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Journal Cover Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
  [SJR: 0.321]   [H-I: 3]   [30 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2050-8824
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Disability and the criminal justice system in Zambia
    • Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2017.
      Purpose Drawing on multi-method research conducted in 2013-2014, this paper considers the extent and nature of disadvantage experienced by individuals with psychosocial and intellectual disabilities (PID) who come into contact with criminal justice system in Zambia. The research was conducted as part of a wider project aiming to bring about improvements in how people with PID are dealt with by criminal justice services. Design/methodology/approach The research activities included interviews with 29individuals with PID who had experienced the criminal justice system as suspects, defendants or prisoners (‘self-advocates’). A focus group and interviews were also conducted with family members of people with PID who had criminal justice experience. Findings People with PID in contact with criminal justice services in Zambia are disadvantaged and discriminated against routinely and systematically. Like all detainees, they experience harsh and at times brutal conditions of detention. However, because of their disabilities, such experiences can be more keenly felt: their disabilities may be exacerbated by detention or by limited or non-existent health care; and they are likely to be less resourceful than other detainees and, therefore, less able to cope with the privations of detention. Originality/value In drawing on the self-advocate interviews, this paper presents direct, vivid accounts of what it means to be a suspect, defendant or prisoner with disabilities in Zambia. These are extremely marginalised and multiply disadvantaged individuals whose voices are rarely heard.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T11:09:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-12-2016-0023
       
  • Rare instances of individuals with autism supporting or engaging in
           terrorism
    • Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2017.
      Purpose The prevalence of individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder being associated with terroristic threats, lone wolf terrorism or affiliating with terroristic groups is rare. Design/methodology/approach However, several cases are presented, where individuals with autism are involved in making a naïve, empty terroristic threat, or uttering serious serial terroristic threats. Other cases are also presented of individuals being at risk for an abduction or being used by a terrorist group, and finally committing an act of domestic lone wolf terrorism. Findings Essential to the analysis was establishing a functional connection between autism-based deficits and the terroristic threats, terrorism, and when to not criminalize naïve, empty terroristic threats or acts. Originality/value Currently, tools available to law enforcement and prosecutors exploit the vulnerabilities and liabilities which arise as a result of group interactions, a “preventive” approach to terrorism that is not applicable to the solitary, “lone wolf” terrorist (Barnes, 2012; Zierhoffer, 2014).There has been relatively little research (including case studies) examining individuals with ASD who engage in terrorism. For instance, when dealing with an individual with ASD who is charged with terrorism, it is crucial to consider how the diagnosis of autism may have presented as a contextual vulnerability, and to make sure that justice, rehabilitation and management, are informed by an understanding of the person’s diagnosis of ASD (Al-Attar, 2016).
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T11:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-11-2016-0022
       
  • The Inventory of Legal Knowledge (ILK) and adults with intellectual
           disabilities
    • Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2017.
      Purpose Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) entering the legal system in the United States are at heightened risk of being incorrectly labeled as malingering. The Inventory of Legal Knowledge (ILK) was recently developed to assess response style of individuals undergoing competency to stand trial evaluations. This paper presents preliminary data on the utility of the ILK with adults with ID. Design/methodology/approach Thirty-two adults were recruited from an American day program for adults with ID. Using a simulation design, the first twenty-four participants were assigned to the honest responding group and the remaining eight were assigned to the fake bad group. The normative performance of the honest responding group was compared to established norms for adults without ID, the most efficient ILK cut-off score was examined, and convergent validity of the ILK and other malingering measures tested. Findings Compared to the established mean score, the recommended cut-off score, and two independent published samples of non-ID adults, the normative performance of the honest responding ID group was significantly lower. Analyses of area under the curve (AUC) revealed that the ILK lacked sufficient ability to discriminate adults with ID instructed to respond honestly from those instructed to feign incompetence, and correlational analyses failed to support the convergent validity of the ILK in this sample. Research limitations/implications The present findings do not support the use of the ILK with adults with ID, even with adjusted cut scores. The development of novel malingering measures that can be used in the context of CST evaluations with adults with ID is needed. Originality/value The present study is the first to examine the psychometric properties of the ILK with adults diagnosed with ID and without concomitant psychiatric symptomatology.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T11:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-10-2016-0018
       
  • ASD and offending: reflections of practice in from a New Zealand
           perspective
    • Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2017.
      Purpose There is growing awareness in New Zealand of the impact that Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has on individuals and their families and the ability to engage in health services. Although it is a relatively rare condition, approximately one percent of the population will have ASD, directly affecting approximately 40,000 individuals in New Zealand. The purpose this paper is to provide some reflections and questions on what we can learn from a New Zealand perspective. This is based on an overview of the limited literature around ASD and offending and my experience in the UK working in a medium secure unit. Design/methodology/approach Through a past site visit as part of the annual international conference on the Care and Treatment of Offenders with an Intellectual and/or Developmental Disability in the UK I became aware of the medium secure forensic unit for male patients with ASD at Roseberry Park Hospital (UK’s Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys NHS Foundation Trust). During my advanced training in forensic psychiatry with the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists I was privileged to be able to apply and be accepted for a 4-month sabbatical training position at this hospital Findings Outlined is background information about ASD and review findings from the limited literature on ASD and offending. Also outlined is my learning as a trainee working in medium secure unit for people with ASD who have offended, and finally how this experience may help in the development of services in New Zealand, given that at this stage such services are under-developed Originality/value To able to share the valuable experience and learning opportunity I was able to have, as well as raise the awareness of ASD generally, and specifically the need for specialist services for the small number of people with ASD who come into contact with justice services
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T11:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-07-2016-0012
       
  • Editorial
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 1-2, March 2017.

      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T01:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-01-2017-0001
       
  • Public attitudes towards the employment of ex-offenders with a disability
    • Pages: 3 - 12
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 3-12, March 2017.
      Purpose Ex-prisoners often face significant challenges in their efforts to find meaningful and stable work, undermining their chances of successful reintegration back into the community. These problems are likely to be compounded for those who have an intellectual disability (ID), given evidence that the disabled generally experience high levels of discrimination when applying for and maintaining jobs. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether members of the public hold different attitudes and expectations towards the employment of ex-offenders who have an ID and a history of criminal offending. Design/methodology/approach Samples of 642 participants, recruited via social media, were presented with vignettes, and then completed a short survey designed to measure their attitudes and expectations towards the employment of ex-offenders. Findings Whilst the presence of a mild ID did not significantly affect community attitudes towards ex-offender employment, it did change expectations about employment outcomes. Research limitations/implications It appears that ex-offenders are perceived as a homogenous group of people, despite actual and substantial differences existing within this population. Practical implications There is a need to actively educate the community about differences between subgroups of ex-offenders in relation to the employment needs of those with an ID. Social implications The social inclusion of ex-offenders with an ID lies at the heart of any effective and progressive criminal justice policy. Originality/value This is one of the only studies that has examined public attitudes towards this group.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T01:52:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-11-2016-0021
       
  • Differentiating between pathological demand avoidance and antisocial
           personality disorder: a case study
    • Pages: 13 - 27
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 13-27, March 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the different clinical features of pathological demand avoidance (PDA) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) presented in the form of a single case study. The study highlights the potential of misdiagnosis and conceptual confusions to practitioners in forensic settings between the two conditions when working with offenders with personality disorders. Design/methodology/approach A case formulation using the “five Ps” method based on the personal history of an incarcerated male is presented and the clinical similarities and differences between PDA and ASPD are delineated. These differences and similarities are evaluated and applied to offender management including intervention options. Findings There are considerable similarities between ASPD and PDA making the two conditions difficult to separate. Both diagnostic criteria identify childhood behavioural problems, aggression, destructiveness, conduct disorder (CD), manipulation and non-compliance as indications of the disorder. For example, the criteria for later adult ASPD are the presence of childhood antisocial behaviour and CD. However, these behaviours may also be suggestive of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and non-compliance that are part of PDA. Violent behaviours and aggression can also be perceived in a similar way. Misdiagnosis of PDA as ASPD reduces the efficiency of treatment programmes. Originality/value The implications of these findings could prove useful in the successful risk management of offenders with PDA. Given the similar behavioural characteristics between PDA and ASPD, the prevalence of PDA among offenders may be higher than observed. The aim of this study is to raise awareness of potential conceptual complications and clinical confusions between the two conditions with a view to aid offender management through case formulation. A large scale study into offenders with PDA would draw attention to the prevalence of the condition as well as its association with offending behaviour.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T01:52:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-07-2016-0013
       
  • Testing technology to enhance patient safety in seclusion
    • Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 28-33, March 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether an example of Seclusion Room Contactless Monitoring Technology (VitalGuardTM) is able to accurately detect the presence of life in a ward seclusion room ensuring patient wellbeing, without interference from background “living noise” (e.g. voices) or “electronic noise” (e.g. other systems). Design/methodology/approach The authors assessed the system’s ability to monitor movement caused by human respiration through its ability to discriminate false positives (i.e. presence of an inanimate object ± movement or noise, in the absence of a person in the seclusion room) and false negatives (i.e. failure to detect a human presence) in a ward setting. Findings The system displayed 100 per cent validity in terms of determining false positives (six conditions, each n=5) and the system did not alarm under either of the two false negative conditions tested (each n=5). Research limitations/implications These findings demonstrate that this example of technology is able to monitor movement caused by human respiration and can accurately and reliably detect the presence of life in seclusion rooms, in the ward setting, without interference from background noise (living and electronic). This was a small evaluation study and further research on its effectiveness in practice would be beneficial in both the intellectual disability forensic setting and other settings of segregation and isolation. Originality/value This study suggests that the use of technology in a seclusion room setting can be used as a reliable tool to enhance patient observations and assist in the delivery of care in a safe and unobtrusive manner.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T01:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-09-2016-0016
       
  • Mind Matters: a psychoeducation programme for individuals with
           intellectual disabilities and co-morbid diagnoses of mental disorder
    • Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 34-40, March 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a feasibility study into the development and pilot of a psychoeducational group for people with intellectual disability and co-morbid mental disorder (including mental illness and personality disorder) within forensic settings. Design/methodology/approach “Mind Matters”, a psychoeducational programme for people with an intellectual disability and co-morbid mental disorders is a group based programme in a medium secure hospital, adapted and developed to be suitable for people with intellectual disability therapist multidisciplinary approach was key to its development. An open group on a 16-bedded ward for individuals with mild to moderate intellectual disability and co-morbid mental illness was delivered over a six-week period. Findings The group was positively received in pilot by participants and members of the clinical teams. Attendance and engagement of participants were key measures of the success of the programme. In addition to the apparent increased social skills and motivation to engage with future psychological intervention. Practical implications The authors believe that this approach benefitted both the group members and staff on ward, reinforcing strategies for maintaining positive mental health. It also stimulated engagement, discussion about mental disorders including mental illness, personality disorder and intellectual disabilities. Originality/value This paper shows how a psychoeducational approach to mental disorder and mental health in individuals with an intellectual disability is possible, beneficial and well received.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T01:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-07-2016-0011
       
  • The challenges of working with sexual offenders who have autism in secure
           services
    • Pages: 41 - 54
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 41-54, March 2017.
      Purpose Previous literature has reported that working with sexual offenders can impact staff negatively (Hatcher and Noakes, 2010). In addition, working with individuals with intellectual disability also appears to be challenging. There are benefits stated of working with sexual offenders and the purpose of this paper is to seek to highlight the challenges and positive experiences of staff members working with sexual offenders who have autism. Design/methodology/approach As working with this population has not been previously investigated, a semi-structured interview was conducted to explore the challenges and benefits of working with this population. Eight participants were interviewed who work on the autism specialist ward at a forensic secure hospital in the UK. Findings Template analysis identified three master themes: mediating factors, challenges and consequences, which were incorporated into the Model of Person-Organisation Wellbeing (M-POW). The findings show the specific challenges of working with a population that has not been previously studied. Research limitations/implications The study utilised a small, heterogeneous self-selecting sample from one clinical site. Practical implications Findings suggest there are a number of specific challenges this staff group face, and steps that can be taken at the personal and organisational level to mediate these. Recommendations are made for how staff are supported in their work from recruitment and induction onwards. Originality/value The M-POW highlights mediating factors that can be adjusted to develop more effective coping strategies for working in what, for some, is a challenging environment. This model provides a framework that can be adopted by organisations to ensure that the likelihood of their staff experiencing negative feelings is reduced and also suggests future avenues of research.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T01:52:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JIDOB-10-2016-0020
       
 
 
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