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Journal Cover Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
  [SJR: 0.321]   [H-I: 3]   [25 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2050-8824
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [312 journals]
  • Editorial
    • First page: 173
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2016.

      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T11:15:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-09-2016-0017
       
  • Exorcising restraint: reducing the use of restrictive interventions in a
           secure learning disability service.
    • First page: 176
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2016.
      Purpose This paper describes the nature and impact of a restraint reduction strategy implemented within a secure learning disability service in response to the national Positive and Safe programme. Design/methodology/approach The strategy was comprised of three primary interventions - Safewards, Positive Behavioural Support, and data-informed practice - and utilised a programme management approach to ensure effective delivery. Baseline measures were collected from 12 months of data prior to implementation of the programme, and the frequency of each category of restrictive intervention was then measured prospectively on a monthly basis throughout the duration of the programme. Findings Upon completion of the programme the following results were achieved: - Elimination of prone restraint - Elimination of mechanical restraint - 42% reduction in general use of restraint - 42% reduction in use of seclusion - 52% reduction in rapid tranquilisation Originality/value The paper adds to the growing body of evidence that carefully designed interventions can reduce the frequency of seclusion and restraint. In this case, Safewards and PBS have combined to exert their effect. Data-led practice and senior leadership were also found to be of critical importance. Finally, the need for a stable workforce is considered.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T11:15:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-06-2016-0007
       
  • Resolve: a community based forensic learning disability service
           specialising in supporting male sex offenders – our model, approach and
           evidence base for effective intervention
    • First page: 186
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2016.
      Purpose This Paper is an invitation to examine a model of effective forensic practice with positive interventions for men with learning disabilities who have committed serious sexual offences. It outlines the theoretical and philosophical frameworks which have informed the model of care and support in a community based setting and the evidence base for the efficacy of the approach. Design/methodology/approach This approach to a community based forensic learning disability service is informed by systemic practice and underpinned by models of human occupation (Keilhofner: 2008) which informs occupational therapy and Total Attachment (Harbottle et al: 2014) This is a whole systems model for developing compassionate and participatory practice based on attachment theory and approaches to professional parenting drawn from foster care settings and prevention frameworks for adult safeguarding. It uses Klinean Thinking Environments (1999) to give practical communication to th model Findings The attachment model which underpins both the support for staff and the framework for scaffolding the care and support provided for service users is building calm, consistent and respectful relationships. This enables workers and service users to feel accepted through the availability of support; to feel a sense of belonging and inclusion in which skills and confidence can flourish helping all to feel more effective. This is evidenced by the stability of the service user group and the staff team Research limitations/implications The model of whole systems care and support care outlined in this paper can help to provide a therapeutic environment in which men who have committed sexual offences can develop effective skills within a safe, supportive and effectively managed setting. This is on-going research but there is evidence of service users and staff in this model of practice, feeling scaffolded and able to enjoy and achieve progress and personal development Practical implications This model appears to promote stable, sustained, supportive relationships. Placement breakdown has been minimal indicating that the disruption rate is low and therefore therapeutic interventions are likely to take place and be effective. This is a hopeful and positive approach which enables individuals to flourish in a safe environment Originality/value This paper examines the application of theoretical frameworks drawn from other disciplines and fuses them into a therapeutic approach to support this service user group. It is a model that can have great portability to other settings but it is its application in forensic services that is new and which is growing its evidence base for its effectiveness.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T11:15:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-10-2014-0014
       
  • Perceptions of FASD by United States district attorneys
    • First page: 195
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2016.
      Purpose The majority of individuals diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) will become involved with the criminal justice system during their lifetime. Due to the signs and symptoms of their illness, the psycholegal impairments presented by such alleged offenders pose unique challenges for the attorneys tasked with prosecuting their crimes. This said, little is known about the training and courtroom background of District Attorneys with this population. Design/methodology/approach A Web-based survey was developed to investigate the knowledge bases and legal experiences of United States District Attorneys concerning FASD, and to compare these across sexes, legal experience levels, as well as geographical regions. The survey was distributed electronically to all United States District Attorneys following the Dillman Total Design Method. Surveys were completed by 216 respondents (nMen = 166; nWomen = 50; nNortheast = 32; nSouth = 102; nMidwest = 36; nWest = 46) with an average of 25.03 years (SD = 10.71) of legal experience. Findings Participants displayed variable levels of knowledge concerning the signs and symptoms of FASD and underestimated how often persons with FASD become involved in the criminal justice system. The majority of participants had never received training on the psycholegal impairments of individuals diagnosed with FASD and reported that they would benefit from a Continuing Legal Education course on the subject. Participants also reported that they would benefit from seeing the findings of an FASD screening tool in daily practice. Originality/value First survey of legal professionals’ perceptions of FASD.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T11:15:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-04-2016-0005
       
  • The Short Dynamic Risk Scale (SDRS) vs. START: does either have a
           relationship with recordings of risk?
    • First page: 202
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2016.
      Purpose The current pilot study provides wider research evidence for the use of the SDRS in risk management with individuals who have an ID and reside in a secure psychiatric inpatient setting. The outcomes are supportive of previous research, showing that outcomes on the SDRS are related to maladaptive behaviours recorded for individual with ID. Design/methodology/approach All participant data taken from the hospital healthcare reporting system was entered into a PASW database. The ratings for each of the SDRS and START items were entered and totalled, with a separate total score for the SDRS with the additional three items. In order to capture the behavioural monitoring data, average severities weightings of each of the OAS-MNR categories for the three weeks following completion of the individual’s SDRS were calculated and recorded. In addition, average severity weightings reflecting the presence of sexualised behaviour (SASBA) in the subsequent three weeks following SDRS completion was included. Using the most recent START assessment completed allowed for analysis of the predictive ability of the START of the same behavioural data. Findings A series of Spearman’s correlations were run to determine the relationship between outcomes on the SDRS and engagement in risk behaviours as rated by the OAS-MNR scales. There was a moderate positive correlation between all 11-items of the SDRS and OAS-MNR recordings. A series of Spearman’s correlations were conducted to determine the relationship between outcomes on the START Vulnerability items and engagement in risk behaviours as rated by the OAS-MNR scales. There was a weak negative correlation between all individual START Vulnerability item ratings and OAS-MNR recordings. Research limitations/implications The current pilot study provides wider research evidence for the use of the SDRS in risk management with individuals who have an ID and reside in a secure psychiatric inpatient setting. The outcomes are supportive of previous research, showing that outcomes on the SDRS are related to maladaptive behaviours recorded for individual with ID. Originality/value This article compares outcomes on the START and SDRS in relation to an individuals risk recordings to support identification of whether either have practical and clinical utility. To the authors' knowledge, this has not been completed before.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T11:15:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-05-2016-0006
       
  • The impact of DNA on criminal investigation
    • First page: 105
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2016.

      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T12:11:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-07-2016-0010
       
  • A comparison of the emotional and behavioural problems of intellectual
           disability offenders in medium and low security
    • First page: 109
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2016.
      Purpose There are few reliable psychometric measures of the psychopathology of offenders with ID. However, previous research has indicated that the Emotional Problems Scale (EPS) is useful in identifying a range of treatment needs and in predicting risk to self and others. The current study aims to compare the severity of the emotional and behavioural problems of a small sample of offenders with ID in medium and low secure services, as assessed by EPS. Additionally, the data are tentatively compared with those reported in previous research to precipitate discussion regarding the changes in clinical populations in secure care over time. Design/methodology/approach The study collected demographic and EPS data for patients with ID (N=25) on medium secure and a low secure wards. Data were collected as part of routine clinical practice, with EPS forms being completed by nursing and other multi-disciplinary staff. Findings It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in EPS scores between medium and low secure patients with ID. We also highlight differences between the current sample and the normative data collected by previous research. Originality/value The data regarding the psychopathology of medium and low secure patients with ID provides insight into the ever changing resourcing needs and risk profiles of this complex patient group. In addition, there is a dearth of empirical research that comments on the clinical differences observed over time in forensic populations. As the current data differs from pre-existing normative data, the potential shift in populations and also implications for the accuracy of clinical decision making based on the assessment are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T12:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-12-2015-0047
       
  • Autism, sexual offending, and the criminal justice system
    • First page: 116
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2016.
      Purpose There has been growing concern among stakeholders about individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sex offending as research supports an indirect association. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, bring more awareness of the sexuality and deviant/criminal sexual behavior among those with ASD to stakeholders in the criminal justice system (CJS). Second, demonstrate that much of the deviant or sexual offending behavior exhibited among those with ASD is often a manifestation of their ASD symptoms and not malice. Third, demonstrate the necessity to address specific needs of individuals with ASD who enter the CJS due to criminal sexual behavior. Design/methodology/approach This paper provides an overview of the ASD symptomology, including the diagnostic changes, a review of the literature on ASD and sexuality, which includes deviant sexual behavior and sexual offending. Findings The author linked examples of deviant or sexual behavior in the research literature to the ASD symptomology and described how the symptomology explains such behavior. Originality/value Sexual offending among those with ASD has received little research outside the mental health field. This review is of particular importance to those in the CJS unfamiliar with ASD, as they should handle them differently with regard to formal interviewing, measures of competency, capacity, and sentencing.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T12:11:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-02-2016-0004
       
  • Developing an autism specific framework for forensic case formulation
    • First page: 127
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper outlines the initial development of a framework to assist in clinical case formulation for individuals diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who have been convicted of violent and other offences. Design/methodology/approach The proposed framework obtains information on the presence of ASD features from an individual’s developmental history, index offence and offence paralleling behaviours (OPBs). Through obtaining information across these three domains the framework helps the practitioner make an informed assessment of the possible contribution of ASD to offending. Findings The framework aims to assist the practitioner to develop a clinical formulation based on hypothesised linkages between these domains for use in forensic assessment reports and to aid treatment planning. The use of the proposed framework is illustrated through a reference formulation based on a fictive case example. Research limitations/implications The framework is still in the early stages of development and has not been tested. The next stage is to utilise case information data to assess the validity of the items. This does not preclude the use of the framework by practitioners as an aid to generating clinical hypotheses about the possible link between autism and offending as the development of the tool has been informed by research on ASD and offending. Practical implications The framework may be used in conjunction with SPJt’s. For example, the recently published third version of the HCR-20 includes Pervasive Developmental Disorders as a historical risk item. This possible relevance of this item in terms of forensic risk could be presented using information obtained from the framework outlined in this paper. This in turn could be used to inform the formulation section of the HCR-20 and in the generation of treatment plans. In the longer term, the framework may help inform our understanding of possible relationships between violence risk and ASD and therefore aid effective assessment and treatment planning. Originality/value Although there is an emergent body of research on ASD and offending this has not yet been translated into a tool to help practitioners. This paper sets out an approach to do this and therefore makes an original contribution to the literature.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T12:11:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-04-2015-0006
       
  • What kind of support and training do junior qualified nurses working with
           women with learning disabilities in a secure setting require when dealing
           with violence and aggression
    • First page: 140
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2016.
      Purpose The paper aims to explore the perceived needs of junior nurses working with women with learning disabilities in a secure setting who display violence and aggression. The study aims to contribute to this specialised area of research and to identify potential areas for further post registration education. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a qualitative design using thematic analysis. Initial questionnaires were distributed and the results analysed in order to form initial themes. These initial themes were then used to carry out a one off focus group and this was transcribed verbatim and then analysed using Braun & Clarke (2006) thematic analysis to develop final themes. Findings The findings identified a need for staff to be able to access effective immediate support following incidents of violence and aggression and support be offered within a clear structured environment. Staff indicated that peer supervision be made available and that they also receive adequate education relating to gender specific issues and the use of seclusion. Research limitations/implications The research had several limitations. These included a small sample size which was also largely self-selected. Bias may have to be acknowledged in respect of completion of questionnaires depending on their view of participation and what they might be contributing to. Despite this the results do raise further questions such as staff decision making around the use of seclusion. Practical implications Implications centred around the organisation's delivery of education to staff in relation to the clinical decision making skills they require in order to effectively support women with learning disabilities who display violent and / or aggressive behaviour. The study also has implications for potential supervision structures currently offered within these services. Originality/value This paper fulfills a need to explore services for women with a learning disability further and how services can be shaped using current perspective and up to date research in line with recent policy, e.g Corston Report 2007.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T12:11:24Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-04-2015-0009
       
  • Treating online inappropriate sexualised behaviour
    • First page: 151
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2016.
      Purpose This single case design evaluates the use of cognitive behavioural approaches to treat a gentleman with a learning disability who had been reported to the police for allegedly making contact with children using social media in an attempt to initiate a romantic relationship. Design/methodology/approach An 11 session cognitive behavioural intervention was employed, comprising of index offence analysis, challenging distorted cognitions related to the offence, developing an internal focus for responsibility, and psychoeducation with regards to ‘staying safe’ online. Findings Follow up data demonstrated no improvements in victim empathy, nor in agreement ratings in terms of key cognitions associated with responsibility for offending behaviour. Research limitations/implications Whilst treatment efficacy was not established, this case study raises important questions that go beyond the single case design. Whilst the gentleman reported becoming ‘safer’ in terms of initiating contact with unknown people via social media, this could not be substantiated, and is indicative of the cardinal difficulty of monitoring online recidivism. Generalisability of findings to the wider learning disability population is limited by a single case design. Originality/value This is the first published case study to our knowledge to evaluate cognitive behavioural approaches to reduce antisocial internet related behaviour in a forensic learning disability setting. Findings of are considered within the context of the concept of minimisation of offending behaviour, the concept of 'counterfeit deviance', and also how best to measure therapeutic change within this population.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T12:11:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-11-2015-0045
       
  • Developing a screening tool for offenders with intellectual disabilities -
           the R.A.P.I.D
    • First page: 161
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2016.
      Purpose The main purpose of this paper is to outline and report on the factors involved with developing a screening tool for offenders with suspected intellectual disability (ID). Design/methodology/approach This paper summarises the wider literature in specific relation to screening tools and methodology, indicating that the need for quick and easy screening measures for this population are sparse. The findings reported in this paper outline the processes involved in developing an evidence-based screening tool for ID offenders in a specific service, and an overall pathway approach to the identification, assessment and diagnosis of ID. Findings It is possible to develop a tool that can be used to identify ID with relative ease. The RAPID Screening tool provided practitioners with a simple and easy measure to identify such individuals so that they may be referred for further specialist assessment. The RAPID screening tool has demonstrated that it is an effective measure in identifying offenders with ID Research limitations/implications Formal statistical validation of this tool will serve to understand its overall effectiveness and strengthen its utility, further encouraging the timely identification of ID offenders. Originality/value This paper responds to current extensive literature about the variability of screening measures, and provides an effective solution whereby vulnerable offenders can be identified easily, who may benefit from reasonable adjustments and alternatives to custodial sentencing where appropriate.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T12:11:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-01-2015-0001
       
 
 
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