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American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2327-6711 - ISSN (Online) 2327-672X
     Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [19 journals]
  • Evaluating the Accuracy of Drug Dosing in the Prescriptions for Children
           under 5 Years Old from Non Pediatric Physicians in Outpatient Clinics

    • Authors: Ehab Mudher Mikhael
      Pages: 61 - 64
      Abstract: Background: Pediatric patients are more vulnerable to the effects of a medication error and may experience a more serious adverse drug reaction than adults. Dosing errors represent the most common medication errors that occur in pediatric prescriptions. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of drug dosing that prescribed for children under 5 years by non paediatric specialist physicians in their outpatient clinic setting. Methods: An observational study was done in a single outpatient pharmacy located in Al - Amria at Baghdad/ Iraq from May to August 2014. 24 prescriptions to children less than 5 years old from non pediatric physicians were included in this study. Each prescription will be carefully examined to collect the following data: age and weight of the patient, diagnosis of the case, the name of the prescribed drugs with their strength, dose, route of administration and frequency of usage. All children were weighted in the pharmacy. Determination of the accuracy of drug dosing for each drug in all prescriptions was based mainly on drug dosing that stated in BNF for children. Results: The percent of correct dosing in the prescriptions of non pediatricians in their outpatient clinics to children below 5 years old is only 31%. Dosing error was more common (90%) in infants than in older children (64.5%). antibiotics were the most common class of drugs that prescribed to children, while the highest percent of dosing error was related to steroid, antipyretic and analgesic prescribing. Conclusion: Dosing error is a common problem in the Rx of non pediatrician in outpatient clinics for preschool children in general and for infants specially.
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Effect of Coadministered Lopinavir/Ritonavir and
           Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim on Liver Function and Achitecture of Albino

    • Authors: Adikwu Elias; Deo Oputiri, Oru-Bo Precious Geoffrey
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: HIV/AIDS is usually associated with co morbidities and co infections which may necessitate the concurrent use of antiretroviral drugs with other medications. This may place more burdens on body organs especially the liver which is the primary organ of drug metabolism. Therefore this study evaluates the toxicological effect of single and combined doses of SMX/TMP + LPV/r on the liver function and architecture of rats. Seventy five (75) animals which were divided into five (5) groups were used in this study. Group A which served as control contained fifteen (15) animals which were treated with 1% ethanol orally. Group B-E which contained fifteen (15) animals each was further subdivided into three (3) subgroups of five (5) animals each. Animals in these groups were treated with oral doses of SMX/TMP (11.2/2.3mg/kg), LPV/r (11.4/2.9mg/kg) and combine doses of SMX/TMP + LPV/r for 2-8 weeks respectively. Plasma levels of alanine aminotranferase, (ALT) aspartate aminotranferase, (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated. Liver malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and histopathological changes were also evaluated. Results showed that these agents have no significant toxic effects on the liver weight. Treatment with single doses of SMX/TMP and LPV/r produced a time dependent increase in AST, ALT, ALP and MDA. Significant synergistic increases in these parameters were not observed when these agents (SMX/TMP + LPV/r) were co administered. Single doses of these agents produced a time dependent decrease in SOD with no significant synergistic effects when combined doses of these agents (SMX/TMP + LPV/r) were used. Liver of animals treated with single and combined doses of SMX/TMP and LPV/r showed fairly preserved lobular architecture with vascular congestion and inflammatory cells infiltration in the parenchyma. Conclusion: In this study concurrent treatment with SMX/TMP + LPV/r produced no synergistic hepatotoxicity, hence these agents can be use concurrently in HIV/AIDS associated co infection and co morbidity.
      PubDate: 2014-08-27
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Efficacy and Safety of Ranibizumab Intravitreal Injections versus Laser
           Photocoagulation in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema

    • Authors: Fadia T. Ahmed; Najah K.M. Al Quriashi, Ibrahim A. Majeed
      Pages: 72 - 76
      Abstract: Objective: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a swelling of the retina resulting from leakage of fluid from blood vessels within the macula (the centre of the retina), it involves retinal thickening and formation of hard exudates that occurs secondary to diabetic retinopathy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab versus laser therapy in DME patients. Methods: A randomized controlled open labeled clinical trial with 4 months duration was performed. 40 Patients with DME were randomly allocated to receive either ranibizumab 0.5mg intravitreal injection monthly for three months or laser photocoagulation at baseline and were evaluated at baseline and one month after completing their treatments. Clinical assessment was done by measuring best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and monitoring of the adverse events. Results: Ranibizumab was superior to laser (P=0.0001) in improving BCVA letter score, mean change from baseline to the end of the study was (+8.75 vs +2.75), with significant increase in VA for both ranibizumab (P < 0.0001) and laser (P = 0.005). The mean CRT was significantly reduced from baseline with ranibizumab (-126.4μm) versus laser (-67.85 μm) both with significant change (P
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
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