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Conservation Physiology    Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Online) 2051-1434
     Published by Oxford University Press (OUP) Homepage  [310 journals]
  • Use of portable blood physiology point-of-care devices for basic and
           applied research on vertebrates: a review
    • Authors: Stoot, L. J; Cairns, N. A, Cull, F, Taylor, J. J, Jeffrey, J. D, Morin, F, Mandelman, J. W, Clark, T. D, Cooke, S. J.
      Pages: cou011 - cou011
      Abstract: Non-human vertebrate blood is commonly collected and assayed for a variety of applications, including veterinary diagnostics and physiological research. Small, often non-lethal samples enable the assessment and monitoring of the physiological state and health of the individual. Traditionally, studies that rely on blood physiology have focused on captive animals or, in studies conducted in remote settings, have required the preservation and transport of samples for later analysis. In either situation, large, laboratory-bound equipment and traditional assays and analytical protocols are required. The use of point-of-care (POC) devices to measure various secondary blood physiological parameters, such as metabolites, blood gases and ions, has become increasingly popular recently, due to immediate results and their portability, which allows the freedom to study organisms in the wild. Here, we review the current uses of POC devices and their applicability to basic and applied studies on a variety of non-domesticated species. We located 79 individual studies that focused on non-domesticated vertebrates, including validation and application of POC tools. Studies focused on a wide spectrum of taxa, including mammals, birds and herptiles, although the majority of studies focused on fish, and typical variables measured included blood glucose, lactate and pH. We found that calibrations for species-specific blood physiology values are necessary, because ranges can vary within and among taxa and are sometimes outside the measurable range of the devices. In addition, although POC devices are portable and robust, most require durable cases, they are seldom waterproof/water-resistant, and factors such as humidity and temperature can affect the performance of the device. Overall, most studies concluded that POC devices are suitable alternatives to traditional laboratory devices and eliminate the need for transport of samples; however, there is a need for greater emphasis on rigorous calibration and validation of these units and appreciation of their limitations.
      PubDate: 2014-04-04T23:05:56-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou011|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Captivity results in disparate loss of gut microbial diversity in closely
           related hosts
    • Authors: Kohl, K. D; Skopec, M. M, Dearing, M. D.
      Pages: cou009 - cou009
      Abstract: The gastrointestinal tracts of animals contain diverse communities of microbes that provide a number of services to their hosts. There is recent concern that these communities may be lost as animals enter captive breeding programmes, due to changes in diet and/or exposure to environmental sources. However, empirical evidence documenting the effects of captivity and captive birth on gut communities is lacking. We conducted three studies to advance our knowledge in this area. First, we compared changes in microbial diversity of the gut communities of two species of woodrats (Neotoma albigula, a dietary generalist, and Neotoma stephensi, which specializes on juniper) before and after 6–9 months in captivity. Second, we investigated whether reintroduction of the natural diet of N. stephensi could restore microbial diversity. Third, we compared the microbial communities between offspring born in captivity and their mothers. We found that the dietary specialist, N. stephensi, lost a greater proportion of its native gut microbiota and overall diversity in response to captivity compared with N. albigula. Addition of the natural diet increased the proportion of the original microbiota but did not restore overall diversity in N. stephensi. Offspring of N. albigula more closely resembled their mothers compared with offspring–mother pairs of N. stephensi. This research suggests that the microbiota of dietary specialists may be more susceptible to captivity. Furthermore, this work highlights the need for further studies investigating the mechanisms underlying how loss of microbial diversity may vary between hosts and what an acceptable level of diversity loss may be to a host. This knowledge will aid conservation biologists in designing captive breeding programmes effective at maintaining microbial diversity. Sequence Accession Numbers: NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) – SRP033616
      PubDate: 2014-03-24T06:27:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou009|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou009
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Ontogeny influences sensitivity to climate change stressors in an
           endangered fish
    • Authors: Komoroske, L. M; Connon, R. E, Lindberg, J, Cheng, B. S, Castillo, G, Hasenbein, M, Fangue, N. A.
      Pages: cou008 - cou008
      Abstract: Coastal ecosystems are among the most human-impacted habitats globally, and their management is often critically linked to recovery of declining native species. In the San Francisco Estuary, the Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endemic, endangered fish strongly tied to Californian conservation planning. The complex life history of Delta Smelt combined with dynamic seasonal and spatial abiotic conditions result in dissimilar environments experienced among ontogenetic stages, which may yield stage-specific susceptibility to abiotic stressors. Climate change is forecasted to increase San Francisco Estuary water temperature and salinity; therefore, understanding the influences of ontogeny and phenotypic plasticity on tolerance to these critical environmental parameters is particularly important for Delta Smelt and other San Francisco Estuary fishes. We assessed thermal and salinity limits in several ontogenetic stages and acclimation states of Delta Smelt, and paired these data with environmental data to evaluate sensitivity to climate-change stressors. Thermal tolerance decreased among successive stages, with larval fish exhibiting the highest tolerance and post-spawning adults having the lowest. Delta Smelt had limited capacity to increase tolerance through thermal acclimation, and comparisons with field temperature data revealed that juvenile tolerance limits are the closest to current environmental conditions, which may make this stage especially susceptible to future climate warming. Maximal water temperatures observed in situ exceeded tolerance limits of juveniles and adults. Although these temperature events are currently rare, if they increase in frequency as predicted, it could result in habitat loss at these locations despite other favourable conditions for Delta Smelt. In contrast, Delta Smelt tolerated salinities spanning the range of expected environmental conditions for each ontogenetic stage, but salinity did impact survival in juvenile and adult stages in exposures over acute time scales. Our results underscore the importance of considering ontogeny and phenotypic plasticity in assessing the impacts of climate change, particularly for species adapted to spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments.
      PubDate: 2014-03-11T00:08:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou008|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou008
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • High water-use efficiency and growth contribute to success of non-native
           Erodium cicutarium in a Sonoran Desert winter annual community
    • Authors: Kimball, S; Gremer, J. R, Barron-Gafford, G. A, Angert, A. L, Huxman, T. E, Venable, D. L.
      Pages: cou006 - cou006
      Abstract: The success of non-native, invasive species may be due to release from natural enemies, superior competitive abilities, or both. In the Sonoran Desert, Erodium cicutarium has increased in abundance over the last 30 years. While native species in this flora exhibit a strong among-species trade-off between relative growth rate and water-use efficiency, E. cicutarium seems to have a higher relative growth rate for its water-use efficiency value relative to the pattern across native species. This novel trait combination could provide the non-native species with a competitive advantage in this water-limited environment. To test the hypothesis that E. cicutarium is able to achieve high growth rates due to release from native herbivores, we compared the effects of herbivory on E. cicutarium and its native congener, Erodium texanum. We also compared these two species across a range of environmental conditions, both in a common garden and in two distinct seasons in the field, using growth analysis, isotopic compositions and leaf-level gas exchange. Additionally, we compared the competitive abilities of the two Erodium species in a greenhouse experiment. We found no evidence of herbivory to either species. Physiological measurements in a common environment revealed that E. cicutarium was able to achieve high growth rates while simultaneously controlling leaf-level water loss. Non-native E. cicutarium responded to favourable conditions in the field with greater specific leaf area and leaf area ratio than native E. texanum. The non-native Erodium was a stronger competitor than its native congener in a greenhouse competition experiment. The ability to maintain relatively higher values of water-use efficiency:relative growth rate in comparison to the native flora may be what enables E. cictarium to outcompete native species in both wet and dry years, resulting in an increase in abundance in the highly variable Sonoran Desert.
      PubDate: 2014-03-05T22:23:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou006|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou006
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Physiological response and resilience of early life-stage Eastern oysters
           (Crassostrea virginica) to past, present and future ocean acidification
    • Authors: Gobler, C. J; Talmage, S. C.
      Pages: cou004 - cou004
      Abstract: The Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), is the second most valuable bivalve fishery in the USA and is sensitive to high levels of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Here we present experiments that comprehensively examined how the ocean's past, present and projected (21st and 22nd centuries) CO2 concentrations impact the growth and physiology of larval stages of C. virginica. Crassostrea virginica larvae grown in present-day pCO2 concentrations (380 μatm) displayed higher growth and survival than individuals grown at both lower (250 μatm) and higher pCO2 levels (750 and 1500 μatm). Crassostrea virginica larvae manifested calcification rates, sizes, shell thicknesses, metamorphosis, RNA:DNA ratios and lipid contents that paralleled trends in survival, with maximal values for larvae grown at 380 μatm pCO2 and reduced performance in higher and lower pCO2 levels. While some physiological differences among oysters could be attributed to CO2-induced changes in size or calcification rates, the RNA:DNA ratios at ambient pCO2 levels were elevated, independent of these factors. Likewise, the lipid contents of individuals exposed to high pCO2 levels were depressed even when differences in calcification rates were considered. These findings reveal the cascading, interdependent impact that high CO2 can have on oyster physiology. Crassostrea virginica larvae are significantly more resistant to elevated pCO2 than other North Atlantic bivalves, such as Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians, a finding that may be related to the biogeography and/or evolutionary history of these species and may have important implications for future bivalve restoration and aquaculture efforts.
      PubDate: 2014-03-04T22:37:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou004|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Plant water use characteristics of five dominant shrub species of the
           Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, USA: implications for shrubland
           restoration and conservation
    • Authors: Adhikari, A; White, J. D.
      Pages: cou005 - cou005
      Abstract: The biogeographic distribution of plant species is inherently associated with the plasticity of physiological adaptations to environmental variation. For semi-arid shrublands with a legacy of saline soils, characterization of soil water-tolerant shrub species is necessary for habitat restoration given future projection of increased drought magnitude and persistence in these ecosystems. Five dominant native shrub species commonly found in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, TX, USA, were studied, namely Acacia farnesiana, Celtis ehrenbergiana, Forestiera angustifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata and Prosopis glandulosa. To simulate drought conditions, we suspended watering of healthy, greenhouse-grown plants for 4 weeks. Effects of soil salinity were also studied by dosing plants with 10% NaCl solution with suspended watering. For soil water deficit treatment, the soil water potential of P. glandulosa was the highest (–1.20 MPa), followed by A. farnesiana (–4.69 MPa), P. aculeata (–5.39 MPa), F. angustifolia (–6.20 MPa) and C. ehrenbergiana (–10.02 MPa). For the soil salinity treatment, P. glandulosa also had the highest soil water potential value (–1.60 MPa), followed by C. ehrenbergiana (–1.70 MPa), A. farnesiana (–1.84 MPa), P. aculeata (–2.04 MPa) and F. angustifolia (–6.99 MPa). Within the species, only C. ehrenbergiana and F. angustifolia for soil water deficit treatment and A. farnesiana for the salinity treatment had significantly lower soil water potential after 4 weeks of treatment (P 
      PubDate: 2014-02-27T03:02:17-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou005|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou005
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • State of the interface between conservation and physiology: a bibliometric
    • Authors: Lennox, R; Cooke, S. J.
      Pages: cou003 - cou003
      Abstract: Contemporary conservation science benefits from the perspectives of a variety of different disciplines, including a recent synergy with physiology, an interface known as ‘conservation physiology’. To evaluate the degree of interaction between conservation and animal/plant physiology, we conducted three bibliometric analyses. We first pursued the use of the term ‘conservation physiology’ since its first definition in 2006 to determine how frequently it has been used and in which publications. Secondly, we evaluated the occurrence of conservation terms in animal and plant physiology journals, physiological terms in conservation journals, and a combination of terms in ecology journals. Thirdly, we explored trends in a subset of conservation physiology articles published between 2006 and 2012. We identified a surge in the use of the term ‘conservation physiology’ in 2012, after only a slow increase in usage between 2006 and 2011. Conservation journals tend to have been significantly more active in publishing conservation physiology than animal physiology, plant physiology or ecology journals. However, we found evidence that ecology and animal physiology journals began to incorporate more conservation physiology after 2006, while conservation- and plant physiology-themed journals did not. Among 299 conservation physiology articles that we identified, vertebrate taxa have been over-represented in conservation physiology compared with their relative taxonomic abundance, invertebrate taxa have been under-represented, and plants have been represented in proportion to their relative taxonomic abundance; however, those findings are reasonably consistent with publication trends in conservation biology. Diffuse distribution of conservation physiology papers throughout the literature may have been a barrier to the growth of the subdiscipline when the interface was emerging. The introduction of the focused journal Conservation Physiology in 2013 may address that deficiency. Moreover, development of a unifying framework could help to aggregate knowledge and attract potential contributors by highlighting and facilitating access to and application of conservation physiology.
      PubDate: 2014-02-25T22:45:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou003|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Conservation physiology of plants
    • Authors: van Kleunen; M.
      Pages: cou007 - cou007
      PubDate: 2014-02-25T22:45:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou007|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou007
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Seasonal trends in nesting leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) serum
           proteins further verify capital breeding hypothesis
    • Authors: Perrault, J. R; Wyneken, J, Page-Karjian, A, Merrill, A, Miller, D. L.
      Pages: cou002 - cou002
      Abstract: Serum protein concentrations provide insight into the nutritional and immune status of organisms. It has been suggested that some marine turtles are capital breeders that fast during the nesting season. In this study, we documented serum proteins in neophyte and remigrant nesting leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). This allowed us to establish trends across the nesting season to determine whether these physiological parameters indicate if leatherbacks forage or fast while on nesting grounds. Using the biuret method and agarose gel electrophoresis, total serum protein (median = 5.0 g/dl) and protein fractions were quantified and include pre-albumin (median = 0.0 g/dl), albumin (median = 1.81 g/dl), α1-globulin (median = 0.90 g/dl), α2-globulin (median = 0.74 g/dl), total α-globulin (median = 1.64 g/dl), β-globulin (median = 0.56 g/dl), -globulin (median = 0.81 g/dl) and total globulin (median = 3.12 g/dl). The albumin:globulin ratio (median = 0.59) was also calculated. Confidence intervals (90%) were used to establish reference intervals. Total protein, albumin and total globulin concentrations declined in successive nesting events. Protein fractions declined at less significant rates or remained relatively constant during the nesting season. Here, we show that leatherbacks are most likely fasting during the nesting season. A minimal threshold of total serum protein concentrations of around 3.5–4.5 g/dl may physiologically signal the end of the season's nesting for individual leatherbacks. The results presented here lend further insight into the interaction between reproduction, fasting and energy reserves and will potentially improve the conservation and management of this imperiled species.
      PubDate: 2014-02-19T23:47:45-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou002|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • One fledgling or two in the endangered Carnaby's Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus
           latirostris): a strategy for survival or legacy from a bygone era'
    • Authors: Saunders, D. A; Mawson, P. R, Dawson, R.
      Pages: cou001 - cou001
      Abstract: Of the five species of black cockatoo in the genus Calyptorhynchus, those species with red tail bands (Red-tailed Black Cockatoo and Glossy Black Cockatoo) lay clutches of only one egg and those with white or yellow tail bands (Carnaby's Cockatoo, Baudin's Cockatoo and Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo) usually lay clutches of two. The breeding of the endangered Carnaby's Cockatoo has been studied from 1969 to 2012 at a number of localities throughout its range in south-western Australia within a region largely cleared for agriculture. When raising nestlings the species feeds on seeds of native vegetation, and there was a strong but not significant negative relationship between nesting success and percentage loss of native vegetation within 6 and 12 km of nest hollows. There was a significant negative relationship between the health of nestlings and percentage loss of native vegetation around nest hollows. While the usual clutch size is two, average clutch size tended to be lower in areas where much native vegetation has been cleared. While both eggs hatch in 77% of two-egg clutches, the species normally fledges only one young. However, the species is capable of fledging both nestlings from a breeding attempt. Sets of siblings are usually the product of older, more experienced females nesting in areas where more native vegetation has been retained. The conservation implications of these findings are discussed in the light of predicted changes to the climate of south-western Australia.
      PubDate: 2014-02-17T06:29:58-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cou001|hwp:master-id:conphys;cou001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using
           sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments
    • Authors: Labrada-Martagon, V; Zenteno-Savin, T, Mangel, M.
      Pages: cot035 - cot035
      Abstract: Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark–recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation.
      PubDate: 2014-02-11T06:45:10-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cot035|hwp:master-id:conphys;cot035
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Hooking injury, physiological status and short-term mortality of juvenile
           lemon sharks (Negaprion bevirostris) following catch-and-release
           recreational angling
    • Authors: Danylchuk, A. J; Suski, C. D, Mandelman, J. W, Murchie, K. J, Haak, C. R, Brooks, A. M. L, Cooke, S. J.
      Pages: cot036 - cot036
      Abstract: Sport fishing for sharks, including fishing with the intent to release, is becoming more prevalent within the recreational angling community. Common targets of recreational anglers are juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) that frequent shallow tropical nearshore habitats. In this study, we captured 32 juvenile lemon sharks (530–875 mm total length) with conventional angling gear (i.e. spinning rods, dead fish bait and 5/0 barbed circle hooks) from the coastal waters of Eleuthera, The Bahamas, to determine the consequences of capture for individual sharks. Each shark was examined for hooking injuries, blood sampled to quantify physiological disturbance, assessed for reflex impairment and then monitored to assess post-release behaviour and mortality. Four sharks (12.5%) died following release during the 15 min tracking period. Principal components (PC) analysis revealed four axes describing 66.5% of the variance for blood physiology parameters, total length and water temperature. The PC1 and PC3 scores, characterized by positive factor loadings for indicators of exercise-induced stress and blood ion concentrations, respectively, were significantly related to fight time but were not associated with short-term mortality. Short-term mortality was significantly related to factor scores for PC4 that loaded heavily for water temperature and total length. Ten sharks (31%) exhibited impaired reflexes, with loss of bite reflex being most prevalent. Sharks that died had the following characteristics: (i) they had two or more impaired reflexes; (ii) they were hooked in the basihyal; (iii) they exhibited no movement after the initial bout of directional swimming; and (iv) they experienced high water temperatures (i.e. >31°C). Collectively, these results indicate that for juvenile lemon sharks inhabiting tropical flats, fight time can influence the degree of physiological disturbance, while water temperature contributes to the likelihood of survival following release.
      PubDate: 2014-02-05T06:16:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cot036|hwp:master-id:conphys;cot036
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • A practical field extraction method for non-invasive monitoring of hormone
           activity in the black rhinoceros
    • Authors: Edwards, K. L; McArthur, H. M, Liddicoat, T, Walker, S. L.
      Pages: cot037 - cot037
      Abstract: Non-invasive hormone analysis is a vital tool in assessing an animal's adrenal and reproductive status, which can be beneficial to in situ and ex situ conservation. However, it can be difficult to employ these techniques when monitoring in situ populations away from controlled laboratory conditions, when electricity is not readily available. A practical method for processing faecal samples in the field, which enables samples to be extracted soon after defaecation and stored in field conditions for prolonged periods prior to hormone analysis, is therefore warranted. This study describes the development of an optimal field extraction method, which includes hand-shaking faecal material in 90% methanol, before loading this extract in a 40% solvent onto HyperSep™ C8 solid-phase extraction cartridges, stored at ambient temperatures. This method was successfully validated for measurement of adrenal and reproductive hormone metabolites in faeces of male and female black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and was rigorously tested in controlled laboratory and simulated field conditions. All the hormones tested demonstrated between 83 and 94% and between 42 and 89% recovery of synthetic and endogenous hormone metabolites, respectively, with high precision of replication. Furthermore, results obtained following the developed optimal field extraction method were highly correlated with the control laboratory method. Cartridges can be stored at ambient (cool, dry or warm, humid) conditions for periods of up to 6 months without degradation, before re-extraction of hormone metabolites for analysis by enzyme immunoassay. The described method has great potential to be applied to monitor faecal reproductive and adrenal hormone metabolites in a wide variety of species and allows samples to be stored in the field for up to 6 months prior to analysis. This provides the opportunity to investigate hormone relationships within in situ populations, where equipment and facilities may previously have been limiting.
      PubDate: 2014-02-04T04:14:34-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cot037|hwp:master-id:conphys;cot037
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Impacts of environmental pressures on the reproductive physiology of
           subpopulations of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis) in Addo
           Elephant National Park, South Africa
    • Authors: Freeman, E. W; Meyer, J. M, Bird, J, Adendorff, J, Schulte, B. A, Santymire, R. M.
      Pages: cot034 - cot034
      Abstract: Black rhinoceros are an icon for international conservation, yet little is known about their physiology due to their secretive nature. To overcome these challenges, non-invasive methods were used to monitor rhinoceros in two sections of Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, namely Addo and Nyathi. These sections were separated by a public road, and the numbers of elephants, predators and tourists were higher in Addo. Faecal samples (n = 231) were collected (from July 2007 to November 2010) from known individuals and analysed for progestagen and androgen metabolite (FPM and FAM, respectively) concentrations. As biotic factors could impact reproduction, we predicted that demographics, FPM and FAM would vary between sections and with respect to season (calendar and wet/dry), climate and age of the rhinoceros. Mean FPM concentrations from pregnant females were seven times higher (P 
      PubDate: 2014-02-04T04:14:34-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cot034|hwp:master-id:conphys;cot034
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Conservation physiology today and tomorrow
    • Authors: Cooke; S. J.
      Pages: cot033 - cot033
      PubDate: 2014-01-07T02:20:52-08:00
      DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cot033|hwp:master-id:conphys;cot033
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
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