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Journal Cover Scientific Journal of Biological Sciences
  [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2322-1968
   Published by Sjournals Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Response surface modeling of natural alizarin production in hairy root
           cultures of Rubia tinctorum L. upon elicitation with fungal mycelia

    • Authors: Mehdi Ghorbani, Mansoor Omidi, Seyed Ali Peighambari, Karamatollah Rezaei
      Abstract: The roots of Rubia tinctorum L., the common madder contain natural red dye known as alizarin. In the current study, central composite design of response surface methodology was employed for modeling of fungal elicitor treatment on natural alizarin production in uniform hairy root cultures of common madder in liquid 1/2 B5 medium. Upon fungal elicitation assay, using two fungal mycelia elicitors (Aspergillus niger and Bipolaris maydis) at three different times (0, 12 and 24h), the production of alizarin was determined. According to the results, after 24h; modeling and optimization conditions, including combination of 2 % of both elicitors for alizarin production equal to 10.0 mg.g-1 DW was evaluated. Optimal process parameters have been determined by using a high desirability value of 1.00 in Design-Expert® software. Our results, altogether, offer a promising method regarding to the improvement of the alizarin production, as a pivotal natural dye in industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2016-12-04
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Prevalence and associated risk factors for soil transmitted Helminth
           infections among Urban Dwellers, Amanuel Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Authors: Yirga Enawgaw, Ayalew Sisay, Endalkachew Nibret
      Abstract: Infection by soil transmitted helminthes has been increasingly recognized as an important public health problem in poor and developing countries. To initiate prevention and control measures for these neglected diseases, adequate information is required among high risk group. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for soil transmitted helminth infections among urban dwellers in Amanuel, east Gojjam, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study, involving 403 individuals, was carried out in Amanuel between November 2010 and January 2011. A structured questionnaire and observation for demographic and associated risk factors for soil transmitted helminthes (STHs) infections were used for data collection. Stool samples were collected in plastic containers from each participant and transported to Amanuel Health center for parasitological examination. Both direct wet smear and former-ether sedimentation concentration techniques were used to determine the presence of helminthes eggs. The overall prevalence of STH infections was 46.2% (186/403). Hookworm infection was the predominant soil transmitted helminth infections, which was detected in 77(19.1%) followed by A. lumbricoides which was infected 52(13%) of the study subjects. T. trichuria was the least prevalent geo-helminth infection, detected in only 23 (5.7%) of the study subjects. Majorities, 152(37.7%), had single infection. Double infection occurred in 25(6.2%) of the study subjects and only 9(2.2%) had multiple infection. The prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes was generally high in school age children and low in infants. The common predictors of STH infections in the study, among others, were poor personal hygienic conditions, less frequent wearing shoes habit, soil contacting occupation risk, and lack of hand washing habit after using toilet. On the basis of this result, it can be concluded that STH infection is an important problem among the community of Amanuel town. Therefore, it is recommended that education on personal and environmental hygiene should be taken into account to reduce the prevalence of STH infections. Moreover, school age children and other risk groups should receive regular treatment to control the transmissions of STH infections.
      PubDate: 2016-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Aspect of reproductive biology of the cassava croaker, Pseudotolithus
           senegalensis (valenciennes, 1833) of Ivory coast continental shelf

    • Authors: Soumaïla Sylla, Christian Bernard Tia, Kouadio Fréderic Kouakou, Amoin Céline Kouame, Paul Essétchi Kouamelan, Boua Célestin Atse
      Abstract: From January to December 2014, some aspects of Pseudotolithus senegalensis reproductive biology in Ivory coast were investigated and focused on sex ratio, gonadosomatic and liver-somatic index, size at first maturity, stages of gonadal development and fecundity. A total of 696 fish with body length of 12 to 36 cm standard length (SL) and body weight of 25. 2 to 675.1 g were used for this study. The sex ratio of P. senegalensis was 1: 0.5 (male to female). The females were more than the males (x20,05 (1) = 51.36; p< 0,05). Males and females reach first maturity at 19.01 and 22.28 cm SL respectively. The monthly variations of the gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HIS) and the condition factor (K) indicated two periods of reproduction. The long period and the short period were respectively from March to June and from September to November. The hepatic reserves seem to be mobilized to ensure the energetic cost of the reproduction. The absolute Fecundity was ranged from 78612 to 140946 eggs and was positively correlated with standard length and weight. Fecundity-length and fecundity-weight relationships showed positive correlations. The fecundity-length and fecundity-weight relationships were determined by regression analysis with the regression equation F= 12.820xSL– 321.70 (r=0.99) for fecundity-length and F= 0.27xTW – 46.66 (r=0.98) for fecundity-weigth relationship.
      PubDate: 2016-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Reproductive biology of big-eye grunt Brachydeuterus Auritus in Ivory
           coast fishery (West Africa)

    • Authors: Soumaila Sylla, Tizié Thierry Zan-Bi, Kouadio Justin Konan, Christian Bernard Tia, Jean-André Tinkoudgou Kabre, Tidiani Kone
      Abstract: Reproductive biology of Big-eye grunt, Brachydeuterus auritus resulting from Ivory Coast marine fishery were studied by monthly sampling from August 2013 to July 2014. Samplings were carried out along the Ivorian littoral. A total of 731 fish with a body length of 8.0 to 22.7 cm folk length (LF) and body weight of 9.2 to 204.6 g were used for this study. According this study, the sex ratio was 1:0.82 (male to female). The sex ratio was significantly different from the expected theoretically 1: 1 distribution except June, September and December. Monthly gonadosomatic index and macroscopically determined gonad stages indicated that B. auritus spawned from February to July with a greater activity from February to May. The condition factor indicated that B. auritus were in good condition, females had higher condition factor than the males. Lengths at 50% maturity were similar with 12.93 cm LF for males and 12.71 cm LF for females. The coefficient b (3.02; 3.07 and 3.04 respectively for males, females and both sexes) of the length-weight relationship was reflecting isometry.
      PubDate: 2016-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Impact of bacterial and viral infections for barrennes of productive
           animals

    • Authors: Mussabekov Aidos
      Abstract: Historically the operational stages of artificial insemination of animals. The influence of some viral and bacterial infections on the reproductive systems in male animals has led to barreness. 
      PubDate: 2016-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Comparative studies of immunochromatographic strips and microscopy in the
           diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in selected children in Zaria,
           Nigeria

    • Authors: Abdulraheem Hafeezah, Ella Ekah Elijah
      Abstract: Schistosomiasis remains endemic in many developing countries due to poor hygiene and access to potable water sources. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in selected children. A total of 100 urine samples were collected randomly from the selected population and screened using the CCA rapid immunochromatographic test strips and microscopy for the ova of the Schistosoma haematobium. It was observed at the end that out of the 100 samples examined, the prevalence was found to be 8(8%) for microscopy and 14(14%) for immunochromatographic test strips. The observation shows similar prevalence of S. haematobium infection in children; with the highest prevalence occurrences in male children. The age group 9-11 years had the highest prevalence rate of 23.8% and 38.1% for microscopy and immunochromatographic test strips respectively and males were more infected than females. Of 48 male subjects examined, 5(10.4%) were positive for microscopy while 10(20.8%) were positive for strips. Of 52 females, 3(5.8%) were positive for microscopy while 4(7.7%) were positive for strips. For 70%, their source of water for domestic purpose was bore hole, 20% was from the well, 4% from river/stream and 6% were from other sources. A total of 10% did swim regularly in nearby water bodies and 6% of the children go fishing.The risk factors associated with S. haematobium in this survey were drinking water from lakes, swimming in lakes or ponds and presence of snails (Bolinus) in such lakes. Sanitary control measures should be put in place in the areas so as to prevent people from defecating in the open.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Reproductive biology and histological characteristics of female little
           tunny Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810) caught on continental
           shelf of Côte d’Ivoire

    • Authors: Laurent Bahou, Marie-Anne d’Almeida, Tidiani Koné, Célestin Atsé Boua, Guillaume Dadi Séripka
      Abstract: Some females little tunny (n=395) caught in gillnets and measuring in size from 35 to 76 cm FL (centimetre Fork Length) were sampled from January to December 2004 to study some biological features (length-weight relationship, size at first sexual maturity, eggs variation in diameter, gonado-somatic index, hepato-somatic index, somatic condition, and fecundity) along with histological characteristics of the reproduction process in this species. Female E. alletteratus reached maturity at 42.54 cm FL. Maturity stage distribution and gonado-somatic index (GSI) revealed that spawning period extended from May to October, with a peak value of GSI attained in August. There is a direct correlation between GSI and hepato-somatic index (HSI), and an inverse correlation of these factors to the somatic condition (Kc). The absolute fecundity has linear relationship with the weights of specimens and weights of ovaries. Yet, curvilinear relationship was found between the absolute fecundity and sizes of females. Eggs count in ovaries at spawning (IV) and post spawning (V) stages revealed bimodal size classes, while ovaries at maturing stage III showed unique modal-egg-frequency distribution.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • MED12 exon 2 mutations in uterine leiomyoma’s in women patients of
           Tehran Province of Iran

    • Authors: Ali Reza Ahmadi, Hajar Porrahim, Hajar Moghadasi, Naeimeh Najafi, Azadeh Rakhshan
      Abstract: Uterine leiomyomas or fibroids are benign smooth muscle tumors of myometrial origin; frequently found in reproductive age women. Uterine leiomyomas commonly cause significant symptoms such as anemia resulting from heavy irregular uterine bleeding, Pelvic discomfort, and bowel/bladder dysfunction from pressure. Fibroids have also been associated with infertility and recurrent abortion. Somatic mutations in MED12 exon 2 have recently been reported in uterine leiomyomas. The aim of our study was to see whether MED12 exon 2 mutations occur in uterine leiomyomas of women patients of Tehran Province of Iran. Mutations in exon 2 of the MED12 gene have been reported in 50% to 70% of uterine leiomyomas. To determine the frequency of MED12 mutations in various types of smooth muscle tumors as well as normal uterine myometrium adjacent to a leiomyoma, we selected a total of 23 cases for analysis of MED12 exon 2 mutations by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. We found that 65℅ of classical uterine leiomyomas harbored mutations in exon 2 of the MED12 gene. Twelve of these mutations were located in codon 44 (c.130-132). In addition, one fibroids 0/43% displayed a missense mutation in codon 36 (c.107).We also observed two (0/86) exonic deletion type.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Clean energy for cooling and heating with ground source heat pumps

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: In the recent attempts to stimulate alternative energy sources for heating and cooling of buildings, emphasise has been put on utilisation of the ambient energy from ground source heat pump systems (GSHPs) and other renewable energy sources. Exploitation of renewable energy sources and particularly ground heat in buildings can significantly contribute towards reducing dependency on fossil fuels. Energy Research Institute (ERI), between July 2014 and November 2015. This paper highlights the potential energy saving that could be achieved through use of ground energy source. It is concluded that the direct expansion of GSHP are extendable to more comprehensive applications combined with the ground heat exchanger in foundation piles and the seasonal thermal energy storage from solar thermal collectors. This study highlights the energy problem and the possible saving that can be achieved through the use of the GSHP systems. This article discusses the principle of the ground source energy, varieties of GSHPs, and various developments.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Recent progress in sustainable development and environmentally friendly
           energy systems: Case of Sudan

    • Authors: Abdeen Mustafa Omer
      Abstract: The move towards a low-carbon world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. People are relying upon oil for primary energy and this will continue for a few more decades. Other conventional sources may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural power supplies and a major advantage is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources. Without the advantage results from the feasibility of local maintenance and the general encouragement such local manufacture gives to the build up of small-scale rural based industry. This communication comprises a comprehensive review of energy sources, the environment and sustainable development. It includes the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhouses environment and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change. This study gives some examples of small-scale energy converters, nevertheless it should be noted that small conventional, i.e., engines are currently the major source of power in rural areas and will continue to be so for a long time to come. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise the interchangeability of the engine parts, and of the engine applications. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacture. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by a full-scale plant (device) especially for use in remote rural areas.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Influences of prenatal and postnatal stress on cognitive function and fear
           memory consolidation

    • Authors: Maryam Nazari, Hossein Rajabzadeh, Masoumeh Dadkhah, Ali Boustani, Nasroallah Moradi kor
      Abstract: Stress can be defined as the brain response to any demand. Maternal exposure to stress during pregnancy may have negative effects on fetal and infant neurodevelopment, including delayed mental and motor development, difficult temperament, and impaired cognitive performance. Some of these effects are seen on brain structure and function and in the risk for later depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Stress in adolescence appears to have lasting effects on brain regions such as the hippocampus and alters mood and anxiety-related behaviors in animal models, as well as cognitive function. The brain is the key organ of the response to stress because it determines what is threatening and, therefore, potentially stressful, as well as the physiological and behavioral responses which can be either adaptive or damaging. Stressors in adult life alter neuronal morphology in brain regions such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex and influence learning, anxiety, executive function, and somatic-visceral functions. Exposure to stress and stress hormones during the prenatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood or aging, has an impact on brain structures involved in cognition and mental health. As demonstrated in the above, generally stress can have wide ranging effects on emotions, mood and behavior.

      PubDate: 2015-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • The effects of Ephedra (Ephedra funereal) and protexin probiotic on some
           blood parameters in male Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica)

    • Authors: Farshid Kheiri, Hasan Ali Ghasemi, Sayeed Mohammad Ali Jalali Hajiabadi
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Ephedra and protexin on performance and some hematological parameters of male Japanese quail. A total of 240 seven days old quail chicks were divided into 8 treatments with 3 replicates as factorial randomized design. The treatments were divided as basal diet with no protexin and Ephedra kept as control, and 0.02 % (E1), 0.04% (E2) and 0.06 % (E3) Ephedra with 0.01 % or without protexin as P0 and P 1 were used respectively. The live body weight gains and feed consumption of birds were measured individually feed conversion efficiency were calculated. At the end of the trial for investigating the effect of using protexin and Ephedra supplementation on performance of quails, 2 birds (male) form each replicates were slaughtered and some blood samples were taken for hematological parameters determination. Data showed that using of protexin and Ephedra increased feed intake (FI) in treatments compared to control. Also body weight (BW) (g/d) and Pre-slaughter weigh (g) were higher in protexin and Ephedra compared to the control. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) for feed conversation ratio (FCR) among treatments. As result was relevant from this study there were significant differences (p≤0.05) between blood parameters. Data showed that the glucose level had increased none significantly by using Ephedra and protexin. The triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL were increased significantly (p≤0.05) by using experimental diets. HDL, albumin and globulin levels were decreased by using Ephedra and protexin. In conclusion we demonstrated that protexin and Ephedra may be used as ingredient in quails ration without harming effects on performance and some blood parameters of male Japanese quails.
      PubDate: 2015-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Sero-prevalence of infectious bronchitis antibodies in local chickens in
           live bird markets in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    • Authors: H.U. Mungadi, U.M. Mera, Y.A. Adamu, U. Musa, C.R. Achi
      Abstract: A total of 161 apparently healthy male and female, grower and adult local chickens were sampled from Live bird Markets (LMB) in four Agricultural zones of the State; Gwadabawa, Tambuwal, Isa and Sokoto. They were screened for antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus using Enzyme linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The results obtained showed that the overall prevalence for the State was 89%, the seroprevalence was 88.89% in males and 89.00 % in females, 91.50% in adults and 70.00% in growers sampled. No significant difference was obtained between male and female chickens tested (χ2 >0.05) but significant difference was obtained in adult and grower chickens (χ2 < 0.05). No routine vaccination against infectious bronchitis is usually carried out in the area; the high prevalence observed may suggest natural infection. Efforts should be made to determine strains of IBV circulating in the study area so as to enable the choice of appropriate vaccine.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Genotype and sex influencing dressing percentage, carcass parameters and
           meat quality properties in indigenous chickens

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: Indigenous or village or local  chickens  are  an important  source of animal protein in the form of meat and eggs, contribute to rural food security and are an important avenue for woman empowerment as indigenous chickens in poor communities are mostly owned by women in Sub Saharan Africa. There are many factors that affect dressing percentage, carcass traits and meat quality properties in indigenous chicken, such as genetics, nutrition, environment, and additives, however, genetics is one of the most important factors. The knowledge on variability of genotype of indigenous chicken accompanied by manipulation of their production system will  translate into a specific desirable  dressing percentage, carcass characteristic and meat quality properties, which is paramount criteria for consumers when it comes to making purchasing decisions. Therefore, using different indigenous chicken genotypes, the producer may sort to employ management practices which furnish with acceptable dressing percentage, carcass and meat quality properties which do not compromise and maintain health in consumers. However, very few studies have been reported on the utilization of different indigenous chickens genotypes in improvement of carcass and meat quality properties. Feeding systems, slaughter age and rearing systems are some of the environmental factors which have been examined in indigenous chickens to determine their influence on carcass and meat quality properties. It has been noted that varying the discrete variables such as genotype and sex had significant differences in the nature of corresponding carcass and meat quality properties in indigenous chickens. Variations in the genetic make-up and sexual dimorphism in indigenous chickens accounted for the observed differences in dressing percentage and carcass characteristic. The preceding review gives some insight on the influence of genotype and sex on dressing percentage, carcass parameters and meat quality properties in indigenous chickens.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Role of garlic in dyslipidemia: an evidence based review

    • Authors: F. Jahan, K. Nanji, W. Qidwai
      Abstract: Rapidly growing morbidity and mortality due to heart disease is a great concerned for scientist. Among the etiology of atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia is a major risk factor. Garlic has active ingredients of allium sativum used in high blood pressure management. Garlic has been used as a therapeutic agent for many illnesses such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence from various studies and clinical trials proved the efficacy of garlic to reduce lipid level.However, some contradictory results are also reported. This review was undertaken to assess the role of garlic therapy in dyslipidemia. Major databases including Google, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library view were used for literature search. Clinical trials conducted on humans assessing role of garlic therapy in dyslipidemia and the possible mechanisms responsible for such therapeutic actions were assessed. Several trials and meta-analyses have suggested positive effect of garlic on total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG). This review on garlic therapy in dyslipidemia suggests that it reduces elevated cholesterol to a modest extent.
      PubDate: 2015-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Sensibility of uropathogens in pregnant women with asymptomatic
           bacteriuria in Lome, Togo

    • Authors: A.A. Fouda, T.D. Segla, S. Mounerou, C. Adawaye, T.H.Z. Bertin, T. Abdelsalam, D.K. Kodjo, A. Yaovi
      Abstract: To investigate antibiotic therapy with pregnant women to asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) in Prenatal Consultation (PNC) without prior urinary tract infection at the moment of the visit in Lome health center. The urines were collected following the rules on hygienic good practices. We conducted the systematic urine culture on a chromogenic medium (Uriselect4). It enables us to identify a specific enzyme of a bacterial species or a group of species. The susceptibility was carried out following the agar - based spreading method. The following strains were the main uropathogens isolated : Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia , Enterobacter claocea , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Enterococcus fecalis. Antibiotic discs from the family of Beta – lactam , lincosamide , polypeptic and quinolone were tested on various bacterial strains. All bacterial strains were resistant to ampicillin and amoxcilline. Staphococcus aureus presented resistance to cefoperazone , erythromycin and spiramycin. Enterococcus faecalis was resistant to cephalothin , ceftazidime and chloramphenicol. The susceptibility was stressed with the view of achieving an adapted antibiotic therapy with zero effect on the foetus and the future mother.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Evaluation of the stocking rate on growth performance, carcass traits and
           meat quality of male peking ducks

    • Authors: E.O. Ahaotu, C.A. Agbasu, I.C. Okoli
      Abstract: Two hundred and forty male Peking ducklings were raised in four litter pens at random to provide stocking densities of 2, 4, 6 and 8 birds/m2 on the floor and 4, 8, 12 and 16 birds/m2 in cages. The birds were fed ad libitum during the day and equally exposed to all necessary management practices. The trial was conducted to observe the comparative carcass traits and meat quality. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in back, wings, neck and feed conversion ratio. Dressing percentage decreased (p<0.05) with increasing density above 4 birds/m2 on floor and in cages respectively.  Results from this study showed that stocking rate had no effect on physical characteristics of breast and thigh meat.
      PubDate: 2015-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Toxicity and analgesic studies of leaf methanolic extract of Maytenus
           Senegalensis (LAM.) Exell (Celastraceae)

    • Authors: A.A. Murjanatu, K.Y. Musa, G. Ibrahim, M.G. Magaji
      Abstract: The leaf methanolic extract of Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell was investigated for toxicity and analgesic effects. Acute toxicity was investigated via intraperitoneal route using mice and rats, analgesic activity was investigated using two models; acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and formalin induced pain in rats. The extract was determined to have LD (50) of 1264.91 mg/kg in both mice and rats. It significantly (0.001) inhibited acetic acid-induced writhes in mice at all doses administered (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner and significantly (0.01) inhibited formalin induced pain in rats, in a non-dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect observed was higher in the extract compared to the standard used (piroxicam). The results obtained suggested the extract to be relatively toxic in both mice and rats with a dose dependent anti-nociceptive activity.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • The effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on the pregnancy rate of
           resynchronized Nellore cows submitted to fixed-time insemination

    • Authors: Josemara Silva Santos, Tânia Vasconcelos Cavalcante, Francisca Elda Ferreira Dias, Domenica Palomaris Mariano de Souza, Alencariano J.S Falcão, Mônica Arrivabene, Juliano Franco de Souza, José Adalmir Torres de Souza, Viviane Mayumi Maruo
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) during resynchronization on the pregnancy rates of Nellore cows submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination. A group comprised of 100 multiparae Nellore cows was submitted to a resynchronizing protocol: on day 0 the subjects received the Bovine Intravaginal Device with 1,0g of progesterone (P4), associated with intramuscular administration of 2,0mg of estradiol benzoate (IM); on day 8, the Bovine Intravaginal Device  (DIB®) was removed, and 1,0mg of estradiol cypionate, 0,15mg of prostaglandin F2α and 300 UI of equine chorionic gonadotropin were administered; on day 10, fixed-time artificial insemination  was conducted (FTAI ). The subjects were then randomized into Control Group (n=50) and Treated Group (n=50), of which the latter received 500mg of rbST on the eighth day of the protocol. Sixty days after the fixed-time artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnoses were conducted via rectal palpation. Blood samples were taken to measure plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Pregnancy rates were statistically evaluated through Generalized Linear Models Theory, and their significance was tested through Analysis of Deviance. No difference was found between groups, pregnancy rates were 40% and 48% for control and treated groups, respectively. Cholesterol plasma concentrations were also not affected by the treatment with rbST. There were significant increases in serum glucose and triglycerides between groups. The administration of rbST to multiparae Nellore cows, in a single dose, did not statistically interfere in the pregnancy rates. The resynchronization of estrus and re-insemination had a positive effect in cumulative pregnancy rates.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Genotype influencing yield and milk composition in different dairy
           production systems

    • Authors: Never Assan
      Abstract: The milk yield and milk composition of dairy animals are influenced by a large number of factors. Generally, these factors are based on genetic and non-genetic  differences between dairy animals. While the genetic potential of an animal is fixed at conception, non genetic factors such as nutrition, management, milking frequency, rearing methods, stage of lactation, etc. determine whether  genetic  potential is attained. Therefore, the maximum marketable milk yield with different fat and protein content is desirable to producers to increase farm profitability and can be affected by choice of appropriate genotype. The present discussion explores the  consequences of  choice of genotype  in dairy production enterprises for the milk yield and composition. The discussion points to the fact that genotype affect either yield or milk composition during the entire lactation. However, across genotypes fat and protein yields  are affected by both the quantity of milk produced and fat or protein percentages in the milk.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
 
 
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