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Journal Cover American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture
  [29 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-398X - ISSN (Online) 2328-3998
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Phase Optimization Procedure for Two-Way Synchronization of Fixed Traffic
           Signals on an Urban Passageway in Washington City (USA)

    • Authors: Ardavan Shojaeyan; Ali Kargar, Mahmoud Reza Keymanesh
      Pages: 71 - 84
      Abstract: Traffic Congestion on major corridor consequent upon existing lacuna in signal control strategy is a major problem in Washington City. To change this trend this research is carried out to design the efficient phase optimization technique using developed phase plan. C G Road was identified as a troubled corridor during reconnaissance survey and as such, selected for study. Three intersection of the road having length of 805 m harvests maximum straight movers forward direction 2nd cycle delay of 110.5 sec while backward direction 2nd cycle right turner delay of 59.87 sec due to absence of signal coordination. To contend the situation applying phase optimization three phase plan A, A1 & A2 has been prepared and presented through time space diagram to solve two way coordination problem. Data on geometric features were collected by Field survey using Odometer as well as with Google Earth Software. Peak and off peak hour traffic volume data were collected using ultra high resolution full HD camera. Furthermore signal cycle timing, space mean speed, discharge head way were simultaneously collected by trained enumerator¡¯s at all three intersections. Data extraction was carried out on projector screen using updated VLC media player. The geometric and traffic data collected were analyzed with Microsoft Excel. Constructed by developed method three different Phase Optimization Technique (POT) is tested on real traffic signal data of corridor in forward and backward direction using Time Space Diagram. With change of phase plan and phase sequence POT 1 is successful in minimizing combined delay of corridor up to 28.05% to 76.04 % for all 4 forward movements for analyzed two cycles. Further improvement in POT 2 is achieved by introducing 10 second offset at intersection B which reduces combined delay up to 32.52% to 98.6% in all 4 forward movements. Tracking average travel time, demand supply and prevailing signal cycle time POT 3 is applied with equal signal cycle length of 104 second at all 3 intersections. This method is capable to reduce right turner delay up to 21.91% to 49.57% while it produces unhindered movement with no delay for straight through traffic along corridor in both forward and backward direction.
      PubDate: 2017-5-17
      DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-5-3-1
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Hearing the Unheard Voices: What Does My Cognitive Map-design Signify'
           A Qualitative Case Analysis

    • Authors: Farzaneh Dehghani Anari; Fatemeh Khozei Ravari
      Pages: 85 - 92
      Abstract: This post occupancy research is an attempt to analyze the design of an architecture school using a cognitive map tool. Fifty male and female architecture students purposively recruited from Kerman Islamic Azad University to participate in this study. Participants were asked to draw a sketch map depict all places they recall in their faculty and identify them with the names. Following the drawings, a series of interviews were conducted to understand the students’ rationales behind their drawings and to uncover navigational problems of spatial designs. Data were analyzed qualitatively with specific focus on the absence or presence of spaces and their sizes. The qualitative data was supplemented by quantitative data to have a better interpretation of meaning by looking at qualitative data from a quantitative angle. Results showed that the accuracy in drawings significantly increased the longer students spent time in the faculty and the more they got familiar with the places. The analysis of cognitive maps revealed that the absence or presence of some spaces in the sketch maps and their sizes corresponds to the functional importance of spaces, their locations, zoning, accessibility and their size in relation to their functions. Results suggest that men and women did not differ in the accuracy of their cognitive maps. However, for navigation, males used information about directions for navigation, whereas females employed a landmark-based strategy. Architect planners can take advantages of these findings to create distinctively and well used buildings. The results of the study has implication for those who are interested in navigational behaviours of the space users.
      PubDate: 2017-6-24
      DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-5-3-2
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Crushed Limestone Waste as Supplementary Cementing Material for High
           Strength Concrete

    • Authors: Tahir Kibriya
      Pages: 93 - 97
      Abstract: Use of greener materials and gaining popularity of environment friendly materials worldwide has led to newer research in utilizing waste materials produced from various human, agricultural and industrial activities for useful purposes. Agricultural wastes like rice straw and husk, industrial wastes like slag, fly ash, crushed stone, limestone waste and brick/ concrete waste from demolition of old structures are extensively being used in manufacturing concrete. This experimental study aimed at evaluating the properties of widely produced waste material from limestone processing industry with no beneficial usage i.e. crushed limestone waste as supplementary cementing material. For years a small percentage of limestone powder has been used in cement and masonry to improve workability and in concrete as fine filler however limited research has been carried out on high strength concretes with partial replacement of limestone crush as supplementary material. This study investigated the properties of high strength concrete made from Portland slag cement comprising 50% cement and 50% ground granulated blast furnace slag, natural aggregates and sand where crushed limestone waste was added to cement by replacing slag cement in the percentages of 10% and 20%. Wide ranging investigations covering most aspects of mechanical behavior and permeability were carried out for various mixes for compressive strengths of 60MPa and 80MPa. Compressive strengths of concrete specimen with partial replacement of 10% and 20% limestone waste were observed to be higher by about 4 to 12% than the control specimen. Flexural strengths were also observed to be higher by 12 – 13%. Higher elastic moduli and reduced permeability were observed along with better sulphates and acid resistance. Better strengths and improved durability of such high strength concretes containing up to 20% limestone waste make it a more acceptable material for major construction projects in addition to consuming this massively produced waste material for useful purposes along with reducing its disposal problems.
      PubDate: 2017-7-5
      DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-5-3-3
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A Journey through the History: Introduction to Heritage Tourism and
           Tourist Trails for the Renewal of Old Dhaka

    • Authors: Dipa Saha; Sazdik Ahmed, Abu Towab Md. Shahriar, S. M. Naeem Hossain Mithun
      Pages: 98 - 107
      Abstract: Dhaka, the one of the megacities in the world have been facing the pressure of new development and redevelopment due to rapid socio-economic development. Like the other part of the city in old Dhaka, this urban renewal is misunderstood as the process of demolition-reconstruction of old buildings and historical sites. Change in land use pattern, land scarcity, increased land value, lack of mature theoretical guidance and the awareness of preservation the old part of the city is losing its identity. This kind of development not only affecting the city fabric but also destroying the vernacular built environment, cultural values and collective memory of habitants. Introduction of heritage tourism and development of tourist trails in different part of the old city may become an effective and sustainable measure to protect the heritage sites and old fabric of the city. Heritage tourism not only has a positive effect on economic development activities but it also promotes and protects the intangible heritage resources. The study tries to explore some different ways in which tourist trail and heritage tourism can be developed in old Dhaka. Additional emphasis will placed on investigating how tourism can be used to promote awareness among local communities and the importance of assuring a balance between responsible tourism and the preservation and protection required for heritage sites.
      PubDate: 2017-7-6
      DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-5-3-4
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Bridge Graffiti - Aesthetical Assessment

    • Authors: Karas Slawomir
      Pages: 108 - 112
      Abstract: The article looks into the problem of graffiti on bridges. Graffiti can be seen as a form of artistic expression. There are quoted two historical examples of graffiti, one of the times of antiquity and the other from a more recent historical period, i.e. 1840s. There has been an attempt to define graffiti on the basis of a survey conducted among the Lublin graffiti circles. The resulting descriptive definition of graffiti indicates a stable, independent or even illegal action which seems to be impossible to be curbed. The graffiti was examined on some examples of Santiago Calatrava’s bridges. By means of a simple statistical method applied to the results of a survey conducted among student groups and by means of 1/0 estimation (positive-1/negative-0 impression) of graffiti on bridges, some reliable results have been obtained. It was concluded that, optionally, some of bridge graffiti can be accepted and therefore can be kept as an enhancement of urban surroundings.
      PubDate: 2017-7-8
      DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-5-3-5
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A Review on Traditional Architecture Houses in Buddhist Culture

    • Authors: Sonam Chuki; Raju Sarkar, Ritesh Kurar
      Pages: 113 - 123
      Abstract: The vernacular architecture of a country reflects its culture, religion and identity. Researchers found that countries with similar culture and religion share few similar architectural characteristics. The most similar characteristic is the choice of building material used, where locally available materials such as earth, wood and bamboo are found to be used extensively. This paper explores the traditional architecture houses of few Asian countries with Buddhist culture viz. Bhutan, China, Japan, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam; mainly focusing on its vernacular dwellings. The architectural features, organization of spaces and building materials of vernacular dwellings of these countries are also exploited.
      PubDate: 2017-7-14
      DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-5-3-6
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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