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International Journal of Material and Mechanical Engineering    Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2162-0695 - ISSN (Online) 2164-280X
     Published by Science and Engineering Publishing Company Homepage  [46 journals]
  • Method for Recognition of Numbers on Speed Limit Signs Utilizing an Eigen
           Space Method based on the KL Transform
    • Abstract: Method for Recognition of Numbers on Speed Limit Signs Utilizing an Eigen Space Method based on the KL Transform
      Pages 65-73
      Author Miyata ShigeharuShin TakeharaHideki Saka
      This study explains that a method utilizing the eigen spaces obtained by the KL transform for automatic recognition of numbers on a speed limit sign, by camera, has the following advantages: it is robust in response to changes in intensity patterns caused by the direction that the sign is facing, and caused by the amount of light striking the sign, and it is able to reduce the recognition processing time by reducing the number of feature vector dimensions during analysis. The method for recognition of traffic signs previously proposed by the authors of this study was a method for recognition based on extracting geometric shapes from the sign and recognizing them based on their aspect ratios. As such, this method was not able to identify the numbers on a speed limit sign, all of which have identical aspect ratios. It will be shown that the method in this study is able to recognize nearly all speed limits indicated on traffic signs within several 100s of millisecond after image acquisition. This method was applied to still images and a moving image, and its effectiveness was verified from the perspective of the following requirements for providing accurate information concerning the vehicle surroundings to the driver: high processing speed, high recognition accuracy, detection of all detectable objects without omission, and robustness in response to changes in the surrounding environment and to geometric changes in the sign image as the vehicle approaches it.
      PubDate: 2013-11
       
  • Alternate Approaches to Recover Zircon Mineral Sand from Beach Alluvial
           Placer Deposits and Badlands Topography for Industrial Applications
    • Abstract: Alternate Approaches to Recover Zircon Mineral Sand from Beach Alluvial Placer Deposits and Badlands Topography for Industrial Applications
      Pages 74-79
      Author Sunita RoutrayTumula LaxmiRaghupatruni Bhima Ra
      At present, recovery of zircon from beach sand and red sediments of badlands topography is a priority due to high demand of zircon for industrial applications. Zircon content in these deposits varies from 0.2% to 2.7% by weight. Results of these studies reveal that heavy mineral content in the beach-dune sand is 16.7%, in which the zircon is 0.16 %. Red sediment contains 33.2% heavy minerals in which the zircon is 0.32%. A common flowsheet with material balance is suggested to recover zircon by wet process and in combination of wet and dry process. Zircon concentrate recovered from beach-dune sand contains 98.0% zircon with 79.6% recovery. The results of pre-concentration of heavy minerals by judicious combination of magnetic separator and advanced air classifier reveal that about 63% of light heavy minerals can be rejected by which the use of fresh water in spirals can be minimized. Zircon concentrate recovered by traditional approach of India from red sediment sample contains 96.3% of zircon with 84.3% recovery and zircon recovered from alternate approach is 97.9% grade with 79.5% recovery. In depth characterization of zircon and their value addition is suggested.
      PubDate: 2013-11
       
  • A New Approach for Improving the Ductility of Austenitic Stainless Steel
           by Austempering and Alloying with Aluminum
    • Abstract: A New Approach for Improving the Ductility of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Austempering and Alloying with Aluminum
      Pages 80-90
      Author Ahmed I. Z. Faraha
      Austenitic stainless steel (ASS) has been widely used in different applications. The industrial demand for stainless steels with improved resistance to oxidation at high temperature was the main driving force for adding aluminum as an alloying element to austenitic stainless steel. However, the addition of aluminum increases the work-hardening property and deteriorates the ductility of stainless steel. This paper addresses a new approach to overcome the deterioration of ductility by alloying (ASS) with 4wt% Al using vacuum induction furnace. Hot forging has been performed at 1000˚C with a reduction ratio of 90% in cross-sectional area. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the different phases formed due to hot forging. Results showed that alloying with Al decreases the austenite phase and increases the ferrite phase in (ASS), therefore, austempering process was carried out at different temperatures to increase the austenite phase and consequently to enhance ductility. Compression and hardness tests were performed at room temperature to determine the effect of Al alloying, phase formation, and tempering temperatures on the strength and ductility of (ASS).
      PubDate: 2013-11
       
 
 
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