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Journal Cover   American Journal of Medical and Biological Research
  [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-4080 - ISSN (Online) 2328-4099
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • The Immunomodulatory, Antimicrobial and Bactericidal Efficacy of Commonly
           Used Commercial Household Disinfectants, Sterilizers and Antiseptics in
           Vitro: Laboratory Assessment of Anti-Inflammatory Infection Control
           Mechanisms and Comparative Biochemical Analysis of the Microbial Growth of
           Gram-Negative Bacteria

    • Authors: Niveen M. Masri; Lama B. Hanbali, John J. Haddad
      Pages: 1 - 32
      Abstract: Background: Immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory and microbial infection control strategies characterize the spiral evolution of public awareness of health safety issues. This is substantiated with burgeoning number of cases of microbial contamination and/or infection in myriad healthcare settings, at the hospital, and even at home. Previously, we have investigated and identified laboratory parameters in the assessment of the antimicrobial effects of a myriad of commercial disinfectants on the growth of pathogenic and saprophytic gram-positive bacteria. The present sequel study investigates the antimicrobial/bactericidal effects of commercially available disinfectants, sterilizers, antiseptics, and chlorhexidine-containing detergents on the growth of saprophytic and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria in vitro. It is an unprecedented wide canopy enveloping standardized comparative assessments of the antimicrobial efficiency of consumer-targeted household detergents, curbing and containing microbial infection, inflammation and contamination propensity. Methods: Given the medical significance and impact of public infection control, we have meticulously examined at least 22 different detergents categorized into four classes (each category comprises a variety of commercially available products commonly used by the public): i) Class A – Daily Mouthwash; ii) Class B – Toilet Bowl Cleaners/Bleaches/Sanitizers; iii) Class C – Surface and Floor Mopping Cleaners/Detergents; and iv) Class D – Hand and Body Wash Gels. Whilst the canonical menu of active ingredients varies among those aforementioned classes, antimicrobial components are well established. Results: Regarding Class A, the most effective against Citrobacter koseri is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Enterobacter cloacae is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Escherichia coli is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Escherichia coli ESBL is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Klebsiella pneumoniae is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Proteus vulgaris is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ‘Perio.Kin Chlorhexidina 0.20 %’; Salmonella typhimurium is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’; and Shigella sonnei is ‘Colgate Plax Mouthwash’. Regarding Class B, the most effective against C. koseri is ‘Harpic Power Plus Disinfectant’; E. cloacae is ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’; E. coli is ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’; E. coli ESBL is ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’; K. pneumoniae are ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’ and ‘Harpic Power Plus Disinfectant’; P. vulgaris is ‘Spartan Max WC Lavender’; P. aeruginosa is ‘WC Net Bleach Gel’; S. typhimurium is ‘Clorox Bleach Rain Clean’; and S. sonnei is ‘Harpic Power Plus Disinfectant’. Regarding Class C, the most effective against C. koseri is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; E. cloacae is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; E. coli is ‘Vim Cream Multipurpose Fast Rinsing’; E. coli ESBL is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; K. pneumoniae is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; P. vulgaris is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; P. aeruginosa is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; S. typhimurium is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’; and S. sonnei is ‘Dettol Antiseptic/Disinfectant’. Regarding Class D, the most effective against C. koseri, E. cloacae, E. coli, E. coli ESBL, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, and S. sonnei is unprecedentedly the ‘HiGeen Hand and Body Wash Gel’.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • The Changes of the Cellular Indicators of Leucopoiesis in Irradiated
           Animals under Hypomotile Conditions

    • Authors: Vitali Kalantaryan; Tsovinar Adamyan, Emma Gevorkyan, Nona Adamyan, Tigran Hayrapetyan
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: It is studied the nature of the changes of the morpho-functional indicators of leukopoiesis in hypokinesia dynamics on the background of multiple impact of the millimeter range electromagnetic waves. It is shown that the preliminary radiation increases the potential capacity of the regulatory systems of leukopoiesis, activates the proliferative and maturation processes of the stem cells, and boosts the adaptive compensatory mechanisms thus resulting in preventing of the negative impact of hypokinesis.The obtained data allow us to assume that the low-power microwaves with the frequency of 42.2 GHz are means of non-medicational treatment under stress rectifying the changes of the morpho-functional indicators.The changes in the sympathoadrenal system, the increase of the immunoreactivity and non-specific resistance, the activization of endogenetic immunomodulators have important role in the mechanism of the physiological impact of non-ionizing millimeter electromagnetic waves.
      PubDate: 2015-02-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Comparative Study of Some Potential Paracrine Factors Produced by Normal
           and Androgenetic Alopecia Hair Follicles

    • Authors: Saeed A. Alwaleedi
      Pages: 38 - 47
      Abstract: Androgens are the main regulators of human hair growth. Paradoxically, androgens can convert small vellus hair follicles to long terminal ones as seen during growth of beard and in hirsutism, however they also can stimulate the gradual transformation of large terminal scalp follicles to tiny vellus ones causing androgenetic alopecia in individuals with a genetic predisposition. Hair disorders are poorly controlled and may cause psychological distress and reduction in the quality of life. The molecular mechanisms of androgen action in human hair follicles are not fully understood. However it is believed that androgens exert their effects on hair follicles via the dermal papilla cells by altering the regulatory paracrine factors produced by the dermal papilla itself and affect the other follicular components. The study aimed to identify key paracrine factors which involved in androgen-regulated alopecia. Balding and non-balding scalp hair follicles isolated and analyzed by molecular biological methods, DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Comparing balding and non-balding follicles from the same individuals revealed the expected reduction in several keratin and keratin-related protein genes supporting this approach’s validity. There were also significant differences in paracrine factors previously implicated in androgen action by in vitro studies. Several factors believed to increase during androgen stimulation of larger, darker follicles, e.g. IGF-I and SCF, and VEGV were lowered in balding follicles, while putative inhibitory factors, e.g. TGFß-1, IL-1β, IL-1α, and IL-6 were increased. These findings increase our understanding of androgen action in human hair follicles; this could lead to better treatments for hair disorders.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
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