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Journal Cover   Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour
  [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2050-8824
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [309 journals]
  • Importance of Locus of Control in Offenders with Intellectual Disability
    • Authors: Matthew Derek Raymond et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2014. Purpose Locus of control (LOC) is the manner in which one attributes their ability to make change in life. This could be through others, fate or chance (externalised), or through oneself (internalised). An internalised LOC results in greater self-belief in the ability to change one's behaviour. Non-disabled offenders with an internalised LOC are more likely to benefit from treatment through therapy and in turn have reduced rates of re-offending. The relationship between LOC and response to treatment is only understood in a limited way for offenders with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in treatment programs. Design/methodology/approach To better understand LOC for offenders with ID, this paper investigates its role in community based therapy outcomes along with its use as a common pre/post measure of treatment success in mainstream offender populations. Drawing upon these findings information more specific to people with ID will be discussed. Findings This paper will then explore the importance of LOC in treating offenders with ID through a review of the current published literature, which generally indicates offenders with ID demonstrate a tendency towards an external LOC in comparison with non-disabled or non-offender groups. Originality/value Given the negative implications for treatment that external LOC may play, several significant therapeutic strategies that can contribute to development of internalised LOC are discussed, in addition to a consideration of other possible variables separate from ID that may play a role in both developing or perpetuating an external LOC.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Feb 2015 00:24:53 GMT
  • Real Work Opportunities: Establishing an Accessible Vocational
           Rehabilitation Programme within a Forensic Intellectual Disability Service
    • Authors: Alyssa Cox et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2014. Purpose Patients treated within secure / forensic settings experience numerous barriers to meaningful vocation, including section restrictions, which limit community access. This paper describes the development of Real Work Opportunities, an inclusive and accessible vocational rehabilitation programme within a forensic intellectual disability service. The programme involved setting up employment and interview workshops, interviews, and interview feedback, and job roles within the secure service, to simulate the real work process. Design/methodology/approach A reflective account of the development and implementation of the Real Work Opportunity programme with a forensic intellectual disability population. Findings The programme was well received by the patients involved and a high attendance rate was maintained over time despite the demands that were expected. Roles have been advertised for two employment periods and have had two sets of successful candidates. Patients demonstrated skills development throughout the employment process, including general work based skills, punctuality and time management, managing duties, responsibility, specific role-related skills, interpersonal skills and personal presentation. Research limitations/implications Despite limited experience of work prior to admission, many patients were enthusiastic and motivated to work. The initial trial of the programme has been well received by both patients and staff. Future developments will include widening the number and types of opportunity offered by the programme. Originality/value This paper describes a vocational rehabilitation programme for a particularly marginalised population, people with intellectual disabilities within a forensic service. The programme proved highly popular with patients, and enabled them to develop transferable employment skills.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Feb 2015 00:24:45 GMT
  • Transformers: A Programme for People with an Intellectual Disability and
           Emotion Regulation Difficulties
    • Authors: Jenna McWilliams et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2014. Purpose The Transformers programme is a community-based intervention for people with an intellectual disability who have emotion regulation difficulties, which can manifest as aggressive and challenging behaviour. The programme was adapted from the Stepping Stones programme (Oxnam & Gardner, 2011)—an emotion regulation programme for offenders with an ID who live in an inpatient setting. This paper describes the development of the Transformers programme that has been implemented at an intellectual disability service, which provides secure and supervised care to people who have been convicted of an imprisonable offence or have high and complex behaviour needs. Design/methodology/approach The Transformers programme is delivered in weekly sessions over a 6-month period in a group format. The focus is on helping group members to develop skills in recognising and understanding negative emotions and learning skills to cope effectively with such emotions. Treatment covers a variety of modules including relaxation, goal setting, chain analysis, emotion recognition, and emotion regulation. Specific strategies used include role-plays, DVDs, and quizzes. Findings This paper presents the rationale, developmental history, and description of a specific approach to the treatment of emotion regulation difficulties. Originality/value The paper aims to inform health professionals working in the field of intellectual disability
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Feb 2015 00:24:39 GMT
  • Forensic Learning Disability Nursing- What's it really like'
    • Authors: Mark Frederick Dalgarno et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2014. Purpose This research was conducted to explore the lived experiences of learning disability nurses working within forensic services, and their views on their practice as a speciality. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative, semi-structured interview based design was used and participant's voices were examined through interpretive phenomenological analysis Findings Nurses explored a range of topics related to their practice and overall, five superordinate themes were developed. Forensic nursing as being both the same and different to generic nursing, the journey, and the emotional challenge of forensic nursing, the balancing act of everyday practice and the role of language within forensic nursing practice. Originality/value Very little research has examined the views of learning disability nurses within the forensic field. This study gives both a voice to these nurses and suggests areas of interest both for research and for clinicians to consider in their practice.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Feb 2015 00:24:34 GMT
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Colin Dale
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2014.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:46:43 GMT
  • Does substance use predict contact with the Criminal Justice System for
           people with intellectual disabilities
    • Authors: Eddie Chaplin et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2014. Purpose This study aims to examine how substances misuse impacts on exposure to the Criminal Justice System for people with intellectual disabilities. Design/methodology/approach An electronic case-register of mental health patients was used to examine the clinical records of 411 patients with intellectual disabilities. Chi-squared x² analysis was performed to test the association between variables and logistic regression to generate estimates for statistically significant association variables. Findings Of 411 cases, 98 (23%) of patient had a history of substance use, with affective disorders strongly associated with alcohol misuse Chi-squared = 4.135, df =1, (p<0,042), similarly statistically significant predictor for alcohol misuse OR: 1.7, 95%CI (1.02-2.72) (p<0.043). Patients with a history of offending behaviour had 3 folds higher risk to misuse drugs compared to those without a forensic conviction OR: 3.17, 95%CI (1.35-7.44) (p<0.008). Those with a history of offending were more likely to have had a history of substance use. Originality/value Substance use and its impact on offending by people with intellectual disability is still poorly understood. This paper adds new information to this under researched area
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jan 2015 16:52:46 GMT
  • Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder- its relevance to Forensic Adolescent
    • Authors: Ernest Gralton et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2014. Purpose There needs to be an increased recognition of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in services that deal with young people with disruptive and offending behaviour, not just those services that deal with adolescents with a recognised intellectual disability. Design/methodology/approach This is a general review of the current available evidence on FASD and how it is likely to predispose affected young people to have contact with secure mental health services and the Criminal Justice system. Findings FASD is likely to have become a more common cause of intellectual disability and behavioural disturbance but the history of significant alcohol exposure in utero if often missed. There is evidence that the hyperactivity is less responsive to psychotropic medication and may represent a different condition to conventional ADHD. However the majority of those affected are in the low normal IQ range. Research limitations/implications There is so far very limited research in what is likely to be a relatively common disorder with significant costs to criminal justice, mental healthcare and social services. Epidemiological information from the UK is lacking and urgently needed. Practical implications Professional who work with mentally disordered young people need to be more aware of FASD and its potential contribution to the problems and disabilities in their population. Originality/value There is currently no other review of FASD and the implications for criminal justice, secure mental health and social care for young people.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jan 2015 00:30:46 GMT
  • Characteristics of referrals and admissions to a medium secure ASD unit.
    • Authors: Therese Anne O' Donoghue et al
      Abstract: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2014. Purpose To present preliminary data on a cohort of patients referred to a specialist forensic medium-secure ASD service during its first two years of opening and to identify variables associated with admission to the service. Design/methodology/approach Data on all referrals to the service (N=40) was obtained from clinical files on demographics, offending history, psychiatric history and levels of therapeutic engagement. The sample was divided into two groups: referred and admitted (N=23) and referred and not admitted (N=17). Statistical analysis compared the two groups on all variables. Findings Ninety four percent of all individuals assessed had a diagnosis of autism, however, structured diagnostic tools for ASD were used in a small minority of cases. About half the sample had a learning disability, almost four fifths had at least one additional mental disorder and almost three quarters had a history of prior supervision failure or non-compliance with treatment. The sample had a wide range of previous offences. No significant differences were found between the groups on any of the variables included in the study. Research limitations/implications The present study presents a starting point to follow up in terms of response to treatment and characteristics associated with treatment outcome. Practical implications The sample had a wide range of clinical and risk related needs. Both groups shared many similarities. Originality/value This highlights the need for comprehensive assessment looking at risk related needs so that individuals are referred to an optimal treatment pathway.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jan 2015 00:30:38 GMT
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