.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Pollution and environment: refrigeration and air conditioning

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows. This study discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology for communities. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • International incidences, macroeconomic variables and their volatility
           effect on economic growth: empirical evidence from Pakistan

    • Authors: Khakan Najaf, Rabia Najaf
      Abstract: The prime objective of this study is to incorporate the volatility among the different macroeconomic variables. In order, to analysis the volatility among different variables we have employed the ARCH/GARCH model. Our results suggested that there is not significant relationship between IMF, FDI and GDP. while, import, export and market capitalization have negative relationship. GRCH model reported that in the case of gold there is persistence of volatility exists. Morever, inflation and exchange rate are found insignificant volatility. Our study is also trying to show that Iraq war have significant volatility while other global crisis have negative volatility.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The assessment of the vulnerability of urban textures in earthquake, Case
           study: two zone in Tabriz city

    • Authors: Omid Mobaraki, Abdollah Jodat
      Abstract: Urban environments are physically characterized by a small scale alignment of buildings, infrastructure and open spaces with their specific types and dimensions. Urban vulnerability to environmental hazards in the countries with the natural and risky environment has been an important challenge in urban sciences, engineering sciences, management and urban planning.  The aim of this paper is Assessment of the vulnerability of urban textures in natural disasters and research type is applied and utilizes both descriptive and analytical methods and have been used geography information system software GIS. The research results show many area of two zone Tabriz city have been located in the sector very high vulnerability. So that /35 in the sector high vulnerability, /25 in the sector very high vulnerability, /28 in the sector moderate vulnerability and /12 in the sector low vulnerability have been located. If this subject is important that zone north have high vulnerability and zone south have low vulnerability. 
      PubDate: 2016-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Growth of Islamic banking in Pakistan

    • Authors: Khakan Najaf, Shumraiz Ashraf
      Abstract: Our founder Quaid –e-Azam was very much interested in the Islamic banking in our country .The prime objective of state bank is to remove interest system from the Pakistan. In 1970 s Islamic banking was not famous, but at the start of twenty century it is very common in all over the world. Islamic banking is account value approximately USD 500 billion. It is growing with the ratio of 11-15%.Islamic banking is flourishing dynamically in also Pakistan like other countries, since January, 1981 it is very famous in Pakistan. All over the world financial stability has a crucial role. From the last 30 years Islamic banking has scope in the world. At this time, there are almost 200 Islamic banks which are providing the Shariah compliant. We analyzed the strength of Islamic banks with the help of AID model. Our results have shown that Islamic banking is the milestone for the future Islamic banking. In this paper, we have taken GIB as the dependent variable and SC, IV, DV, ROA as the dependent variables. It has proved that there is positive association between them. Islamic banking is growing in the world at very fast pace. In the near future it will reach till 1300 billion. Persentably, across the 1200 Islamic banking are providing their services. In Pakistan, there is solid platform related to Islamic banking in Pakistan. In 2000 state bank was introduced the first Islamic bank. 
      PubDate: 2016-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Level of awareness and frequency of contacts with common-known exposure
           factors of Leptospirosis among pig farmers and slaughterhouse workers in
           Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State Nigeria

    • Authors: C.I. Ilozue, J.K.P. Kwaga, M. Bello
      Abstract: To investigate the level of awareness and frequency of exposure to the commonly-known exposure factors of leptospirosis among pig farmers and slaughterhouse workers in Kaduna, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Kaduna metropolis. Of the 100 selected respondents, 13 (13.0%) of them had awareness of leptospirosis and 42 (42.0%) of the respondents had frequent contacts with common - known exposure factors that predispose them to the infection, with the highest frequency of contacts among respondents with no formal education, 66.67%. In conclusion, there is a high frequency of contact among the respondents to common known factors that predisposes them to the infection and low awareness level among them. This could constitute a health risk to the pig farmers and slaughterhouse workers in the metropolis; hence there is need for an increased enlightenment campaign about the infection and its zoonotic implications to the target population.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Impact of terrorism, gas shortage and political instability on FDI inflows
           in Pakistan

    • Authors: Khakan Najaf, Shumraiz Ashraf
      Abstract: In the paper the prime objective of this study is to verify that foreign direct investment has crucial role in the progress of developing and under developing country. This paper is trying to expose that foreign direct investment is the reason of remove unemployment, bridging the gap between both saving and investment, latest technology, GDP of all the nations. We have applied annual time series dataset to prove it empirically. In this study we have taken data from 1981 to 2011 and applied the OLS and ARMA techniques. In the main paper in which we have analyzed the impact of gas shortage, political instability, terrorism on the foreign direct investment in Pakistan. As anticipated, this study has proves that there is negative relationship between political instability and terrorism whereas gas generation has positive with FDI inflows in Pakistan. There is positive relationship between control variables and FDI inflows in Pakistan, in the other side exchange and interest rate have negative relationship between FDI inflows.  
      PubDate: 2016-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Factors influencing the chances of making a Ph.D grade at the end of M.Sc:
           A logistic regression approach

    • Authors: Akinrinade Fatai, Muritala Abdulkabir, Ahmadu Abdulaziz Oshioke
      Abstract: Over some decades now, Students have been coming back for postgraduate studies after first degree in any University. The time of returning back varies from one graduate to the other depending on so many factors. At the beginning of this programme, the target or goal of every serious student will be to make a Ph. D grade. To this effect, the main objective is to determine which factor(s) (Waiting time (year), Gender, Marital status, B.Sc grades /Results and Institutions) influenced our chances of making a Ph. D grade using binary logistic regression approach, it observed that waiting time and grade of first Degree are the only factors that influenced the chance of making Ph. D grade. Graduates with good grade and with minimum waiting time have brighter chances of making Ph. D grade at the end of the programme.
      PubDate: 2016-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Marketing social innovations concept: an appeal for methodological

    • Authors: Edouard Novatorov
      Abstract: Societal problems represent both opportunities and challenges for private and public organizations. Issues such as poverty, climate change and inequality can be seen either as a burden or as a source for innovation. Multinational Corporations, Nonprofit Organizations (NGOs), Cooperatives and Social-Purpose Organizations (SPOs) have engaged in projects that can tackle some of these major societal issues.The paper explores existing discussion over controvercial social marketing concept and develops superior conceptualization of social innovation marketing concept based on pluralist research paradigm found in the philosophy of social science literature.  
      PubDate: 2016-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Impact of political stability on the macroeconomic variables and FDI of

    • Authors: Rabia Najaf, Khakan Najaf
      Abstract: In this paper we have discussed the vital role of political stability on the link between macroeconomic variables and FDI. For this purpose we have used a data of year 1991 to 2011. In this empirical analysis we have used ADF test for the checking the stationary of the data and other software’s are SPSS and eviews. This result of this study have made sure that import, BOP, export and GDP growth rate have significant impact on the FDI inflows in the Pakistan and inflation has a negative impact on the FDI based on this research has proved that political stability is crucial for the expansion of foreign direct investment.
      PubDate: 2016-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Experimental investigation of the performance of a ground-source heat pump
           system for buildings heating and cooling

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: Geothermal heat pumps (GSHPs), or direct expansion (DX) ground source heat pumps, are a highly efficient renewable energy technology, which uses the earth, groundwater or surface water as a heat source when operating in heating mode or as a heat sink when operating in a cooling mode. It is receiving increasing interest because of its potential to reduce primary energy consumption and thus reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). The main concept of this technology is that it utilises the lower temperature of the ground (approximately <32°C), which remains relatively stable throughout the year, to provide space heating, cooling and domestic hot water inside the building area. The main goal of this study is to stimulate the uptake of the GSHPs. Recent attempts to stimulate alternative energy sources for heating and cooling of buildings has emphasised the utilisation of the ambient energy from ground source and other renewable energy sources. The purpose of this study, however, is to examine the means of reduction of energy consumption in buildings, identify GSHPs as an environmental friendly technology able to provide efficient utilisation of energy in the buildings sector, promote using GSHPs applications as an optimum means of heating and cooling, and to present typical applications and recent advances of the DX GSHPs. The study highlighted the potential energy saving that could be achieved through the use of ground energy sources. It also focuses on the optimisation and improvement of the operation conditions of the heat cycle and performance of the DX GSHP. It is concluded that the direct expansion of the GSHP, combined with the ground heat exchanger in foundation piles and the seasonal thermal energy storage from solar thermal collectors, is extendable to more comprehensive applications.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Application of bioenergy for energy or materials: future perspective
           through development of management

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: The demand for energy continued to outstrip supply and necessitated the development of biomass option. Residues were the most popular forms of renewable energy and currently biofuel production became much promising. Agricultural wastes contained high moisture content and could be decomposed easily by microbes. Agricultural wastes were abundantly available globally and could be converted to energy and useful chemicals by a number of microorganisms. Compost or bio-fertiliser could be produced with the inoculation of appropriated thermophilic microbes which increased the decomposition rate, shortened the maturity period and improved the compost (or bio-fertiliser) quality. The objective of the present research was to promote the biomass technology and involved adaptive research, demonstration and dissemination of results. With a view to fulfill the objective, a massive field survey was conducted to assess the availability of raw materials as well as the present situation of biomass technologies. In the present article, an attempt had also been made to present an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. We may conclude from the review paper that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, not only in urban areas but also in remote rural areas.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Histidine rich protein 2 performance in determining the prevalence of
           Malaria among patients presenting with clinical symptoms of Malaria

    • Authors: Chika Okangba, Charles J. Elikwu, Emmanuel O. Shobowale, Opeoluwa Shonekan, Victor Nwadike, Babatunde Tayo, Azubuike C. Omeonu, Bibitayo Faluyi, Chiamaka Meremikwu, Oyindamola Falade, Demilade Osoba, Tolulope Binuyo, Akinboboye Olutosin
      Abstract: Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is an antigen capture assay that enables rapid diagnosis of malaria without the need for electricity or highly skilled technicians. Though potentially useful, its adoption needs to be guided by local test sensitivity. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of a commercially available RDT among 200 febrile patients (aged 2months to 72 years) in Ellison, Ogun State Nigeria. It was a prospective observational study conducted at the Babcock Teaching Hospital (BUTH) between February and June, 2015. Finger prick blood samples were collected from each of the patients (day 0) and immediately tested for P. falciparum malaria by both Giemsa microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). The prevalence of malaria among the study cohort was 15.0% by microscopy and 17.0% by RDT. The RDT had a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 94.7%; with positive and negative predictive values of 73.5% and 96.9% respectively. The diagnostic performance of the RDT in this study was good. Hence, it is recommended as an alternative method for diagnosis of malaria, especially when microscopy is not feasible.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Greenhouses for food production and the environment

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: A greenhouse is essentially an enclosed structure, which traps the short wavelength solar radiation and stores the long wavelength thermal radiation to create a favourable microclimate for higher productivity. The sun’s radiation incident on the greenhouse has two parts: direct radiation and an associated diffuse sky radiation. The diffuse part is not focused by the lenses and goes right through Frensel lenses onto the surface of the absorbers. This energy is absorbed and transformed into heat, which is then transported via the liquid medium in copper pipes to the water (heat) storage tanks or, if used, open fish tanks. In this way, an optimal temperature for both plant cultivation and fish production can be maintained. Stable plant growth conditions are light, temperature and air humidity. Light for the photosynthesis of plants comes from the diffuse radiation, which is without substantial fluctuations and variation throughout most of the day. The air temperature inside the greenhouse is one of the factors that have an influence on the precocity of production. The selective collector acts in a more perceptible way on extreme air temperatures inside the greenhouse. Hence, the system makes it possible to avoid the excessive deviation of the temperature inside the greenhouse and provides a favourable microclimate for the precocity of the culture. Sediment and some associated water from the sediment traps are used as organic fertiliser for the plant cultivation. The present trend in greenhouse cultivation is to extend the crop production season in order to maximise use of the equipment and increase annual productivity and profitability. However, in many Mediterranean greenhouses, such practices are limited because the improper cooling methods (mainly natural or forced ventilation) used do not provide the desired micro-climatic condition during the summer of a composite climate. Also, some of these greenhouses have been built where the meteorological conditions require some heating during the winter, particularly at night. The worst scenario is during the winter months when relatively large difference in temperature between day and night occurs. However, overheating of the greenhouse during the day is common, even in winter, requiring ventilation of the structure. Hence, several techniques have been proposed for the storage of the solar energy received by the greenhouse during the day and its use to heat the structure at night. Reviews of such techniques are presented in this chapter. Air or water can be used for heat transport. The circulating water is heated during the day via two processes. The water absorbs part of the infrared radiation of the solar spectrum. Since the water is transparent in the visible region, they do not compete with the plants that need it. Alternatively, the water exchanges heat with the greenhouse air through the walls. At night, if the greenhouse temperature goes down below a specified value, the water begins to circulate acting as heat transfer surfaces heating the air in the greenhouse. This chapter describes various designs of low energy greenhouses. It also, outlines the effect of dense urban building nature on energy consumption, and its contribution to climate change. Measures, which would help to save energy in greenhouses, are also presented. It also enabled the minimisation of temperature variation and, hence avoided the hazard of any sudden climatic change inside the greenhouse.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Seroprevalence of Leptospira interrogans ser. Bratislava in swine from
           Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Christian Ifeanyi Ilozue, J.K.P. Kwaga, M. Bello
      Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kaduna metropolis in order to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Bratislava in swine. A total of 270 swine blood samples were collected from farms and slaughterhouses in the different regions of the metropolis and were analyzed for leptospirosis using Indirect – ELISA. Out of the 270 serum samples examined, 118 (43.7%) of the samples were positive for Leptospira ser. Bratislava. Although samples from the slaughterhouses had a higher prevalence (52.50%) than that from the farms (40.0%), there was no statistically significant association between the source of the samples and the seropositivity (p = 0.149; X2 = 2.385). Similarly, there was no statistically significant association in seroprevalence between the sexes of the swine and among the Local Government Areas within Kaduna metropolis from where swine were sampled. In conclusion, 43.7% pigs in Kaduna metropolis were positive for leptospiral infection which could constitute health risk to the farmers and slaughterhouse workers; hence there is need for an increased enlightenment campaign about the infection and its zoonotic implications among pig farmers and slaughterhouse workers.
      PubDate: 2015-12-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Limits and opportunities of marketeering tertiary education in
           post-colonial Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: This paper intended to assess the impact of marketeering tertiary education in Zimbabwe. The paper revealed that marketeering of tertiary education in Zimbabwe has drastically impacted on access to higher education and training. Poor and vulnerable students have found it difficult to access tertiary education due to escalating commercialized fees. Literature indicates that, even in developed countries like UK, marketeering tertiary education has led to decreased enrolments, diminishing prospects and reduced quality. In Zimbabwe, many of the students in tertiary institutions today are those who can afford to pay for their fees in one way or another even if their entry qualifications were not good enough. The poor and vulnerable who have excellent entry passes are either denied the opportunity or they are accepted and later drop out before completing their programmes because they cannot afford to pay. Although there are prospects that marketeering of education can increase accountability and efficiency hence quality, it does infringe on the rights of the poor and vulnerable who cannot afford the commercialized fees. In Zimbabwe, many people are indeed poor and unemployed and therefore cannot afford the fees. Marketeering of tertiary education has also impacted on funding of research and scholarship as tertiary institutions look for cost cutting measures so that they remain ‘profitable’. This paper then concludes that, therefore, marketeering of tertiary education has more limitations than opportunities in Zimbabwe. It has negative implications for quality and more so for access to tertiary education. It is also negatively correlated with future socioeconomic development and progress. On these bases, the paper recommends well established social safety nets, retention of the revolving fund for student grants, establishment of collaborative bursary grants and improved funding for research and scholarship in Zimbabwe.
      PubDate: 2015-12-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Alternations in Helmholtz resonator neck angle and the shape of its
           connection to the air channels to increase the insertion loss of sound

    • Authors: Gholamhossein Pourtaghi, F. Valipour, H. Mokarami, R. Ataeifarid
      Abstract: Different methods of sound control in industry have been investigated by the researchers. The passive methods such as membrane absorbents, porous absorbents and the sound resonators are among the most important methods of sound control and reduction. In the present study, the effects of changing Helmholtz resonator neck angle relative to the sound channel along with the other alternations in geometric properties of the resonator such as length, cross section and the shape of the cross section were investigated. The circular and rectangular necks with various lengths and shape were used for finding the changes of insertion loss in a cylinder shaped channel made out of PVC with 3 m long and diameter of 9 cm and the thickness of 2.7 mm. The level of insertion loss of sound would be higher in comparison with 45 and 90 degree angles. The rectangular shaped neck exhibited the least efficiency in sound reduction while the conical shaped neck whose base attachment to the sound channel has circular shape resulted in highest level of sound dissipation. The shorter necks with larger cross sections, in comparison with longer necks with small cross sections, would lead to higher insertion loss of sound.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Studying the nationalization of foreign property investment in Iran and
           Iraq law

    • Authors: Jawad Hussain Zada, Amin Rostamzadeh
      Abstract: Nowadays, the countries do not take the progressive form without attracting the foreign investment. So, one would say that the study of the factors contributing to the motivation of foreign investment is considerable. Of the most important elements of such an issue is the laws having to do with foreign investment domain such as the quality of expropriation or nationalization of foreign property investment in the host country. Another important factor is the quality of it where such a legal license is taken into account as the significant difference of laws relevant to countries which is also the confusion element of the free will in terms of the legal status. Hence, based on the result of the studies one would claim that foreign investment covers the neighborhood countries leading to the experts as well as lawyers and countries after choosing the assumed area. The country getting the most advantages in different factors such as legal discussion and assumed low in the relevant domain is identified and suggested. This study focuses on the attitude toward the historical trend of legal, criteria and opinions issued by the court of arbitration having to do with nationalization of foreign property investment in one hand, and comparative study of the two neighborhood countries i.e. Iran and Iraq as one of the efficient research tools where the foreign property investment law including the synergistic status on the other, are studied in this research. Based on the obtained results of the study, the principle is predicted as lack of nationalization during the comparative study of both countries’ foreign property investment law in terms of nationalization of foreign property investment in both countries. The study relies on the exception condition of Iraq’s law against the international standard of the rule “otherwise based on the judicial court’s definite ruling” and Iran’s law “otherwise for public interest”. It predicts Iran’s law as more qualified one to attract and motivate the investor. In general, both laws have the capability to be considered as the element to attract distinguished and common investment through standardizing the laws according to the custom in relation to international appropriate behavior taking into account the area capacity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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