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Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2322-2956
     Published by Sjournals Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Development of small and medium enterprises to export to external barriers

    • Authors: Saeed Ranjbar, Ebrahim Abbasi
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore the current exportchallenges for SMEs in Pakistan and how these barriers affect the SMEs. Oneindustry (textile) was selected for this study. Findings of this study showedthat internal barriers are more influential than external barriers. This studyis limited to one industry . This study disseminates the attention of SMEsexport managers towards the genuine and main problems coming across the SMEexports so they can deal with these barriers to magnify their exports asinternal barriers are more controllable as compared to external barriers. Thisstudy offers insights into SME export barriers in  iran.Keywords:SMEs; ExportBarriers;
      PubDate: 2014-10-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Analyzing the constraints to private investment in manufacturing industry

    • Authors: Hojat Ranjbar, Ebrahim Abassi
      Abstract: This paper identifiesthe main impediments to investment and industrial productivity, which have ledto a decline in growth. This is done by analyzing the impediments andconstraints to productivity and investment using the World Bank’s 2007Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) data at the seven of level main industrialzones. An inadequate workforce, access to raw materials, and corruption wereranked third, fourth, and fifth, respectively. Will a market economy alwayssupply funds for profitable investment projects?The answer to this question isimportant for policy makers seeking economic efficiency at the micro level, andfor our understanding of the business cycle at the macro level. The purpose ofthis paper is to investigate the presence and the economic importance of creditmarket imperfections within a structural model of firm investment.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Study of export to external barriers of small and medium enterprises (Case
           Study of Kurdistan Province)

    • Authors: Saeed Ranjbar, Ebrahim Abbasi
      Abstract: Globalization in recent decades due to rapid and complex changescan be found. The international trade and technology to the global market on the component tasks of Governments is increasing due to the complexity of tradeand global markets to all countries in search of the right way to enter andcompete in this arena are. Given that the export is one of the most importantbeing international strategy both for companies and for the national economy inthe world markets and due to the importance of small and medium-sizedenterprises on the production and export of these obstacles to job creation,corporate recognition of the special importance.The results of the research indicate that all psychologicalresearch hypotheses were confirmed. So the outer barriers on reduction ofexport development of small and medium enterprises, there is a positive impact.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Designing a multi-agent system for composition

    • Authors: Keivan Borna
      Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to design a collaborative multi-agent system for providing an XML output which is used in composition. Explaining the performance of rhythm and melody agents is the main part of the paper structure. In this research, systems analysis and design has been adopted as the methodology; and computational calculations have been used. An XML output that is a printable music note can be used by famous music software packages like Sibelius and Final. The novel method introduced in this paper is new and can help musicians make new music with better quality and more diverse content anywhere anytime.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Examine the constraints to private investment in manufacturing industry in
           Kurdistan province.

    • Authors: Hojat Ranjbar, Ebrahim Abbasi
      Abstract: Arteryproducing life of the community and the country. If the path to prevent or stopthe growth of community-created life will be endangered. Economic wisdomdictates that before the development of policies related to target marketlocal, regional and global feasibility to identify and networking. And the problemsand obstacles that one of the most manufacturing industries that lack ofcapital is taken.Inthis study of how influenced private sector investment in manufacturingindustries in Kurdistan province from economic insecurity we review, researchmethodology, based on the type of data and type of collection of descriptiveand statistical community was studied, 130 investors and investment analysts view Kurdistan province. Due to thenature of the research topic examplesThetarget for the research hypothesis, including the original hypothesis: that therelationship between reduced private investment in productive industries inKurdistan province, fitted with a secure, economic desperation and thehypothesis of a subsidiary included: lack of price stability was not acompetitive space forklift, private and public sector and the existence of fairrules and administrative regulations of the hands and feet are stuck-fitted.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Inference on stress-strength reliability of power distribution

    • Authors: Mohammad Kazemi, Mehryar Fallahnejad
      Abstract: This paper deals with inference for the stress-strength reliability  when X and Y are two independent power distribution. The problem of hypothesis testing and interval estimation of the reliability parameter in a stress-strength model is considered. Test and interval estimation procedures based on the generalized variable approach are given. Statistical properties of the generalized variable approach and an asymptotic method are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation.
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Narrowing the socio-economic gender gap through empowerment of women in
           micro livestock farming: Opportunities and challenges

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: Micro livestock  appears to be the most sustainable means of producing high quality animal protein for the expanding populations of the lesser developing countries. Diversification in animal agriculture through inclusion of non-conventional livestock such as micro livestock species (goat, sheep, poultry, rabbits, guinea pigs, pigeon, ducks, snails, grasscutter etc) provide options that would guarantee fully participation of women in livestock production to alleviate rural households protein shortage or deficiencies. The micro livestock   are likely to become increasingly important source of animal protein as a result of rapid increase in human population and in the light of dwindling land sizes and natural resources in general. This is on the backdrop that micro livestock have  diverse economic and social functions in rural communities, and different types of micro livestock have been associated with women due to their  significant potential for alleviating malnutrition and food insecurity. Therefore, supporting micro livestock should be considered as a means to empower women in  rural development which has the capacity to improve household nutrition and food security.  This discussion looks at the opportunities of empowering women through micro livestock as a mean of alleviating poverty and  solving the food insecurity challenges in rural communities. The challenges which women might face in engaging in micro livestock are also highlighted. The basis of micro livestock farming may be taken from the perspective of animal products supply being outpaced with the increased human population in Africa. In this case, alternative sources of animal protein such as micro livestock need to be promoted, and if not, livestock products will be  beyond the reach of the majority of the ordinary persons.  The space for classic livestock rearing have decreased, and this scenario will suit the keeping of smaller animals which are prolific and easy to manage. This warrant serious consideration of micro livestock  farming as one of the major  component of the livestock production systems where women can be empowered in rural areas. Micro livestock  farming has greater opportunities  in improving livelihoods among the rural poor households, provided that productivity is enhanced and appropriate input and services can be availed. Gender sensitive  programs that promote micro livestock farming contribution to optimization of  animal product supply and enhance food security on sustainable basis are recommended. In most cases livestock professionals such as veterinarians and animal scientists often do not have the necessary familiarity and competence with gender analysis and participatory skills to implement a gender balanced assessment or response in livestock production issues.
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • A study of the effect of electronic banking on the melli banks’
           liquidity management

    • Authors: Mozhgan Nikkerdar, Farshid Namamian
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of electronic banking on theliquidity management of melli banks in Kermanshah.In this research we survey the effects ofelectronic banking tools included automatic taller machines (atm),point of sale (pos).internetbanking, phone bank, mobile bank and pinpad as independent variable in liquiditymanagement. In this research descriptive method is used and is correlation kind . Thepopulation consists of melli bank branches in Kermanshah. The tool for collecting data isresearcher - made questionnaire and samples includes 120 persons of employees of mellibank in Kermanshah through which sampling considered non - probability and selectiveand was done during 92 - 93 . To examine hypotheses regression and correlation andpearson correlation coefficients and spss software are used . Results show that all thevariables in liquidity management are effective and recommendation provided bymanagers and relationship experts should show the advantages of electronic banking toolsto people and customers through media and by effective advertisements in order todecrease using of cash in transactions and society can benefit from its positive effects.
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Gender, smallholder livestock production, improvement and conservation in

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: Policy makers, developmental agents and researchers are now aware of the need to incorporate gender  issues in smallholder livestock production  planning and development in order to improve livestock productivity in Africa. This discussion  attempt to explore  the role of gender in smallholder livestock production,genetic improvement and conservation.Strategies to improve livestock production and conservation within the smallholder livestock sector  will not be successful unless gender related issues are taken into account.Ownership of different livestock species by men and women in smallholder livestock production sector  has been documented, often cattle and larger animals are owned by men, while goat keeping and backyard poultry production are largely women's domains.  Therefore, it is assumed that taking cognizance of gender differentials in smallholder livestock production intervention programs will result in effectively implementation of livestockdevelopment programs ensuring more optimal outcomes. The rationale for gender integration in livestock improvement and conservation is driven by the fact that different household members typically hold different livestock responsibilities; they also may have different livestock priorities and livestock production constraints. Gender sensitive livestock policy initiatives such as training women in livestock improvement  and conservation in smallholder livestock production sector should be adopted in order to address specific concerns and priorities of women as major stakeholders in livestock production.Gendered asymmetries in access to livestock and  services not only do a great disservice to women and men livestock smallholder farmers, but they also stifle the potential for more sustainable and effective actions along a given livestock improvement program. In most cases , where  livestock improvement and conservation programs  are being carried out, the lack of gender consideration constrains the development of holistic approaches to achieve desirable goals
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Monitoring the level of preparedness of organizational infrastructures for
           implementation of knowledge management (Case Study)

    • Authors: Azizeh Tagizadeh, Yousef Pashazadeh, Masoud Ghahremani
      Abstract: In this work, the level of preparedness of organizational infrastructures for implementation of knowledge management has been investigated. Statistical population of this research consists of 277 employees of Western Azerbaijan province electricity Distribution Company with educational degrees higher than BSc which is estimated to be as much as 162 people according to Morgan table. To analyze the data, inferential statistics methods such as Kolmogorov – Smirnov, single sample test and Friedman test are used. Results of this work showed that organizational infrastructures of case study have sufficient preparedness for implementation of knowledge management; that is, human resources infrastructure, ranked first with respect to level of preparedness and after that was structural infrastructure, then fiscal infrastructure and finally, cultural infrastructure.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Study of Correlation between Organizational Commitment and Job
           Satisfaction of Nurses Working in Selected Hospitals of Isfahan University
           of Medical Sciences

    • Authors: Zohreh Nabizadeh, Foroozan AtashzadehShoorideh, Nahid Khazaei, Hamid Alavi-Majd
      Abstract: Introduction and Aim: Nowadays, organizations need capable and committed employees in order to promote their performance, productivity and effectiveness. Individual, occupational, organizational and meta-organizational factors influence the organizational commitment. This research aims to study the relation between organizational commitment and job satisfaction of nurses. Methodology: This research is a descriptive-correlation study in which almost 260 nurses of teaching hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences are investigated through the method of accidental classification. For gathering the data, the questionnaires of “Meyer and Allen’s organizational commitment” and “Herzberg’s job satisfaction” are used. The analysis of data is done by using descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson and Spearman’s correlation coefficient and Regression Test) and SPSS software (19th version). Findings: The rate of organizational commitment and job satisfaction of participants is at the middle level. Also the results of this study show that there is a positive and significant relationship between age, level of education, the record of clinical work and organizational commitment whereas there is not such a relationship between marital status and organizational commitment as well as between age, marital status, level of education, the record of clinical work and job satisfaction. However, the analysis of data shows that there is a mutual and positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Conclusion: Regarding the importance of organizational commitment in promoting the quality of nursing services and increasing the consent of patients, the nurses can feel more committed if they have more job satisfaction.  
      PubDate: 2014-09-04
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Evaluation of the implementation of regional strategic programs at Islamic
           Azad University of Units 17 (From the perspective of planners and

    • Authors: F. Samadani, H.R. Alipour, K. Shahroudi
      Abstract: Universities as well as other environmental organizations are faced with the sources, effects and expectations are constantly changing. Hence, not many will face a crash course yen. In such a situation with the correct understanding of the environment and its developments in the understanding of the precise assessment and internal abilities, can learn things in advance and to be able to identify the obstacles and when this crisis and the uncertainty of the personnel officers, to create special creative solutions to overcome these barriers and encourage by providing the appropriate field in the strategic thinking of managers and employees, causes of The adoption of a comprehensive and continuous decisions and ultimately insight in areas under the control of the Organization and improving the functionality. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of implementing the strategic plans of the university district 17, with 5 main hypothesis, from the perspective of planners and personnel are accomplished. The results showed that four of the five hypotheses hypothesis of difference of opinion has been approved by planners and personnel.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Creativity and effective factors on hospital nurses Creativity

    • Authors: Melika Ahbabi Tabarestani1, Foroozan AtashzadehShoorideh, Mohammad Ali Jahani, Nasrin Nasrin Poor Mahmoud, Hamid Hamid Alavi Majd
      Abstract: Creativity in people is one of the most important issue to provide better solutions to problems, create opportunities and better use of them, increase cooperation and responses to changing environments and the various factors effect on it. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the creativity and the factors influencing on nurses at Shafizadeh Children's Hospital at 2012.This study is an applied investigation that has been prepared as descriptive - correlation. Sampling method is as full number, including 114 registered nurses at Shafizadeh Children's Hospital in Babol, finally 102 questionnaires were returned and data was collected by "demographics" and "creativity pediatric nurses' research. Questionnaire validity was in content and appearance validity method. The reliability was performed as internal consistency and stability method. After entering data to SPSS, it was analyzed by the related tests. The creativity of nurses is 64 percent, the highest creativity (73.5%) is relevant to solve problems in collaboration with others (fluency) and the highest medium creative (82.4%) is relevant to prepare a list of ways to communicate (Initiative). The highest rate of low creativity (61.8%) is for ease of report writing in nursing (expansion). The highest creativity is related to fluency (70 %) and the lowest is in areas of expansion and innovation (50 %). Factors such as marital status and number of children in care are basic steps to keep the nurses creativity that with promotion of creative innovations, appropriate factors should be applied.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Correlation between Nursing Managers’ Delegation and Nurses’
           Organizational Commitment from the Viewpoint of Nurses Working in Teaching
           Hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Year 2012)

    • Authors: Foroozan Atashzadeh Shoorideh, Zohreh Nabizadeh, Nahid Khazaei, Hamid Alavi-Majd
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between nurse managers’ delegation and nurses’ organizational commitment in the view of nurses. Nowadays improvement of the performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of organizations require capable and committed employees. In Iran, there is not any survey of the correlation between delegation and organizational commitment. This study is a descriptive – correlation study. Statistical data in this research includes nurses (2120 members) of teaching hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences out of which 260 nurses were selected randomly. Data collection tools in this research are two questionnaires:  the first one is "Delegation by Managers" designed by researchers, and the other one is “Allen and Meyer’s organizational commitment". The data has been analyzed by statistical software named SPSS version 19. The findings of the study show that the nurses’ perspective (view) about delegation is 52.7%. In other words, it is in average level and organizational commitment is 53.5%. This study demonstrates the positive correlation between two variables. Increase in delegation principle raises organizational commitment (r=0.29, p>0.01). Given the importance of delegation, it seems that managers need instruction in this field.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Priorities of industrial development of West Azerbaijan techniques using
           Fuzzy Topsis

    • Authors: Ahad Lotfi
      Abstract: Today, one of the main indicators for measuring national development, development of different sectors of the economic aspects of national, regional and international levels. So the decision was made to conduct this research in order to identify the capabilities and functions of manufacturing and commercial industries, The way to select the right investment and industrial development in Western Azerbaijan province paved. In this study population, different parts of West Azerbaijan industry is, In the fourth period of the years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 has been considered and evaluated. To set goals and priorities of industrial development of the industry, the industrial and economic experts (Delphi method) was used. This study aims at identifying the industrial development and industrial sectors of the technique (Fuzzy Topsis) West Azerbaijan industrial development priorities are identified and ranked. According to the study, the group of food industry, medicine and health, with the largest weight (0.6960), the paper products industry (0.6101), Department of Textile Industries (0.5978), West Azerbaijan development priorities are, The priority objectives of the industry including increasing income, increasing employment and establishment of new industries, which are the first and third priorities. Overall, the results suggest that it is The West Azerbaijan Province of good potential for its proper role within the regional planning And national industrial development in order to achieve the objectives of Vision is a country.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Survey evidence fights in criminal matters in accordance with the Islamic
           Penal Code Act 2013

    • Authors: Saeid Darougari, Mehdi Hariri, Mohammad Soleimani
      Abstract: Sets lawsuit is evidence to prove the claim in the courts, used and Article 166 of the Constitution, emphasizes this is a criminal trial evidence, as one of the most important issues of criminal justice, there has been a dramatic transformation. Throughout history, testimony and confession, the crime proved a major role, and often inevitable, especially in the period legal reasons played. Basically, though, some common evidence in criminal and civil, but there is evidence of criminal, has unique characteristics that distinguish it from civil evidence. Provided out evidence in criminal proceedings, should be in terms of its relation to crime and punishment, and dealing with the rights and freedoms of the individual and society, the legislator should be. The lack of exposition, in the form of rules Iran, particularly in the Procedures Public and Revolutionary Courts in criminal matters in the plant ambiguity remains is perhaps for this reason that legislators and place less importance because, in criminal matters have noticed. While the fundamentals of a subject makes legislators, compared to those rules, it wrote. In this paper an attempt has been subject to criminal evidence, the definition and its history, discussed and reviewed. In this paper analyzes the status and importance of criminal evidence, the Iranian legal system explains.
      PubDate: 2014-08-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Sociological study of affecting factors on young offender's deviant
           behavior Aged 15 to 24 years old (Case study of young offenders in prison
           in Shiraz)

    • Authors: Mohammad Jamalzadeh, Hemmat Ali Heydari
      Abstract: this study is implemented to evaluate affecting factors on the deviant behavior of young offenders aged 15 to 24 years old. The  statically population of this study, is all 15 to 24 years old offenders on the city's jails that randomly out of 254 cases that, by using Cochran formula and Lin table is calculated  , were interviewed using a questionnaire. In this study, Social discrimination is one of the main factors on the deviant behavior of youth from the perspective of the studied subjects that is done by the community and family. Different grumes of family have the most important effects on the youth deviant behavior that in this study, this variables relationship with the deviant behavior of young people is significant. Based on the obtained results in this study, Media, radio, television, cinema and the press have little effect on young people deviant behaviors learning, but the role of the media, internet and satellite is very effective at the deviant behavior of young people. Also the relationship between variables of 'failure to achieve the goals ","lack of social status"," family properties “and "media" with the deviant behavior of young people is significant.
      PubDate: 2014-08-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Administrative corruption from sociology perspective and the relationship
           between administrative corruption and social security

    • Authors: Mohsen Zarei Jlyany, Gholam Reza Sharafi, Mustafa Tavani, Mansour Haghighatian, Moslem Tavani
      Abstract: certain principles Observance and non- Observance on organizing a social system will have Indisputable effect at the Organization. And administrative systems are not exempt from this, also the selection of the Administration components and also How to Place the components together can affect its performance. Meanwhile, the government's role in the prevalence or no-prevalence, the extent type and the way of administrative corruption influence, in this article, researchers wants to explore the reasonable cause of this procedure prevalence. So Thought owners by thinking more in this context, compensate Analysis deficiencies. Also following topics are included in this article, first of all. A) Administrative corruption and social security definitions B) Impact of administrative corruption on Social Security In terms of rational - traditional
      C) the most important point of  Sociological Analysis And sociological theories relation with administrative corruption And relate these theories to deviations And its role in administrative corruption cases have been investigated.
      PubDate: 2014-08-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Fundamental Problem of Gibbs Sampler in Mixture Models

    • Authors: Gholamhossein Gholami, Hamideh Rasi, Ali Etemadi
      Abstract: The mixture models were rstly studied by Pearson in 1894. These models are strong tools,through which the complicated systems can be analyzed in a wide range of disciplines such as As-tronomy, Economics, Mechanics, etc. although the structure of these models is apparently simple,it is very complicated to obtain maximum likelihood estimators and Bayesian ones in particular andit needs to be approximated in most cases. In this paper, we apply the Gibbs Sampling in order toapproximate the Bayesian Estimator in Mixture models, present the Gibbs algorithms for the familyof exponential distributions and nally, we would show the disadvantage of this algorithm throughan example.
      PubDate: 2014-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Modeling for the Number of Moderate Earthquakes in Iran Using Hidden
           Markov Model

    • Authors: Fazlollah Lak
      Abstract: Iran plateau is located on an active seismic belt (Alps-Himalayan
      Belt). For this reason, a significant number of earthquakes with M > 5
      occur here in every year.Hidden Markov model, which allows the probability distribution of each observation to depend on the unobserved (or hidden) state of Markov chain,
      can accommodate both over dispersion and serial dependence. In this paper, Hidden
      Markov model is used for modeling the number of earthquakes with M> 5 occurred in Iran since 1900.
      Also, this
      model is used to predict the number of earthquakes at the future

      PubDate: 2014-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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