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Scientific Journal of Biological Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2322-1968
     Published by Sjournals Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Effect of temperature and ph on activity of purified cellulase obtained
           from Aspergillus Flavus

    • Authors: I.F. Okonkwo
      Abstract: In view of the fact that temperature and pH play key role inthe activity of fungal cellulases, this experiment was designed to assess theeffect of temperature, and pH on activity of the purified enzyme fromAspergillus flavus derived from rotten wood. The characterizationof the purified cellulase enzyme of Aspergillus flavus was carried out usingcarboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and cotton wool assays. The maximum andoptimum temperatures were 900C and 700C respectively. The pH optima werebetween 5 and 8. The enzyme retained above 50% of its original activity at 1000C for 1h and up to 80% at 80 0C for 1h. It was stable over a pH range of 5-8,and retained up to 40% of its original activity at pH 9. The study carried outshowed that the purified Aspergillus flavus cellulases demonstrated usefulproperties among which include; high optimum temperature, increased thermalstability at both acidic and alkaline pH. They also offer additional advantageas they are more rigid than meso enzymes and moreover, are more resistant tothermal and chemical denaturation. Hence are remarkable tools for developingcommercial biotechnologies and for studying protein stability.
      PubDate: 2014-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Genetic correlation between egg quality traits

    • Authors: J.C. Okonkwo
      Abstract: Genetic correlation coefficients between egg quality traits were studiedusing fifty- six harco pullets raised under standard management practices. Theestimates were carried out at 22-week, 26-week, 30-week and 32-week of age. Eggquality traits studied include egg weight (EW), shell thickness (ST), haughunit (HU), yolk index (YI) and shape index (SI).  Zero to slight negative correlationcoefficients was observed between EW and HU, EW and YI, EW and SI, ST and SI,and HU and YI. This implies that selection for any of the character entailsminimal retrogressive response on corresponding trait. Conversely, zero toslight positive correlation coefficients was recorded between EW and SI, SI andYI, and HU and SI. Again, selection for any of this character will bring abouta slight genetic gain on the corresponding trait. Furthermore, the study maintainedthat the genetic correlation coefficients between egg quality traits areindependent of the laying age, and for faster genetic response in egg qualitytraits, independent culling method. Again, since genes governing the expressionof these egg quality traits appear to be independent of each other, it ispossible to localize, isolate and intersperse these genes simultaneously infoundational poultry lines using biotechnological tools for faster geneticgain.
      PubDate: 2014-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Fertility and hatchability characterization of three strains of egg type
           chickens

    • Authors: T.O. Allanah, J.C. Okonkwo, S.I. Omeje
      Abstract: The fertility and hatchability characteristics of three popular strainsof egg type chickens in Nigeria, namely chickens (ISABROWN), Alpha (Improved native) and the local strain (Pure native) chickenswere studied. They were compared from twenty weeks of age using 15 hens and 3cocks from each strain. The parameters recorded were egg production, eggweight, percent fertility and hatchability. The experiment was replicated threetimes. The data obtained showed that the improved native strain produced moreeggs followed by the exotic strain and lastly, the pure native strain. ISA Brownstrain and improved native strain were similar in egg weight; but performedbetter than pure native and the other strains. The ISA Brown recorded mean eggweight of 59.27 ± 0.02, Improved native recorded mean egg weight of 53.10 ± 002 and the purenative recorded mean egg weight of 41.00 ± 0.02. Conversely, fertility was highest in the pure native strain(86.04) followed by improved native strain 83.08) and the exotic strainrecorded the least percent fertility of (68.21). Hatchability was highest inthe improved native strains with percentage hatchability of 77.33, followed bythe pure native of percentage hatchability of 73.55 and ISA Brown (exotic)recorded the least percentage hatchability of 61.24. From the findings, theimproved native did well in all the parameters investigated and has enough roomto carry out selection for improvement.
      PubDate: 2014-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Parasitemia and Antimalarial-Induced Histological Alterations and
           Oxidative stress in Infected Mice

    • Authors: Isaac Olayinka Oyewole
      Abstract: In lieu of the reports on re-emergence of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum, the choice of the drug for the treatment of malaria especially in the endemic areas may not be ruled out. Here, we reported the antioxidative status and histology of some vital organs in mice infected with P. berghei and subsequently treated with chloroquine. The study was a 4 by 10 model design as follows: the control non-infected, the infected (IN) and chloroquine-treated infected (CqTI)/non-infected (CqTNI) mice. The challenged animals were subjected to five days treatment after parasitemia was established using Gemsa stain. Assays were conducted on the animals following standard procedures. The results showed that parasitemia and Chloroquine induced oxidative stress in (IN) and (CqTNI) groups. This was indicated by significant (p<0.05) changes in the antioxidant defence indices viz superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein concentration. There were also alterations in the architectures of some vital organs such as liver, kidney and heart of the experimental groups compared with control. The subsequent treatment of the infected group with Chloroquine (CqTI) restored some of the indices altered during the infection to a normal level. This study shows that malaria and its radical treatment in vivo can induce oxidative stress which in turn can cause injury to the host tissues particularly during chronic administration of Chloroquine-an implication for prolong intake of the drug.
      PubDate: 2014-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Yield analysis of bread wheat under saline conditions using some
           statistical procedures

    • Authors: Amir Gholizadeh, Hamid Dehghani, Yan Dvorak
      Abstract: Study on the interrelationships between yield and related yield traits will improve the efficiency of breeding programs through the use of appropriate selection indices. In this research, the relationship among wheat seed yield and its contributing components under salt stress condition were investigated by using three statistical procedures including; principal components, factor analysis and cluster analysis. The experiment was conducted under saline field conditions based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Electrical conductivity of irrigation water was 10ds.m-1. Results indicated that biological yield, plant height and chlorophyll content were the most effective variables influencing seed yield. Based on the results, it seems that high yield of wheat plants under saline field conditions can be obtained by selecting breeding materials with high biological yield, harvest index and chlorophyll content.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Some biological aspect of Carasobarbus luteus (Heckel, 1843) in Hoor
           Al-azim wetland

    • Authors: Afrooz Eydizadeh, Gholam reza Eskandary, Seyed Ahmad reza Hashemi
      Abstract: The Population Dynamics and status of Hemeri (Carasobarbus luteus) in Hoor Al-azim wetland (Khuzestan provinces, Iran) were investigated to derive information required for their management. During this study from 2011 to 2012more than 460 specimens C. lutus were measured. Mean±S.D length Values for this species were 228±15 respectively and maximum and minimum total length were 118 mm and 362 mm respectively. Mean ±S.D weight Values for this species were 190±91gr and maximum and minimum weight were 86- 416 gr respectively. The length-weight relation were calculated as Y=0.0018L3.18 (n=466, R2 =0.96) for total fishes, growth pattern is isometric (P>0.05). The mean Values of condition factor (K) were 1.38± 0.07 in male specimens and 1.43± 0.11 for female specimens. The highest values of K were observed in April and the lowest in October were observed. The mean size at first sexual maturity (Lm) was 210 mm for total fish, and maturity stages indicated that spawning time were occurred during April to July.
      PubDate: 2014-03-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Time course for cellulase enzyme production by Aspergillus Flavus using
           different organic nitrogen sources

    • Authors: I.F. Okonkwo, F.J.C. Odibo, C.M. Obele
      Abstract: The time course for the production of cellulase enzyme of Aspergillus flavus was carried out at 35οC in a shaken incubator using modified Mandel and Weber’s medium containing in ( g/l) (NH4)2S0­4 1.4, KH2P04 2.0, Urea 0.3, MgS047H20 0.3, CaCl3 0.3 FeS047H20 0.005, ZnS047H200.0014, MnS04H20 0.0016, CoCl3 0.002, Tween 80  2.0 ml, Carboxymethylcellulose 10.0 and pH 6.8. It indicated a period of 120 h (5days) as the optimum incubation period under the experimental condition using CMC as substrate.  The mycelia growth pattern (biomass) indicated highest growth on the fifth day also corresponding to the time of maximum enzyme activity.  The results from the studies also showed that Mandel and Weber’s Medium was better than other substitutions with alternative nitrogen sources in all the assays, followed by yeast extract and the least being soya bean meal. The study therefore maintained that Mandel and Weber’s Medium is the best at 5 days incubation for cellulase production by Aspergillus flavus.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • An histochemical study of the effects of immunosuppressive drug
           azathioprine on the cytoarchitecture of the testes of adult wistar rats
           (rattus norvegicus)

    • Authors: I.O. Onanuga, R.B. Ibrahim, R. Jaji-Sulaimon, C.N.B. Tagoe, O.B. Akinola
      Abstract: In this study weemployed some histochemical techniques to evaluate the effect of ascorbic acidon azathioprine-induced alterations in the testis of adult Wistar rats. Maleadult Wistar rats (n=30) with mean weight 210±2.65 g were assigned into fourtreatment (n=24) and control (n=6) groups. Animals were treated with 25 and 50mg/kg azathioprine (AZA) alone (Grps II and IV) and in combination with 25 and50 mg/kg ascorbic acid (Grps III and V) for 21 days while control animalsreceived 1 ml distilled water. 24 h Post-treatment, animals were sacrificed,their testes were excised, weighed and fixed in Bouins’ fluid for histochemicalstudies of reticulin and collagen. The histochemical findings of testissections indicated cyto-architectural distortions in the treated groups whencompared to the control group. This findings show that ascorbic acid at dosesadministered did not ameliorate the damages caused by azathioprine.
      PubDate: 2014-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Knowledge and practice of management of acute respiratory infection among
           mothers of under five years children in rural Nepal

    • Authors: D. Acharya, U.C. Ghimire, S. Gautam
      Abstract: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) accounts for nearly one-fifth ofchildhood deaths worldwide, with approximately two million children under fivedying each year. ARI in Nepal continues to be one of the major causes ofchildhood morbidity and mortality. A community based cross-sectional study wasconducted to identify the knowledge and practices of ARI case management inrural community people. This was community based cross sectional study carriedout in Bacchauli Village Development Committee (VDC) of Chitwan District ofNepal.  A total of 132 mothers wereinterviewed with pre-tested, semi-structured interview schedule in the studyusing proportionate random sampling technique. For collecting data, selected householdswere visited by 22 June to 30 July 2011. Data were analyzed using SPSS version18. More than two fifth (41%) of study the mothers were 20 to 24 years-old agegroup and most (90.9%) of them were housewives. Almost all (94%) studypopulation had known about ARI, and they reported as ARI when chill coughs(78%), followed by running nose (71%) and sore throat (39%). Most (90%) of themreported pneumonia as a serious disease and only 48% had knowledge about itssign of seriousness. Most of mothers(90% )reported that they providedsupportive treatment at home while only 7% reported that they provided  modern medicines by themselves and commonlyused supportive treatment was Tulasi leaf (ocimum tenuiflorum).  Majority (56%) of mothers take their child nearbyhealth post for treatment and (26%) visit private nursing home. The mothers ofTharu community lacks knowledge on symptoms of severity of ARI, its managementand timely seeking health care. This study suggests that community basedawareness program should be conducted on ARI.
      PubDate: 2014-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Fermented Beer-based Bait Attracted Insects Taxa in Songculan Lagoon,
           Songculan, Dauis, Bohol, Philippines

    • Authors: M.C. Hongayo, C.L. Balahay, M.E.P. Cajes, O. Sumampong
      Abstract: Insects are thedominant group of animals that have elongated body with distinct head, thoraxand abdomen that are bilaterally symmetric. Their presences in the ecosystemare mutually benefited by plants for they serve as the main pollinators andseed dispersal. Insects also add in the transmission of disease and parasitismin other animals. This study determined and compared the relative abundanceamong stations and compared the results of the day-and-night sample collectionsof the insect taxa attracted to fermented beer-based bait trap in SongculanLagoon, Songculan, Dauis, Bohol, Philippines. There were five (5) identified insect taxa namely; Blattodea,Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera.
      PubDate: 2014-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in cereals and cereal based products: a short
           review

    • Authors: A. Tajehmiri, M.A. Aliabadi, R.K. Darsanaki
      Abstract: During recentdecades, the contamination of cereal grains with toxic metabolites of Fusariumspecies has been increasingly documented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of themost common trichothecene toxins produced by F. graminearum. Wheat,rice, corn (maize), oats, barley and other grains used for human and animalconsumption are frequently contaminated with DON. DON affects animal and humanhealth causing vomiting, acute temporary nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain,headache, dizziness, and fever. In this paper, we reviewed recent studies inDON contamination in cereals and cereal based products.
      PubDate: 2014-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Xylinasic and amylasic activities of some microorganisms in the digestive
           exudate of termites (Macrotermes subhyalinus and Macrotermes bellicosus)

    • Authors: Soumaila DABONNE
      Abstract: Termites are terrestrial insects involved in the degradation of complex substances such as cellulose and hemicellulose found into the plant. They thus influence soil properties and contribute to the emission of methane gas. The ability of these Isoptera to digest complexes molecules may associated to the enzymatic activity of intestinal microorganisms. The overall aim of this study was to isolate and make a presumptive identification of cultivable microorganisms in the digestive tract of termites Macrotermes subhyalynus and Macrotermes bellicosus harvested. And search for glycosidase activities produced by the microflora. To achieve this goal 120 insects belonging to two castes (Macrotermes subhyalynus and Macrotermes bellicosus) were collected on termite mounds located at the Felix Houphouet Boigny University of Cocody (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire). The intestines of these Isoptera were collected under aseptic conditions and seeded on agar PCA, VRBL, MRS and Sabouraud chloramphenicol. Moreover, the enzymatic activities were investigated in bacteria obtained according to the method of Bernfeld (1955). The results show that in both species of termites, Gram + bacilli had the majority. On nutrient agar, genera Bacillus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus were identified. On MRS agar, the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus have been identified. On agar VRBL, genera Enterobacter, Yersinia, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Serratia, Escherichia and Yersinia were isolated. Finally, amylasic activities were observed in yeast strains and Lactobacillus. The xylanasic activity was produced by yeast strains of Bacillus and two unidentified strains.
      PubDate: 2014-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
       
  • Promoting micro livestock farming to enhance animal product supply in Sub
           Saharan Africa

    • Authors: never assan
      Abstract: In Sub Saharan Africa the demand for food of animal origin is growing much faster than production due to improved health  education, higher income per capita and ever increasing population growth. Production of animal products has been outpaced with the dramatic increase in human population. This has necessitated increased production through engaging or production of  alternative sources of animal protein. The discussion suggest the utilization of micro livestock species as a feasible option to meet the animal product demand. Owing to the pace at which populations are growing, in many Sub Saharan African countries  livestock products will be  beyond the reach of ordinary person, unless alternative sources of animal protein are sort. Micro livestock are likely to become increasingly important as a result of rapid increase in human population and urbanization. The space for raising conventional livestock have decreased and this scenario has called for keeping of smaller animals which are prolific. It is envisaged that serious consideration of micro livestock  as one of the major  component of the livestock production will alleviate protein deficiency in the majority of the population in the region.
      PubDate: 2014-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
       
  • Irregular cytokinesis during microsporogenesis of Psychotria myriantha
           Mull. Arg.

    • Authors: A. R. Alonso-Pereira, S. M. Godoy, C. Risso-Pascotto
      Abstract: The Rubiaceae family is composed of approximately 550 generaand 9000 species. In spite of its great number of species and importance, fewcytological studies on the genus Psychotria are extant, whereas cytogeneticanalyses deal with the number of chromosomes of a few species. This study describesfor the first time the meiotic process during the microsporogenesis of P.myriantha. Analysis showed some irregularities during microsporogenesis and themost frequent is related to the cytokinesis process. Results show that 91.75%of microspores and 94.44% of pollen grains had normal behavior during themicrosporogenesis process..
      PubDate: 2013-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Variations in proximate and minerals composition of wild and cultivated
           clarias gariepinus (burchell, 1822)

    • Authors: P.M. Omoniyia, F. E. Adedayob, A. J. Idowu
      Abstract: The proximateand minerals composition of wild and farmed Clarias gariepinus was studied toidentify nutritional difference that might induced by habitat change. Thirty sixindividual fish from both wild and hatchery-raised population were (averageweight = 0.78+1.23kg) collected from fishermen from river Oluwa, Osun and Owenaand from fish farmers in Akure, Ado Ekiti and Ilesa in Ondo  Ekiti and Osun state respectively. The fishtissue were subjected to chemical analysis of protein, lipid, moisture ash andmineral content. The moisture contents recorded in muscle of wild and culturedC. gariepinus cultured was 5.75± 0.07 and 5.57 ± 0.10% respectively. Proteincontents in muscle from farmed and wild C. gariepinus were measured as69.35±0.08% and 67.23±0.07%, respectively. In wild and farmed C. gariepinus, lipids contents were measured as 16.03±0.08% and 18.61 ±0.09% respectively. C. gariepinus was analyzed for estimationof total ash contents which were 9.15±0.07% in wild  and 8.41±0.08% in farmed C. gariepinus. Theminerals analysis revealed that C. gariepinus samples from wild hadsignificantly higher value in Mn, Cu and Mg, (1.95±0.04, 1.69±0.05 and1.82±0.43 respectively). The mean value for S, Ca, P, Na and K weresignificantly higher (0.32±0.04, 2.74±0.06, 0.44±0.06, 5.08±0.05 and 5.56±0.04)in cultured samples than the wild samples. No significant difference was observed for Zn and Co between thecultured and the wild fish. A significant difference was observed in chemicalcomposition of the fish obtained from wild and cultured sources. Higher levelof protein and lipids were observed in cultured C. gariepinus but lower in wildC. gariepinus. Values for moisture and ash content were significantly higher inwild C. gariepinus. It can be concluded that wild C. gariepinus collected fromsome rivers in south-west less contain protein and lipid and more moisture andash content compared with cultured C. gariepinus from the same region.
      PubDate: 2013-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Effect of maternal alcohol consumption on the growth rates of accessory
           sex organs in neonatal mice

    • Authors: J.E. ONU
      Abstract: The effect of maternal alcohol consumption on the growth rate of accessory sex organs (seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral glands ) in neonatal mice was investigated using 120 male mice offspring obtained from 36 female mice divided into three groups, 1, 2 and 3 of 12 mice each. The pups of group 1 served as control while those of groups 2 and 3 were given 30% ethanol (v/v) during pregnancy (P) and during pregnancy and lactation (PL) respectively. At 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age, 10 male pups were randomly selected from each of the three groups and sacrificed. After sacrifice, the accessory sex organs were dissected out and their weights determined. Thereafter, the relative growth rates of the organs were determined. The results showed significant increase (p<0.05) in the growth rates of accessory sex organs in P and PL when compared with the control. The investigation has therefore demonstrated that maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy and during pregnancy and lactation affects the growth rate of accessory sex organs in the neonates and that the organs attempted catch-up growth with the control.
      PubDate: 2013-10-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Testicular growth and testosterone levels in male wistar rat offspring
           exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation

    • Authors: J.E. Onu
      Abstract: The effect of alcohol on testicular growth and testosterone levels in male rat offspring whose dams were exposed during pregnancy and/or lactation was investigated.  Seventy-five adult female Wistar rats and their offspring were used.  The female rats were divided into 3 groups of 25 each.  The offspring of group 1 served as control, the offspring of group 2 was exposed to 2g/kg body weight of 30% ethanol (v/v) during pregnancy  and lactation (APL) while those of group 3 was exposed to the same dose of ethanol during lactation only (AL)..  At Day (D)7, D14, D21, D35 and D49 of postnatal life, 5 male offspring were randomly selected from the three groups and sacrificed.  After the sacrifice, the two testes were dissected out and their weights determined.  At D21, D35 and D49, blood sample for testosterone determination was collected from 5 male offspring. The result of the investigation showed significant reduction (P<0.05) in relative weights of the testes and significant increase (P<0.05) in testosterone levels in the alcohol-exposed male offspring relative to the controls. The reduced testicular weights and increased testosterone levels which persisted into adulthood may have implications for male fertility in offspring of dams who abuse alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation.
      PubDate: 2013-10-28
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Recent advances in biomass and biogas development and perspectives:
           bringing together geographical and sociological imaginations

    • Authors: A. M. Omer
      Abstract: Biogas from biomass appears to have potentialas an alternative energy source, and biomass resources are available worldwide.This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogastechnology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological,social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article givesan overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock forthe production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. To be truly competitivein an open market situation, higher value products are required. Resultssuggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested in,implemented and demonstrated, especially in remote rural areas.
      PubDate: 2013-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Microsatellite DNA marker in aquatic organisms

    • Authors: A. Moradi, S. Keyvanshokooh
      Abstract: For the last 50 years, attempts have been made to discriminate amongpopulations by using molecular markers. Although some techniques have provedsuccessful in certain circumstances, the consistent trend to newer markersamong fishery geneticists highlights the general lack of resolving powerobserved with older technologies. The last three decade has seen the increasinguse of satellite DNA in investigations of genetic variability and divergence. Thelarge interest in microsatellite loci is largely due to the very high levels ofvariability that have been observed and the ability to investigate thisvariation using PCR technology. The isolation and application ofmicrosatellites to research fields as diverse as population genetics, parentageanalyses and genome mapping are reviewed. Statistical considerations (e.g.appropriate sample sizes, number of loci and the mutation model assumptions onwhich the estimate is based) have not been considered in detail yet and theproblems are often exacerbated in aquatic species, as some species show verylarge numbers of alleles at microsatellite loci
      PubDate: 2013-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Some biological aspect of thinspine seacatfish (plicofollis tenuispinis)
           in northwest of persian gulf (Khuzestan coastal waters, Iran)

    • Authors: S.A. Hashemi, S.A. Taghavimotlagh, A. Hedayati, R. Ghorbani
      Abstract: During this studyfrom December 2009 to November 2011, 403 Thinspine  seacatfish fish were caught and their weightand length were measured. Total number of caught fishes included, 33 males, 77females and 293 immature fishes. The Mean, maximum and minimum total lengths were236±82, 470 mm and 121 mm respectively. The Mean, maximum and minimum totalweight for this species was 184±150gr, 1385 gr and 14gr respectively. Thelength-weight relationship were calculated as W=0.000006FL3.07 (n=77, R2= 0.98)for females, W=0.000004FL3.15 (n=33, R2=0.98) for males and W=0.000007FL3.08(n=403, R2 =0.98) for total fishes verifying calculated b with 3, usingStudents t-test there was significant difference between calculated b and 3(P<0.05), growth pattern is allometric. The mean Values of condition factor(K) and Hepatosomatic Index (HIS) was 0/95± 0/09, 1/54± 0/2 in for totalspecimens. The highest value of K and HIS were observed in May, August and thelowest in December, June were observed. The mean value of Gonado somatic Index(GSI) for the total specimens were 0/89 ± 0/7. For both sexes, the highest GSIvalue were observed in April and the lowest GSI value in May were observed.Mean GSI value indicated that spawning time were occurred during April.  The mean size at first sexual maturity (Lm)was 358mm for total fishes.
      PubDate: 2013-08-27
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
 
 
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