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Journal Cover American Journal of Medical and Biological Research
  [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-4080 - ISSN (Online) 2328-4099
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Farmer: Agrochemical Use and Associated Risk Factors in Fadan Daji
           District of Kaura LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Bassi AP; Ramyil MCS, Ogundeko TO, Abisoye-Ogunniyan A, Builders M, Thliza SMA, Adeniyi GO, Akande Tunji, Ike RO, Ologun DO, Damai C, Pfongkazah D, Adinoyi OA, Dibigbo-Ibeagi Ndudi Mary, Nwankwo B
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Background: Occupational poisoning via the use of agrochemicals is common in developing countries. This is because grass-root farmers, who are the majority, are poor, illiterate and are undertrained on ethics surrounding its use. This is a cross sectional descriptive study carried out in Fadan-Daji (FD) district of Kagoro Chiefdom, Kaura LGA, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Methods: Three villages - Kodwak, Uzha-Tuyit and Zankam were randomly selected in the district. A sample size of 250 farmers was obtained using a p-value of 82%, while the selected farmers completed structured questionnaires. Results: Physical, chemical, biological, mechanical and psychosocial events occurred at the same time in the FD Farming community. Thus, clients present with multiple finding or symptoms. In this study most farmers experienced chest pain/tightness, cough, dizziness, reddening of the eyes; sneezing and rheum more often following the use on their farms. This study further revealed that farmers in the studied communities (31.6%) resorted to self-medication ranging from analgesics, to over the counter antihistamines, whilst 23.6% reported that they ingest milk as antidote. 32.4% did nothing about it while only 12.4% of the respondents visited a health facility. 54.4% of FD farmers used no form of personal protective devices (PPDs). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the root problem faced with the FD like the average farmer of the developing world is lack of relevant education in terms of ethical use and disposal of agrochemicals which has made a significant number of FD farmers more susceptible to the agrochemical side effects resulting from its use. Such a community located in the heart of Nigeria also being a food basket needs prompt attention in terms of improved western/farmer education and health facilities.
      PubDate: 2016-7-12
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Role of Some Metal Ions on Steady–state Kinetics of Engineered
           Wild–type and Manganese (II) Binding Site Mutants of Recombinant Phlebia
           radiata Manganese Peroxidase 3 (rPr-MnP3)

    • Authors: Usenobong F. Ufot; Aniefiok E. Ite, Idorenyin H. Usoh, Monday I. Akpanabiatu
      Pages: 42 - 52
      Abstract: This study investigated the steady-state kinetics of engineered wild-type and manganese (II) binding site mutants of recombinant Phlebia radiata manganese peroxidase 3(rPr-MnP3). The effect (activation or inhibition) of some metal ions (Co2+, Zn2+ Cu2+ and Na+) on the activity of rPr-MnP3 enzymes was also studied. The results obtained showed that the rPr-MnP3 mutants in which the metal binding functionality has been largely lost have been created. Na+ (mono-valent ion) and Co2+showed similar characteristics by exhibiting stimulatory effects on the activity of wild-type rPr-MnP3. However, Cu2+ and Zn2+ had mixed inhibitory effects on wild-type and mutants (E40H, E44H, E40H/E44H). It was observed that Cu2+ was by far the strongest inhibitor of engineered rPr-MnP3 enzymes while Co2+ exhibited a non-competitive inhibitory effect on the double mutant (E40H/E44H) and D186H activities. In addition, Zn2+ and Cu2+also had non-competitive inhibitory effect on D186H mutant enzyme activity. The results obtained further showed that the competitive inhibitory effect of Cu2+observed in other rPr-MnP3 enzymes is largely removed in D186H mutant enzyme. Generally, histidine substitution retained a strong selectivity for Cu2+ as competitive inhibitor. Zn2+ being generally non-competitive suggest involvement of sites other than the Mn (II) binding site. This study showed that rPr-MnP3 enzymes function with alternate ligands in the Mn2+ binding site and does not have absolute obligate requirement for all carboxylate ligand set.
      PubDate: 2016-8-6
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
       
 
 
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