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Journal Cover   American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
  [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2327-6711 - ISSN (Online) 2327-672X
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • The Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) in Immunological Mediated
           Diseases and Possible Mechanisms of Actions

    • Authors: Angel Alberto Justiz Vaillant; Sehlule Vuma, Wayne Mohammed
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a product prepared from fractionation of pools of thousands of plasma donations collected at blood transfusion services. IVIG has been used in the treatment of neurological disorders, primary and secondary immunodeficiency, skin disorders, autoimmune disorders, immunologic abortion, and as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory therapy. In this paper we listed a number of diseases for which the use of IVIG has been successful and the most mentioned mechanisms of actions of this immunotherapy. IVIG has different modes of actions involving interference with activation of complement components and the cytokine network; effects on regulatory T cells (Tregs) subset; expression of Fc receptors; modulation of idiotype network; and activation, proliferation and effector functions of B and T lymphocytes and of antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages. We concluded that IVIG has proven to be efficacious in the treatment of immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, infections and inflammatory disorders over the last three decades. To date IVIG has been used to treat more than 80 diseases. Although some of the mechanisms of actions of IVIG are obscure in nature, the fact that many patients improved with it when all other options of treatment were exhausted, make the use of IVIG an important alternative. On the other hand, treatment with IVIG is expensive. We are hopeful that in near future new horizons will be open for the acquisition and use of a cheaper IVIG to treat weak immune system or as immunosuppressive drug in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Pharmacoeconomics of Antimalarials in Private-for-Profit (PFP)
           Drug-Outlets in Gulu and Kitgum Towns, Northern Uganda

    • Authors: Mshilla Maghanga; Obai Gerald, Musoke David
      Pages: 38 - 43
      Abstract: Background: Clinically-diagnosed malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda accounting for 25 to 40% of outpatients, 15 to 20% of all hospital admissions, and 9 to 14% of all hospital deaths. This situation was exacerbated by The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) rebellion in northern Uganda which completely ran down the health care system. While malaria remains the number one killer disease in northern Uganda, antimalarials are lacking in the public health facilities. Consequently, Private-for-profit drug-outlets have come up to help bridge the gap. However, the cost-effectiveness and treatment outcome ratings of antimalarials are not clear. Objective: To assess the pharmacoeconomics of malaria treatment in Private-for-profit (PFP) drug-outlets in Gulu Municipality and Kitgum Town Council. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study sites were registered drug outlets. Study participants were drug-outlet owners, their employees, and malaria patients. We employed both purposive and random sampling methods to select the study participants. Data were collected using questionnaires and analysed using the SPSS computer package. Results : Up to 91.1% of the respondents indicated that antimalarials are expensive. The prices varied from less than 5,000 to over 20,000 Ugandan shillings per dose (Exchange rate: 1$ = Ush 2,650). Fansidar and chloroquine were rated as being relatively cheap and ACTs expensive (Ush 11,000 to 15,000). Duration of treatment, frequency of administration, needles and syringes, raised the cost of some medicines. Most patients preferred cheap medicines (76.2%); those with low administration frequencies (77.5%); and those with short treatment duration (95%). Most patients (80.9%) buy antimalarials without testing, while 66.6% do not buy full doses. Conclusion: The cost benefit analysis of the use of antimalarials is unfavourable. The unit price of the medicines, their irrational use and the lack of professionals in the outlets together add up to high overall costs and poor treatment outcomes.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Hepatoprotective Effects of Apricot against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute
           Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    • Authors: İsmet YILMAZ; Aslı ÇETİN, Yılmaz BİLGİÇ
      Pages: 44 - 48
      Abstract: This study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of sun-dried organic apricot (SDOA) supplementation to chow against acetaminophen(APAP)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. In this study, 24 female rats were randomized into four groups (n=6/groups). Blood and liver tissue samples were subjected to biochemical and histological examinations. SDOA consumption have strongly hepatoprotective effects againist APAP- induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. The SDOA supplementation over a 45-day feeding period showed a beneficial effect against APAP-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats, as reflects by histologycal and biochemical findings. Therefore, for humans in case of overdose APAP administration or chronic APAP treatments apricot consumption may be recommended.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Antioxidant Effects of Picrorhiza kurrooa Rhizome Extracts in Alcoholic
           Cirrhosis of Liver

    • Authors: Neelesh Deshpande; Raj kumar Das, Manohar muddeshwar, Vaishali Das, Sabitha Kandi, K V Ramana
      Pages: 49 - 51
      Abstract: Picrorhiza kurrooa is mentioned in Ayurveda for the treatment of many disorders, but it has not been subjected to systematic scientific investigations to assess its antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective properties in alcoholic cirrhosis of liver. The methanol extracts of P. kurrooa Rhizomes significantly reduced oxidative stress and elevated antioxidants which were measured spectrophotometrically. The results of the study revealed that there was significant reduction in the activities of liver enzymes among the liver cirrhosis patients after the treatment with the P Kurrooa plant extract. The post-treatment results also showed significant correlation in the activities of malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the liver of alcoholic patients.
      PubDate: 2015-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
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