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Journal Cover Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2322-2956
   Published by Sjournals Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Human-elephant conflict mitigation measures in Hwange

    • Authors: Farai Madzimure
      Abstract: This study assessed the human-elephant conflict mitigation measures in Victoria Falls town, Hwange West communal area and the resettlement areas of Don Rovin, Mubiya and Kalala. The observation method was the main instrument used for data collection. Results indicate that the common form of preventing elephants from raiding crops in the area is guarding. During the survey, the researcher observed villagers who were guarding their crops to prevent elephants raids. The villagers indicated that guarding was effective as they were doing it collectively as a village. People take turns to guard crops. One group guard in the afternoon and another guards during the night. A fire is used to show presence of people. Electric fence is also used to prevent elephants from entering in the fields. The electric fence restricts the movement of elephants into the residential areas of the Victoria Falls town. During the survey, the researcher observed some trenches dug to prevent elephants from entering crop fields. Trenches are also used to prevent elephants from entering a vegetable gardens in the area.
      PubDate: 2017-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Applied Geographical Information System (GIS): Overlay analysis

    • Authors: Farai Madzimure
      Abstract: Technological limitations have posed challenges in integrating wildlife conservation needs with human land uses and other infrastructural development needs. The advent of the Global Position System (GPS) technology has made it possible to collect elephant location and human land use data. Geographic Information System (GIS) software has allowed overlay analysis of elephant location data and human land uses. This study, therefore demonstrates how the overlay analysis function in GIS can be employed to link human land use data layers and elephant location. To achieve this, the overlay analysis function was used to combine elephant location data with distance maps of each human land use factor. The distance values for each human land use factor were extracted at each elephant location using the map value function in ILWIS. The resultant table show extracted elephant location values and corresponding distances values for each human land use factor. Further research can be conducted by exporting elephant location values and corresponding land use values to SPSS to predict the human land uses which significantly influence the presence or absence of elephants. This study also recommends the use of the overlay analysis tool in Environmental Impact Assessment projects to model the most suitable site for a proposed project such as dam construction.  
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Determining human-elephant conflict hot spots in Hwange

    • Authors: Farai Madzimure
      Abstract: This study predicted the spatial determinants of human-elephant conflict in Victoria Falls town, Hwange West communal area and the resettlement areas of Don Rovin, Mubiya and Kalala. The Garmin GPS receiver, digitizing and observation instruments were employed for collecting human-elephant conflict location. Results indicate that all the areas located close to the forest protected area are vulnerable to human-elephant conflict incidents. Therefore, areas such as Ndlovu, Mvutu, Chikandakubi and Chenamisa in Jambezi are human-elephant conflict hot spots as they share a boundary with the forest. Areas such as Chinotimba and Mkhosana residential area are human-elephant conflict hot spots in Victoria Falls as they share a boundary with both the Victoria Falls and the Zambezi National parks. The resettlement areas of Mubiya, Don Rovin and Kalala are hot spots for human-elephant conflict incidents. This is because the resettlement areas are all located at the boundary of the Fuller forest protected area. It is recommended that a deterrent method such as the installation of electric fence around Victoria Falls town has a great potential of preventing elephants from entering settlements and minimizing human-elephant conflict. For Hwange communal and resettlement areas, land use planners should prevent settlements patterns that leave crop fields vulnerable to crop raiding. Alternatively, land use planners can consider allocating land to other uses besides settlements and agriculture. Integrating the spatial determinants of human-elephant conflict with land use planning has a great potential of offering permanent solutions to the conflict problem.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Exposition of the grammatical structure of sign language

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: Many people hardly believe that sign language is a fully fledged language. Some people mistakenly think that sign language is oral language conveyed through signs while some think that it is a manual code of English for instance. They think that it is a type of pantomime (exaggerated set of signs) rather than a real language. There are also misconceptions among the public that sign language can only be used to express concrete information and that it is universal. Signs in a sign language have been regarded simply as unanalysable iconic gestures with little or no internal organisation at all. To the contrary, linguistic research has however demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that sign languages of the world are fully fledged languages with their own formal grammatical structures and well established lexicons. William Stokoe (1960) was the first researcher to demonstrate that signs of a sign language have an internal sub lexical structure analogous to that found in words of spoken languages. Thus, sign language is comparable to spoken language both in terms of complexity and expressiveness. It is not a manual rendition of oral language, but an independent formal language in its own right. In addition, sign language is not universal, but just like in the case of oral/spoken languages which are spoken by different people in different countries, deaf people around the world sign different sign languages. The sign language grammatical structure subscribes to the same linguistic rules enjoyed by oral language.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Experimental and numerical studies of laminated butt joint specimens with
           Aluminum butt straps under preload

    • Authors: Subramanya Sastry Sringeri Srikanta, Venkata Siva Nagaraju Reddy, Ramjeyathilagam Kasi
      Abstract: Experimental and numerical investigations on laminated butt joint specimens (size 72 mm x 135 mm x 3.328 / 4.502 / 5.672 mm thickness) with Aluminium butt straps under preload are presented. Five specimens each of three different thickness using 6781 8HS S2 glass fabric with quasi-isotropic layup were fabricated, assembled and tested to study their failure behavior. The specimens with two bolts in parallel and series were designed to twice the width mentioned in ASTM D 5961/D 5961M – 08, fabricated by matched die moulding process for the study of bearing strength and ultimate load carrying capacity of a eight bolted butt joint. The width of the specimens, edge distance and pitch of the M6 fasteners were adjusted so as to be within the limits of the Instron testing machine with Zwick-Roell grips. The experimental results were compared with the numerical results of a 3D finite element model developed from a Catia model that incorporates a characteristic curve around the bolt holes of the butt joint. The points on the bearing failure boundary around each fastener hole was compared with the curve approximated using the least square method. It was observed that the theoretical characteristic curve has shown deviation to the curve fitted using least square method on the experimental data.
      PubDate: 2017-09-10
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Conceptualizing the phonology of sign language: As a matter of emphasis
           and elucidation

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: Like any other language, sign language is, among other things, guided by phonological principles involving several parameters combining in space to form lexical signs. According to Klima and Bellugi (1979), a simple lexical sign is essentially a simultaneous occurrence of a particular value of each of the several parameters.  These parameters occur within a constrained signing space in combination with each other. William Stokoe (1960) equated phonology in oral language to what he termed cherology in sign language. However, most sign linguists prefer to use the term phonology. In oral language, phonology is the study of sounds, but in sign language, it is concerned with the parameters that make sign language a systematic and intelligible language system. One basic difference between oral and sign language is that in oral language we use words while in sign language we use signs. The other important difference is that while oral language is produced in the oral cavity using articulatory organs such as the mouth, sign language is produced in space using mostly the hands. Yet the structural difference is that while a phoneme in oral language is the basic unit of a word a chereme in sign language is the basic unit of a sign. In oral language words are organized sequentially while the signs in sign language are organized as a combination of simultaneously occurring components derived from several spatial dimensions. The purpose of this paper is to examine the parameters that characterize sign language and to demonstrate the formation, vocabulary and organization of signs. The paper demonstrates how signs are executed in space. The paper addresses four major phonological (cherological) parameters of sign language, namely hand configuration (hand shape), place of articulation (location / position), movement and orientation. Major parameters save to distinguish very large classes of signs. In addition the paper articulates how these parameters combine to formulate meaningful signs within the constrained signing space. From the analysis, the author concludes that the phonology of sign language is highly complex and is resident in space as a function of the hand acting as a highly articulatory linguistic organ.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Project based learning and assessment of ordinary level Fashion and
           Fabrics in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda, Florence Sebele, Mlungisi Moyo
      Abstract: Ordinary level assessment for Fashion and Fabrics exposes learners to a practical paper (Paper 3) which is weighted at 20%. This entails that 20% of the final assessment of a learner is coursework while 80% is the examination. Learners do not have full autonomy over the sample garment for coursework as there are specifications provided by the examining board. This research sought to explore how the assessment criterion could be improved to empower learners for further education and entrepreneurial skills. The revisit of the assessment criterion was in response to the contemporary issue of the advancement of STEM subjects under the slogan for, ‘Stemitisation of the curriculum’. This research was informed by the constructivist philosophical view, hence predominantly qualitative. The major question that guided the study was: ‘How could ‘O’ level Paper 3 Fashion and Fabrics assessment be improved to establish a relationship between opportunities for further education and entrepreneurial skills'’ Focus group interviews and unstructured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample comprised of thirty ‘O’ level students and twenty teachers selected from high schools drawn across one district in the Bulawayo Metropolitan Province. The purposive sampling technique was applied in order to obtain rich information from respondents in their natural setting. Results revealed that the assessment criterion did not expose learners to sufficient problem solving skills. The major conclusion drawn was that there was a misalignment between the assessment criterion and the global need to prepare students for the demand for entrepreneurial skills in the 21st century. Recommendations put forth in this paper appraised the need for a project based assessment as it would enable students think creatively to boost their entrepreneurial skills and to facilitate their smooth transition into further education or productive work. The study also recommended an urgent curriculum review which will be sensitive to a balanced assessment criterion which recognizes both theory and practice in Fashion and Fabrics and which recognizes the ethos of interprenuership.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • De-mystifying sign language acquisition and development in deaf children

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: Quite often people think that deaf children acquire language differently from their hearing peers. People often wonder whether deaf children go through the same or different language development milestones from their peers. Some people even wonder whether these children develop any language at all because for them sign language is not a formal language after all. It is also not surprising to find even deaf education scholars hesitant about whether deaf children develop sign language in a pre-determined style at all. This paper is intended to demystify these doubts. The paper explores the nature of sign language acquisition and development by comparing with typical oral language processes. Developmental milestones are provided to allay the tension scholars often go through when required to outline, let alone examine stages of language development in deaf children. The conclusion of this paper is that sign language acquisition and development in deaf children is the same as oral language acquisition and development in their hearing peers. This is because sign and not oral language is the native language for the deaf.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • The impact of deafness; theory of mind and child development

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: This paper adopts a wider conception of language which goes beyond viewing language as being limited to speech. The concept of language in this paper includes all forms of socially agreed systems of exchanging and communicating ideas and information which include sign language as a formal language of interaction for the deaf. Thus the paper is premised on the cultural model of deafness which designates sign language as the primary medium of communication for the deaf while at the same time the paper is cognizant of the impact of deafness on child development with regards to aural-oral environments. In these regards, the paper links the impact of deafness to the concept of theory of mind development in order to seduce parents, educators and other stakeholders to strongly consider the need for deaf children to be fully exposed to sign language and deaf culture as a way of promoting their overall development. The paper concludes that; while deafness does impact on child development, quality exposure to and fluency in sign language can facilitate theory of mind development hence mitigate the impact. In the same vein, the impact of deafness becomes an even more critical phenomenon with regards to theory of mind development discourses.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • The effect of pre-emergence Herbicide (Dual gold) and hand weeding
           frequencies on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) growth, yield and yield
           components in Bale Highlands, Southeastern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Kissi Wakweya Diriba, Reta Dargie Gudeta
      Abstract: Since weed is the major production constraints for faba bean production in Bale Highlands, Its management is quite important to increase the production and productivity. Due to such gaps, the experiment was conducted on research field of Sinana Agricultural research center and Agarfa sub-site in the Highlands of Bale, South-eastern Ethiopia under rainfed conditions during the main cropping season of 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the effect of pre-emergence herbicide (Dual gold 960 EC) in combination with hand weeding frequencies on yield and yield components of faba bean. The treatments consisted of five weed management options: (1) Weedy check, (2) Two times hand weeding at 25-30 and 40-45 days after emergence (DAE), (3) Sole dual gold, (4) Dual gold + once hand weeding at 25-30 DAE, and  (5) Dual gold + two times hand weeding at 25-30 and 40-45 DAE. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results indicated that a number of pods plant-1, total biomass and seed yield kg ha-1 and 1000 seeds weight were significantly influenced by different weed management options. The result showed that more than 38%, 27%, and 33% yield advantages were obtained when dual gold application in combination with one and two times hand weeding and only two times hand weeding was respectively used. Moreover, more than 7% yield advantage was obtained when dual gold plus two times hand weeding were practiced as compared to only two times hand weeding. The highest net return was also obtained from dual gold application at the rate of 1.5 Lha-1 plus two times hand weeding. Therefore, application of dual gold as a supplemental pre-emergence herbicide in combination with 1-2 times hand weeding could give economically optimum benefit and hence recommended for the end users. Alternatively, application of dual gold plus one time hand weeding at the later stage could also be used as an alternative weed management in areas where weed pressure is low and/or labor competition is very high during the critical period. However, it was needed to find out another pre or post-emergency herbicide which control weeds without supplement of hand weeding.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Perceptions of college lecturers and students towards the assessment of
           student teachers with special needs in inclusive contexts: A case of one
           college of teacher education in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda, Mlungisi Moyo, Royal Ntini
      Abstract: Assessment processes are critical in educational practice since quality education can be measured through these processes. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of college lecturers and students on the nature of assessment procedures obtaining for students with special needs in inclusive contexts. The study is grounded in Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences and the social model of disability. The observation that teachers’ colleges in Zimbabwe often have no inclusive policy guidelines on the assessment of students with special needs motivated the study. A case study was conducted within the qualitative paradigm. Semi structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used as the main data collection instruments for 15 lecturers and 20 students chosen using simple random and purposive sampling respectively. The main findings revealed that there were challenges of assessing students with special needs together with their peers without special needs. It was observed that extra time given to students with special needs was done ad hoc as there were no policy guidelines. The results further revealed that it was not clear whether the bases for assessment were premised on the student’s level of disability, educational skills, competences or concepts. Ultimately, the study concluded that there was no equality of opportunities in the assessment of students with disabilities at the teachers college. In view of these findings, the study recommended the need for modifications whose decisions should be based on agreed policy guidelines and a national framework for the assessment of tertiary education students with special needs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Inclusion awareness among mainstream teachers in rural schools of Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda, Edmore Nhamo
      Abstract: Inclusion awareness among mainstream school teachers is critical in view of the global trend of educating children with special needs within mainstream schools. This study sought to interrogate the extent of inclusion awareness among mainstream teachers in rural schools of Zimbabwe. The study presupposes that inclusion awareness is a precursor to successful implementation and practice of inclusion. The study is predominantly quantitative and employed a single cross-sectional descriptive survey design to elicit data using a structured questionnaire from 50 teachers. The teachers were sampled via quota and coincidental sampling techniques from 30 schools spread across 5 districts of Zimbabwe. The results of the study indicate that, although many of the mainstream teachers had merely heard or read about inclusion, they had not studied or trained in it and hence lacked in-depth knowledge and insight of the philosophy. From this analysis, the conclusion of the study was that there was a lack of inclusion awareness among mainstream teachers in rural schools of Zimbabwe. On the basis of this conclusion, the researcher recommended in-service staff development workshops for practising mainstream school teachers and administrators, deployment or re-designation of specialist teachers to work as consultants, incorporation of a comprehensive module on inclusion into the curriculum for current teacher trainees, enactment of school level policies on inclusion and large scale studies on inclusion awareness and its implications.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Black tent housing nomads in compliance with sustainable development
           (Identification and investigation criteria)

    • Authors: Mahdi Eskandari, Fatemeh Mehdipour Rabori
      Abstract: Architecture is not static position of shape or location; it is living phenomenon only through human activity meaning. The machine age and subsequent change in thoughts and insights toward life and art has caused the valuable place of vernacular architecture like other arts lowered and its values be ignored; however, today, architecture technology development on the one hand and the value and importance of sustainable development on the other hand has caused using sustainable architecture and its exploitation in compliance with contemporary architecture and architectural principles of permanent and temporary human settlements between engineers and architects become a great competition. Common vernacular architecture among nomad's tribes, such as Eskimos architecture and residents of coldest and warmest parts of the Amazon rainforest in the world is considered an example of architecture and environmental compatibility in the warm and desert Iranian habitats that is in full compliance with what we today refer to as sustainable architecture. This article begins with summarizing definitions expanding with principles and the diverse opinions on the issue of sustainable development and vernacular architecture of nomadic settlements (black tent).
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Study of health, safety and environment (HSE) in kindergartens of Tabriz
           city

    • Authors: Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh, Sahel Hossein Pour Tabrizi, Ayda Khatami Mohammadian Pour, Nastaran Baninosrat, Sahel Fouri
      Abstract: Nowadays, attention to preschools is increased. In the past, most of working mothers sent their children to kindergartens. But today for a better preschool education, mothers who do not work outside either prefer to send their children to kindergartens. The aim of this study is to investigate kindergartens of Tabriz in terms of health, safety and the environment. For this study, previous relevant studies thoroughly examined and a checklist of questions about the safety of building (35 questions), fire safety (4 questions), electrical safety (6 questions), protective equipment and first aid (3 questions), lighting (5 questions), weather conditions (2 questions), health (19 questions), ergonomics (6 questions) and the safety of toys (10 questions) was developed. In all surveyed kindergartens, 72.68% building safety, 68.34% fire safety, 84.45% electrical safety, 71.24% protective equipment and first aid, 76.47% brightness, 99.01% weather conditions, 69.75% health, 84.79% ergonomics and 90.63% safety of toys, are acceptable. The results show that the rules edited by the welfare organization have been greatly effective and this organization has been successful in monitoring the implementation of these laws.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Path coefficient analysis of body weight and morphometric measurements in
           indigenous Matabele goat of Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Thandazani Ndhlovu, Amon Masache, Hausitoe Nare, Never Assan
      Abstract: Direct and indirect effects of seven predictor variables (withers height, body length, heart girth, shoulder width, head width, rump width and rump length) on body weight of 109 Matabele goats, 47 females and 62 males, were investigated using path analysis. Sex-associated difference was significant (P<0.05) only for withers height, with higher value recorded for female goats. Pairwise correlations between body weight and zoometrical traits ranged from 0.420-0.966 and 0.507-0.959 for male and female goats, respectively. The direct effect of heart girth on body weight was the strongest in both sexes (path coefficient of 0.81 and 0.87 in males and females, respectively). Head width (males) and body length (females) also positively (P<0.05) influenced body weight. The direct effects of other linear type traits on body weight in both sexes were non-significant as revealed by the t-test. These traits were indirectly realized mostly via heart girth. Thus, they were expunged from the final regression equations to obtain much more simplified prediction models. The optimum multiple regression equation included heart girth with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.939. Forecast indices obtained in this study could aid in weight estimation, selection and breeding programmes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilizer levels on growth, yield and oil
           content of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Sinana, South-Eastern
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Reta Dargie Gudeta, Nigussie Dechassa, Janmejai Sharma
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted on research field of Sinana Agricultural Research Center (SARC), in the highlands of Bale, South-eastern Ethiopia during the main cropping season of 2013 to investigate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and oil content of linseed. A factorial combination of four rates of N (0, 23, 46, 69 kg ha-1) with four rates of S (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg  ha-1) was applied in randomized complete block in three replications. Analysis of variance revealed that the main effect of nitrogen significantly affected all tested parameters except for days to 50% emergence, number of seeds per capsule and stand count per meter square. In these study, most of yield and yield components of the crop lacked significant response to the application of sulphur. This might be due to the fact that sulphur content of the soil of the study site was medium. On the other hand, the interaction effect between nitrogen and sulphur was only significant for days to 50% emergence. Linseed crop grown without nitrogen application exhibited the highest seed oil content (40.7%). The economic analysis revealed that the highest net return of Birr 31980 ha-1 and the highest marginal rate of return 5045.21% were obtained from the treatment that received 23 kg N ha-1. Therefore, for farmers cultivating linseed in Sinana and areas with the same soil chemical and physical conditions, application of 23 kg N ha-1 is sufficient for obtaining optimum seed and oil yield of the crop, with no need to apply sulphur as a fertilizer. However, to come up with a conclusive recommendation, the experiment should be repeated over seasons and locations.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • A new method to detect deception in electronic banking using the algorithm
           bagging and behavior patterns abnormal users

    • Authors: Maryam Hassanpour, Ali Harounabadi, Mohammad Ali Naizari
      Abstract: Nowadays, large volumes of money transfers done in electronically channel and daily increasing grow in these services and transactions, on the one hand, and anonymity of offenders in the Internet on the other hand, encourage the fraudsters to enter to this field. One of the main obstacles in the use of internet banking is lack of security in transactions and some of abuses in the way of the financial exchanges. For this reason, prevent from unauthorized penetration and detection of crime is an important issue in financial institutions and banks. In the meantime, the necessity of applying fraud detection techniques in order to prevent from fraudulent activities in banking systems, especially electronic banking systems, is inevitable. In this paper, design and implementation system that recognizes suspicious and unusual behavior of bank users in the electronic banking systems. In this paper, we use data mining techniques to detect fraud in electronic banking. For this purpose, we use from a multi-stage hybrid method include: Clustering to separate customers and improve rankings and category for fraud detection. In the clustering method used from k center method and in the category method used from classification of C4.5 decision tree and also bagging's collective method of classification. Finally, the results indicate the high potential of the proposed method. The proposed method in compared with the previous method in the benchmark of accuracy 3.22 percent, in the benchmark of correctness 3.27 percent and in the benchmark of convocation 4.32 percent and in the benchmark of F1 3.81 been improved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Investigate urban design quality of cities entry points

    • Authors: Ahmad Ahmadi, Saeed Zandvakili, Afsoon Mahdavi
      Abstract: Entry points as one of the main components of physical and spatial structure of the city, despite the importance that have in terms of physical, functional and aesthetic with heterogeneous and incompatible land uses have turned into a detached, lacking identity and disturbed space. Historic examination of cities entrance represents changing coordinated and defined gates, towers and walls of old towns into entrance corridors with ugly buildings and old houses, repair shops, military applications, scrap car which showing an uncontrolled increase of development in today cities of the country. Adverse environmental assessment of the entry points of the city and its negative effects on residents and newcomers and the role that urban design should have in quality, visual and performance improvement of these spaces is the main objective of this research. First, the role of entrance space in traditional architecture and entrance spaces of historic cities should be considered and the relationship between performance and structure of city entrance space with the objectives of its inhabitants and the ability of this space to meet the needs of past citizens should be reviewed. Then, the entrance characteristics of several cities in hot and humid temperate climate of Iran with emphasis on aspects of tourism were reviewed and city relationship with outer space is searched. In the end according to the obtained results and some realities, criteria and operational conditions for designing entrance spaces will be offered.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • Layers of protection analysis to achieve safety integrity level (SIL),
           Case study: Hydrogen unit of refinery

    • Authors: Akram Delavar, Mahnaz Mirza Ebrahim Tehrani, Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh
      Abstract: To identify and evaluate hazard in process industries as oil and gas, there are various methods in which hazard and operability study (HAZOP) and layers of protection analysis (LOPA) are the most common methods. The present study aims to analyze layers of protection to achieve safety integrity level in hydrogen unit of refinery. After performing library studies and data collection of events in refinery, hazards of hydrogen unit as operating nodes and deviations with causes and consequences are identified using HAZOP method. The next stage is presenting corrective solutions by LOPA method and target factor. Then, frequencies are determined for the initiating event by the experts. By completing the sheets of each event, independent layers of protection and integrity level are determined. The results of evaluation of identified risks showed that 11 cases had risk higher than 15 and it is not acceptable. The analysis of consequence of hazards showed that for 6 hazardous points, independent layers of protection can reduce risk as 100% to target factor (10-5) and safety integrity level is fulfilled. Regarding the eighths scenario “elimination of repulsive system of equipment and lines with the high temperature of very hot steam”, layers of protection cannot increase safety integrity level to more than 60% (10-3) and to provide safety to target factor, after eliminating the identified problems, other layers are positioned. In this study, to achieve safety integrity level in hydrogen unit of refiner. A three period plan (short-term, mid-term and long-term) is proposed.
      PubDate: 2016-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • Natural resources in the environment (A case study of basaltic rocks in
           Ameta, southern Benue Trough, Nigeria)

    • Authors: I.I. Dilioha, Josephine Nchekwube Onwualu-John
      Abstract: Rare earth element (REE) Geochemistry of the basaltic rocks in Ameta were studied in order to determine the fractionation pattern of the magma that form the rocks and as well to determine the economic potential of the REE in the rocks. The field occurrence of the basaltic rock shows evidence of decrease in the thermal effects of the magma. Presence of phenocrysts of mafic minerals (biotite and olivine) in the rocks indicate slow rate of cooling of the magma that gave rise to the rocks. Field occurrence depicts that crystallization of the magma closed the vent through which the magma erupted thereby making the rocks to appear as plutons. The rare earth element geochemistry of the rocks shows the fractionating pattern of the magma. The REE is characterized by a sloping pattern which indicates the trend of the fractionation. There are enrichment of most of the light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion of the heavy rare earth element (HREE). There are slight positive Eu anomalies in the rocks which defines the level of plagioclase fractionation. The concentration of REE in the rocks have shown the economic potentials of the rocks. REE is a useful natural resource for 21st century technology.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
 
 
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