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Journal Cover American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
  [14 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-4056 - ISSN (Online) 2328-4064
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Malaria Screening among Blood Donors in Non Endemic Malarial Regions: Role
           of Donor History Questionnaires and Rapid Malaria Diagnostic Test

    • Authors: Doaa Abdelbadie Salem; Azza A Baiomy
      Pages: 28 - 31
      Abstract: Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases responsible for some cases of transfusion transmitted disease in the world. Malaria screening test of blood donor may increase the safety of blood donations. In response to the information about a Plasmodium vivax malaria outbreak in the Aswan Governorate in Egypt 2014 and in the absence of a licensed test for donor screening, our aim was to assess the value of malaria donor history questionnaires and rapid malaria diagnostic test in malaria screening among blood donors to increase the safety of blood donation. Out of two hundred and fifty two healthy blood donors attend the Mansoura University blood bank unit for blood donation, between July to August, 2015, twelve donors were deferred, one from a malaria endemic area and one with a history of travel to a malaria endemic area, the rest was deferred for other reasons. All donors were checked for weight, pulse rate, blood pressure, temperature, hemoglobin levels and malaria donor history questionnaires. Screening for malaria was done by Microscopic Examination of Thick Blood Films stained with diluted Giemsa stain and by using the individual rapid malaria test OptiMAL-IT (BIO-RAD, France) for all blood donor samples. No positive samples of blood donor volunteers were detected neither by microscopic examination, nor by rapid malaria test OptiMAL-IT. Our study support that, in a non endemic malaria region, donor deferral by malaria donor history questionnaires and screening of blood donors for malaria by using thick blood films or by rapid malaria test OptiMAL-IT is enough for safe blood donation, but clear guidelines are mandatory.
      PubDate: 2016-3-23
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Advantages of Alternate Biomarkers in the Management of Human
           Immunodeficiency Virus with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    • Authors: Venkataramana Kandi; Adnan Bashir Bhatti
      Pages: 32 - 34
      Abstract: The disease burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is substantially more prevalent among residents of the sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The availability and affordability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have significantly reduced the mortality among HIV-1 infected population, increase their life expectancy and quality of life. However, the poor financial conditions and lack of costly infrastructure in the developing countries hinder regular monitoring of HIV-1 RNA (viral load) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count (TCD4+ cell count). Under these circumstances, there is an increasing need for alternate biomarkers for monitoring the progression of the disease and patient management. Albumin, hemoglobin (Hb), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), red blood cell (RBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), plasma highly-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hematocrit (Hct), total lymphocyte count (TLC) are some of the alternate biomarkers with proven utility in the assessment of disease progression.
      PubDate: 2016-3-25
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Infants Under 90
           Days Attending Pediatric Emergency Department

    • Authors: Najwa Al-Mously; Amani Azizalrahman, Turki M. Al Harbi, Saleh A. Altamimi
      Pages: 35 - 40
      Abstract: Fever is one of the most common presenting complaints in paediatric emergency departments (ED). Acute viral respiratory infection is the most common findings. The aim of this study is to define types of respiratory viruses among febrile infants under 90 days attending to emergency department. Methods: In addition to sepsis workup, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 265 febrile infants without an apparent source of infection. A multiplex PCR assay was used to detect 15 human viral species and subtypes. Results: Overall, 154/265 (58.1%) NPA specimens from febrile infants were positive for at least one human virus. Viral types detected were as follows: (60/265,22.6%) rhinovirus, (50/265,18.9%) respiratory syncytial virus, (28/265,10.6%) parainfluenza virus, (11/265,4.2%) influenza virus, (12/265,4.5%) coronavirus, (10/265,3.8%) metapneumo, (8/265,3%) adenovirus, (2/265,0.75%) enterovirus, and (2/265,0.75%) bocavirus. Co-detection of two viruses or more was also observed. Positive bacterial cultures were reported in 16.5%, 3.5%, and 2.8% of urine, blood and CSF samples respectively. Conclusion: Viral infections are frequent in febrile infants without an apparent source. Testing NPA for molecular identification of viruses in addition to the routine sepsis workup may help more accurate management of febrile infants. This could also limit the unnecessary use of antibiotics, and nosocomial spread of viruses, however, this needs to be further investigated.
      PubDate: 2016-3-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
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