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Journal Cover Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2322-2956
   Published by Sjournals Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Inclusion awareness among mainstream teachers in rural schools of Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda, Edmore Nhamo
      Abstract: Inclusion awareness among mainstream school teachers is critical in view of the global trend of educating children with special needs within mainstream schools. This study sought to interrogate the extent of inclusion awareness among mainstream teachers in rural schools of Zimbabwe. The study presupposes that inclusion awareness is a precursor to successful implementation and practice of inclusion. The study is predominantly quantitative and employed a single cross-sectional descriptive survey design to elicit data using a structured questionnaire from 50 teachers. The teachers were sampled via quota and coincidental sampling techniques from 30 schools spread across 5 districts of Zimbabwe. The results of the study indicate that, although many of the mainstream teachers had merely heard or read about inclusion, they had not studied or trained in it and hence lacked in-depth knowledge and insight of the philosophy. From this analysis, the conclusion of the study was that there was a lack of inclusion awareness among mainstream teachers in rural schools of Zimbabwe. On the basis of this conclusion, the researcher recommended in-service staff development workshops for practising mainstream school teachers and administrators, deployment or re-designation of specialist teachers to work as consultants, incorporation of a comprehensive module on inclusion into the curriculum for current teacher trainees, enactment of school level policies on inclusion and large scale studies on inclusion awareness and its implications.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • Black tent housing nomads in compliance with sustainable development
           (Identification and investigation criteria)

    • Authors: Mahdi Eskandari, Fatemeh Mehdipour Rabori
      Abstract: Architecture is not static position of shape or location; it is living phenomenon only through human activity meaning. The machine age and subsequent change in thoughts and insights toward life and art has caused the valuable place of vernacular architecture like other arts lowered and its values be ignored; however, today, architecture technology development on the one hand and the value and importance of sustainable development on the other hand has caused using sustainable architecture and its exploitation in compliance with contemporary architecture and architectural principles of permanent and temporary human settlements between engineers and architects become a great competition. Common vernacular architecture among nomad's tribes, such as Eskimos architecture and residents of coldest and warmest parts of the Amazon rainforest in the world is considered an example of architecture and environmental compatibility in the warm and desert Iranian habitats that is in full compliance with what we today refer to as sustainable architecture. This article begins with summarizing definitions expanding with principles and the diverse opinions on the issue of sustainable development and vernacular architecture of nomadic settlements (black tent).
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • Study of health, safety and environment (HSE) in kindergartens of Tabriz

    • Authors: Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh, Sahel Hossein Pour Tabrizi, Ayda Khatami Mohammadian Pour, Nastaran Baninosrat, Sahel Fouri
      Abstract: Nowadays, attention to preschools is increased. In the past, most of working mothers sent their children to kindergartens. But today for a better preschool education, mothers who do not work outside either prefer to send their children to kindergartens. The aim of this study is to investigate kindergartens of Tabriz in terms of health, safety and the environment. For this study, previous relevant studies thoroughly examined and a checklist of questions about the safety of building (35 questions), fire safety (4 questions), electrical safety (6 questions), protective equipment and first aid (3 questions), lighting (5 questions), weather conditions (2 questions), health (19 questions), ergonomics (6 questions) and the safety of toys (10 questions) was developed. In all surveyed kindergartens, 72.68% building safety, 68.34% fire safety, 84.45% electrical safety, 71.24% protective equipment and first aid, 76.47% brightness, 99.01% weather conditions, 69.75% health, 84.79% ergonomics and 90.63% safety of toys, are acceptable. The results show that the rules edited by the welfare organization have been greatly effective and this organization has been successful in monitoring the implementation of these laws.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • Path coefficient analysis of body weight and morphometric measurements in
           indigenous Matabele goat of Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Thandazani Ndhlovu, Amon Masache, Hausitoe Nare, Never Assan
      Abstract: Direct and indirect effects of seven predictor variables (withers height, body length, heart girth, shoulder width, head width, rump width and rump length) on body weight of 109 Matabele goats, 47 females and 62 males, were investigated using path analysis. Sex-associated difference was significant (P<0.05) only for withers height, with higher value recorded for female goats. Pairwise correlations between body weight and zoometrical traits ranged from 0.420-0.966 and 0.507-0.959 for male and female goats, respectively. The direct effect of heart girth on body weight was the strongest in both sexes (path coefficient of 0.81 and 0.87 in males and females, respectively). Head width (males) and body length (females) also positively (P<0.05) influenced body weight. The direct effects of other linear type traits on body weight in both sexes were non-significant as revealed by the t-test. These traits were indirectly realized mostly via heart girth. Thus, they were expunged from the final regression equations to obtain much more simplified prediction models. The optimum multiple regression equation included heart girth with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.939. Forecast indices obtained in this study could aid in weight estimation, selection and breeding programmes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • Effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilizer levels on growth, yield and oil
           content of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Sinana, South-Eastern

    • Authors: Reta Dargie Gudeta, Nigussie Dechassa, Janmejai Sharma
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted on research field of Sinana Agricultural Research Center (SARC), in the highlands of Bale, South-eastern Ethiopia during the main cropping season of 2013 to investigate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and oil content of linseed. A factorial combination of four rates of N (0, 23, 46, 69 kg ha-1) with four rates of S (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg  ha-1) was applied in randomized complete block in three replications. Analysis of variance revealed that the main effect of nitrogen significantly affected all tested parameters except for days to 50% emergence, number of seeds per capsule and stand count per meter square. In these study, most of yield and yield components of the crop lacked significant response to the application of sulphur. This might be due to the fact that sulphur content of the soil of the study site was medium. On the other hand, the interaction effect between nitrogen and sulphur was only significant for days to 50% emergence. Linseed crop grown without nitrogen application exhibited the highest seed oil content (40.7%). The economic analysis revealed that the highest net return of Birr 31980 ha-1 and the highest marginal rate of return 5045.21% were obtained from the treatment that received 23 kg N ha-1. Therefore, for farmers cultivating linseed in Sinana and areas with the same soil chemical and physical conditions, application of 23 kg N ha-1 is sufficient for obtaining optimum seed and oil yield of the crop, with no need to apply sulphur as a fertilizer. However, to come up with a conclusive recommendation, the experiment should be repeated over seasons and locations.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • A new method to detect deception in electronic banking using the algorithm
           bagging and behavior patterns abnormal users

    • Authors: Maryam Hassanpour, Ali Harounabadi, Mohammad Ali Naizari
      Abstract: Nowadays, large volumes of money transfers done in electronically channel and daily increasing grow in these services and transactions, on the one hand, and anonymity of offenders in the Internet on the other hand, encourage the fraudsters to enter to this field. One of the main obstacles in the use of internet banking is lack of security in transactions and some of abuses in the way of the financial exchanges. For this reason, prevent from unauthorized penetration and detection of crime is an important issue in financial institutions and banks. In the meantime, the necessity of applying fraud detection techniques in order to prevent from fraudulent activities in banking systems, especially electronic banking systems, is inevitable. In this paper, design and implementation system that recognizes suspicious and unusual behavior of bank users in the electronic banking systems. In this paper, we use data mining techniques to detect fraud in electronic banking. For this purpose, we use from a multi-stage hybrid method include: Clustering to separate customers and improve rankings and category for fraud detection. In the clustering method used from k center method and in the category method used from classification of C4.5 decision tree and also bagging's collective method of classification. Finally, the results indicate the high potential of the proposed method. The proposed method in compared with the previous method in the benchmark of accuracy 3.22 percent, in the benchmark of correctness 3.27 percent and in the benchmark of convocation 4.32 percent and in the benchmark of F1 3.81 been improved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • Investigate urban design quality of cities entry points

    • Authors: Ahmad Ahmadi, Saeed Zandvakili, Afsoon Mahdavi
      Abstract: Entry points as one of the main components of physical and spatial structure of the city, despite the importance that have in terms of physical, functional and aesthetic with heterogeneous and incompatible land uses have turned into a detached, lacking identity and disturbed space. Historic examination of cities entrance represents changing coordinated and defined gates, towers and walls of old towns into entrance corridors with ugly buildings and old houses, repair shops, military applications, scrap car which showing an uncontrolled increase of development in today cities of the country. Adverse environmental assessment of the entry points of the city and its negative effects on residents and newcomers and the role that urban design should have in quality, visual and performance improvement of these spaces is the main objective of this research. First, the role of entrance space in traditional architecture and entrance spaces of historic cities should be considered and the relationship between performance and structure of city entrance space with the objectives of its inhabitants and the ability of this space to meet the needs of past citizens should be reviewed. Then, the entrance characteristics of several cities in hot and humid temperate climate of Iran with emphasis on aspects of tourism were reviewed and city relationship with outer space is searched. In the end according to the obtained results and some realities, criteria and operational conditions for designing entrance spaces will be offered.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Layers of protection analysis to achieve safety integrity level (SIL),
           Case study: Hydrogen unit of refinery

    • Authors: Akram Delavar, Mahnaz Mirza Ebrahim Tehrani, Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh
      Abstract: To identify and evaluate hazard in process industries as oil and gas, there are various methods in which hazard and operability study (HAZOP) and layers of protection analysis (LOPA) are the most common methods. The present study aims to analyze layers of protection to achieve safety integrity level in hydrogen unit of refinery. After performing library studies and data collection of events in refinery, hazards of hydrogen unit as operating nodes and deviations with causes and consequences are identified using HAZOP method. The next stage is presenting corrective solutions by LOPA method and target factor. Then, frequencies are determined for the initiating event by the experts. By completing the sheets of each event, independent layers of protection and integrity level are determined. The results of evaluation of identified risks showed that 11 cases had risk higher than 15 and it is not acceptable. The analysis of consequence of hazards showed that for 6 hazardous points, independent layers of protection can reduce risk as 100% to target factor (10-5) and safety integrity level is fulfilled. Regarding the eighths scenario “elimination of repulsive system of equipment and lines with the high temperature of very hot steam”, layers of protection cannot increase safety integrity level to more than 60% (10-3) and to provide safety to target factor, after eliminating the identified problems, other layers are positioned. In this study, to achieve safety integrity level in hydrogen unit of refiner. A three period plan (short-term, mid-term and long-term) is proposed.
      PubDate: 2016-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Natural resources in the environment (A case study of basaltic rocks in
           Ameta, southern Benue Trough, Nigeria)

    • Authors: I.I. Dilioha, Josephine Nchekwube Onwualu-John
      Abstract: Rare earth element (REE) Geochemistry of the basaltic rocks in Ameta were studied in order to determine the fractionation pattern of the magma that form the rocks and as well to determine the economic potential of the REE in the rocks. The field occurrence of the basaltic rock shows evidence of decrease in the thermal effects of the magma. Presence of phenocrysts of mafic minerals (biotite and olivine) in the rocks indicate slow rate of cooling of the magma that gave rise to the rocks. Field occurrence depicts that crystallization of the magma closed the vent through which the magma erupted thereby making the rocks to appear as plutons. The rare earth element geochemistry of the rocks shows the fractionating pattern of the magma. The REE is characterized by a sloping pattern which indicates the trend of the fractionation. There are enrichment of most of the light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion of the heavy rare earth element (HREE). There are slight positive Eu anomalies in the rocks which defines the level of plagioclase fractionation. The concentration of REE in the rocks have shown the economic potentials of the rocks. REE is a useful natural resource for 21st century technology.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Effect of different spacing of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)
           intercropped with or without Lablab (Lablab purpureus) on biomass yield
           and nutritional value of Napier grass

    • Authors: Usman Semman Mohammed, Getachew Animut, Mengistu Urge
      Abstract: This study was conducted with an objective of determining effect of three spacing of Napier grass intercropped with or without Lablab (Lablab purpureus) on the biomass yield and nutritive value of Napier grass forage in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in RCBD with 4 blocks. Spacing was 1m x 0.5m, 0.75m x 0.5m, and 0.5m x 0.5m. Intercropping decreased the electro conductivity but increased the available phosphorous content of the soil and did not affect the pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen of the soil. Spacing, intercropping and their interaction had no significant effect (P>0.05) on dry matter (DM) yield (DMY) and crude protein (CP) yield (CPY) of the Napier grass. Intercropping and interaction of intercropping with spacing resulted to higher total DMY and CPY (P<0.05). The chemical composition of Napier grass was unaffected by spacing and interaction of intercropping with spacing. Intercropping of Napier grass with lablab however, increased the DM contents (P<0.05) of the Napier grass and decreased the ash contents. In conclusion, intercropping with lablab had a positive influence on the TDMY, TCPY, DM, hence increase the total forage yield and nutritive value of Napier grass. Conversely, spacing failed to have significant impact on these parameters. As such 1 m x 0.5m spacing and intercropping with lablab can be of a better choice based on the results of this study.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Effect of different spacing of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)
           intercropped with or without Lablab (Lablab purpureus) on digestibility of
           Napier grass

    • Authors: Usman Semman Mohammed, Getachew Animut, Mengistu Urge
      Abstract: This study was conducted with an objective of determining effect of three spacing of Napier grass intercropped with or without Lablab (Lablab purpureus) on digestibility of Napier grass in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in RCBD with 4 blocks. Spacing was 1m x 0.5m, 0.75m x 0.5m, and 0.5m x 0.5m. Intercropping decreased the electro conductivity but increased the available phosphorous content of the soil and did not affect the pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen of the soil. The in vitro DM (IVDMD) and OM digestibility (IVOMD) of Napier grass was increased by intercropping with lablab. However, spacing and interaction of spacing with intercropping did not affect the IVDMD and IVOMD content of Napier grass. In sacco degradability of DM and OM of Napier grass for many of the incubation hours including 48 hour which was relatively higher for the 1m x 0.5m spacing and for the one intercropped with lablab. The DM and OM in sacco degradability characteristics were almost all affected by spacing and intercropping but without an apparent consistent trend. In conclusion, intercropping with lablab had a positive influence on the IVDMD and IVOMD. Conversely, spacing failed to have significant impact on these parameters. However, 1 m x 0.5 m spacing appeared to have better effect on the in sacco DM and OM degradability and effective degradability. As such 1 m x 0.5m spacing and intercropping with lablab can be of a better choice based on the results of this study.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Pyroelectric study of Mongolian tourmaline in electric power saving system
           by infrared spectroscopy

    • Authors: Ki-Seog Chang
      Abstract: This Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) experiment investigates the relevance of H2O and other components’ structural environments. The electronic power saving system in this study was compromised by four element materials: tourmaline, ferrite, NaCl, and H2O. FTIR spectroscopy in the range of 3,000 to 4,000 cm-1 was then used to examine the hydroxyl ions of H2O and tourmaline. The tourmaline crystal was found to be polar and therefore pyroelectric, electrical charges developing at the ends of the polar axis and the temperature changing from the IR activation with H2O in the system. As a result, the tourmaline was shown to be related to the activation of H2O as a pyroelectric substance.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Comparison of physiological load among different sizes of computer mouse

    • Authors: Yao-Wen Hsu, Lieh Chen
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare the difference in physiological load among three different sizes of computer mouse. The mouse is one of the most commonly used input devices for controlling computer system. However, due to the fact that there are many different sizes of mice available to consumers and the hand size of each consumer is quite different from each other, so this study is trying to determine the suitability of different mouse sizes with consideration of the parameter of hand size of each person. A series of operation experiments will be conducted to collect the data of EMG of hand muscles for evaluating physical load of computer mouse. Twelve adults were recruited according to the two genders and six size combinations of hand length and hand width distribution. The results showed that gender, computer operating activities and hand width may affect the EMG (% MVC) on four groups of muscle. It could apply to computer mouse design and other related hand tool design.
      PubDate: 2016-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Critical review of academic assessment of students with special needs in

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda
      Abstract: The purpose of this review was to interrogate critical issues that relate to the academic assessment of students with special needs in inclusive settings. It was noted from literature that fair assessment procedures for students with special needs are those that are premised on the principles of inclusion. Since students with special needs are exposed to the same curriculum, accommodations, adaptation and modifications are necessary if the assessment procedures, including grading systems are to be sensitive of the unique and varied needs of students with special needs without compromising quality and standards. From this review, I concluded that assessment of students with special needs at whatever level is complex and varied since it depends on a multiplicity of factors. This review argues that, if reasonable accommodations and adaptations are to be achieved and the needs of the students with special needs are to be met, then governments should be committed to policies that harmonise the instructional and assessment processes to avoid content and culturally invalid assessments. These policies should also come up with alternative pathways to the livelihoods of the students. Ultimately, such change processes would call for governments, particularly in developing countries, to be prepared to increase their funding of inclusion and related expectations.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Review the HSE-related programs in several cities of the world

    • Authors: Zahra Sahat Fardi, Nabiollah Mansouri, Azita Behbahaninia
      Abstract: Joining cities to sustainable cities is one of the most important objectives of municipality of the world. Around the world, many efforts are done to select and use the appropriate tools for achieving sustainable development. The aim of this study is investigating HSE plans and programs of the major cities and comparing with each other. Accordingly, HSE plans of ten large cities namely Vancouver, Munich, Sydney, London, Stockholm, Toronto, New York, Abu Dhabi, Moscow, Tehran were investigated. Comparing results the HSE management plans and programs in various cities are shown that most urban activities are focused on health, safety and environmental issues individually. Meanwhile in Tehran, established HSE management system is balanced to all health, safety and environmental issuses.
      PubDate: 2016-05-15
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Perceptions of sign language among teachers in schools that enroll deaf
           children in Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)

    • Authors: Patrick Sibanda, Sylod Chimhenga
      Abstract: The study set out to establish and analyse how teachers in schools that enroll deaf children in Bulawayo (Zimbabwe) perceived Sign language. A sample of 30 specialist and 30 mainstream teachers participated in the study which utilized descriptive and comparative survey designs. A Self-Designed Sign Language Perception Thematic Scale was used for data collection. The data were summarized into tables and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicated that teachers in schools that enroll deaf children in Bulawayo were aware that Sign language is the language for deaf children but perceived it as difficult to learn/teach and as a set of gestures which could only be used for expressing simple concrete ideas. The teachers were also not fully aware of the official status of Sign language. From the findings, it was also clear that the teachers did not appreciate the native and natural status of Sign language and were not sure whether it has its own proper grammatical structure which is adequate to express abstract ideas. A Chi-Square analysis confirmed these results but showed that despite findings to the contrary, specialist teachers perceived Sign language more positively than mainstream teachers. The main conclusion from these results was that deaf children in schools in Bulawayo were not exposed to the full linguistic structure of Sign language and were consequently denied development of their Deaf culture. This compromised their education. On these bases, the study recommended staff development of teachers, establishment of Sign language resource centers, and harmonization of policies with the new Constitution and a similar but in-depth study of a national magnitude.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Pollution and environment: refrigeration and air conditioning

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows. This study discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology for communities. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • International incidences, macroeconomic variables and their volatility
           effect on economic growth: empirical evidence from Pakistan

    • Authors: Khakan Najaf, Rabia Najaf
      Abstract: The prime objective of this study is to incorporate the volatility among the different macroeconomic variables. In order, to analysis the volatility among different variables we have employed the ARCH/GARCH model. Our results suggested that there is not significant relationship between IMF, FDI and GDP. while, import, export and market capitalization have negative relationship. GRCH model reported that in the case of gold there is persistence of volatility exists. Morever, inflation and exchange rate are found insignificant volatility. Our study is also trying to show that Iraq war have significant volatility while other global crisis have negative volatility.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The assessment of the vulnerability of urban textures in earthquake, Case
           study: two zone in Tabriz city

    • Authors: Omid Mobaraki, Abdollah Jodat
      Abstract: Urban environments are physically characterized by a small scale alignment of buildings, infrastructure and open spaces with their specific types and dimensions. Urban vulnerability to environmental hazards in the countries with the natural and risky environment has been an important challenge in urban sciences, engineering sciences, management and urban planning.  The aim of this paper is Assessment of the vulnerability of urban textures in natural disasters and research type is applied and utilizes both descriptive and analytical methods and have been used geography information system software GIS. The research results show many area of two zone Tabriz city have been located in the sector very high vulnerability. So that /35 in the sector high vulnerability, /25 in the sector very high vulnerability, /28 in the sector moderate vulnerability and /12 in the sector low vulnerability have been located. If this subject is important that zone north have high vulnerability and zone south have low vulnerability. 
      PubDate: 2016-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Growth of Islamic banking in Pakistan

    • Authors: Khakan Najaf, Shumraiz Ashraf
      Abstract: Our founder Quaid –e-Azam was very much interested in the Islamic banking in our country .The prime objective of state bank is to remove interest system from the Pakistan. In 1970 s Islamic banking was not famous, but at the start of twenty century it is very common in all over the world. Islamic banking is account value approximately USD 500 billion. It is growing with the ratio of 11-15%.Islamic banking is flourishing dynamically in also Pakistan like other countries, since January, 1981 it is very famous in Pakistan. All over the world financial stability has a crucial role. From the last 30 years Islamic banking has scope in the world. At this time, there are almost 200 Islamic banks which are providing the Shariah compliant. We analyzed the strength of Islamic banks with the help of AID model. Our results have shown that Islamic banking is the milestone for the future Islamic banking. In this paper, we have taken GIB as the dependent variable and SC, IV, DV, ROA as the dependent variables. It has proved that there is positive association between them. Islamic banking is growing in the world at very fast pace. In the near future it will reach till 1300 billion. Persentably, across the 1200 Islamic banking are providing their services. In Pakistan, there is solid platform related to Islamic banking in Pakistan. In 2000 state bank was introduced the first Islamic bank. 
      PubDate: 2016-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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