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Journal Cover Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour  
   [4 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2050-8824
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [308 journals]
  • Does substance use predict contact with the Criminal Justice System for
           people with intellectual disabilities
    • Authors: Eddie Chaplin et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2014. Purpose This study aims to examine how substances misuse impacts on exposure to the Criminal Justice System for people with intellectual disabilities. Design/methodology/approach An electronic case-register of mental health patients was used to examine the clinical records of 411 patients with intellectual disabilities. Chi-squared x² analysis was performed to test the association between variables and logistic regression to generate estimates for statistically significant association variables. Findings Of 411 cases, 98 (23%) of patient had a history of substance use, with affective disorders strongly associated with alcohol misuse Chi-squared = 4.135, df =1, (p<0,042), similarly statistically significant predictor for alcohol misuse OR: 1.7, 95%CI (1.02-2.72) (p<0.043). Patients with a history of offending behaviour had 3 folds higher risk to misuse drugs compared to those without a forensic conviction OR: 3.17, 95%CI (1.35-7.44) (p<0.008). Those with a history of offending were more likely to have had a history of substance use. Originality/value Substance use and its impact on offending by people with intellectual disability is still poorly understood. This paper adds new information to this under researched area
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jan 2015 16:52:46 GMT
  • Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder- its relevance to Forensic Adolescent
    • Authors: Ernest Gralton et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2014. Purpose There needs to be an increased recognition of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in services that deal with young people with disruptive and offending behaviour, not just those services that deal with adolescents with a recognised intellectual disability. Design/methodology/approach This is a general review of the current available evidence on FASD and how it is likely to predispose affected young people to have contact with secure mental health services and the Criminal Justice system. Findings FASD is likely to have become a more common cause of intellectual disability and behavioural disturbance but the history of significant alcohol exposure in utero if often missed. There is evidence that the hyperactivity is less responsive to psychotropic medication and may represent a different condition to conventional ADHD. However the majority of those affected are in the low normal IQ range. Research limitations/implications There is so far very limited research in what is likely to be a relatively common disorder with significant costs to criminal justice, mental healthcare and social services. Epidemiological information from the UK is lacking and urgently needed. Practical implications Professional who work with mentally disordered young people need to be more aware of FASD and its potential contribution to the problems and disabilities in their population. Originality/value There is currently no other review of FASD and the implications for criminal justice, secure mental health and social care for young people.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jan 2015 00:30:46 GMT
  • Characteristics of referrals and admissions to a medium secure ASD unit.
    • Authors: Therese Anne O' Donoghue et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2014. Purpose To present preliminary data on a cohort of patients referred to a specialist forensic medium-secure ASD service during its first two years of opening and to identify variables associated with admission to the service. Design/methodology/approach Data on all referrals to the service (N=40) was obtained from clinical files on demographics, offending history, psychiatric history and levels of therapeutic engagement. The sample was divided into two groups: referred and admitted (N=23) and referred and not admitted (N=17). Statistical analysis compared the two groups on all variables. Findings Ninety four percent of all individuals assessed had a diagnosis of autism, however, structured diagnostic tools for ASD were used in a small minority of cases. About half the sample had a learning disability, almost four fifths had at least one additional mental disorder and almost three quarters had a history of prior supervision failure or non-compliance with treatment. The sample had a wide range of previous offences. No significant differences were found between the groups on any of the variables included in the study. Research limitations/implications The present study presents a starting point to follow up in terms of response to treatment and characteristics associated with treatment outcome. Practical implications The sample had a wide range of clinical and risk related needs. Both groups shared many similarities. Originality/value This highlights the need for comprehensive assessment looking at risk related needs so that individuals are referred to an optimal treatment pathway.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jan 2015 00:30:38 GMT
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Colin Dale
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2014.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Sep 2014 14:57:13 GMT
  • Management of Aggression Care Plans in a Forensic Intellectual Disability
           Service: A Ten-Year Progress Update
    • Authors: David Kitchen et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 2, September 2014. Purpose Standardised approaches to the management of aggression and violence are critical for all stakeholders of intellectual disability services. This paper describes the Management of Aggression Care Plan. The care plan aims to reduce levels of restrictive interventions, to ensure any interventions relative to aggression and violence are the least restrictive possible, and to promote adaptive behaviours and support life enriching opportunities, in a manner which is personalised to the unique profiles of every patient. Design/methodology/approach The Management of Aggression Care Plan was first described by Thomas et al. (2005). This paper describes the rationale, theoretical basis, structure and benefits of the care plan, and provides details of revisions made to the plan in response to evidence based practice recommendations. Findings The value of implementing a structured approach to the care planning of management of aggression and violence, in reducing the frequency and impact of restrictive practices, and promoting life enriching opportunities is described. Practical implications The paper describes a number of practical features of the care plan which most support its continued effectiveness, including patient involvement, individual patient focused training, and audit. Originality/value Although many services undertake localised approaches to the care planning of management of violence and aggression in forensic intellectual disability services, few have been described in the published literature.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 08:03:01 GMT
  • Sentencing offenders with mental impairment: The case of arsonists with
           Intellectual Disability
    • Authors: Ashlee Curtis et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 2, September 2014. Purpose Offenders with Intellectual Disability (ID) who commit arson and other acts of fire setting are over-represented in the criminal justice system in Australia, as in many other jurisdictions. This paper provides insight into the judicial considerations that influence sentencing in these cases. Design/methodology/approach Case law was utilised to locate and analyse judges’ sentencing remarks for offenders with ID found guilty of an offence of arson. These data were subject to Inductive Content Analysis to establish the major judicial considerations in sentencing. Findings Seven common issues emerged: General Deterrence, Seriousness of Arson, Rehabilitation, Sentencing Options, Moral Culpability, Protection of the Community, and Punishment. Judges noted that they handed down reduced sentences to persons with ID relative to the severity of their offending, that they considered people with ID to have low levels of moral culpability, and that these offenders did not provide good examples for community deterrence. Originality/value The current study highlights the need for judges to have available a range of sentencing options, including diversion and treatment/rehabilitation programmes for persons with ID, particularly for those involved in more serious offences such as arson.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Aug 2014 20:36:51 GMT
  • Judiciary Views on Criminal Behaviour and Intention of Offenders with
           High-Functioning Autism
    • Authors: Colleen Margaret Berryessa et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 2, September 2014. Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore how judges perceive High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) and the disorders’ effects on an offender’s ability to formulate criminal intent and control behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews on topics related to offenders with hfASDs were conducted with 21 California Superior Court Judges. A coding scheme was developed and an iterative qualitative coding process was used for analysis. Findings Analysis yielded three major themes on how an hfASD diagnosis affects an offender’s ability to regulate actions and criminal behaviour. Interviewed judges reported beliefs that hfASD offenders view the world in a different way and that much of their behaviour is not under their direct control. Judges reported these perceptions likely affect how they criminally process and make legal decisions regarding offenders with hfASDs. Research limitations/implications The sample size was small and therefore no statistical significance can be drawn from results; findings cannot be applied to perceptions or experiences of the entire California Superior Court Judge population. Originality/value Past academic research reports that individuals with hfASDs that offend often do so because of specific symptoms associated with the disorder. This presents a complex dilemma for the criminal justice system regarding how best to understand the disorder and process these offenders. This study and its findings aim to shed light on issues judges encounter in determining these offenders’ responsibility and sentencing, in what ways this information might be integrated into judicial decision-making, and areas where future research is needed.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Aug 2014 20:36:49 GMT
  • A crime to be punished or a problem to be solved' Anti-social
           behaviour orders and young people with mild learning disabilities
    • Authors: GEMMA Louise Cino et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 2, September 2014. Purpose This literature review sets out to critically explore the impact of Anti-Social Behaviour Orders on young people with mild learning disabilities. In an attempt to identify why young people [under the age of 18] with learning disabilities are exposed to the criminal justice system, an emerging body of evidence is considered. The research provides an insight into some of the difficulties vulnerable young people may encounter, such as receiving unrealistic prohibitions and the lack of support provided after receiving a Court Order. The research also highlights the lack of professional awareness and understanding of learning disabilities and considers the level of training available to professionals. The paper closes with a discussion of the themes identified from the literature reviewed and some of the changes proposed by the coalition government regarding the future of the criminal justice system. Design/methodology/approach Although a strict systematic review of the literature was not required for the literature review, a less rigorous systematic approach was employed. When searching for literature, the general principles and guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration were employed, this included inclusion and exclusion criteria. The eligibility criteria guided the focus of the literature review and determined the relevance of the research. During the literature review it was recognized that much of the research is discussion/review based, and currently there is a limited amount of empirical research available. An eco-systems perspective was employed to consider the connections between young people, the environment and anti-social behaviour. Findings The findings from the literature review, illustrate a growing body of evidence which suggests that young people with learning disabilities have been ‘caught up’ in anti-social behaviour measures. It is positive that more recently, there has been a much needed focus on early identification and diversion away from the criminal justice system, for those with mental health conditions and learning disabilities. The research findings presented by Cant and Standen, and Talbot, provide possible explanations as to why vulnerable young people are made subject to ASBOs. Indeed this lack of sufficient training has not gone unnoticed by other researchers. Research limitations/implications Although I am aware of the valuable insight qualitative research can provide, the methodological limitations raise questions regarding the validity of the research I have considered, especially as most of the research I have drawn upon is based on exploratory approaches. Nevertheless, the concurring themes drawn from the research findings raise much curiosity around the potential links between disability awareness training and the identification of young people with mild learning disabilities. Practical implications Despite the Governments recent proposal to abolish the ASBO and introduce a new approach to tackling anti-social behaviour, it appears unclear as to how the new measures will differ from the existing ones. The recent proposed measures are set out in the Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014. Although the accompanying guidance for frontline professionals clearly sets out the need for early intervention, which sits alongside a new menu of anti-social behaviour powers, including the Criminal Behaviour Order (which seems very similar to the ASBO), it is disappointing that the guidance does not give any direction of how new measures will impact on young people with learning disabilities. Originality/value The research findings have helped me to understand some of the potential difficulties vulnerable young people may encounter if they come into contact with the criminal justice system. As there appears to be a lack of empirical research available which considers the connections between learning disabilities and ASBOs, further research within this area of practice would be beneficial. The research invites an alternative perspective which adds to the existing literature.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Aug 2014 20:36:47 GMT
    • Authors: William R Lindsay et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 2, September 2014. Purpose Although studies suggest alcohol abuse is not the major problem among offenders and others with intellectual disabilities (ID), it is still a significant problem. There are also suggestions that alcohol may have a more serious effect on those with ID. This paper describes a treatment for alcohol related difficulties designed for people with ID. Design/methodology/approach A programme for alcohol related problems is described and 4 case studies are presented to illustrate the sessions and review the way in which people with ID have responded to the methods. The cases have a mixture of alcohol related problems including anger, anxiety, social withdrawal and depression. The alcohol programme is coordinated with a range of person centred interventions for specific difficulties. Findings All cases responded to the programme positively. Two cases showed reductions in anger, two reported reductions in anxiety and one reported reductions in depression. All cases increased their alcohol knowledge considerably. Research limitations/implications The programme seems promising in its approach to alcohol related difficulties. It is noted that alcohol education alone in likely to improve participants’ wellbeing in the absence of coordinated intervention for other relevant personal difficulties,. A controlled treatment trial for effectiveness is clearly required. Originality/value The paper describes a programme for alcohol related problems and may be the first such programme that has contained pilot evaluation.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Aug 2014 20:36:47 GMT
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