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Journal Cover   American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
  [16 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-4056 - ISSN (Online) 2328-4064
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Prevalence of Malaria in Patients Attending the General Hospital Makarfi,
           Makarfi Kaduna – State, North-Western Nigeria

    • Authors: Millicent Ladi Umaru; Gabriel Noblefather Uyaiabasi
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Nigeria is a high endemic country for malaria. Its large population, diverse weather conditions and cultures make it a bit difficult implementing the same malaria control measures throughout the country. Prevalence studies are therefore essential for better understanding and implementation of intervention programs. This study determined some malariometric parameters such as malaria prevalence, transmission based on age and gender, parasite density, fever and anaemia in patients attending General Hospital Makarfi, during the malaria transmission season. All participants were screened microscopically for malaria and classified into 3 groups: under 5 years, 5 – 15 years and above 15. A total of 1173 participants were screened out of which 419 (35.7%) were positive. The geometric mean parasite density was 15,108 parasite/µL of blood. Children aged 5 – 15 years had a statistically significant higher infection rate compared to the other groups. Males were more prone to malaria than females. Presence of parasitaemia, fever or anaemia did not correlate with the presence of malaria. Some of the positive patients had high parasite densities and yet asymptomatic. More malariometric surveys are needed in Nigeria in order to adopt control efforts that best suit rural areas and smaller communities especially during peak malaria transmission season.
      PubDate: 2015-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Detection and Molecular Characterization of Respiratory Syncytial Virus
           (RSV) in Children with Respiratory Signs in Khartoum State, Sudan

    • Authors: Sahar O Khalil; Khalid A Enan, Ali. Y. H, Bashir Salim, Isam M Elkhidir
      Pages: 6 - 13
      Abstract: Background : The present study was to investigate the incidence of the respiratory syncytial virus infection in children and to characterize the RSV circulating in Khartoum state during 2011-12 winter seasons. Methodology: Throat swab specimens collected from 224 children less than 5 years old, with respiratory tract infections admitted at Khartoum Hospitals in winter season (2011- 2012), were screened for RSV using direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-). Isolation in cell culture followed by nucleotide sequencing and bioinformatics analysis based on the G gene, were done for the RT- positive RSV samples. Results: Out of 224 patients, RSV infections were detected in 136 (60.7%) patients, by using DFA technique, and 44 (19.6%) patients using RT-PCR. 22 strains of RSV were isolated in Hep-2 cell line. The clinical symptoms including Bronchiolitis, Pneumonia, Asthma and Allergy showed significantly different rates (p
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Detection of Transovarial Dengue Virus with RT-PCR in Aedes albopictus
           (Skuse) Larvae Inhabiting Phytotelmata in Endemic DHF Areas in West
           Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Authors: Emantis Rosa; Dahelmi, Siti Salmah, Syamsuardi
      Pages: 14 - 17
      Abstract: Transovarial dengue virus detection by RT-PCR in Ae.albopictus larvae that inhabit Phytotelmata has been conducted in several dengue endemic areas in West Sumatra. The purpose of this study was to determine whether larval Ae. albopictus inhabiting Phytotelmata is a potential transmitter of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). The results concluded that Ae.albopictus larvae which inhabited Phytotelmata positively contained two serotypes of dengue virus (DEN-1) and (DEN-4) which has the potential to transmit and spread DHF.
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Tuberculosis is a Fatal Disease among Some Developing Countries of the

    • Authors: Haradhan Kumar Mohajan
      Pages: 18 - 31
      Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious fatal disease mainly among the developing countries. It is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis and spreads through the air and infects the lungs and other organs and parts of the persons who come in contact to the infected persons. It remains a major global health problem and about 2 billion people are thought to be infected with TB and about 1.3 million died each year from the disease. In the 95% of all cases, 99% of death occurs in developing countries, with the greatest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. India alone accounts for an estimated one-quarter (26%) of all TB cases worldwide and only China and India combine accounting for 38%. To prevent TB, the WHO recommends that infants receive a BCG vaccine where TB is a common disease. At present each year globally about 100 million children receive BCG vaccine. Drug resistant TB is a rising global problem which is more difficult and expensive to treat and cure or sometimes it is impossible to treat successfully. It can occur when healthcare providers prescribe the wrong treatment, the wrong dose, or wrong length of time for taking the drugs or irregular and incomplete medicines are used by the patients.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Epidemiologicl and Genetic Studies of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus
           aureus Isolated from Goat and Human

    • Authors: Nashwa O. Khalifa; Fatma I. Elhofy, Hanan A. Fahmy, A. M. A. Barakat
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the epidemiological and genetic relationships of classical enterotoxins of S. aureus in goat’s raw milk, meat and food handlers in Toukh city in Qaluobia governorate, Egypt. A total of 100 goat, s raw milk and meat samples (50 of each) were collected from randomly distributed herds in streets for buying milk and in public markets for peddler meat. Hand and nasal swabs were collected from milkers and butchers (30 of ech). All samples were subjected for bacteriological examination for isolation and identification of S. aureus. Isolates were underwent reversed passive latex agglutination technique for detection of enterotoxigenic S. aureus. A multiplex PCR assay could successfully amplify the diagnostic DNA bands of 270bp, 165bp, 69bp and 306bp of genes for staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C, and D respectively. PCR was applied on the serologically identified 16 (20.25%) isolates out of 79 S. aureus which isolated from the examined goat’s food samples and human handlers by using one universal forward and reverse primers, specific for each individual toxin gene. None of the samples was positive for SEE indicating the zoonotic and genetic relationships.
      PubDate: 2015-02-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Epidemiology, Disease Transmission and Pathogenesis Caused by JE Virus:
           Its Prevention and Control

    • Authors: Ravi Kant Upadhyay
      Pages: 38 - 64
      Abstract: In the present review article epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis, disease incidences and its control measures have been described in detail. Among important reasons of JE outbreak are registered demographic clustering, ecological imbalance, and insecticide resistance in target mosquito species, poor economy, lack of socio cultural environment and timely therapeutics. Other complex reasons are negative anthropogenic activities like mixed agro-pig farming practices, paddy farming and sanitation. Water contamination led to the spillovers of the virus from its wildlife reservoir into pig population as well as other vertebrate hosts. This article also explains emergence of new mutant variants/ new genotypes /ecological strains of JE virus and its spread in endemic to non-endemic areas. Due to re-circulation of virus among various hosts and insect vectors, disease is causing vey high mortality and morbidity in rural and sub-urban endemic areas. In addition, presence of revertants in overlapping generations of virus joins and re-organizes distanced epidemiology in the area. It has led to induction of high sero-conversion rate in patients. Present review aims to explain all the reasons of JE epidemics, and justify need of proper surveillance, rapid diagnosis, long term safer immunization, vector control and socio-clinical management of JE infection. This article emphasized an urgent need of potential immunization, implementation of planning to improve economic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions. It also strongly indicates need of regular surveillance and immunization of JE affected population to maintain high therapeutic standards to control JE epidemics.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
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