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Journal Cover Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
  [21 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2050-8824
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [312 journals]
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Colin Dale
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2016.

      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T01:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-01-2016-0001
       
  • The realistic evaluation of an adapted thinking skills programme
    • Authors: Peter Oakes, Glynis Murphy, Alison Giraud-Saunders, Nzinga Akinshegun
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2016.
      Purpose A project reporting the evaluation of an adapted form of the Thinking Skills Programme (TSP) with prisoners with intellectual disabilities is described. In particular, the utility of Realistic Evaluation is explored as a response to the difficulties in applying research-based interventions in practice and rolling out pilot projects that have been evaluated under specific conditions. Design/methodology/approach Realistic evaluation involves the identification of context, mechanism and outcome as a structure for programme evaluation and this was applied to the development and implementation of Adapted TSP (ATSP) in three English prisons. Findings Findings are reported in respect of the three aspects of context, mechanism and outcome to demonstrate the utility of realistic evaluation. Contextual findings suggested that ATSP is effective with male prisoners representing a range of intellectual disabilities, who would otherwise be excluded from mainstream programmes. The programme did not establish effectiveness with women or in community settings. The prisons involved were of different levels of security, but all three prisons were actively involved in positive approaches to difference and diversity and support for people with intellectual disabilities. For mechanism it was noted that all involved in the pilot sites were highly motivated to participate in the project and they were also achieving high scores for general quality in programme delivery. The realistic evaluation framework suggests that, where these factors are not present, some caution about possible effectiveness should be exercised. The evaluation approach proved to be helpful in identifying relevant factors to be considered in the wider implementation of ATSP. Originality/value This is a novel approach to programme evaluation in psychological therapies that was shown to be of value in identifying conditions under which pilot schemes can be extended to other parts of a service, and research on interventions for offenders with intellectual disabilities applied in practice.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T01:10:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-05-2014-0006
       
  • Geographic information system analysis of developmentally disabled adult
           offenders
    • Authors: George Steve Tsagaris, Mamadou Mansor Seck, Janet Keeler, Robert Rowe
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2016.
      Purpose Adult offenders diagnosed with developmental disabilities have been referred for services to a Northeast Ohio county agency. The purpose of this study was to examine their repartition in the three areas of the county as determined by zip codes, their involvement with the criminal justice system, types of offenses they committed, their indictment, and the court outcomes. Design/methodology/approach This study used a Geographic Information System mapping based on secondary data collected from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey and a random sample of 160 participants selected from an agency database including 850 clients. Findings We found that the concentrations of offenders in the core city, inner, and outer suburbs of the county were respectively 71.7%, 19.6%, and 8.7%. The largest racial groups included African Americans (112; 70%) and Whites (33; 20.6%). Male offenders (155; 96.9%) outnumbered female offenders. Of the offenses committed, 42.9% were crimes against persons including kidnapping, abduction, assault, followed by crimes against property (22.2%), and crimes against society (26.4%). As they appeared before Mental Health Court or Non Mental Health Court judges, the court outcome evolved from community control for 6 months to prison sentence of 120 months. Research limitations/implications These findings will enable agency professionals to look for protective as well as risk factors that are prevalent in each area of this NEO County and make plans for more effective, preventative, and clinical service provision. Originality/value The use of GIS for data analysis represents an innovation in the research field involving adult offenders with DD as it allows professionals to look for protective as well as risk factors that are prevalent in their clients’ immediate environment.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T01:10:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-09-2015-0028
       
  • Intellectual disability and substance use/misuse: a narrative review
    • Authors: Christine Jodie Day, Alexandra Lampraki, Dean Ridings, Karen Currell
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2016.
      Purpose The current paper provides a narrative review of the literature on substance use/misuse within an intellectual disability (ID) population. The paper is focused on the prevalence, motivation and implications of substance use as well as the interventions for misuse. Design/methodology/approach research focused on substance use and ID (IQ of 70 or less with onset in the developmental period) were considered. Findings Our findings indicate a disparity between research findings regarding the prevalence of substance use/misuse within ID populations. Previous research indicates that individuals with ID may use/misuse substances as a form of relief or respite from negative experiences. Although is a clear need for intervention, many of the ID population do not engage with generic interventions for substance misuse. Additionally, professionals responsible for the provision of interventions identify a lack of training and support to meet the needs of ID populations. Research limitations/implications Minimal research in this areas, barriers to language and demographics being underreported Practical implications Highlights problems with the current evidence base and barriers this poses Indicates a need for further research and intervention Originality/value In order to build a greater understanding of this issue, a shared universal language and definition of ID must be implemented. Further research to improve our understanding of why those with ID misuse substances is imperative before designing and implementing useful interventions.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T01:10:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-10-2015-0041
       
  • Sexual offending and autism spectrum disorders
    • Authors: Clare Sarah Allely, Ann Creaby-Attwood
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2016.
      Purpose Studies have found innate vulnerabilities which potentially may increase the risk of an individual with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) finding themselves involved with the criminal justice system as a result of being charged with a sexual offence. The purpose of the present review is to evaluate the literature which has explored sexual offending in individuals with ASD. Design/methodology/approach A systematic PRISMA review (PRISMA, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) was conducted using internet-based bibliographic databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and PsycARTICLES) in order to access studies which investigated to any degree the association between ASD and sexual offending. Findings Only a small number of case reports (N = 7) on sexual offending in individuals with ASD and a small number of prevalence studies (N = 7) were identified. Research limitations/implications Research is urgently required to identify the specific requirements and needs of sexual offenders with ASD in order to inform an appropriate treatment strategy for successful outcomes. Originality/value Relatively few studies and reviews have investigated the area of ASD and sexual offending specifically.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T01:10:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-09-2015-0029
       
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Fergus Douds, Michael Brown
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 6, Issue 3/4, December 2015.

      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T11:27:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-11-2015-0046
       
  • Evolution and devolution: Scottish legislation relevant to people with
           intellectual disabilities within mental health and forensic services
    • Authors: Fergus Douds, Fabian Haut
      First page: 127
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 6, Issue 3/4, December 2015.
      Purpose The paper describes the legislation enacted in Scotland from 1999 and as such provides a useful guide for professionals working with people with intellectual disabilities in mental health and forensic settings. Design/methodology/approach Review of relevant legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament. Findings The study describes the relevant, individual, pieces of legislation that have been enacted since the Scottish Parliament came into being in 1999. Research limitations/implications The paper only describes legislation enacted in Scotland and does not make comparisons with legislation in England and Wales or in other legislatures. However, the account of the Scottish legislation and its impact on practice will be of interest to readers in other countries, particularly those from countries with a similarly sized population. Practical implications The paper will provide a useful reference for readers who are unfamiliar with Scottish mental health legislation. Originality/value The paper provides an up to date review of Scottish mental health legislation relevant to people with intellectual disabilities within mental health and forensic services. No other similar review has been published in recent years.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T11:27:27Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-08-2015-0017
       
  • The mental welfare commission for Scotland - a unique and influential
           voice
    • Authors: Colin McKay, Heather Welsh
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 6, Issue 3/4, December 2015.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique and independent role of the Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland. Design/methodology/approach The paper takes the reader through the history of the Commission, its changing status, roles and responsibilities, its influence and impact, and current priorities. It is based on details of the Commission’s development, narrative from current employees and published investigations and advice. Findings The Mental Welfare Commission has advanced significantly since its original establishment. It plays a vital role in protecting the human rights of people in Scotland with learning disabilities and mental illness, by visiting those who are in receipt of care or treatment, investigating situations of concern, providing advice and guidance, monitoring the Mental Health Act (2003) and Adults with Incapacity Act (2000) and shaping relevant policy and legislation. Originality/value This paper provides an introduction to the work of the Commission, which will be of value to readers in Scotland and beyond. It illustrates its importance in preserving the rights of individuals with learning disabilities and mental illness in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and other legislation.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T11:27:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-08-2015-0025
       
  • Am I there yet? the views of people with learning disability on
           forensic community rehabilitation
    • Authors: Alana Davis, Michael Doyle, Ethel Quayle, Suzanne O'Rourke
      First page: 148
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 6, Issue 3/4, December 2015.
      Purpose Previously diversion from the criminal justice system for people with Learning Disability (LD) and serious forensic needs in Scotland meant hospitalisation. More recently new legislation has meant that community-based rehabilitation is possible for this group. This study sought to qualitatively explore the views of people with LD subject to these legal orders. This is both a chance to work in partnership to improve services and also to make the voices of this potentially vulnerable group heard. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants subject to a community-based order. All participants were male. Ages, index behaviour, and time spent on order varied. The data was transcribed and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Findings The main themes which emerged from the data were A taste of freedom, Not being in control, Getting control back, Loneliness, and Feeling like a service user. Participants described positives about community-based rehabilitation but also a number of negatives. Practical implications Participant accounts suggest that the current community rehabilitation model has some shortcomings which need to be addressed. Suggestions are made for improvements to the current model relating to: achieving clarity over the role of support staff and pathways out of the system; increasing opportunities for service users to voice concerns; empowering staff teams via extensive training and supervision; and directly addressing internalised stigma to promote community integration. Originality/value This is the first piece of work evaluating compulsory community forensic care for people with LD from the perspective of service users. It highlights difficulties with the system which could lead to helpful ways to evolve this model.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T11:27:20Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-08-2015-0024
       
  • Making a difference? ten years of managing people with intellectual
           disability and forensic needs in the community
    • Authors: Jana de Villiers, Michael Doyle
      First page: 165
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 6, Issue 3/4, December 2015.
      Purpose Nationally community services for patients with intellectual disability and forensic needs are limited, and research to guide service development for this patient group with highly complex needs is sparse. This paper aims to provide an overview of referrals to and case management by the multi-agency Fife Forensic Learning Disability Service (FFLDS), including demographic data, treatment, risk assessments and outcomes. Design/methodology/approach All referrals received between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed to identify key demographic factors and to clarify the outcome of the referrals. Risks levels and presence of factors related to ongoing risk management were identified. For those accepted, final outcomes were noted Findings 145 referrals were received by FFLDS between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2014. Of these 117 were accepted for ongoing case management. 106 patients were discharged from FFLDS over the review period, with the vast majority remaining in community settings. Patients were overwhelmingly male, with an age range of 16 to 79 (mean age of 30). Approximately half of referrals were from Criminal Justice agencies, and sexual and violent offences predominated. Alcohol and/or illicit substance use was problematic in 49% of patients. Research limitations/implications We were unable to access Police records and as a result could not quantify re-offending rates for our cohort. There was no control group with which to compare our cohort. Comparisons to other services were limited by differences in service configurations and differences in data gathered. Practical implications FFLDS needs to consider building links with Drug and Alcohol Services, for assistance in developing expertise in managing problematic alcohol and/or illicit substance use. Links with professionals working with female offenders may increase the rate of referral of female patients. Originality/value Policy and legal frameworks emphasise the need to manage people with learning disabilities and forensic needs in the least restrictive environment possible. This paper provides information on a cohort of forensic patients over a ten year period, including characteristics and outcomes, to inform the evaluation of these frameworks and the planning of both community and inpatient services for this patient group.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T11:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-08-2015-0019
       
  • The needs of people with mild learning disabilities within the Scottish
           criminal justice system: a qualitative study of healthcare perspectives
    • Authors: Fellex Mediseni, Michael Brown
      First page: 175
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 6, Issue 3/4, December 2015.
      Purpose The aim of this qualitative study was to identify and explore the views and experiences of specialist learning disability health service professionals regarding the management of and support offered to people with learning disabilities when they come into contact with the Scottish criminal justice system. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative design was adopted for this study due to the limited existing evidence in the area and the need to start to build and develop understanding of the phenomena under study. A purposive sampling procedure was used to select participants from an accessible population within one Scottish NHS Health Literature review, qualitative research, semi-structured interviews & thematic analysis. Findings The findings identified three key themes (i) challenges in practice, (ii) the need for additional resources, and (iii) the ability of services to provide management and support. Originality/value The findings serve to contribute to the understanding of the role and contributions made by and required from specialist learning disability health services to manage and support people with learning disabilities in the Scottish criminal justice system.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T11:27:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-08-2015-0020
       
  • Scotland’s approach to forensic mental health and learning
           disabilities – The Forensic Network
    • Authors: Helen Gail Walker, Lesley Murphy, Vivienne Gration
      First page: 187
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 6, Issue 3/4, December 2015.
      Purpose The Forensic Mental Health Services Managed Care Network is described, including the School of Forensic Mental Health. It outlines background, details successes and challenges, focus’s on links to clinical practice for Learning Disabilities service development, education and training, multi-disciplinary and multi-agency working and quality improvement. Findings from a small scale brief educational study undertaken in the high secure service are included as an example of good practice. Design/methodology/approach Specific features relating to learning disability are highlighted. Comparisons are made with other managed clinical and managed care networks. Findings The Forensic Network has evolved over time. It has played a crucial role in shaping Scotland’s approach to Forensic Mental Health and Learning Disabilities. Central to its success is active involvement of key stakeholders, a multi-agency approach and collaborative working practice. Future plans include formal evaluation of impact. Originality/value This paper offers an interesting perspective from a forensic mental health managed care network; the existing literature is limited.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T11:26:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-10-2015-0040
       
  • Police interviews in Scotland - use of appropriate adults
    • Authors: Keith Bowden, Ian Wilson
      First page: 195
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 6, Issue 3/4, December 2015.
      Purpose Shows the development of Appropriate Adult services in Scotland over the past 9 years and considers how this differs from the rest of the U.K.. Design/methodology/approach New analysis of existing statistical information is provided to show pattern of demand, type of interview, nature of mental disorder involved and regional differences. Findings Growth in demand for services is identified for both suspect and witness interviews, with people with learning disabilities most frequently receiving support. There is significant variation in the pattern of referrals across Scotland. Practical implications The results reflect heightened awareness amongst police officers of the need for Appropriate Adults, but there should be an examination of the different types of provision to promote equity of service. Originality/value This is the first time that these figures have been collated and subject to analysis. They provide comparative information within Scotland that is also of relevance to the rest of the U.K..
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T11:27:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-08-2015-0023
       
  • Working together: making the case for integrated forensic service for
           people with intellectual disabilities
    • Authors: Kenneth Michael MacMahon, Ricky McClements
      First page: 204
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 6, Issue 3/4, December 2015.
      Purpose There is a general consensus that healthcare for people with intellectual disabilities should be provided by multi-disciplinary teams. Within a forensic setting, recommendations are often made for separate or ‘parallel’ forensic teams, operating independently of generic mental health or intellectual disability teams. An alternative to this model is an ‘integrated’ service, where specialist forensic clinicians work within the general intellectual disability service, to provide support for clients with forensic needs. For clients with intellectual disabilities and forensic needs, there may be advantages to providing access to a wider multi-disciplinary team, through the application of an integrated model. To illustrate the working of an integrated forensic service within a learning disability team. To identify positive aspects of this model, and how potential shortcomings may be overcome. Design/methodology/approach Literature review, description of service outline with case example. Findings Although some studies have compared parallel and integrated forensic models within mental health services, there are no evaluations that compare models of forensic services for individuals with intellectual disabilities. However, specific advantages of an integrated model may include availability of multi-disciplinary clinicians, development of forensic skills across wider groups of clinicians, reduction in stigma and avoidance of delay in transfer of care between services. In addition, in areas with smaller populations, parallel services may not be feasible due to low case numbers. Research limitations/implications There has been no formal evaluation of parallel versus integrated forensic services within an intellectual disability setting. Originality/value However, we describe a fully integrated service and suggest means by which the potential shortcomings of an integrated model may be overcome.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T11:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-08-2015-0021
       
 
 
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