Journal Cover American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-4056 - ISSN (Online) 2328-4064
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Changes in Five Years among Pathogens in Wound Infection and Their
           Susceptibility to Antimicrobials

    • Authors: Afzalunnessa Binte Lutfor; Ritu Saha, Mursheda Akter, Arpita Deb, Asif Mujtaba Mahmud, Sadia Armin Khan
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Background: Proper knowledge about the epidemiology and changing sensitivity pattern of drug in bacterial wound infection is very important in ensuring optimum management of the wound and formulating policies in infection control. Objectives of our study was to disseminate the etiology of bacterial wound infection in two time frames (in 2016 or group A and in 2011 or group B), to provide their susceptibility pattern and to highlight the changes of susceptibility pattern in order to update information regarding antimicrobial resistance and it’s implication in wound management. Method: Bacteria isolated from wound swab, aspirates and pus samples received in year 2016 and 2011 were included in the study. Isolates were identified by conventional tests and antibiotic sensitivity was determined by disc diffusion method according to CLSI guideline. Results: Gram positive cocci are still the predominating organism in wound infection. Both Staph. aureus as well as CoNS (coagulase negative staphylococci) lead the list as pathogens of wound infection. Among Gram negative bacteria, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp, were more common than Pseudomonas spp. in our study. Notable raise in ampicillin sensitivity is observed after 5 years among Staphylococci species. Cotrimoxazole is regaining its importance as all the isolates from wound infection have a increasing trend towards susceptibility to it in 5 years. Doxycycline also has raised activity more than 61 % on Gram positive cocci in group A or 2016. Vancomycin, linezolid for Gram positive bacteria and amikacin, meropenem, pipercillin tazobactam, and colistin for Gram negative bacteria are still useful but showing reduced sensitivity after 5 years. Amoxyclav is not very useful as a prophylactic antibiotic as only 40% pathogens were susceptible. Resistance to quinolones, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides are increasing in both Gram positive and negative bacteria with few exceptions.
      PubDate: 2018-1-15
      DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-6-1-1
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Transfusion Transmissible Viral Infections Risk at Two Teaching Hospitals
           Blood Banks in Nigeria

    • Authors: Osuji A, Agbakoba N. R; Ifeanyichukwu M. O.
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Background/ Objectives: Transfusion Transmissible viral infections such as HIV, HBV and HCV are infectious agents that can pose a threat to blood safety. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and coinfection of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among blood donors tested negative to these viruses by rapid test devices. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twelve (212) healthy blood donors (108 and 104 from UATH and NAUTH respectively) certified fit for blood donation were recruited for this study. One hundred and nine eighty (198) samples that were seronegative for HBsAg, HIV, HCV and Syphilis by rapid test were examined for the presence of HBsAg, Anti-HCV and HIV (Ab + Ag) using 4TH generation ELISA. Qualitative conventional PCR was used to confirm ELISA positive sera for HBV DNA, HIV RNA and HCV RNA. Results: Out of 198 blood donor samples negative for HBV, HCV and HIV by rapid test, 13.7%, 13.7% and 8.1% were positive by ELISA for HBV, HIV and HCV respectively. Twelve samples (6.1%) have coinfection of TTIs. One (1) sample out of the 12 samples is co-infected with these three viral (HBV, HCV and HIV) agents. Of the 28 samples positive for HBV by ELISA, 20 (71.4%) were positive for HBV DNA, 8 (36.4%) of 22 positive samples by HIV ELISA were positive for HIV RNA and 4 (28.6%) of 14 samples were positive for HCV RNA (p=0.0001). Conclusion and Recommendations: There is a high prevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infections among blood donors at our study population. This study therefore recommends blood donors in these Hospitals in particular and Nigeria in general be screened for HIV, HCV and HBsAg using ELISA 4th generation test kits and Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT).
      PubDate: 2018-3-2
      DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-6-1-2
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors at Two Teaching
           Hospitals in Nigeria: Implications for Blood Transfusion

    • Authors: Osuji A, Agbakoba N. R; Ifeanyichukwu M. O, Tatfeng M
      Pages: 16 - 25
      Abstract: Background/Objectives: Occult Hepatitis B virus infection (OBI), characterized by presence of HBV DNA in the absence of HBsAg in individuals has become a challenge to blood safety. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rate, HBV serologic markers, viral load and genotypes of occult Hepatitis B Virus infection among blood donors attending Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital and University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Abuja, Nigeria. Materials/Methods: Sera from 212 healthy blood donors (108 and 104 from UATH and NAUTH respectively) were retested for HBsAg, HIV, Syphilis antibodies and anti-HCV using 4th generation Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). One hundred samples (50 samples from each study site) that were seronegative were examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Viral load was determined on some positive samples by Real Time PCR. Gene sequencing was done to determine HBV genotypes. HBV serological markers prevalence and pattern was determined using ELISA format and HBV 5 Panel assay. Results: Of the 100 seronegative (HBV, HCV, HIV and Syphilis) samples, 14 (14%) were confirmed as OBI. Of the 14 OBI samples, 12 (85.7%) were seropositive for HBV serologic markers and among these, 7 (58.3%) were positive for anti-HBs, 3 (25%) positive for anti-HBc, and 2 (16.7%) positive for both HBsAb and HBcAb (P
      PubDate: 2018-3-13
      DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-6-1-3
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Validity of Cefoxitin Disc Diffusion Test for the Detection of
           Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    • Authors: Hafiza Sultana; Jogendra Nath Sarker, Md. Abdullah Yusuf, Md. Tofael Hossain Bhuiyan, Md. Mostaqimur Rahman, Shirin Tarafder
      Pages: 26 - 29
      Abstract: Definite detection of MRSA is important for proper treatment. The purpose of the present study was to measure the validity of cefoxitin disc diffusion test for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka from January 2010 to December 2010 for a period of one (01) year. S. aureus isolates were collected from different clinical samples including wound swab, pus, blood, urine, tracheal aspirate, throat swab, aural swab etc. Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) were isolated and confirmed by staining, biochemical tests. Routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed cefoxitin discs diffusion test. PCR was performed for detection of the mecA gene for MRSA. Out of the 22 suspected MRSA isolates 19 were mecA positive by PCR and all of them 19(100.0%) were resistant to cefoxitin disc diffusion. The comparison of oxacillin and cefoxitin resistance and presence of mecA gene by PCR showed that out of 22 suspected MRSA isolates 19 were mecA positive by PCR and all the 19 (100.0%) showed resistance to cefoxitin disc diffusion. The sensitivity and specificity of cefoxitin disc diffusion were 100.0% and 100.0% respectively. Cefoxitin disc diffusion test has high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MRSA.
      PubDate: 2018-3-19
      DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-6-1-4
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Gastrointestinal Microbial Flora in Wild and Captive Olive Baboons (Papio

    • Authors: Senelwa Davis Lugano; Kimang’a Andrew Nyerere, Waititu Kenneth Kariuki, Kariuki Samuel, Kamau Joseph, Obiero Jael Apondi
      Pages: 30 - 37
      Abstract: Background: Vertebrate gut microbiota plays essential roles in host biology, including immune regulation, energy acquisition, vitamin synthesis and disease risk. There are however several other pathogenic microorganisms found in the gut and are transmissible by fecal oral route. About 60% of all human diseases and approximately 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic. Due to an observed increase in conflicts and interactions between human and nonhuman primates, both are at risk of pathogen transfer and infection. Methods: This study was conducted on 50 captive baboons and 67 wild baboons. Stool samples were collected and cultured and species identification of each isolate was done by the use of Analytical Profile Indexing tool. Results: Species of Gram-positive cocci, Gram-positive and Gram-negative rods were identified, with more isolates being obtained from wild than captive baboon fecal samples. Unlike the Gram-negative rods, the captive baboons harbored more Gram-positive cocci and Gram-positive rods than the wild baboons. Escherichia coli was the most dominant isolate and was collected in more than 50% of the samples from both groups of animals. Of the Gram-positive cocci and Gram-positive rods, Aerococcus viridans, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus firmus were found to be the most common isolates in both groups of animals. Conclusion: Though the wild and captive baboons harbor different gastrointestinal bacteria, similarities do occur. The wild baboons have a richer microbial diversity as compared to the captive baboons.
      PubDate: 2018-3-23
      DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-6-1-5
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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