Journal Cover American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2327-6711 - ISSN (Online) 2327-672X
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • In-silico Antimalarial Study of Monocarbonyl Curcumin Analogs and Their
           2,4-Dinitro Phenylhydrazones Using the Inhibition of Plasmepsin II as Test
           Model

    • Authors: Olatomide A. Fadare; Ezekiel O.Iwalewa, Craig A. Obafemi, Feyisola P. Olatunji
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: A well-known component of the Indian spice turmeric, curcumin, has received a lot of attention in recent years as a potential antimalarial agent but the inherent problems associated with low bioavailabilty tends to limit its applicability. The bioavailability is linked to its low solubility in water and its rapid break down in the blood plasma. In this study, we have proposed the use of synthetic analogs of curcumin and their derivatives which are expected to be less prone to degradation in the blood plasma as possible antimalarials. The binding affinity of monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin and their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives for the chain A domain of plasmepsin II, one of the key enzymes involved in hemoglobin digestion in the food vacuole of the malaria parasite was determined by computational docking analysis, performed using Auto Dock Vina 1.1.2, pymol and Chem 3D ultra 12.0. The binding energies of the 20 compounds studied was compared with that of pepstatin A (a known inhibitor of plasmepsin II), curcumin and chloroquine. The 3D structure of the protein was obtained from the protein data bank (PDB ID:1M43), the compounds’ 3D structure was generated with the Chem 3D ultra 12.0 and visualization done with pymol. Out of the 20 compounds docked with plasmepsin II, 17 had binding energies higher than that of pep A (-32.6, kJ/mol) and 19 of the compounds had binding energies higher than that of curcumin (30.96, kJ/mol). The docked compounds, 5b, 6b and 7b had the highest binding energies (-44.73 kJ/mol, -42.64 kJ/mol and -41.80 kJ/mol respectively). It is expected that the compounds with binding energies higher than that of pep A may be considered for further antimalarial studies in-vitro and in-vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-5-2
      DOI: 10.12691/ajps-5-2-1
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Various Pharmacological Aspects of Cocos nucifera - A Review

    • Authors: Babita Aggarwal; H. S. Lamba, Pankaj Sharma, Ajeet
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Plant materials, derived from thousands of plant species from lichens to towering trees, represents substantial portion of the global market. When we think about the highly nutritious plant parts then we can’t move beyond Cocos nucifera. Many scientists around the world have worked on Cocos nucifera and revealed too may bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, antineoplastic, insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. In this review also, we focused on various pharmacological aspects of Cocos nucifera, with different extraction methods and isolated compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-6-14
      DOI: 10.12691/ajps-5-2-2
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of Self-medication Use of Antibiotics within Lebanese
           Population: A Prospective Pilot Study

    • Authors: Malak Khalifeh; Nicholas Moore, Pascale Salameh
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic used in community based pharmacy setting. Method: It is a cross sectional prospective study in a community-based pharmacy setting in Lebanon. It uses a structured random interview to patients visiting a community pharmacy and seeking for antibiotics. Baseline characteristics and reason for self-medication were collected. Completing the questionnaire after 30 days provided information on adherence and usage pattern. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to predict factors affecting appropriateness. Results: 62.7% of 501 participants bought antibiotics without prescription. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was the most used antibiotic as self-medication (33.7%). 62.4% of patients used the right antibiotic and 80.1% used it in correct dosage. The duration of treatment was inappropriate in the majority of cases (68.6%). When all of these three factors were summed together, it turned out that 83.6% of antibiotics were utilized inappropriately. Appropriateness in use was seen in 27.6% and 16.4% of the prescribed and non-prescribed antibiotics respectively. Conclusion: Our study shows great misuse of antibiotics and hence there is a need to increase awareness of the health risks related to inappropriate and uncontrolled use of antibiotics.
      PubDate: 2017-6-29
      DOI: 10.12691/ajps-5-2-3
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiology and Predictors of Drug Therapy Problems among Type 2 Diabetic
           

    • Authors: Hailu Chare Koyra; Seble Bancha Tuka, Efrata Girma Tufa
      Pages: 40 - 48
      Abstract: Background: Diabetic patients have a significant number of co-morbidities which increases number of medications and complexity of treatment that can finally result in drug therapy problems among these populations. Despite its serious negative impact on health outcomes, there is lack of research evidence on drug therapy problem in the country. Therefore, current study aims to assess epidemiology and predictors of drug therapy problems among adult type 2 diabetic patients at Wolaita Soddo University teaching hospital. Method: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March, 2015, among 243 adult type2 diabetes patients attending their ambulatory care in Wolaita University teaching hospital. Medical record reviews and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Drug therapy problems were identified by using Cipolle’s method which was adapted to diabetic patients and further refined by panel of experts. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of drug therapy problems. Results: Out of 243 adult type 2 diabetic patients included, the prevalence of drug therapy problems was 83.1%. Need additional drug, 137(56.37%) and non-compliance 126(51.9%) were the most common types of drug therapy problems. Age ≥ 65 (AOR=9.079; 95% CI: 2.213, 37.241), comorbidity (AOR=7.004; 95% CI: 1.285, 18.194), polypharmacy (AOR =3.311; 95% CI: 1.366, 30.329), and history of hospitalization (AOR=0.403; 95%CI: 0.176, 0.925) were independent predictors of the drug therapy problems. Conclusion: the study showed that drug related problems especially need additional drug or unmet conditions and non-compliance were major challenges for optimal management of type 2 diabetes in the hospital. Hence, the hospital should optimize utilization of statins and antiplatelet for cardiovascular prevention with due emphasis to increase medication adherence of the diabetic patients.
      PubDate: 2017-7-25
      DOI: 10.12691/ajps-5-2-4
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Community Usage Pattern of Antibiotics within Lebanese Population: A
           Prospective Study

    • Authors: Malak Khalifeh; Nicholas Moore, Pascale Salameh
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: Introduction: Antibiotic misuse is a worldwide public health problem and a major cause of antibiotic resistance. Objective: The aim of this study therefore was to describe the usage pattern of antibiotics in Lebanon. Method: It is a prospective study in a community-based pharmacy setting in Lebanon. It uses a structured random interview to patients visiting community pharmacy seeking for antibiotics. Baseline characteristics and reason for self-medication were collected. Completing a self-administered questionnaire after 30 days provided information on safety, efficacy and usage pattern. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Results: 62.7% of 501 participants bought antibiotic without prescription. Pharmacists were the main helpers (34.7%). Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was the most used antibiotic as self-medication (33.7%). The overall average dispensation was 9.07 DDD for short term use (< 2 weeks). In the follow up, the average DDD consumed by patient was7.07 DDD and 62.5% were consumed between 1 to 7 DDD. The average request per year was 3.35 which was significantly higher in patients without prescription than with prescription (p= .029).Males were dispensed more DDDs than females but the result was not significant. Patients with ages from 25-50 years old had significantly consumed more than 1 DDD per day (61.7%) compared to patients with age above than 50 years old (41%, p=.002). Conclusion: Antibiotic consumption in Lebanon is uncontrolled. Educational programs should be implemented for the public to reduce the usage of antibiotic.
      PubDate: 2017-8-23
      DOI: 10.12691/ajps-5-2-5
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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