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Journal Cover Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
  [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2322-2956
   Published by Sjournals Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Alternations in Helmholtz resonator neck angle and the shape of its
           connection to the air channels to increase the insertion loss of sound

    • Authors: Gholamhossein Pourtaghi, F. Valipour, H. Mokarami, R. Ataeifarid
      Abstract: Different methods of sound control in industry have been investigated by the researchers. The passive methods such as membrane absorbents, porous absorbents and the sound resonators are among the most important methods of sound control and reduction. In the present study, the effects of changing Helmholtz resonator neck angle relative to the sound channel along with the other alternations in geometric properties of the resonator such as length, cross section and the shape of the cross section were investigated. The circular and rectangular necks with various lengths and shape were used for finding the changes of insertion loss in a cylinder shaped channel made out of PVC with 3 m long and diameter of 9 cm and the thickness of 2.7 mm. The level of insertion loss of sound would be higher in comparison with 45 and 90 degree angles. The rectangular shaped neck exhibited the least efficiency in sound reduction while the conical shaped neck whose base attachment to the sound channel has circular shape resulted in highest level of sound dissipation. The shorter necks with larger cross sections, in comparison with longer necks with small cross sections, would lead to higher insertion loss of sound.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Studying the nationalization of foreign property investment in Iran and
           Iraq law

    • Authors: Jawad Hussain Zada, Amin Rostamzadeh
      Abstract: Nowadays, the countries do not take the progressive form without attracting the foreign investment. So, one would say that the study of the factors contributing to the motivation of foreign investment is considerable. Of the most important elements of such an issue is the laws having to do with foreign investment domain such as the quality of expropriation or nationalization of foreign property investment in the host country. Another important factor is the quality of it where such a legal license is taken into account as the significant difference of laws relevant to countries which is also the confusion element of the free will in terms of the legal status. Hence, based on the result of the studies one would claim that foreign investment covers the neighborhood countries leading to the experts as well as lawyers and countries after choosing the assumed area. The country getting the most advantages in different factors such as legal discussion and assumed low in the relevant domain is identified and suggested. This study focuses on the attitude toward the historical trend of legal, criteria and opinions issued by the court of arbitration having to do with nationalization of foreign property investment in one hand, and comparative study of the two neighborhood countries i.e. Iran and Iraq as one of the efficient research tools where the foreign property investment law including the synergistic status on the other, are studied in this research. Based on the obtained results of the study, the principle is predicted as lack of nationalization during the comparative study of both countries’ foreign property investment law in terms of nationalization of foreign property investment in both countries. The study relies on the exception condition of Iraq’s law against the international standard of the rule “otherwise based on the judicial court’s definite ruling” and Iran’s law “otherwise for public interest”. It predicts Iran’s law as more qualified one to attract and motivate the investor. In general, both laws have the capability to be considered as the element to attract distinguished and common investment through standardizing the laws according to the custom in relation to international appropriate behavior taking into account the area capacity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Reviewing the models of disability within the frameworks for the
           empowerment of people with disabilities in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: The paper reviews the context of empowerment of people with disabilities in Zimbabwe. A critical situational analysis reveals that, despite the existence of reasonably disability legislative frameworks, people with disabilities are still looked down upon and often marginalized particularly when it comes to employment. Unemployment and under-employment of people with disabilities is positively correlated with lack of adequate education and training. One  reason for the status quo is that legislative frameworks such as the Education Act (1987), the Disabled Persons Act (1992), the Indeginisation and Empowerment Act (2007) and the new Constitution of Zimbabwe (2013) itself are too generalized.The paper argues that some of the prejudices that are reflected through the exigencies and barriers to empowerment people with disabilities have to go through are a result of the use of disempowering models such as the medical, expert, rehabilitation and the moral models. These models have shaped the negative ways in which people with disabilities are viewed in Zimbabwe. The government has taken positive steps towards the establishment of inclusive education but lack of resources has clouded these efforts and hampered the realization of full socio-economic and political participation of people with disabilities. For that matter, education and training are identified in this paper as the most basic tools for empowering the marginalized and disadvantaged groups. Based on the foregoing arguments, the paper concludes that people with disabilities in Zimbabwe have generally not been empowered due to either lack of clarity of policies, lack of resources, lack of political will or mere ignorance about disability. The paper also notes lack of current disability activism in Zimbabwe as another major impediment to empowerment. On these bases, the paper recommends an all-inclusive framework of empowerment of people with disabilities in Zimbabwe, collaboration in policy design, rephrasing of current legislative frameworks to make them clearer on aspects of disability, disability awareness for all citizens including policy makers and civil servants and more deliberate promotion of equal opportunities in education and training, employment, land redistribution and financing of business development.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Prevalence and risk factors associated with Hepatitis B virus coinfection
           with HIV amon patients attending some selected hospitals in Kaduna
           metropolis

    • Authors: Aishatu Aliyu mohammed, Maryam Aliyu Yakasai, Afusat Bola Rufai
      Abstract: 300 blood samples were analyzed for the presence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), using smart checkTM HBsAg strip. 270 were HIV positive while 30 were HIV negative patients. Out of the 270 HIV positive patients 35 (13.0%) were HBsAg positive while out of the 30 HIV negative patients 1 (3.3%) was HBsAg positive. Prevalence was highest in age group 15-20 (25.0%) with zero prevalence in age group below 15 and above 51 in HIV positive patients, there is significant statistical association between age and the occurrence of HBV infection (P<0.05). Higher prevalence was recorded in males 16.2% than females 11.7%, there is no significant association between the occurrence of HBV and sex (P>0.05). Multiple sex partners have the highest prevalence (50.0%) and no sex partner have the lowest prevalence (5.3%).This reveals that patients that are HIV positive are at risk of contracting HBV infection.
      PubDate: 2015-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Methodology and factors influencing the association of body weight,
           performance parameters with linear body measurements assessment in poultry
           

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: The preceding review gives some insight on different methods and factors which influence the association of live weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements assessment in poultry. The relationship existing among linear body parameters provides useful information on the performance and carcass value of poultry.  Linear body measurements  variability in poultry arises due to genotypic and environmental effects, and the magnitude of variability may differs under different management practices and environmental conditions. The knowledge of the relationship existing between live weight,  carcass traits  and other performance traits in poultry is crucial because it enable us to predict the body weight and performance  from linear body parts and vice versa. This is on the background that different methods have been employed to assess the association of live weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements in poultry. It is suffice to suggest that the understating of the relationship between linear body measurements and performance traits in poultry could be useful in designing appropriate management, selection and breeding  programs for utilization of poultry genetic resources. Therefore, the conclusion that linear body measurements information for a particular poultry species or breed is important for breed or species identification and economic valuation in its utilization, might be valid.
      PubDate: 2015-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • The status of Nigeria in religion and sustainable development in Africa

    • Authors: C.T. Gotan
      Abstract: The paper focused on the status of Nigeria in religion and sustainable development in Africa. Religion promotes integrated development as it influences the development of a better world. Thus religion and development are discussed. Africa and religion are further discussedbecause there is no separation between religion and life, body and soul in African thinking. African religion in sustainable development and underdevelopment are highlighted. The role of religion in sustainable development in Nigeria is seen to be both positive and negative. Positively it is a stepping stone to sustainable development through provision of education and healthcare institutions and organizations. Negatively it has immensely contributed to Nigeria’s underdevelopment through numerous religious riots in some regions of the country that have led to the loss of many lives and properties. Recommendations such as: Religious education should emphasize the importance of science in technological development, hard work and good governance for sustainable development, among others are proffered.
      PubDate: 2015-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Reforms needed for the operationalisation of inclusive education in
           ordinary schools in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: Special Needs Education has evolved from segregation to main streaming and then to inclusion of students with disabilities. This evolutionary process was fuelled by the social need for equality of humanity. This process has been met with fierce idealogical resistance from certain social quotas. The most radical and dynamic changes in Special Needs Education to date, which have withstood such resistance, are those that relate to inclusive education. In response to changes characterising inclusive education, drastic reforms have been experienced in those countries such as the USA and the United Kingdom. These countries have been used as models for the implementation of genuine inclusion of students with disabilities into ordinary schools.  This treatise examines reforms of the ordinary school that would save as necessary conditions for successful inclusive education in developing countries such as Zimbabwe. Such reforms relate to the organization and philosophy of the school, the physical and social environment, resourcing, curriculum and policy change processes. Examples from Zimbabwe are used to guide the discussion and the terms ‘inclusive education’, ‘major reforms’ and ‘mainstream/ordinary school’ are immediately defined in order to operationalize the topic. Some of the main reasons for failure of inclusive education in developing countries such as Zimbabwe have been lack of political will and negative social attitudes towards people with disabilities. In the ultimate analysis, the paper concludes that, for inclusive education to operate or function, there is need for a revolutionary change of attitude toward people with disabilities at political, social and professional levels. This should be punctuated with restructuring of the school infrastructure and mainstream curriculum, mainstreaming of social and educational policies to become disability friendly and improved resourcing. Teachers should be re-capacitated to face the challenges that go with inclusive education and community ownership of inclusive initiatives, guided my national policy and support is proposed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Citizenship education and its relevance to Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: Informal education systems in the traditional African systems were aimed at, among other things, passing on cultural values, norms and knowledge skills from one generation to the next.  In addition, the youth were taught to preserve their cultural identity. Owing to fundamental shifts in classical family systems and educational practices in Africa, countries such as Zimbabwe have come to recognise the need for including societal values and norms, ethics, morals and responsibilities in thewhole school curricula in order to inculcate value systems and maintain the national legacy and cultural heritage. One strategy for achieving the desired cultural ethos is implementing a deliberate Citizenship Education programme which should be incorporated into the formal education system. Citizenship Education could also be inculcated through extra curricula activities such as sport.Besides the transmission of the cultural norms and values, Citizenship Education should incorporate humanitarian issues such as inclusion of people with disabilities in social processes. In the same vein, the Citizenship Education programme should be flexible to cater for the needs of learners with special needs. This paper explores the relevance of Citizenship Education to the prevailing Zimbabwean situation. In the long term, Citizenship Education has the capacity to improve the socio-political and economic advancement of a country.  The paper concludes that Citizenship Education is relevant to the Zimbabwean situation, despite that it has been heavily politicised and has, in some cases, lost its original intention. In the long term, the programme has a propensity to improve the socio-political and economic conditions of the country. De-politicisation of Citizenship Education could be the first step towards re-aligning it to the intended national ethos and ideals. This should be policy driven.The programme should endeavour to inculcate values and norms that facilitate nation building and should not be used for partisan political orientation.
      PubDate: 2015-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Analysing the disability- sexuality controversy

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: Sexuality is one of the many phenomena which are least openly discussed particularly in the African culture. Sexuality is conceived variously in different cultures and disability is seen as a threat to sexuality in many of the cultures. Meanwhile, sexuality is regarded as a central theme in the development of self-esteem and self-identity since it has been conceived within the bodily perfection and bodily beauty complexes. Thus, the way sexuality is conceived for people with disabilities forms the central thrust of this paper. Views about the sexuality of people with disabilities have manifested in the construction of what we term the disability- sexuality controversy. The paper examines this controversy and explores ways of resolving it in the context of educational programming. The paper concludes that the disability- sexuality controversy is more of a social than a biological construct. This conclusion is premised on the hypothetical view that both disability and sexuality are intimately tied to the concept of self in which case sexuality is constructed within the social realm of the bodily beauty complexes. The way forward is a multi- sectorial approach towards the eradication of disability stereotypes. In addition, the paper recommends active parental involvement in the programming and implementation of sexuality education for their children with disabilities.
      PubDate: 2015-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Reasons for removal of the moon

    • Authors: S. Orlov
      Abstract: In article the new concept of an explanation of the reason of removal of the Moon from Earth is offered to consideration. It is based on the theory of vortex gravitation, cosmology and a cosmogony. The main reason for this removal is that gravity, the earth's field does not create our planet, and ether vortex The orbital plane of the Moon doesn't coincide with the plane of a gravitational whirlwind that creates reduction of forces of an attraction of the Moon to Earth on some sites of its orbit. Removal of a lunar orbit happens a consequence of it.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • On invariant speed of light

    • Authors: S. Orlov
      Abstract: A new physical model of the appearance of light, properties, and its trajectory. Explains the paradox of invariance and isotropy of light based on the laws of classical physics.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Assessment of the adequacy of advocacy as a strategy for championing the
           citizenry of persons with disabilities in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: Different civic movements and advocacy groups the world over have committed much effort to championing the rights of persons with disabilities within the equality of rights and opportunities complex. These advocacy efforts have more often been targeted at rights to equal access and opportunities in social services and employment by persons with disabilities. It appears from literature that advocacy has not done enough in demanding those fundamental rights and freedoms which are central to the citizenship of persons with disabilities. As compared to their peers, persons with disabilities have limited, or to say the least, constrained citizenship rights. For a very long time, advocacy has been seen as a powerful strategy for championing the rights of persons with disabilities. This paper provides a critical analysis of the adequacy of the various advocacy initiatives to establish the extent to which the initiatives have addressed the citizenry issues affecting persons with disabilities. The author argues that citizenship rights form the basis for the equal opportunity complex inherent in the different types of advocacy. Thus, without addressing the issue of citizenry of persons with disabilities, the different types of advocacy cannot be endorsed as the panacea to the equal rights and opportunity problems facing people with disabilities in communities. From these arguments, the paper concludes that what has compromised the adequacy of advocacy for the citizenry of persons with disabilities is that the strategy has been patronized by non-disabled people. The author therefore recommends a multiple-advocacy approach coupled with practical policies, a genuine political will and strong political representation as the best way forward.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Analysis of sign language proficiency among teachers of the deaf in
           primary schools in Bulawayo (Zimbabwe): Implications for learning and
           inclusion

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: Sign Language proficiency among teachers of the deaf form the basis for effective learning by deaf children. It is also the bedrock of successful inclusion. Previous studies and literature have equivocally confirmed that young children who are deaf learn more effectively when taught using Sign Language. The current study sought to establish the level of Sign language competency among teachers of children who are deaf in 10 of the primary schools in Bulawayo that enroll children who are deaf. A descriptive survey and ex-post facto research designs were employed in soliciting data from a sample of 15 teachers of the deaf and 5 college lecturers. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and a Modified Sign Language Proficiency Interview (MSLPI) on a 6-Point rating scale. Document analysis and observation were used to authenticate responses from college lecturers and teachers of the deaf respectively. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and descriptive summaries were used to analyse data. The data indicated that teachers of the deaf in Bulawayo lacked Sign Language proficiency. They could only afford the lowest two scores on the (MSLPI) scale that is the Novice and the No Functional Skills levels. What teachers at times mistook for Sign language was mere finger spelling and some distorted signed systems. From these findings the study concluded that the learning of the deaf children in primary schools in Bulawayo was heavily compromised due to lack of effective communication between teachers and the learners.  The study also concluded that the inclusion of deaf children in the schools would remain a pipe dream as long as the teachers were not proficient in Sign language which is the first language of the deaf. The study recommended regular Sign Language staff development programmes, intensification of the practical component of Sign Language in the college programme for trainee teachers of the deaf, external scholarship and exchange programmes for both teachers and college lecturers who train teachers for the deaf.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Logistic regression on consumption of rice (Case study of Offa Local
           Government Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria)

    • Authors: Abdulkabir Muritala, Surajudeen Tunde Raji
      Abstract: This research work is on logistic regression on consumption of locally and imported rice using Offa local government, Kwara state as case study, it aimed to establish a model that can use to predict Age, Income, Expenditure and frequency of locally and imported produced rice and determine the best model among the variables of the outcome. The statistical tools that were used for the analysis of the data is logistic regression, backward elimination method were also employ to check the best model. The variable with the lowest difference among the non significant variable (i.e. change in -2LL) shows the model that are significant, at the end of the analysis it can be concluded that the best model is the one with age since it is not dropped from the model
      PubDate: 2015-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Strong interaction of hadrons in quark cluster model

    • Authors: Arezu Jahanshir
      Abstract: The theoretical information on the hadrons interactions according to the basis investigation of the multiple scattering process theory is described. As we know multi-particle reactions on the hadrons targets are attracting a great attention nowadays. To survey strong interaction of jet particles with quarks that are inside hadrons (Baryons,mesons, exotic baryons(Penta-quarks), exotic mesons(Tetra-quarks), we can use the estimate called high energy approximation (Eikonal or Glauber approximation) theory that known very well in nuclear physics. This estimate describes collision and interactions of jet particles with quarks and scattering from multi-focus hadrons like diffraction phenomenon in optics. Glauber multiple scattering process theory may apply in analyzing elastic and inelastic collision of hadrons in a range of high energy levels.  In elastic collision, scattering amplitude is equal to total ranges of multiple collisions inside the hadrons. It’s possible to express Glauber multiple scattering factor in a form of mathematic series. So that each elements shows the number of occurred scattering inside the hadrons. Determination of scattering amplitude by the high energy approximation depends on elected primary coming wave function of the shot particle and function of out coming wave from the target nucleus. Therefore it’s not so hard to determine scattering amplitude. The main purpose of this paper is to show how to determine mathematical formula for differential cross section of jet particles in high energy levels with a hadrons in cluster model (qq, qq) (Quarkonium-Quarkonium cluster).
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Preparation of polystyrene nanofiber modified with Dithizone using
           electrospinning technique

    • Authors: Majid Saghi, Davood Kaviani, Masoumeh Hajipoor, Behrokh Assadi, Mohammad Hosein Bigtan
      Abstract: In this paper, polystyrene nanofiber were made using electrospinning polystyrene inside THF/DMF solvent. The major parameters such as voltage, distance between injection and collector, polystyrene concentration and rotating speed of collector were optimized in electrospinning technique. The results indicated that in specific range, with increasing voltage, high electrospinning distance, low flow of injection and high collector’s speed, we could achieve to nanofiber having regular chain structure and less diameter. In optimal condition and unmodified surface, polystyrene fiber had average diameter of 82.1 nm. Finally polystyrene absorbent by dithizone were modified and through selecting best condition, the modified polystyrene nanofiber with 92.98 nm average diameter were obtained which although it has more diameter than unmodified nanofiber, it possesses properties which the unmodified nanofiber does not have those properties, for example property of absorbing metals.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Cushioning women against gender inequality through promoting indigenous
           chicken production in sub Saharan Africa

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: Poultry sub sector is a privileged entry point for promoting gender equality. Gender inequalities in poultry and livestock activities are now more and more acknowledged by governments, scientists, and farmers in sub Saharan Africa. This is on the background that gender inequality has translated into loss of opportunities or potential gains on agricultural production and food security. This has been exacerbated by the fact that the progress in empowering women in agriculture and reducing gender inequality has been slow despite this realization. The paper presents an overview of the development of the indigenous chickens sector in sub Saharan Africa and its implication on addressing gender equality. The assumption is that despite the multitude of socio-economic constraints faced by women in agriculture they are capable of raising indigenous chickens for the welfare of their households, hence promoting indigenous chickens  can give women a chance to control more income, reducing gender inequality. Achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment is critical to the success of these development goals.
      PubDate: 2015-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Synthesis of an organic-inorganic salt of (C2H5NO2)2H4SiW12O40 and
           investigation of its anti-viral effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)

    • Authors: Majid Saghi, Mohammad Hosein Bigtan, Mahboobeh Mohadeszadeh, Mohammad Zakiaghl
      Abstract: Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (C2H5NO2)2H4SiW12O40 was synthesized (C2H5NO2 = Glycine = Gly). Investigation on Anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotiana tabacum plants.
      PubDate: 2015-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Improvisation: an alternative approach to solving the problem of
           ill-equipped biology and agricultural science laboratories in senior
           secondary schools, Nigeria

    • Authors: R. Muhammad, N. I. Lawal
      Abstract: Effective teaching for quality science education can only be achieved through “learning by doing” (practical) in well-equipped laboratory. However, ill-equipped science laboratories have reached an alarming level thereby making learning by doing impossible. This paper takes a look at the concept and skills or techniques of improvising biology teaching equipment (instructional materials) in Agricultural science as a viable alternative and a panacea to ill-equipped laboratories in post-basic education in Nigeria. The paper concludes that ill-equipped laboratories is one of the myriad of problems currently facing the teaching and learning of Biology and Agricultural science in Nigerian Senior Secondary Schools that needs urgent attention from all stakeholders in science  education as government alone cannot solve the problem.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Energy efficient for refrigeration and air conditioning

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows.
      PubDate: 2015-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
 
 
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