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Journal Cover Scientific Journal of Biological Sciences
  [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2322-1968
   Published by Sjournals Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Influences of prenatal and postnatal stress on cognitive function and fear
           memory consolidation

    • Authors: Maryam Nazari, Hossein Rajabzadeh, Masoumeh Dadkhah, Ali Boustani, Nasroallah Moradi kor
      Abstract: Stress can be defined as the brain response to any demand. Maternal exposure to stress during pregnancy may have negative effects on fetal and infant neurodevelopment, including delayed mental and motor development, difficult temperament, and impaired cognitive performance. Some of these effects are seen on brain structure and function and in the risk for later depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Stress in adolescence appears to have lasting effects on brain regions such as the hippocampus and alters mood and anxiety-related behaviors in animal models, as well as cognitive function. The brain is the key organ of the response to stress because it determines what is threatening and, therefore, potentially stressful, as well as the physiological and behavioral responses which can be either adaptive or damaging. Stressors in adult life alter neuronal morphology in brain regions such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex and influence learning, anxiety, executive function, and somatic-visceral functions. Exposure to stress and stress hormones during the prenatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood or aging, has an impact on brain structures involved in cognition and mental health. As demonstrated in the above, generally stress can have wide ranging effects on emotions, mood and behavior.

      PubDate: 2015-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • The effects of Ephedra (Ephedra funereal) and protexin probiotic on some
           blood parameters in male Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica)

    • Authors: Farshid Kheiri, Hasan Ali Ghasemi, Sayeed Mohammad Ali Jalali Hajiabadi
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Ephedra and protexin on performance and some hematological parameters of male Japanese quail. A total of 240 seven days old quail chicks were divided into 8 treatments with 3 replicates as factorial randomized design. The treatments were divided as basal diet with no protexin and Ephedra kept as control, and 0.02 % (E1), 0.04% (E2) and 0.06 % (E3) Ephedra with 0.01 % or without protexin as P0 and P 1 were used respectively. The live body weight gains and feed consumption of birds were measured individually feed conversion efficiency were calculated. At the end of the trial for investigating the effect of using protexin and Ephedra supplementation on performance of quails, 2 birds (male) form each replicates were slaughtered and some blood samples were taken for hematological parameters determination. Data showed that using of protexin and Ephedra increased feed intake (FI) in treatments compared to control. Also body weight (BW) (g/d) and Pre-slaughter weigh (g) were higher in protexin and Ephedra compared to the control. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) for feed conversation ratio (FCR) among treatments. As result was relevant from this study there were significant differences (p≤0.05) between blood parameters. Data showed that the glucose level had increased none significantly by using Ephedra and protexin. The triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL were increased significantly (p≤0.05) by using experimental diets. HDL, albumin and globulin levels were decreased by using Ephedra and protexin. In conclusion we demonstrated that protexin and Ephedra may be used as ingredient in quails ration without harming effects on performance and some blood parameters of male Japanese quails.
      PubDate: 2015-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Sero-prevalence of infectious bronchitis antibodies in local chickens in
           live bird markets in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    • Authors: H.U. Mungadi, U.M. Mera, Y.A. Adamu, U. Musa, C.R. Achi
      Abstract: A total of 161 apparently healthy male and female, grower and adult local chickens were sampled from Live bird Markets (LMB) in four Agricultural zones of the State; Gwadabawa, Tambuwal, Isa and Sokoto. They were screened for antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus using Enzyme linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The results obtained showed that the overall prevalence for the State was 89%, the seroprevalence was 88.89% in males and 89.00 % in females, 91.50% in adults and 70.00% in growers sampled. No significant difference was obtained between male and female chickens tested (χ2 >0.05) but significant difference was obtained in adult and grower chickens (χ2 < 0.05). No routine vaccination against infectious bronchitis is usually carried out in the area; the high prevalence observed may suggest natural infection. Efforts should be made to determine strains of IBV circulating in the study area so as to enable the choice of appropriate vaccine.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Genotype and sex influencing dressing percentage, carcass parameters and
           meat quality properties in indigenous chickens

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: Indigenous or village or local  chickens  are  an important  source of animal protein in the form of meat and eggs, contribute to rural food security and are an important avenue for woman empowerment as indigenous chickens in poor communities are mostly owned by women in Sub Saharan Africa. There are many factors that affect dressing percentage, carcass traits and meat quality properties in indigenous chicken, such as genetics, nutrition, environment, and additives, however, genetics is one of the most important factors. The knowledge on variability of genotype of indigenous chicken accompanied by manipulation of their production system will  translate into a specific desirable  dressing percentage, carcass characteristic and meat quality properties, which is paramount criteria for consumers when it comes to making purchasing decisions. Therefore, using different indigenous chicken genotypes, the producer may sort to employ management practices which furnish with acceptable dressing percentage, carcass and meat quality properties which do not compromise and maintain health in consumers. However, very few studies have been reported on the utilization of different indigenous chickens genotypes in improvement of carcass and meat quality properties. Feeding systems, slaughter age and rearing systems are some of the environmental factors which have been examined in indigenous chickens to determine their influence on carcass and meat quality properties. It has been noted that varying the discrete variables such as genotype and sex had significant differences in the nature of corresponding carcass and meat quality properties in indigenous chickens. Variations in the genetic make-up and sexual dimorphism in indigenous chickens accounted for the observed differences in dressing percentage and carcass characteristic. The preceding review gives some insight on the influence of genotype and sex on dressing percentage, carcass parameters and meat quality properties in indigenous chickens.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Role of garlic in dyslipidemia: an evidence based review

    • Authors: F. Jahan, K. Nanji, W. Qidwai
      Abstract: Rapidly growing morbidity and mortality due to heart disease is a great concerned for scientist. Among the etiology of atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia is a major risk factor. Garlic has active ingredients of allium sativum used in high blood pressure management. Garlic has been used as a therapeutic agent for many illnesses such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence from various studies and clinical trials proved the efficacy of garlic to reduce lipid level.However, some contradictory results are also reported. This review was undertaken to assess the role of garlic therapy in dyslipidemia. Major databases including Google, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library view were used for literature search. Clinical trials conducted on humans assessing role of garlic therapy in dyslipidemia and the possible mechanisms responsible for such therapeutic actions were assessed. Several trials and meta-analyses have suggested positive effect of garlic on total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG). This review on garlic therapy in dyslipidemia suggests that it reduces elevated cholesterol to a modest extent.
      PubDate: 2015-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Sensibility of uropathogens in pregnant women with asymptomatic
           bacteriuria in Lome, Togo

    • Authors: A.A. Fouda, T.D. Segla, S. Mounerou, C. Adawaye, T.H.Z. Bertin, T. Abdelsalam, D.K. Kodjo, A. Yaovi
      Abstract: To investigate antibiotic therapy with pregnant women to asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) in Prenatal Consultation (PNC) without prior urinary tract infection at the moment of the visit in Lome health center. The urines were collected following the rules on hygienic good practices. We conducted the systematic urine culture on a chromogenic medium (Uriselect4). It enables us to identify a specific enzyme of a bacterial species or a group of species. The susceptibility was carried out following the agar - based spreading method. The following strains were the main uropathogens isolated : Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia , Enterobacter claocea , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Enterococcus fecalis. Antibiotic discs from the family of Beta – lactam , lincosamide , polypeptic and quinolone were tested on various bacterial strains. All bacterial strains were resistant to ampicillin and amoxcilline. Staphococcus aureus presented resistance to cefoperazone , erythromycin and spiramycin. Enterococcus faecalis was resistant to cephalothin , ceftazidime and chloramphenicol. The susceptibility was stressed with the view of achieving an adapted antibiotic therapy with zero effect on the foetus and the future mother.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Evaluation of the stocking rate on growth performance, carcass traits and
           meat quality of male peking ducks

    • Authors: E.O. Ahaotu, C.A. Agbasu, I.C. Okoli
      Abstract: Two hundred and forty male Peking ducklings were raised in four litter pens at random to provide stocking densities of 2, 4, 6 and 8 birds/m2 on the floor and 4, 8, 12 and 16 birds/m2 in cages. The birds were fed ad libitum during the day and equally exposed to all necessary management practices. The trial was conducted to observe the comparative carcass traits and meat quality. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in back, wings, neck and feed conversion ratio. Dressing percentage decreased (p<0.05) with increasing density above 4 birds/m2 on floor and in cages respectively.  Results from this study showed that stocking rate had no effect on physical characteristics of breast and thigh meat.
      PubDate: 2015-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Toxicity and analgesic studies of leaf methanolic extract of Maytenus
           Senegalensis (LAM.) Exell (Celastraceae)

    • Authors: A.A. Murjanatu, K.Y. Musa, G. Ibrahim, M.G. Magaji
      Abstract: The leaf methanolic extract of Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell was investigated for toxicity and analgesic effects. Acute toxicity was investigated via intraperitoneal route using mice and rats, analgesic activity was investigated using two models; acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and formalin induced pain in rats. The extract was determined to have LD (50) of 1264.91 mg/kg in both mice and rats. It significantly (0.001) inhibited acetic acid-induced writhes in mice at all doses administered (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner and significantly (0.01) inhibited formalin induced pain in rats, in a non-dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect observed was higher in the extract compared to the standard used (piroxicam). The results obtained suggested the extract to be relatively toxic in both mice and rats with a dose dependent anti-nociceptive activity.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • The effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on the pregnancy rate of
           resynchronized Nellore cows submitted to fixed-time insemination

    • Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) during resynchronization on the pregnancy rates of Nellore cows submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination. A group comprised of 100 multiparae Nellore cows was submitted to a resynchronizing protocol: on day 0 the subjects received the Bovine Intravaginal Device with 1,0g of progesterone (P4), associated with intramuscular administration of 2,0mg of estradiol benzoate (IM); on day 8, the Bovine Intravaginal Device  (DIB®) was removed, and 1,0mg of estradiol cypionate, 0,15mg of prostaglandin F2α and 300 UI of equine chorionic gonadotropin were administered; on day 10, fixed-time artificial insemination  was conducted (FTAI ). The subjects were then randomized into Control Group (n=50) and Treated Group (n=50), of which the latter received 500mg of rbST on the eighth day of the protocol. Sixty days after the fixed-time artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnoses were conducted via rectal palpation. Blood samples were taken to measure plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Pregnancy rates were statistically evaluated through Generalized Linear Models Theory, and their significance was tested through Analysis of Deviance. No difference was found between groups, pregnancy rates were 40% and 48% for control and treated groups, respectively. Cholesterol plasma concentrations were also not affected by the treatment with rbST. There were significant increases in serum glucose and triglycerides between groups. The administration of rbST to multiparae Nellore cows, in a single dose, did not statistically interfere in the pregnancy rates. The resynchronization of estrus and re-insemination had a positive effect in cumulative pregnancy rates.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Genotype influencing yield and milk composition in different dairy
           production systems

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: The milk yield and milk composition of dairy animals are influenced by a large number of factors. Generally, these factors are based on genetic and non-genetic  differences between dairy animals. While the genetic potential of an animal is fixed at conception, non genetic factors such as nutrition, management, milking frequency, rearing methods, stage of lactation, etc. determine whether  genetic  potential is attained. Therefore, the maximum marketable milk yield with different fat and protein content is desirable to producers to increase farm profitability and can be affected by choice of appropriate genotype. The present discussion explores the  consequences of  choice of genotype  in dairy production enterprises for the milk yield and composition. The discussion points to the fact that genotype affect either yield or milk composition during the entire lactation. However, across genotypes fat and protein yields  are affected by both the quantity of milk produced and fat or protein percentages in the milk.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • L-Arginine optimization medium for hairy root induction of madder (Rubia
           tinctorum L.) based on one factor model of response surface methodology

    • Authors: Mehdi Ghorbani, Mansoor Omidi, Seyed Ali Peighambari
      Abstract: Medium optimization for hairy root cultures producing secondary metabolites was studied through statistical experimental design. In the following, one factor model of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to formulate the L-Arginine amino acid levels alongside three categorical factors including bacterial strains (ATCC 15834, C58C1 and R1000), type of explant (Leaf and Stem) in co-cultivation media (B5 and MS) for hairy root induction of Madder (Rubia tinctorum L.). Design of experiment and data analysis was carried out by using Expert-Design® 7.1 software. According to the results, modeling and optimization conditions, including L-Arginine concentration 1.00 mM; bacterial strain; C58C1, leaf explant and B5 medium for HR induction frequency equal to 58% was evaluated (Desirability point=0.986). These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed to enhance hairy root induction as an application potential for biotechnological implementation to produce the anticipated compounds.
      PubDate: 2014-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Study of genetic variation and phenetic relationships in some vulnerable
           taxa from Indian sundarbans following RAPD marker analysis

    • Authors: A. Sarkar, A.K. Sarkar, P.K. Sen
      Abstract: The mangrove ecosystem plays an important role in maintaining coastal ecological balance and is also one of the most highly productive and dynamic ecosystems to mankind, providing food, livelihood and ecological security. The plant species of this ecosystem are constantly under environmental stress due to the highly saline conditions and extreme temperatures. Studying the genetic diversity of mangrove plants is important in taking effective measures to protect these species. The present study, being the first attempt in Indian Sundarbans, deals with RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) marker study of three IUCN declared ‘Vulnerable’ mangrove species viz. Xylocarpus granatum, Xylocarpus mekongensis and Heritiera fomes of Indian Sundarbans to assess its genetic diversity to trace their reduction in population size. These were collected from two distinct populations of Indian Sundarbans i.e. Sajnekhali Tiger Reserve and Bonnie Camp area. It was found that intra-specific polymorphism was highest (80%) in Xylocarpus granatum in and lowest (60 %) in Xylocarpus mekongensis while Heritiera fomes showed moderate (71.42 %) level of polymorphism. The decreasing population size can be assessed through the low genetic variation of Xylocarpus mekongensis and Heritiera fomes rather than Xylocarpus granatum. It can further be said that comparatively high genetic variation of Xylocarpus granatum, though, does not exactly correspond to its population structure, it may be due to its isolated distribution, dissimilar edaphic factors and different anthropogenic activities within the mangroves of Indian Sundarbans. We can conclude that molecular marker study provides an effective tool to access the existing inter- and intra-specific genetic polymorphism within mangrove species of Indian Sundarbans and to explore their conservation strategy.
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Mechanisms of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizae
           fungi to enhancement of plant growth under salinity stress: A review

    • Authors: Hamid Reza Boostani, Mostafa Chorom, Abdol Amir Moezzi, Naeimeh Enayatizamir
      Abstract: Salinity is the major environmental factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Under salinity conditions, plant growth is affected by a number of factors such as hormonal and nutritional imbalance, ion toxicity, physiological disorders, susceptibility to diseases, etc. Plant growth under stress conditions may be enhanced by the application of microbial inoculation including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizal fungi. These microbes can promote plant growth by regulating nutritional and hormonal balance, producing plant growth regulators, solubilizing nutrients and inducing resistance against plant pathogens. The present review comprehensively discusses on the effectiveness of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi for enhancing plant growth under salinity stress. The mechanisms involved in plant salinity tolerance under stress conditions have been discussed at length in this review. Also the review discusses the role of rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae in combination in enhancing plant growth under stress conditions.
      PubDate: 2014-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The effects of shrubs Salsola arbusculiformis Drob. on soil chemical and
           physical characteristics in North east rangelands of Iran

    • Authors: Ali Mohammad Asaadi, Gholam Ali Heshmati, Ali Reza Dadkhah
      Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of Salsola arbusculiformis on soil physico-chemical characteristics in rangelands of in Garmeh Located in northeast of Iran. After surveying the regions, the three sites (karnakh, Aspakho, Robat) with Salsola arbusculiformis were selected. Vegetation cover and soil parameters were sampled by a random systematic method, in each region. Five transects each 100 meter length were selected and then 50 plots by the average of 1m ×2m were randomly chosen and vegetation cover parameters such as percentage canopy cover, production, density and percentage litter were measured in the key area of each site. Soil samples were taken from two depths (0-30, 30-60 cm) under plant and in control areas. The measured characteristics of soil included texture, electrical conductivity (EC), acidity (pH), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Organic matter(OM), CaCO3 and CaSO4 .Data were analyzed using SPSS software under windows. One-way ANOVA and T-test were used to compare the data related to planted and control treatments. Results showed that Salsola arbusculiformis significantly increased the amount of K, pH, EC, N, Na (P<0.01), and O.M (P<0.05). In these sites measured characteristics of soil in planted areas were more than the control ones.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Nosocomial infection in surgical site wounds caused by staphylococcus
           aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa: case study of four major hospitals in
           Benue State

    • Authors: I. Michael Unata, O. Edith Chinenye
      Abstract: Surgical sites wound swab specimens were collected from four major hospitals in Benue State Nigeria namely; Federal Medical Centre Makurdi, General hospital Gboko, General hospital Otukpo and General hospital North bank, Makurdi over a period of seven months and were examined bacteriologically..  Out of a total of 300 samples examined, 170 had bacterial isolates and of these 61(35.9%) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 39(22.9%) Staphylococcus aureus and 25(14.7%) co-infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.  Other bacterial isolates were Klebsiella species 12(7.1%), Escherichia coli 10(5.9%), atypical coliform 8(4.7%), Proteus species 7(4.1%), Enterococcus faecalis 4(2.4%) and Streptococcus pyogenes 4(2.4%).  The incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was higher at Federal Medical Centre Makurdi (33; 25.3%) than at other hospitals namely General Hospital Gboko (24; 34.3%), General Hospital Otukpo (14; 20.6%) and General Hospital North Bank Makurdi (15; 23.8%).  Staphylococcus aureus occurred also more at the Federal Medical Centre Makurdi (24; 24.2%) than at General Hospital Gboko (16; 22.9%), General Hospital Otukpo (12; 17.6%) and General Hospital North Bank Makurdi (12; 19.0%). There were no significant differences between the hospital facilities and the microbial infections at significance level of (p>0.05).  The findings in this study suggest that patients, patient’s caregivers and health workers should adhere strictly to guidelines and policies on nosocomial infection preventions and control.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Ensuring equitable resource allocation and gender sensitive policies in
           supporting food production and security in Southern Africa

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: Gender disparities in resource allocation and non gender responsive policies are  important constraint to increasing food production and security in Southern Africa. The discussion attempt to explore the role of equitable resource allocation and development of gender sensitive policies and their implications for  improving food production and security in Southern Africa.  Gender responsive policies are meant to catalyze a change process for ending gender discrimination and securing women’s access to key productive  resources. It is believed that without specific attention to gender issues in food production and security strategies, unknowingly policy  may  reinforce inequalities between women and men, and may even increase productive  resources imbalances. It must be emphasized that addressing gender resource allocation disparities and development of gender sensitive policies  is an integral part of enabling women to guarantee their families’—and their own—well-being. Little attention has been paid to the differential impacts of resource allocation disparities and development of gender sensitive policies on  food production and security, or to which delivery mechanisms may be more effective in addressing women needs and concerns in food production and security. It is assumed that traditional food production policies  are not gender-responsive and typically do not consult women who are the majority  end-users, improved varieties and technologies do not take into account women’s needs, preferences, and resources, as a result the high rate of failure of intervention  food production and security strategies. However, policy makers should be aware that development and implementation of gender responsive policies and equitable gender resource allocation  are likely to be mistaken for violation of  social norms or adversely affect gender relations within the household, leading to less successful adoption and potential backlash against women. Thus, interventions that seek to remove obstacles in gender resource allocation need to consider the trade-offs inherent in challenging and respecting gender norms.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of canola oil on blood lipid in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    • Authors: Mahdi Khodaei Motlagh, Hossein Ali GHasemi, Iman Hajkhodadadi, Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari, Mohhamad Hossein Moradi
      Abstract: In order to study the lipid profile of ostriches in relation to diet, 6 blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were used and fed with 3% canola oil supplement on diets adlibitum consisting. In the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, blood was collected from the wing vein on days 0 and 60. Blood samples were collected from ostriches to measure levels of the following lipid parameters include high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglyceride, total cholesterol were determined. Results showed that  from days 0 to 60, LDL and total cholesterol levels increased significantly, whereas HDL, VLDL and triglyceride didn't change.
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of temperature and ph on activity of purified cellulase obtained
           from Aspergillus Flavus

    • Authors: I.F. Okonkwo
      Abstract: In view of the fact that temperature and pH play key role inthe activity of fungal cellulases, this experiment was designed to assess theeffect of temperature, and pH on activity of the purified enzyme fromAspergillus flavus derived from rotten wood. The characterizationof the purified cellulase enzyme of Aspergillus flavus was carried out usingcarboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and cotton wool assays. The maximum andoptimum temperatures were 900C and 700C respectively. The pH optima werebetween 5 and 8. The enzyme retained above 50% of its original activity at 1000C for 1h and up to 80% at 80 0C for 1h. It was stable over a pH range of 5-8,and retained up to 40% of its original activity at pH 9. The study carried outshowed that the purified Aspergillus flavus cellulases demonstrated usefulproperties among which include; high optimum temperature, increased thermalstability at both acidic and alkaline pH. They also offer additional advantageas they are more rigid than meso enzymes and moreover, are more resistant tothermal and chemical denaturation. Hence are remarkable tools for developingcommercial biotechnologies and for studying protein stability.
      PubDate: 2014-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Genetic correlation between egg quality traits

    • Authors: J.C. Okonkwo
      Abstract: Genetic correlation coefficients between egg quality traits were studiedusing fifty- six harco pullets raised under standard management practices. Theestimates were carried out at 22-week, 26-week, 30-week and 32-week of age. Eggquality traits studied include egg weight (EW), shell thickness (ST), haughunit (HU), yolk index (YI) and shape index (SI).  Zero to slight negative correlationcoefficients was observed between EW and HU, EW and YI, EW and SI, ST and SI,and HU and YI. This implies that selection for any of the character entailsminimal retrogressive response on corresponding trait. Conversely, zero toslight positive correlation coefficients was recorded between EW and SI, SI andYI, and HU and SI. Again, selection for any of this character will bring abouta slight genetic gain on the corresponding trait. Furthermore, the study maintainedthat the genetic correlation coefficients between egg quality traits areindependent of the laying age, and for faster genetic response in egg qualitytraits, independent culling method. Again, since genes governing the expressionof these egg quality traits appear to be independent of each other, it ispossible to localize, isolate and intersperse these genes simultaneously infoundational poultry lines using biotechnological tools for faster geneticgain.
      PubDate: 2014-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Fertility and hatchability characterization of three strains of egg type

    • Authors: T.O. Allanah, J.C. Okonkwo, S.I. Omeje
      Abstract: The fertility and hatchability characteristics of three popular strainsof egg type chickens in Nigeria, namely chickens (ISABROWN), Alpha (Improved native) and the local strain (Pure native) chickenswere studied. They were compared from twenty weeks of age using 15 hens and 3cocks from each strain. The parameters recorded were egg production, eggweight, percent fertility and hatchability. The experiment was replicated threetimes. The data obtained showed that the improved native strain produced moreeggs followed by the exotic strain and lastly, the pure native strain. ISA Brownstrain and improved native strain were similar in egg weight; but performedbetter than pure native and the other strains. The ISA Brown recorded mean eggweight of 59.27 ± 0.02, Improved native recorded mean egg weight of 53.10 ± 002 and the purenative recorded mean egg weight of 41.00 ± 0.02. Conversely, fertility was highest in the pure native strain(86.04) followed by improved native strain 83.08) and the exotic strainrecorded the least percent fertility of (68.21). Hatchability was highest inthe improved native strains with percentage hatchability of 77.33, followed bythe pure native of percentage hatchability of 73.55 and ISA Brown (exotic)recorded the least percentage hatchability of 61.24. From the findings, theimproved native did well in all the parameters investigated and has enough roomto carry out selection for improvement.
      PubDate: 2014-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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