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Journal Cover American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
  [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2327-6711 - ISSN (Online) 2327-672X
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Effect of Azilsartan, Aliskiren or Their Combination on Body Weight and
           Adipogenesis of High-fat Diet Induced Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in

    • Authors: Rabab M. Utba; Saad A. Hussain, Ammar A. Fadhil, Angham Ahmed
      Pages: 31 - 34
      Abstract: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aims to evaluate the effects of blocking RAS with azilsartan, aliskiren or their combination on the body weight and adipogenesis in rat’s model of NAFLD. Thirty-two rats were allocated into four groups and treated with either vehicle, azilsartan, aliskiren or their combination. All groups were maintained on high-fat diet for 60 days, and their body weights were monitored each 3 days. At the end of treatment all animals were authenticated and visceral adipose tissues obtained and weighed. Azilsartan attenuates both the increase in total body and adipose tissue weight compared with control, while azilsartan alone affects adipogenesis only. In conclusion, Administration of azilsartan attenuates adipogenesis and obesity in rat’s model of high-fat diet induced NAFLD, while aliskiren affects adipogenesis only.
      PubDate: 2016-4-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Response Rate to Glyceryl Trinitrate as First Line Therapy in Patients
           with Chronic Anal Fissure in Kirkuk City

    • Authors: Hazm Sadiq Ahmed
      Pages: 35 - 38
      Abstract: Chronic anal fissure is common perianal condition. Surgical sphincterotomy is very successful at healing these fissures but requires an operation with associated morbidity. Temporary reduction in sphincter tone can be achieved on an outpatient basis by applying a topical nitric oxide donor (glyceryl trinitrate) 0.4% twice daily for four week duration. A total of 120 patients with chronic anal fissure were collected randomly from Kirkuk general hospital and private surgerical clinic prospectively from September 2014 till December 2015. Whether pharmacological treatment or surgical treatment is the best first line options in the treatment of chronic anal fissure will be the main issue of this study. Results: A total of 120 patients with chronic anal fissure were enrolled in this study. All patients received (GTN) as first line therapy for 4 week. 100 patients were able to complete medical treatment, while the remaining twenty patients were unable to complete medical treatments due to side effects caused by the drug. Regarding medical treatment outcome: 65 of patients(from total 100) (45 male, 23 female) achieved complete recovery and only 35 of patients (23 male, 12female) failed to reach complete recovery even after 4 week of treatment and undergoing sphincterotomy as second line options. About 91%(n=59) of patients achieved complete recovery within 2-3 week from the start of (GTN), and 9% (n=6) of patients recovered with complete 4 week administration of (GTN). Conclusions: digital application of glyceryl trinitrate as first line therapy for chronic anal fissure was the best choice for majority of patients, with treatment course of 4 week.
      PubDate: 2016-6-14
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Losartan versus Enalapril in the Protection of the Gastric Mucosa against
           Aspirin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    • Authors: Mahmoud H. Abdel-Rahim; Sanaa A. Ahmed, Hytham M. Abdel-Latif
      Pages: 39 - 45
      Abstract: Different mechanisms have been suggested for the development of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induced gastropathy. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have been suggested to have gastroprotective effects, sothe present work aims to elucidate the protective effect of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors through their effect on prostaglandins (PGs) and oxidative stress against peptic ulcer induced by aspirin in rats and to compare the efficacy of ACEIs and ARBs in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly divided into 6 groups, 6 animals each. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were received saline (normal control), losartan (3mg/kg/day) and enalapril (10 mg/kg/day) i.p respectively for 4 weeks. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were pretreated with saline (aspirin group), losartan (3mg/kg/day) and enalapril (10 mg/kg/day) i.p respectively for 4 weeks duration. On 29th day, rats of group 4, 5 and 6 were submitted to gastric ulcer by single oral administration of 300 mg/kg aspirin then animals of all groups were sacrificed, stomachs were excised for gross and microscopic examination and determination of the mucosal levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and catalase (CAT).Treatment of rats with aspirin produced a significant decrease in gastric PGE2, SOD, NO, and CAT levels and produced deep gastric ulcer compared to normal control group. Pretreatment of rats with losartan or enalapril decreased the aspirin-induced alterations in gastric PGE2.SOD and NO levels, but only losartan caused a significant increase in CAT activity while enalapril caused an insignificant increase. Also, pretreatment with losartan or enalapril ameliorated the severe deep gastric ulcer induced by aspirin to shallow erosions and inflamed gastric mucosa compared to changes in the aspirin group.In conclusions, the prophylactic use of losartan and enalapril ameliorated aspirin-induced gastric ulcer, but losartan has better influence as it has an additional effect on CAT.
      PubDate: 2016-7-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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