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Journal Cover   American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture
  [21 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-398X - ISSN (Online) 2328-3998
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Suitability of Porcelain and Marble Industrial Waste Powder to Produce
           High Performance Concrete

    • Authors: Vatsalkumar Narendrabhai Patel; Nirajkumar Dilipbhai Shah
      Pages: 59 - 63
      Abstract: A siliceous or aluminous material, which possesses a little or no cementitious value but will, in a finely divided form and in the presence of moisture, chemically react with calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 to form compounds possessing hydraulic cementitious properties. The great abundance of Porcelain and Marble waste powder industrial wastes in Gujarat (India) makes it the most suitable materials for cement-based applications. To enhance the use of Porcelain and Marble waste powder as a Supplementary Cementitious Material in Gujarat (India), a proper method to evaluate its pozzolanic activity is necessary. The pozzolanic reactivity of the Porcelain and Marble waste Powder was evaluated by conducting strength development tests according to ASTM C311. After 28 days, the strength activity index of the Porcelain and Marble waste powder with ordinary Portland cement exhibited very good performance and was higher than 90 %, therefore it is suitable to produce a high performance concrete.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Impact of Subgrade and Granular Layer Material Properties on Rutting

    • Authors: Jyoti S. Trivedi; Dr. Rakesh Kumar
      Pages: 64 - 70
      Abstract: Material properties play avital role to determine the structural and functional performance of pavement layers during its service life. Pavement deformation or rutting is one of the key distress that affects the pavement performance. The strength parameters of subgrade and granular layer are correlated with the permanent deformations characteristics. Theindividualeffect in addition to combined effectof various combinations are considered to estimate rutting using multi linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. The data was collected in staggered position at every kilometer of a national highway stretch. The characteristic deflection, field dry density, modified liquid limit, California bearing ratio (CBR) were correlated individually with the rutting measurement and sensitivity analysis also performed. The impact of fines and dynamic behavior of soil response are considered in four possible combinations and correlated with rutting. The result shows that characteristic deflection, field dry density, modified liquid limit and modulus of elasticity of subgrade, and granular layer individually consists good relation with rutting except liquid limit. A good correlation was obtained supporting the validity of R2 values of ANN for subgrade and granular layer 0.84 and 0.86 respectively for combinations of parameters. Likewise, results of R2 values for MLR models obtained are 0.70 and 0.79, for the given layers subsequently comparing the R2 values of MLR and ANN it is concluded that ANN models are more efficient than MLR.
      PubDate: 2015-07-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Impacts of Coastal Developments on Existing Coastal Morphology: A Case
           Study of Developing Marinas along the coast of Netherlands

    • Authors: M. Salauddin; R.M.R.M Jayathilaka, C.A. Rey Velasco
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the impacts of coastal developments like marinas on coastal morphology, a practical case study of developing a marina along the coast of Netherlands was selected in this research. A marina needs to be constructed along the coast of Netherlands in the best possible location minimizing the effects of the marina on the coastline. The focus was to keep the coastline of Netherlands intact by strongly focusing on the accretion and erosion areas before choosing a location for the marina. The present research shows the morphological effects of the marina located along the coast of Netherlands. The design vessel, marina layout, location of the marina and effects of constructing hard structures along the coast are also discussed. In this research, regarding to morphological (erosion/accretion) and economical (hinterland) aspects, the best possible location was chosen to construct marina. The model results obtained in this study were expected. It was observed that after constructing the breakwaters, the wave climate at southern side is shielding from northerly waves and on the northern side shielding from southerly waves. As a consequence, the equilibrium of coastline orientation was also affected on both sides leading to very strong accretion on both sides of the marina. Further away from the breakwaters considerable erosion has been taken place, especially in the south of the breakwater.
      PubDate: 2015-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • The Production of Economical Precast Concrete Panels Reinforced by Waste
           Plastic Fibers

    • Authors: Sarmed Fadhil; Mohanad Yaseen
      Pages: 80 - 85
      Abstract: This paper has discussed the effect of adding waste plastic fiber (PET) resulting from cutting the plastic beverage bottles by hand (which is used in Iraqi markets now) as a small fiber to the precast concrete panels. This research presents an experimental program for investigating rupture strength and impact resistance of precast concrete panels with different depths. Different volumes of fibers, i.e. 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% have been added as percentages of concrete by volume. The results show that the maximum volume of PET fiber for a desired rupture and impact resistance was 1.0%. The addition of waste PET fiber to the plain precast concrete panels has economical advantages .It tends to decrease the depth panel from (30 cm × 30 cm × 4 cm) to (30 cm × 30 cm × 3 cm) and the percentage of increase of rupture strength was 34.27% and the percentage of increase of impact resistance was 157.14% for reinforced concrete panels (30 cm × 30 cm × 3 cm) aged at 90-days compared with plain panels of (30 cm × 30 cm × 4 cm). In the impact test the visual observation is that the specimens of fiber reinforced precast concrete panel (FRPCP) have remained together in one piece though broken whilst plain concrete specimens have exhibited the total disintegration.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Modelling Rainwater System Harvesting in Ibadan, Nigeria: Application to a
           Residential Apartment

    • Authors: Omolara Lade; David Oloke
      Pages: 86 - 100
      Abstract: Reduction of water consumption associated water wastage in the residential sector is a rapid pressing issue. The residential sector is a substantial consumer of water in every country and therefore constitutes a focus of water consumption efforts. Since the water consumption, characteristics of the residential sector are complex and inter-related, comprehensive models are needed to assess the technical and economic impacts of adopting rainwater harvesting (RWH) as a sustainable system suitable for residential applications in developing countries. This paper has presented the hydraulic and financial modelling of a RWH system using a residential apartment in Ibadan, Nigeria. With a RWHS being site-specific, a Raincycle model was used to optimise tank size and savings. Sensitivity analysis and MonteCarlo simulation were also carried out. The analysis consists of a detailed assessment of the proposed system, taking into account 18 parameters. Seven of these are fixed parameters- catchment surface area, first-flush volume, storage tank volume, pump power rating, pump capacity, UV unit power rating and UV unit operating time while 11 are variable parameters- rainfall profiles, runoff coefficients, filter coefficients, additional inputs (if any), discount rate, electricity cost, mains water cost, water demand, disposal cost, capital cost and decommissioning cost. The RWH and water savings efficiency were assessed and payback period was estimated. Optimising tank size results reveals that the maximum percentage of demand that could be met was 70.6% with a tank size of 4 m3. Optimising saving analysis showed that there were four tank sizes with a potential long-term profit. The best was 4 m3 tank which was predicted to save $259 over 50 years and had a payback period of 21 years, which is typical for a current domestic system. The results show that significant reductions in the total fresh water consumption and the total cost can be obtained. A Monte Carlo simulation shows an important influence of a given set of conditions on the economic viability of RWH systems.
      PubDate: 2015-07-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Tourist Living on Off-Shore Wind Turbine: Floating Anchorage Design and
           Wind/Wave – Structure Interaction Study

    • Authors: Fabio Rizzo; Piero D’Asdia, Federica Speziale
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: This paper aims to show a refurbishment project of an off-shore wind turbine, combining its natural purpose of exploiting the wind resources in the windiest sea areas along the coasts of Italy (Sardinia, Sicily, Abruzzo, Apulia) together with the possibility of using its structure as a tourist accommodation. Therefore, the main purpose of the paper is not to evaluate the wind turbine fluid dynamic response, but to study the interaction between civil architecture and mechanical structure. In this way, an economical contribution to the sustainability of the wind farm is possible. On this basis, a floating wind turbine called ARYA, has been designed as case-study. First of all, the 2 tourist-receptive structures (Hotel and bar-restaurant) around the wind tower have been designed and checked. Later, in order to study the effects on vertical cables fixed to the sea bottom, a detailed analysis of the floating anchorage TLP (Tension Leg Platform) was carried out. TLP consists of a nearly fully submerged cylindrical platform, which supports a 5 MW wind turbine and is linked to the sea bottom by 3 ties which assure stability and limited tilting, even under the worst loads induced by wind and sea. Morison’s equation is used to compute the hydrodynamic loading on the TLPs. A numerical model has been implemented and nonlinear dynamic analysis have been performed, investigating both the wind-structure and the wave-structure interaction. The analysis was based on the extreme environmental conditions of the site where it has been suggested to install the system.
      PubDate: 2015-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
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