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Journal Cover   American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
  [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2327-6711 - ISSN (Online) 2327-672X
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanolic Leaf
           Extract of Cissus aralioides

    • Authors: Maxwell I. Ezeja; Yusuf N.Omeh, Samuel O. Onoja, Ijeoma H. Ukaonu
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Inflammation and oxidative stress are features of many degenerative diseases. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methanolic leaf extract of Cissus aralioides in vivo and in vitro. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models and Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging ability, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) photometric assay. In the anti-inflammatory study, doses of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg of the extract were used orally. Acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg) was used as a reference drug while concentrations of Cissus aralioides extract (CAE) ranging from 25- 800 µg/ml were used for DPPH and NO scavenging ability. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, CAE caused dose-dependent increase in percentage edema inhibition, increasing percentage inhibition of edema from 0% in the negative control group to 41% at 6th h at 600 mg/kg. In the formalin-induced paw edema model, CAE significantly (p < 0.05) and dose dependently increased the percentage edema inhibition and decreased the paw edema volumes on day 1. Cissus aralioides extract showed different percentage increase in the nitric oxide scavenging ability, increasing it from 24.94% at 25 µg/ml to 57.41% at 800 µg/ml while in the DPPH assay; CAE caused a concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity from 1.88% at 25 µg/ml to 52.55% at 400 µg/ml. In conclusion, the results suggest that Cissus aralioides may be of benefit in ameliorating inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-01-09
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on the Oral Bioavailability of Fluoxetine
           and Venlafaxine in Rats

    • Authors: Fatima Adnan Alzubaidi; Saad Abdulrahman Hussain
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Since herbal supplements are not evaluated for interactions with other drugs, there are concerns about their interactions with conventional drugs, which are mostly used as multiple drug treatment approach. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of long-term use of Ginkgo biloba (GK) extract on the intestinal absorption of orally administered, single doses of fluoxetine and venlafaxine in rats. AUC calculations and cumulative diffused calculations are utilized for evaluation of physicochemical interactions in vitro. Rats administered 100 and 200 mg/kg of GK extract, and oral bioavailability of single doses of fluoxetine and venlafaxine were evaluated using HPLC method. The results showed that GK extract has no significant effects on the bioavailability of fluoxetine and venlafaxine. Fluoxetine and venlafaxine serum levels are not affected by 100 mg/kg GK extract, while 200 mg/kg significantly increases venlafaxine level, with no effect on that of fluoxetine. In conclusion, GK extract shows no physicochemical interactions with fluoxetine or venlafaxine. Long-term administration of a low dose of GK extract (100 mg/kg) had no significant effect on serum levels of fluoxetine and venlafaxine, while lager dose (200 g/kg) increases significantly only the serum level of venlafaxine, while that of fluoxetine was not affected.
      PubDate: 2015-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Methanolic Root Extract of Calotropis gigantea Induces Apoptosis in Human
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Altering Bax/Bcl-2 Expression

    • Authors: Vishnu Priya; Prateek Jain, B. Meenashi Vanathi, P. Vasanth Raj, B. Venkatesh Kamath, J. Venkata Rao, N. Udupa, N. Sivagurunathan
      Pages: 13 - 17
      Abstract: Calotropis gigantea, family apocynaceae, is a milkweed traditionally used in ayurveda for its anti-helminthic, anti-pyretic, and anti-malarial activities. It has also been studied widely for its anticancer potential. In the present study, the antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antitumor potential of its three root extracts viz. chloroform extract (CE), ethyl acetate extract (EE) and methanolic extract (ME) were investigate. Antiproliferative activity of the extracts was examined on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2 and human breast cancer cells, MCF-7. Maximum cytotoxicity was obtained with ME on HepG2 cells with IC50 value of 85 µg/mL. ME was further investigated at 85 µg/mL, for cell DNA damage using agarose gel electrophoresis and nuclear staining. RT-PCR analysis was done to study expression of bcl-2 family of genes viz., bax, bcl-2, and p53. Bax expression significantly (p < 0.05) increased following ME treatment, whereas bcl-2 expression was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered. Significant (p < 0.05) increase of p53 expression suggested damage to DNA of HepG2 cells. The study showed that methanolic root extract induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells by altering bax/bcl-2 expression. Further studies are required to obtain knowledge about the complete mechanism of its apoptosis inducing activity.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
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