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Journal Cover   American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
  [16 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-4056 - ISSN (Online) 2328-4064
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Titer IgG anti-flagellum Antibody and Flagellin Gene Variants of
           Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi as Risk Factor for Typhoid Fever

    • Authors: Ressy Dwiyanti; Yadi Yasir, Muhammad Sabir, Rosdiana Natzir, Sutji Pratiwi Rahardjo, Nur Indah Purnamasari, Juhri Saning, Mochammad Hatta
      Pages: 65 - 69
      Abstract: Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human-specific pathogen that causes typhoid fever. Typhoid fever remains a global health problem especially in developing countries. Pathogenesis of typhoid fever is complex and host response is poorly understood.There is an urgent need for adequate and efficient detection methods for the establishment of carrierstate of typhoid fever as a source of transmission. We compared IgG anti-flagellar antibody and fagellin gene variants of S. Typhi to explore risks factor of typhoid fever carriers. Method: Serum and fecal swab samples obtained from 379 suspected for typhoid carrier. Typhoid carriers were identified when home visits of patients who have recovered from typhoid fever at least 1 year.In-house indirect sandwich ELISA were established to detect anti-flagellum IgG.DNA Samples obtained directly from fecal swab were confirmed to be serovar Typhi by nested PCR. All specimens were examined for their Hd, Hj, z66 and z66 Ind flagellin genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: A total of 379 suspected patients, where examined by nested PCR to detect specific flagellin gene for S. typhi, and found 21 (5.28%) samples were positive. Serum samples from all suspected typhoid carrier were examined by ELISA to detect titer of anti-flagellum IgG. Of 21 typhoid carrier patients, there were 2 (9.5%) patients had Hd+ variant; one (4.8%) patient had Hj+ variant; 6 (28.6%) patients had Hd+Z66+ variant; one (4.8%) patient had Hj+ Z66+ variant and 11 (52.3%) patients had Hd+Z66IND+ variant. There were 34 patients positive for anti-flagellum IgG antibody after examine by ELISA. Among PCR positive patients there were 14 patients had high titer and 7 patients had low titer of anti-flagellum IgG antibody. Within PCR negative we found 13 patients with low titer of anti-flagellum IgG. Conclusions: We conclude that patient harboring Hd+Z66IND+ gene of S. Typhi and High titer of IgG antibody anti-flagellum S. Typhi considered to be risk factor for typhoid carriers development.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Comparison of Latex Agglutination with Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of
           Rotavirus in Children with Acute Diarrhea in Diyala Province, Iraq

    • Authors: Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan; Dawood S. Hameed, Asmaa H. Hwaid
      Pages: 70 - 73
      Abstract: Rotavirus (RV) is the most important etiological agent of diarrhea in children under 5 years old, mainly in developing countries. The laboratory diagnosis is usually based on detection of viral antigen using enzyme immunoassay or direct latex agglutination techniques. Objectives: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of enzyme immunoassay versus direct agglutination test for the detection of rotavirus in stool of children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Diyala province. Patients and methods: The present study was conducted during the period from 1/August/2012 to 30/November/2013. 120 patients with acute diarrhea were included. The patients attended Al-Batool Maternity and children Teaching Hospital and other Primary Health Care Centers in Baquba, the center of Diyala province. Seventy (58.3%) patients were males and 50 (41.7%) were females. The age range was 2 months to 5 years. Information regarding age, sex, residence, type of feeding and source of drinking water were collected. Detection of RV in stool specimens using direct agglutination test (Diaspot-USA) was performed as soon as possible after collection. The enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was carried out using the commercially available kit (DRG-Germany). Data were statistically analyzed and P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results showed that the detection rate of RV in stool specimens by DAT and ELISA were 70% and 93.3% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of DAT was 75.56%, 66.67%, 97.22%, and 15.39% respectively, and for ELISA was 91.3%, 66.67%, 97.67%, and 33.33% respectively. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed that the age group 10-15 months was significantly affected (P= 0.046). Conclusion: Rotavirus antigen detection by EIA is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method, and could be used in large scale application for screening stool samples of patients with acute diarrhea.
      PubDate: 2015-03-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Plasmodium Vivax Malaria with Severe Thrombocytopenia and Varied Skin
           Manifestations: A Case Report

    • Authors: Tony Ete; Akash Roy, Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya, Preeti Jane Picardo, Md Jamil, Ibandalin M Shangpliang, Hage Nobin
      Pages: 74 - 76
      Abstract: Plasmodium vivax malaria is an endemic infection in India and is commonly associated with mild haematological abnormalities. Severe thrombocytopenia as well as purpuric skin manifestation are common in isolated falciparum and mixed falciparum/vivax malaria, but is very rare in isolated P.vivax infection. We hereby report a case of severe thrombocytopenia in a case of vivax malaria along with skin lesions presenting as purpura, ecchymosis and urticaria. Vivax malaria can no longer be considered as benign and atypical presentations with severe complications should be borne in the minds of physicians especially in a malaria endemic country like India.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Effects of Anthropogenic Events and Viral Persistence on Rodent Reservoirs
           of Hantavirus Infection: Understanding Host-Pathogen Interactions
           Facilitates Novel Approaches to Intervention Strategies

    • Authors: Abdullah Mahmud-Al-Rafat; Mahbub -E-Sobhani, Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: Hantaviruses are primarily rodent-borne pathogens which have received considerable attention recently due to their high mortality rates in humans. In order to find the causes of rapid transmission and emergence of hantavirus-associated diseases anthropogenic changes are a priority. These include deforestation, urbanization, noise pollution, light pollution and electromagnetic fields, all of which have been shown to profoundly affect rodent physiology and immunology. Moreover, anthropogenic events promote human-rodent co-habitation and thereby provide a driver to increase rates of transmission and, by extrapolation, levels of infection in humans. Such environmental disruption acts as a chronic stressor to rodents and causes elevated concentrations of glucocorticoids, which are a major class of immunosuppressive hormone. Glucocorticoids are responsible for altering the immune tolerance of rodents, thereby rendering them susceptible to infection. Glucocorticoids induce regulatory T lymphocytes to reduce inflammatory and antiviral responses and to activate regulatory responses, principally through production of the cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β to support viral persistence. In order to develop a low-cost intervention strategy for hantavirus infection consideration should be given to a systemic approach to therapy. This would both aim to achieve a reduction of anthropogenic stressors and to gain a greater understanding of host-pathogen interactions.
      PubDate: 2015-04-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
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