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Journal Cover American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
  [18 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-4056 - ISSN (Online) 2328-4064
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Thrombocytopenia in Patients with Dengue Virus Infection and Correlation
           between Circulating Soluble MICB Protein Level and Platelet Counts

    • Authors: Le Van Tuan; Phan Thi Tuyet Nga, Trinh Thi Hong Hanh, Nguyen Thi Thu Tram, Pham Tho Duoc
      Pages: 74 - 79
      Abstract: Background: Soluble MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (sMICB) has been associated with the development of severity of dengue fever. However, serum sMICB level and relationship with platelets in patients with dengue virus (DENV) infection remain unclear. The aims of this study are to identify soluble MICB serum level and the correlation with platelets counts in patients with dengue virus infection. Methods: A total of 88 patients were confirmed with an acute phase of DENV infection (1–7 days after the onset of illness) based on the result a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or anti-dengue IgM antibodies were used. Serum soluble MICB level was measured by MICB ELISA. Results: Serum soluble MICB (sMICB) levels in dengue virus infected patients were observed a median of 146.3 pg/ml. Serum sMICB was significantly higher in dengue patients with warning signs and severe compared to patients without warning signs. However, no significant difference of sMICB between age groups of dengue patients; and between primary and secondary infection were observed (P> 0.05). The significantly negative correlation between serum sMICB levels and platelet counts was found (Spearman’s rho = -0.34, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Serum sMICB levels might be considered as a potential prognostic biomarker for dengue patients.
      PubDate: 2017-4-10
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Detection of Nocardia from Chronic Skin and Lung Infections in Bangladeshi
           Patients

    • Authors: Afzalunnessa Binte Lutfor; Ritu Saha, Arpita Deb, Asif Mujtaba Mahmud, Abu Ahmed Ashraf Ali, Tasmin Haque, Sadia Rahman, Nadia Sharmin Shorno, Amina Arafat
      Pages: 80 - 86
      Abstract: Nocardiosis is an acute or chronic infectious disease that may occur in cutaneous, pulmonary and disseminated form in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent host. It may become potentially severe due to delayed diagnosis and incomplete or ineffective treatment. So the aim of the study was to isolate Nocardia spp. from suspected samples, mainly from chronic unhealed wounds and to identify appropriate antimicrobials by susceptibility testing in Bangladeshi patients. Methods: From January 2015-2017, 62 samples were collected which were studied for Nocardial identification and susceptibility testing. Results: Out of total 62 cases, 18 (29.03%) cases were Nocardia positive cases. Besides 6 Acinetobacter spp. and 2 Actinomyces spp. with other varied pathogens were isolated. Among 18 identified nocardiosis patients, majority (10) were post surgery cases, 6 suspected skin and glandular tuberculosis (TB) cases, one had breast sinus, and one was suspected pulmonary TB case. In terms of susceptibility of nocardial isolates, 100% were susceptible to linezolid, 88.9% to amikacin and 78% to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.
      PubDate: 2017-5-10
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Emergence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Anaerobic Bacteria

    • Authors: B. G. Viswanath; G. Jyothi Lakshmi, K. Nagamani, N. V. N. Reddy, G. Prakash Rao, S. S. S. Srinivas, Abhijeet M. Dashetwar, Manjula
      Pages: 87 - 93
      Abstract: Polymicrobial infections are predominated by anaerobes accompanied by facultative anaerobes and aerobes. Failure in providing appropriate antibiotic coverage for anaerobes in mixed aerobic, anaerobic infections and increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents among anaerobic bacteria lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic resistance among clinically important obligate anaerobic bacteria is going unnoticed because of inadequate isolation, identification, and susceptibility testing. The increasing resistance among several species emphasizes the need to survey the susceptibility patterns of anaerobic organisms. The aims of this study were, firstly, to determine the most common anaerobic bacteria originating from several abscesses and, secondly, to analyze their susceptibility patterns. This prospective study included 50 samples, either pus aspirates or tissue sections from patients with deep visceral abscesses, attending surgical and medical departments over a period of one year. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done, and all isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. A total of 33 samples showed the presence of obligate anaerobes with a rate of isolation of 66%.The obligate anaerobes isolated were Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Bifidobacterium species. Bacteroides showed resistance to penicillin G (76.9%), ciprofloxacin (61.5%), erythromycin (61.5%), metronidazole (46.1%), amoxicillin & clavulanic acid (46.1%) and clindamycin (38.4%). Prevotella showed resistance to penicillin G (69.2%), erythromycin (30.7%), metronidazole (15.3%) and clindamycin (7.6%). Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus, and Bifidobacterium showed susceptibility to all the drugs tested. Fusobacterium showed resistance to penicillin G (63.6%), metronidazole (54.5%), ciprofloxacin (36.3%) and erythromycin (27.2%). Peptococcus showed resistance only to ciprofloxacin (33.3%). As the anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in critical infections, all the preliminary laboratory measures are to be taken for their isolation such as proper sample collection, using appropriate media for their growth, and system for anaerobiosis. Their sensitivity pattern has to be studied as there are several reports of the emergence of resistance to various antibiotics. This antibiogram pattern helps the clinician to treat these infections with appropriate & effective therapy resulting in excellent clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-5-16
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Control of Monkeypox Disease: A comprehensive
           Review

    • Authors: Mahendra Pal; Fisseha Mengstie, Venkataramana Kandi
      Pages: 94 - 99
      Abstract: Human monkeypox is an emerging viral zoonotic disease, which is caused by monkey pox virus. The disease occurs mostly in the rain forests of central and western Africa. People living in or near the forested areas may have indirect or low-level exposure, possibly leading to subclinical infection. However, the disease recently emerged in the United States in imported wild rodents from Africa. Monkeypox has a clinical presentation like ordinary forms of smallpox, including flulike symptoms, fever, malaise, back pain, headache, and characteristic rash. In view of the eradication of smallpox, such symptoms in a monkepox endemic region should be carefully diagnosed. Primarily, monkey pox transmission to humans is believed to occur through direct contact with infected animals or possibly by ingestion of inadequately cooked flesh. Infection by inoculation through contact with cutaneous or mucosal lesions on the animal, especially when the skin barrier is compromised secondary to bites, scratches, or other trauma is a possibility. Laboratory diagnosis is imperative because it is clinically indistinguishable from other pox-like illnesses. There are no licensed therapies to treat human monkey pox viral infection; however, the smallpox vaccine can protect against the disease. The discontinuation of general vaccination in the 1980s has given rise to increasing susceptibility to monkey pox virus infection in the human population. This has led to fears that monkey pox virus could be used as a bioterrorism agent. Effective prevention relies on limiting the contact with infected patients or animals and limiting the respiratory exposure to infected patients.
      PubDate: 2017-5-22
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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