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International Journal of Energy Science
   [3 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2218-6026 - ISSN (Online) 2304-3679
     Published by Science and Engineering Publishing Company Homepage  [46 journals]
  • Production of 14 MeV Neutrons Using Pyroelectric Crystals: Reconverting
           Solar Energy into Nuclear Fusion Energy

    • Abstract: Production of 14 MeV Neutrons Using Pyroelectric Crystals: Reconverting Solar Energy into Nuclear Fusion Energy
      Pages 101-107
      Author Werner Torno
      By changing the temperature of a LiTaO3 pyroelectric double-crystal arrangement in a deuterium gas environment, deuterium ions were produced and accelerated towards a tritiated target, producing 14 MeV neutrons via the 3H(d,n)4He nuclear fusion reaction.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • The Performance of Solar Air Heater with High Density Polyethylene Paper
           as Top Cover and Brown Sand Layer as an Absorber

    • Abstract: The Performance of Solar Air Heater with High Density Polyethylene Paper as Top Cover and Brown Sand Layer as an Absorber
      Pages 85-90
      Author Njoroge G. NdegwaNdiritu F.G.Golicha HusseinKamweru P. K
      Experimental investigations on the performance of a flat plate solar air heater (SAH) with brown sand as absorber and clear HDPE paper as top cover was done. The efficiency, heat gain factor and heat loss coefficient were determined for the collector. The effects of air mass flow rate and thermal efficiency was also studied. The SAH model was placed outdoors and tests were conducted in an open field between 0900 and 1500 Hrs. and parameters including solar radiation, temperature and air mass flow rates were recorded after every 20 minutes for 100 hours. Results show that, the efficiency increase with increasing air mass flow rate. The highest efficiency obtained was 54% at air mass flow rate of 1.22xl0-5 Kg/s. The temperature difference between the outlet flow and the ambient reduces as the air mass flow rate increases with a maximum difference of 31°C at air mass flow rate of 6.83X10 -6 Kg/s which occurred at 1240 Hrs.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Modeling and Control of a Grid Connected PAFC System

    • Abstract: Modeling and Control of a Grid Connected PAFC System
      Pages 69-76
      Author M. T. IqbalM. A. Tann
      This paper presents a closed-loop control of a 440kW fuel cell system including power electronics and grid side filters. Simulation results show the dynamics of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) and its associated power electronics including grid connection. The proposed model is based on empirical equations and Simulink blocks. The modeling and simulation is done in Matlab/Simulink software with its Power System Blockset (PSB). This model mathematically calculates cell output voltages and their consequent losses. Moreover, this model includes dc power conversion of fuel cell output into ac and grid interface. Presented model is simple and easy to understand.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • EMMI Failure-Distributed Analysis of ESD Zapping and Protection Designs in
           Power VDMOS ICs

    • Abstract: EMMI Failure-Distributed Analysis of ESD Zapping and Protection Designs in Power VDMOS ICs
      Pages 77-84
      Author Shen-Li ChenWen-Ming LeeChi-Ling Ch
      This paper deals with a detailed study of ESD failure modes, failures distribution and how to strengthen of the VDMOS ICs used for power applications. The ESD post-zapped failure of power VDMOS ICs due to HBM, MM, and CDM stresses are examined in this work. Through standard failure analysis techniques by using EMMI and SEM were applied to identify the failure locations. It is found that the ESD robustness is VESD(HBM)> VESD(MM)> VESD(CDM) for these non-ESD protected DUTs. Meanwhile, the ESD failure sites will be closed to the gate bonding pad as with a positive zapping and higher dV/dt pulse such as in CDM testing. And, the failure mappings have been studied to establish the difference in damaged features of HBM, MM, and CDM. Furthermore, the ESD protection designs of power VDMOS ICs are also addressed in this work. The first ESD incorporated design is Zener diodes back-to-back clamping the gate-to-source pad, and on the other hand, another one excellent design contains two Zener diodes clamping the gate-to-source and gate-to-drain terminals of a VDMOS, respectively.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • The Application of 3D Blading and Non-Axisymmetric Hub Endwall Contouring
           in a Dual-stage Axial Flow Counter-Rotating Compressor

    • Abstract: The Application of 3D Blading and Non-Axisymmetric Hub Endwall Contouring in a Dual-stage Axial Flow Counter-Rotating Compressor
      Pages 91-100
      Author Zhiyuan CaoBo LiuXiaodong YangMin L
      3D blading and non-axisymmetric endwall contouring technologies are effective ways to control secondary flows in cascades. 3D blading can effectively reduce the secondary flows near the blade surface, but it has little impact on the endwall region. Non-axisymmetric endwall contouring is widely used in the control of endwall secondary flows in turbines. However, the use of non-axisymmetric endwall contouring in compressors is rarely. The effect of non-axisymmetric endwall contouring on compressors is not clear. The research object of the report is an axial flow dual-stage counter-rotating compressor. In order to further improve the performance of the compressor and to explore the method of reducing secondary flow loss, the two rotor blade rows and the hub endwall of the secondary rotor row are redesigned by 3D blading and non-axisymmetric endwall contouring technologies based on optimization algorithm. The flow fields of original compressor and redesigned compressor are also compared. After 3D blading optimization, the secondary flows near the suction surface of the rotor blades are obviously reduced and the efficiency of the optimization point increases. Nonetheless, the secondary flows at the hub endwall improve scarcely any. Based on the 3D blading optimization, the second row rotor hub endwall are parameterization designed, and non-axisymmetric endwall contouring is designed by optimization algorithm. After non-axisymmetric endwall contouring optimization, the hub endwall consist of a “hill” near the rotor pressure surface and a “valley” near the suction surface. The contouring reduces the pressure gradient at 0~40% axial chord near the hub. And the secondary flow loss is reduced effectively. This paper successfully combines the advantages of both 3D blading and non-axisymmetric endwall contouring technologies; the performance of the counter-rotating compressor is improved effectively.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
 
 
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