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Journal Cover Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 0331-8753
     Published by ScopeMed Homepage  [77 journals]
  • Effect of Mechanical Stretching of the Skin on Collagen Fibril Thermal
           Stability

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      El-ta’alu Abbas Bubakar, Alhassan Adamu Jibrin and Ibrahim Sulayman.
      Stabilization of collagen fibres during development and through growth to maturation has now become fairly documented. In vitro effect of mechanical stretching of rats’ skin on oxidative deamination of ε-NH2-groups of lysine and hydroxylysine, and functional properties of its type І collagen were studied. Experiments were carried out on the skin of a 3-months old male Wistar rat weighing about 800 mg. The skin tissue was divided into four (4) and subjected to different mechanical stresses in Ringer-Kreb’s medium for 6 hours at 37 oC. The Degree of oxidative deamination of lysine and hydroxylysine was evaluated by way of the content of free ε-amino (ε-NH2) and aldehyde (COH) groups. Level of covalent cross-linking of collagen in skin samples was assessed by its solubility in 1 M solution of NaCl and expressed as a percentage of total collagen content in the tissue. Collagen synthesized under the influence of mechanical stretching had higher content of free ε-NH2-groups and lower level of inter-molecular cross-links compared to the collagen synthesized without the stretching. This finding may indicate that fibrils formed in the former were shorter and had lower thermal stability due to a decrease in the degree of cross linkages.

      PubDate: Tue, 14 Oct 2014 14:00:25 GMT
       
  • Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Composition of Strychnos innocua Del.
           (Monkey Orange) Fruit Pulp Grown in Zuru, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      L.G. Hassan, U. Abdulmumin, K.J. Umar, P.O. Ikeh, and A.A. Aliero.
      The Strychnos innocua (Monkey Orange) fruits pulp were analysed to establish its proximate, minerals, anti-nutritional and ascorbic acid compositions using standard analytical methods. The pulp, on dry weight basis (DW), contains crude protein (3.97%), crude lipid (20.0%), ash (0. 05%), available carbohydrates (75.53%), calorific value (498.0kcal/100g) and moisture (60.17%Wet Weight). The pulp is rich in, potassium (256.33mg/100g), magnesium (10.67mg/100g), iron (9.77mg/100g), zinc (28.73 mg/100g) and manganese (2.50mg/100g). The pulp contains appreciable concentration of ascorbic acid (17.97 91mg/100g DW). But the pulp also has high content of total oxalate (48.75 % DW) and phytic acid (242.91mg/100g). The levels of various nutrient and mineral elements varied significantly, which indicates the potential of the pulp to be harnessed for diverse application for value addition as health food provided that the anti-nutritional factors are tackled appropriately.

      PubDate: Mon, 13 Oct 2014 16:33:50 GMT
       
  • Determination of the Protective Capacity of the Aquitard Stratum in Some
           Coastline Towns of Delta State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Ochuko Anomohanran.
      This study was aimed at determining the protective capacity of the aquitard stratum in some coastline locations in Delta State, Nigeria. This was carried out using the electrical resistivity method. A total of 13 vertical electrical soundings were conducted and data obtained were interpreted by partial curve matching and computer iterative technique. The result of the study show the presence of three to four geoelectric formations comprising top soil, sandy clay/clayey sand, fine sand and medium coarse sand. The aquitard resistivity ranged from 11.8 to 108.8 m while the thickness ranged from 1.0 to 7.4 m. It can be concluded that the protective capacity of the aquitard in the area ranges from poor to moderate.

      PubDate: Mon, 13 Oct 2014 16:20:03 GMT
       
  • Partial Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Protease from
           Pedicoccus acidilactici

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.A. Oke and A.A. Onilude.
      Microbial proteases have wide industrial applications and proteases of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have received special attention because of their importance in the food and dairy industry. Of all the LAB, the proteolytic system of the pediococci is the least studied. Therefore, this study was aimed at characterizing and purifying the protease produced by Pediococcus acidilactici grown in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth. Casein concentration of 2% (w/v) and 2.5 ml of the crude enzyme were optimal for the activity of the protease. The crude protease had temperature and pH optima of 28 oC and 4.0 respectively thus indicating that the enzyme is a mesophilic and acidic protease. Purification of the enzyme by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G75 following ammonium sulphate precipitation gave 2.26 fold increase in purification with specific activity of 46.13 units/mg protein while purification on Sephadex CM50 resulted in reduced purification fold (1.24 - 1.59) with specific activity ranging between 25.39 - 32.54 units/mg protein. The protease showed a characteristic band on SDS-PAGE and the molecular weight was estimated between 45 and 66 kDa. The potential applications of the protease are discussed.

      PubDate: Mon, 13 Oct 2014 16:08:06 GMT
       
  • Heavy Metals in Soils and Tomatoes Grown in Urban Fringe Environment in
           Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      F.I. Bassey, C.M.A. Iwegbue, G.E. Obi-Iyeke, G.O. Tesi, A.R. Rotu, O.A. Gobe and A.I. Tsafe.
      Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn and Fe in soils and tomato leaves and fruits from peri-urban environments in Asaba, Delta State were determined after acid digestion by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentrations of metals in the soil samples were 10.14, 2.28, 3.96, 7.88, 0.15, 14.53 and 66.00 mg/kg site A; 7.01, 2.01, 2.03, 5.53, 0.16, 12.15, and 70.12 mg/kg site B, and 9.12, 2.24, 3.01, 4.35, 0.01, 11.52, and 61.22 mg/kg site C for Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn and Fe respectively. The concentrations of metals in the tomato leaves samples were 4.01, 1.91, 1.83, 4.89, 0.16, 4.51 and 7.13 mg/kg in site A; 3.84, 1.56, 2.07, 4.00, 0.41, 4.48 and 8.15mg/kg in site B, and 4.03, 1.75, 2.01, 4.52, 0.01, 4.42 and 8.11 mg/kg in site C for Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn and Fe respectively while in the tomato fruits, the concentrations of metals in mg/kg were 2.96, 0.41, 1.35, 3.33, 0.01, 3.83 and 6.38 mg/kg in site A; 3.01, 1.35, 1.88, 2.98, 0.15, 3.01 and 5.09 mg/kg in site B, and 3.92, 1.44, 1.82, 3.73, 0.01, 3.05 and 6.00 mg/kg in site C for Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn and Fe respectively. These values obtained in the soils for all sites were below the given values for naturally occurring metals in soil and Department of Petroleum Resources target and intervention values for metals in soil while the values recorded for tomatoes leaves and fruit are below the levels recommended by WHO/FAO and NAFDAC for metals in foods and vegetables but are within the normal range of metals in plants. There was positive correlation among metals except Pb/Cr, Cr/Mn and Cr/Fe. The values of transfer factor (tf) obtained for all the metals except Fe in leaves and fruits for all the sites were above 0.2 indicating anthropogenic contamination of the sites and also high take up and accumulation of the metals from the soil by the tomatoes thus the need for environmental monitoring of the area.

      PubDate: Mon, 13 Oct 2014 16:00:47 GMT
       
  • Salting Out Effect of Electrolyte Solutions in The Extraction of Tantalum
           and Niobium Using Aqueous Biphase System

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      N.S. Maina and E. Solomon.
      The salting-out effect of various solutions of electrolyte in the extraction of tantalum and niobium using aqueous biphasic system (ABS) was investigated. This was achieved by leaching ball-milled Tantalite ore with mineral acids (H2SO4 and HF) in the ratio of 3:1. The leached liquor was then divided into five parts and each part mixed with ABS formed (e.g. PEG-3350/20wt/wt Na2CO3) for the extraction of tantalum and niobium and then with Na2SO4, K2CO3, K2SO4, KBr, and KI salts in turn. The amount of tantalum pent oxide extracted was determined using X-ray fluorescence method. The results show that the percentage tantalum extracted was in the range of 28.17% to 54.93% i.e. increased in the order KI< KBr < K2CO3< Na2SO4, < K2SO4 with 28.17%, 30.28%, 34.51%, 43.31% and 54.93% respectively; while that of niobium pent oxide increased in the order KI< KBr < K2CO3< Na2SO4, < K2SO4 with 27.3%, 29.35%, 33.78%, 34.64% and 41.98% respectively. In conclusion electrolyte with high ionic charge and hydration radius salts-out Ta2O5 better in the ABS/electrolyte system than those with low values.

      PubDate: Sun, 12 Oct 2014 01:59:06 GMT
       
  • Environmental Ionizing Radiation Survey of Quarry Sites in Ilorin
           Industrial Area, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      L.I. Nwankwo, C.O. Akoshile, A.B. Alabi, O.O. Ojo and T. A. Ayodele.
      An environmental ionizing radiation survey around quarry sites in Ilorin was carried out using three Radalert Nuclear Radiation Monitors and Global Positioning System (GPS) in order to assess and provide up to date information on radiation levels in the environment. Measured mean radiation levels ranged from 1.11±0.05 to 1.72±0.03 mSv/yr with an average of 1.49±0.04 mSv/yr in the study area. The radiation levels have surpassed the standard level of 1 mSv/yr by 50%, but fall below the global average of 2.4 mSv/yr for the general public and 20 mSv/yr for occupational environment.

      PubDate: Sun, 12 Oct 2014 01:47:35 GMT
       
  • Economic Analysis of Crop Production under Jibiya Irrigation Project,
           Katsina State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      J. Musa, K. M. Baba and S.A. Beli.
      The study examined costs and returns of crop production under Jibiya Irrigation Project as well as problems that were militating against the achievement of the Project objectives. 120 farmers were randomly sampled and interviewed. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and farm budgeting model. The average age and land holding of the farmers were 42 years and 0.8ha, respectively. Majority of the farmers were married and can read and write. Most of them had between 0 - 5 and 0 - 3 children and dependants, respectively. Their average costs of crop production were N 94,513.61, N 90,969.20 and N 3,544.41 per hectare of total, variable and fixed cost, respectively. Whereas the total revenue, gross margin and net farm income they obtained were N 190,329.36, N 99,360.16 and N 95,815.75 per hectare, respectively. They enjoyed a net return on investment of N 1.01. There were many problems facing the farmers, which if not addressed adequately, will not only significantly reduce the productivity of crop production but will also discourage farmers from farming under the Project. The performance of the farmers, though good, could be improved if there is adequate funding of the Project; inputs are made readily available to farmers at subsidized rate and in good time and the farmers offer hands in ensuring the safety and security of the Project’s facilities.

      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 04:14:30 GMT
       
  • Determinants of Non Alcoholic Beverages (NAB) Consumption in North-Western
           Nigeria: A study of Sokoto Metropolis

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.K. Abdullahi and A.A. Yakubu.
      Non alcoholic beverages (NAB) consumption in Nigeria has been steadily increasing over the years to the point where nearly half of the populace are consumers of these products. This study seeks to determine the role played by socioeconomic characteristics in driving consumption of some selected NABs particularly juice and carbonated soda in Sokoto metropolis of Nigeria. To adequately capture the variables of interest, specifically, location and ethnicity variables, the metropolis was grouped into four clusters, namely Peri-urban, Sokoto main, G R As, and Resident community. In each of the clusters one hundred households were randomly selected to arrive at a sample size of four hundred households. Descriptive, OLSMR and probit analytical tools were used to analyse the data collected. The results shows that about 59% and 71% of the respondents consumed juice and soda respectively while the per capita consumption of juice was slightly higher than that of soda which were 7.57 and 7.32 litres respectively. Household sizes, education and economic status of the household heads play a significant role in determining the consumption level of both juice and soda. While gender and location significantly affected the respective consumption of juice and soda in the metropolis. In both cases gender and household sizes where negative while the rest where positive. The probit analysis showed that age and household sizes negatively affected the probability of both juice and soda consumption, while education and economic status of the household heads positively determined the probability of consumption of the two beverages in the metropolis. Finally, while gender has a negative effect on the probability of juice consumption, ethnicity of the household heads played a positive role in the consumption probability of soda beverages. The study concluded that an improvement in the consumption of NABs in the metropolis requires policies aimed at encouraging the citizenry to have a smaller family size, sound education and raising their real incomes. While the manufacturers should be encouraged to fortify their carbonated drinks with nutrients.

      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jul 2014 04:02:02 GMT
       
  • Influence of Intra row spacing on growth and fodder yield of Lablab
           (Lablab purpureus [L]) in Semi – Arid Sokoto Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S.D. Tanko, B.S. Malami, B.M. Bodinga, H.G. Ahmed, B.A. Yahaya.
      A Field experiment was conducted in 2010 and repeated in 2011 cropping seasons at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching and Research Farm, Dabagi to determine the effect of intra row spacing on growth and yield of Lablab purpureus. Treatments consisted three intra row spacings (20, 30 and 40cm) laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. The results of the trial showed that intra row spacing significantly (P < 0.05) affected stand establishment count with 20cm producing the highest (43.3)number of stands and plant height at week 3 after sowing in 2011 cropping season. Tallest plants (42.2 cm) were produced by 20cm intra row spacing. Leaf number was significant (P< 0.05) at 9 weeks after sowing in 2010 cropping season. Thirty (30) cm intra row spacing produced the highest no. of leaves (25). Leaf length was not significantly affected (P> 0.05) by intra row spacing. The longest leaf (9.9 cm) was produced by 30 cm intra row spacing. Leaf width was also not significantly affected (P> 0.05) by intra row spacing with 30 cm intra row spacing producing the widest leaf (8.9 cm). Dry matter yield was not affected (P> 0.05) by intra row spacing however, 30 cm intra row spacing produced the highest dry matter yield of 1707.7 kg/ha. It was concluded from this research that 30 cm intra row spacing produced the highest dry matter yield of Lablab purpureus (L) and is recommended for semi arid Sokoto environment.

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jul 2014 05:40:30 GMT
       
  • Influence of Sources and Rates of Manure on Yield and Nutrient Uptake of
           Maize (Zea mays L.) in Maiduguri, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      U.U. Waniyo, M.M. Sauwa, A.L. Ngala, G.A. Abubakar and E.C. Anelo.
      Lack of proper knowledge on the type and exact quantity of manure required by crops are among the major constraints to maize production in Maiduguri. Thus a pot experiment was carried out in the screen house of University of Maiduguri to assess the effects of sources and rates of manure suitable for optimum maize production in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The experiment was established as completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 manure treatments, 3 rates plus 3 controls (no manure), replicated 3 times. The results showed that, yield and nutrient uptake of maize was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influenced by treatments at 21 and 42 days after planting (DAP). Cow manure treatment on average, produced the best of growth, yield and nutrient uptake (N,P, and K uptake) of maize compared to other treatments. Also, on average, values of most parameters in the 10 and 20 t/ha rates were statistically similar or higher than those of 30 t/h/ha. However, 10t/ha rate is considered more appropriate as it produces same effects as those of 20t/ha rates. From the results, it can be concluded that application of 10t/ha cow manure is adequate for optimum maize production in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria.

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jul 2014 05:19:01 GMT
       
  • Nutritive values, Mineral and Antioxidant properties of Pistia stratiotes
           (Water lettuce)

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      R .S.U. Wasagu, M. Lawal, S. Shehu H.H. Alfa and C. Muhammad.
      Proximate, mineral and antioxidant composition of the leaf and root samples of Pistia stratiotes were estimated using standard methods. The samples show appreciable levels of moisture (4.50±0.50%and 4.50±0.10%), crude fibre (17.50±0.87% and 20.50±1.80%), crude lipid (2.17±0.29% and 1.83±0.29%), crude protein (6.96±0.13% and 3.18±0.14%), ash (35.20±1.56% and 44.50±0.50%) and carbohydrate (38.20±2.08% and 30.00±1.46%) respectively. The minerals determined were sodium (373.00±0.50mg/100g and 113.00±0.06mg100/g), potassium (3283.00±0.76mg100/g and 1750.00±0.50mg100/g), phosphorus (336.00±0.10mg/100g and 313.00±0.03mg/100g), calcium (230.00±0.01mg/100g and 230.00±0.03mg/100g) and magnesium (370.00±0.03mg/100g and 230.00±0.03mg/100g) respectively. The antioxidant estimated are vitamin A (480.0±1.50mg/100g and 1050.00±1.50mg/100g), vitamin C (560.00±0.20mg/100g and 3130.00±0.31mg/100g) and vitamin E (8260.00±3.00mg/100g and 3060±1.83mg100/g) respectively. The results show that the leaf and root portions of P.stratiotes have potential nutritional uses and the leaf parts have significant (P

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jul 2014 04:59:51 GMT
       
  • Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate Composition
           of Two Varieties of Cyperus esculentus (Tiger Nut)

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      T.S. Imam, F.G. Aliyu and H.F. Umar.
      The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned phytochemicals with the exception of resin were present in the two varieties. The elements tested for were Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, K and Fe. The result shows big yellow variety had higher Na, K, and Ca with mean values 70.8 mg/Kg, 3694.43 mg/Kg and 372.2 mg/Kg respectively. Both samples had equal Fe, Zn and Mn contents of 21.0 mg/Kg, 8.3 mg/Kg and 1.67 mg/Kg respectively. Small brown variety had higher Mg content (308.3 mg/Kg). The proximate analysis show brown yellow variety had higher ash, crude protein and crude fiber contents with values of 1.85%, 2.75% and 9.25% respectively. While small brown variety had higher moisture and fatty acid contents of 4.25 % and 15.2% respectively. Considering the potential nutritive and health benefits of the underutilized tiger nuts, it is suggested that utilization of tiger nut products (such as biscuits, flour and milk etc.) should be encouraged so as to ameliorate the problem of protein-calorie malnutrition in children, since it is rich in nutritional contents.

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jul 2014 03:36:28 GMT
       
  • Heavy Metals and Physicochemical Properties of Soils in Kano Urban
           Agricultural Lands

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      U.M. Dawaki, A.U. Dikko, S.S. Noma and U. Aliyu.
      This study was conducted on the urban agricultural soils at the banks of three metropolitan and suburban rivers namely Challawa, Jakara and Watari in Kano, Kano State, Nigeria to determine the total, exchangeable and soluble concentrations of the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd . The soils are all slightly alkaline (mean pH 7.42 – 7.77), with moderate CEC (12.63 – 23.11cmol/kg), medium to high organic carbon (7.16 – 11.27g/kg). The mean ranges of total Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd were 4.95 – 5.99, 5.85 – 165.66, 54.03 – 57.77, 55.07 – 255.52, 42.84 – 68.12 and 0.59 – 11.81mg/kg respectively. All the values were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations in soils, except for Cd at Jakara and Challawa. The mean ranges of exchangeable metals were 0.57 – 1.18, 1.69 – 29.26, 13.89 – 15.59, 14.16 – 49.01 10.48 – 18.31 and 0.39 – 1.20mg/kg for Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd respectively. The mean soluble concentrations were 0.27 – 0.48, 0.61 – 15.91, 5.60 – 7.15, 4.90 – 17.42, 2.78 – 9.36 and 0.00 – 0.60mg/kg for Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd respectively. Although appreciable amounts of all the metals were detected in the various forms, variability exists between the sites with concentrations found to be significantly higher (p≤ 0.05) in areas irrigated with waters receiving industrial and domestic sewages namely, Challawa and Jakara than Watari which was the control and significant relationship (p≤ 0.05) exists between exchangeable and total metal forms on one hand and such soil properties as organic carbon, available P, total N and basic cations on the other.

      PubDate: Mon, 16 Dec 2013 23:54:47 GMT
       
  • Morphological Assessment of the Genetic Variability among 53 Accessions of
           West African okra [Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels] from South
           Western Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.E. Osawaru, M.C. Ogwu and F.M. Dania-Ogbe.
      Genetic variability in fifty three accessions of West African Okra [Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels] were evaluated using morphological traits. These accessions were collected from home gardens, seed stores and distant farms in South Western Nigeria and trials carried out in the experimental garden, University of Benin, Nigeria. The primary data on quantitative and qualitative characters collected were subjected to multivariate analyses to determine their relationship and distinctiveness. At P < 0.05, 14 quantitative characters were significant. Two principal component analyses were conducted. Eighteen of the total characters accounted for 90.2 % of the total variability on Principal Component (PC) axes 1 - 5 and the other, sixteen characters showed 70.1 % as the minimum descriptor for distinguishing A. caillei. The traits expressed by these descriptors are reflected in pigmentation of various organs; fruit characteristics and plant architecture on the crop plants. The sixteen characters suggested for core determination of this species were used for cluster analysis. All accessions clustered into seven distinct groups at Euclidean distance 8 - 10. This suggests relatively high genetic variability among the germplasm. The clustering is ecologically independent and the number of accession(s) in each cluster suggests A. caillei as a continuous complex of varieties. This collection requires more evidence probably molecular evaluation for taxonomic treatment of the taxon.

      PubDate: Mon, 16 Dec 2013 04:53:31 GMT
       
  • Growth Responses of Two Cultivated Okra Species (Abelmoschus caillei (A.
           Chev) Stevels and Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench) in Crude Oil
           Contaminated Soil

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M. E. Osawaru, M. C. Ogwu and L. Braimah.
      The morphological distinctiveness of two cultivated Okra species- Abelmoschus caillei and Abelmoschus esculentus was investigated using six accessions; three for each species in crude oil contaminated soil. The seeds were collected from home gardens in Benin City and NIHORT. Morpho-agronomic characters such as numbers of days from sowing to germination, plant height, stem base diameter, stem color and pubescence, leaf shape and color, number of leaves produced, growth habit, branching, fruit and fruiting characters were determined. The growth response of the different accessions varied significantly (p< 0.05). Soil chemical analysis revealed decreased levels of pH, Phosphorus and Potassium in the contaminated soil. Generally, all the quantitative characters including number of flower buds and flowers produced, fruit length, height of plant and stem girth were reduced in plants (Okra) grown in the contaminated soil while most of the qualitative characters such as pigmentation and shape of plant organs were less affected. Thus, it can be suggested from the study that crude oil contamination of soil may lead to reduction in growth characteristics.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 Dec 2013 04:30:52 GMT
       
  • Comparison of Transportation Algorithms Using Data from Katsina State
           Transport Authority, Katsina State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Uba Ahmad Ali and Abdussalam Muhammad Mustapha.
      Transportation problem has been one of the most important applications of Linear programming. Transportation problems have become vastly applied in industrial organizations with multiple manufacturing units, warehouses and distribution centers. In this stugy, the methods of finding initial basic feasible solution of balanced transportation problem are studied and compared to find among them the best in terms of efficiency. The initial basic feasible solution tableaus of all the methods are constructed using data collected from Katsina State Transport Authority. The costing of the allocated cells associated with the initial basic feasible solutions of the five methods are computed and compared with that of optimal solution which was found to be N1,098,000:00. It was observed that Vogel’s approximation method, Least-Cost method and Column minimum method yielded better starting solutions. The North-West Corner method and Row minimum methods though simple to compute yielded starting solutions far from the optimal solution. In addition, Vogel’s approximation method is more difficult and requires more iteration. The best transportation network for Katsina State Transport Authority was obtained.

      PubDate: Tue, 10 Dec 2013 12:44:51 GMT
       
  • Reliability Analysis of a Two Dissimilar Unit Cold Standby System with
           Three Modes Using Kolmogorov Forward Equation Method

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Uba Ahmad Ali, Naziru Idris Bala and Ibrahim Yusuf.
      Reliability is an important area that is receiving attention globally. This paper studies reliability analysis of a two-dissimilar-unit cold standby system with three modes using Kolmogorov forward equation’s method, in which its reliability and availability analysis are evaluated. This proposed system has been investigated under three modes: normal, partial failure, total failure. The failure and the repair time are assumed to have exponential distribution. The effect of failure rate on meantime to system failure (MTSF ), steady state availability ( AT () ) and the profit function PF() of the system are compared. It was found thatMTSF , AT () , and PF() are decreasing with the increase of the failure rate.

      PubDate: Thu, 28 Nov 2013 01:02:59 GMT
       
  • Nature of the Campano-Maastrichtian Sub-Basins in the Gongola Basin,
           Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Hamidu Ibrahim and Halidu Hamza.
      Geological mapping was carried out and outcrop sections were examined alongside palaeocurrent directions from the greater part of the Campano-Maastrichtian outcrops in the Gongola Basin in Nigeria. Palaeocurrent measurements were obtained from asymmetrical ripples, cross bedding and dune bedforms within the channel-filling sub-facies of the Arowa Formation, and the foresets of the tabular cross bedding displayed in the Duguri formation. A north-westerly to a northerly paleocurrent direction was determined for the Arowa formation, indicating that the open sea was located to north-north-west, while a unimodal palaeocurrent directions characterize the Duguri Formation. These currents transported sediment into the Dukku, Akko and Bashar sub-basins with an overall centripetal pattern. The main structural features of the western part of Gongola Basin from E-W, are the N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults. These series of faults controll the basin subsidence and deposition of the Campano-Maastrichtian succession in the Dukku, Akko and Bashar sub-basins.The lateral and vertical facies variation within the Campano-Maastrichtian succession are in consistence with the northerly retreat of the sea.

      PubDate: Thu, 28 Nov 2013 00:59:08 GMT
       
  • Isolation and Identification of Fungi Associated with the Spoilage of
           Sweet Orange (Citrus Sinensis) Fruits In Sokoto State

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      I.Y. Tafinta, K.Shehu, H. Abdulganiyyu, A.M. Rabe and A. Usman.
      This study was carried out in Sokoto Metropolis to isolate and identify fungi associated with the deterioration of sweet orange fruits. A total of one hundred samples of fresh sweet Oranges (Citrus sinensis L) were used. First, a total of seventy samples were obtained from the three selected marketing centres in Sokoto metropolis (Central market, Kasuwar daji and Old market respectively), and transported immediately to mycology laboratory Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto for analysis. The oranges were kept under room temperature and observed after two weeks for spoilage. Each of the orange was cut and the liquid content inoculated on potato Dextrose Agar and incubated at 250c and observed for 3-28 days after which the different colonies obtained were identified using the slide culture technique. The fungal analysis shows that Apergillus fumigatus, Apergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer are associated with the spoilt sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis) with frequencies of occurrence of 22%, 17 %, 25 % 36% respectively. Fresh sweet orange fruits (thirty samples: ten each from the three markets respectively) were obtained, and the isolated culture for each of the identified fungi specie inoculated on each of the freshly purchased oranges and incubated to check for their spoilage ability. The result shows that R. stolonifer and A. flavus were the most active with rots diameter of 45 mm and 35 mm, respectively. And the least active fungus was A. niger having a rots diameter of 25mm.

      PubDate: Thu, 28 Nov 2013 00:50:00 GMT
       
  • Effect of Camel Milk’s Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels,
           Lipid Profile and Body Weight of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S.A. Isa, K.G. Ibrahim and I. Abubakar.
      Cases of diabetes are on the rise in almost every population and epidemiological studies suggest that without proper prevention and control measures, prevalence of the disease will continue to increase globally. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of camel milk supplementation on serum glucose, lipid profile and body weight of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by intravenous injection of alloxan (80mg/kg body weight). Diabetic rats showed significantly higer blood glucose levels (9.68±1.36 mmol/L). Treatment with camel milk significantly decreases blood glucose levels (5.33±0.46) p

      PubDate: Thu, 28 Nov 2013 00:45:18 GMT
       
  • Activity Guided Isolation and Characterization of Antiplasmodial Agents of
           some Local medicinal Plants

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S.W. Hassan, S. Verma, S.K.Srivastava, and S. Dwarn.
      Combined Plant Mixture (CPM) in ratio of 1:1 (Vitex doniana, Diospyros mesipiliformis, Acacia polyacantha, Parinari macrophylla, Ficus sycomorus and Parkia biglobosa) was extracted with methanol and screened for antimalarial activity. The CPM Methanol extract residue was suspended in water and fractionated with Hexane (HX), Ethylacetate (EA) and n-Butanol (BUT). The Methanolic CPM extract has shows some antimalarial activity with Mean Survival Times (MST) of 10.16 to 12.16 days. All the mice in control group were found dead on 14th day of study and one mice was still alive on 14th day in both the groups with 15% and 30% parasitaemia against Plasmodium yoelli nigeriensis N67 and Plasmodium berghei K173 respectively. The EA fraction was the most active against P. yoelli nigeriensis N67 having 2 mice surviving up to 14th day with 5.5% parasitaemia and MST of 13.4 days. Fractions of water (WT), HX and BUT have 12.5, 25, and 100% (dead) parasitaemia with mean survival times of 12.6, 9.33 and 8.5 days against 100% (dead) parasitaemia and 8.20 days of MST when compared with control. HX fraction was the most active against P. berghei K173 followed by BUT fraction with one mice surviving up to 14th day without parasitaemia but with MST of 15.0 and 13.5 days respectively. EA and WT fractions have 22.66 and 100% (dead) parasitaemia with mean survival times of 11.80 and 10.80 days respectively. Chromatographic separation of EA fraction of the CPM extract resulted in the isolation of Gallic acid(Figure 2, Fractions 79-83), 3β-OH-α-amyrin(Figure 3, Fractions 45-46), 5,7,3’,4’,5’-pentahydroxy-3-O-glucophyranoside flavones(Figure 4, Fractions 128-157)-[myricetin 3-O-β-rhamnopyranoside], 5,7,3’,4’ tetrahydroxy-3-o-glucopyranoside flavones(Figure 5, Fractions 126-141)-[quercetin 3-O-β-rhamnopyranoside], and 3,5,7,3’,4’-Pentahydroxy flavones (Figure 6, Fractions 87-112)-[quercetine]. The compounds were characterized using ESI-MS, IR, 1H C13, HMBC/HSQC and COSY-NMR data. These findings suggest that the combined extracts possess antiplasmodial properties.

      PubDate: Thu, 28 Nov 2013 00:40:46 GMT
       
  • Characterization and Classification of Soils on an Agricultural landscape
           in Dingyadi District, Sokoto State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.B. Sharu, M. Yakubu, S.S. Noma and A.I.Tsafe.
      A semi-detailed fixed grid soil survey of Dingyadi District was conducted in order to obtain comprehensive soil data for characterization and classification. Three soil mapping units TLL1, TUP2 and TUP3 were identified on the basis of land forms and surface texture. Morphological properties of the soil reveal that soil unit TLL1 is deep, imperfectly drained and generally loamy sand in texture. TUP2 was well drained with deep rooting zone and texture varies from loamy sand on the surface to sandy clay loam in the subsoil. Soil unit TUP3 has an impermeable layer at less than 50 cm depth with generally gravelly sand texture. Physical properties of the soils indicate a relative high bulk density and low porosity. Mean equilibrium infiltration rates (MEIR) (cmhr-1) for soil units TLL1, TUP2 and TUP3 were 20, 40 and 32 respectively. The dominant exchangeable bases were calcium and magnesium with the soils having high base saturation. The soils were neutral to slightly alkaline in reaction. Organic matter, available P, total N and CEC contents of the soils were generally low. According to USDA Soil Taxonomy System, soil units TLL1, TUP 2, and TUP 3 were classified as Typic Endoaqualfs, Typic Haplustepts and Lithic Ustorthents, respectively and correlate with Haplic Luvisols, Argic Lixisols and Ruptic Cambisols in WRB system of Classification.

      PubDate: Fri, 02 Aug 2013 07:38:36 GMT
       
  • Hydro-Priming and Re-Drying Effects on Germination, Emergence and Growth
           of Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      N.D. Ibrahim, Z. Bhadmus and A. Singh.
      Experiments were conducted in the field and laboratory during the 2011 wet and dry seasons to investigate the effect of hydro-priming and drying duration on the germination, emergence and growth of seedlings of upland rice. Treatments consisted of four hydro-primed durations of 12, 24, 36 and 48 hrs at two and four hours of drying and unprimed (control) laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) replicated three times. Results show that there was significant effect (P

      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jul 2013 02:10:38 GMT
       
  • Land Evaluation of an Agricultural Landscape in Dingyadi District, Sokoto
           State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.B. Sharu, M. Yakubu, S.S. Noma and A.I.Tsafe.
      A semi-detailed survey was conducted to evaluate the soils of an agricultural landscape in Dingyadi area of Sokoto State. Three soil mapping units TLL1, TUP2 and TUP3 were identified on the basis of land forms and surface texture. USDA land capability classification, Fertility capability classification and land suitability classification were use for this purpose. The soils were grouped into various Land capability classes as class IVw, IIIse, and IIIes for TLL 1, TUP 2 and TUP3 respectively. In land fertility capability classification (FCC) soil units TLL 1, TUP 2 and TUP3 were classified as LSg, Lde and Sde respectively. The suitability of the soil was assessed for two major crops (Cowpea and pearl millet) grown in the area TUP2 and TUP3 are rated moderately suitable for cowpea and pearl millet (S2s) while TLL 1 was rated currently not suitable (N1Sw) for cowpea and pearl millet because of limitation of wetness. Management practices such as periodic monitoring of soil quality, adding organic manure and guided inorganic fertilizer use have been recommended for improve productivity.

      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jul 2013 01:45:39 GMT
       
  • Characterization and Classification of Soils on an Agricultural landscape
           in Dingyadi District, Sokoto State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.B. Sharu, M. Yakubu, S.S. Noma and A.I.Tsafe.
      A semi-detailed fixed grid soil survey of Dingyadi District was conducted in order to obtain comprehensive soil data for characterization and classification. Three soil mapping units TLL1, TUP2 and TUP3 were identified on the basis of land forms and surface texture. Morphological properties of the soil reveal that soil unit TLL1 is deep, imperfectly drained and generally loamy sand in texture. TUP2 was well drained with deep rooting zone and texture varies from loamy sand on the surface to sandy clay loam in the subsoil. Soil unit TUP3 has an impermeable layer at less than 50 cm depth with generally gravelly sand texture. Physical properties of the soils indicate a relative high bulk density and low porosity. Mean equilibrium infiltration rates (MEIR) (cmhr-1) for soil units TLL1, TUP2 and TUP3 were 20, 40 and 32 respectively. The dominant exchangeable bases were calcium and magnesium with the soils having high base saturation. The soils were neutral to slightly alkaline in reaction. Organic matter, available P, total N and CEC contents of the soils were generally low. According to USDA Soil Taxonomy System, soil units TLL1, TUP 2, and TUP 3 were classified as Typic Endoaqualfs, Typic Haplustepts and Lithic Ustorthents, respectively and correlate with Haplic Luvisols, Argic Lixisols and Ruptic Cambisols in WRB system of Classification.

      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jul 2013 06:55:45 GMT
       
  • Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of Plantation Grown
           Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denhn in North-Western Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.A. Malami and B. Olufemi.
      *1 1 2Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure [*Corresponding Author, E-mail: aamalami@yahoo.com; : +23465672287] : A study was conducted on the influence of compression stresses on timber potentials of plantation grown E. camaldulensis (Denhn) in North-western Nigeria, with a view to finding an alternative to the over exploited rainforest species. Five 20 year old trees each from Sokoto, Kebbi and Zamfara states were selected and felled for the study. These were cut into top, middle and bottom regions. A total of 225 samples were cut for laboratory analysis according to BS881:74 standard procedures. Laboratory analysis was carried out at Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan, using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). ANOVA was used to analyze the data and mean separation was done using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results of the study revealed overall mean compression stress values of 51.85 N/mm2 and 5.00 N/mm2 parallel (//g) and perpendicular (┴g) to grain respectively. ANOVA showed that differences between means in compression stress perpendicular to grain were highly significant while region/location interaction also revealed significant differences. Similarly, location/region and tree/region interactions were highly significant. It is recommended that E. camaldulensis be added in to the list of exploitable species in North-western Nigeria as it provides suitable alternative to species hitherto exploited and that further research should be carried out on wood in service to study the peculiarities of timber behaviour under actual s¬¬¬¬¬ervice conditions.

      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jul 2013 06:16:48 GMT
       
  • Assessment of Physico-chemical Properties of Biodiesel from African Grapes
           (Lannea microcarpa Engl.& K.Krause)

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.M.Yunus, A.A. Zuru, U.Z. Faruq and A.A. Aliero.
      The African Grape (Lannea microcarpa) seed oil was extracted and subjected to fuel properties tests according to standard method for oil and fuel analysis to evaluate its suitability as oil crop for biodiesel production in Nigeria. The oil was transesterified using alkali hydrolysis to biodiesel. The yields of the oil and its methyl ester were 41.20 ±1.32% and 85 ± 1.30% respectively. The biodiesel produced was analysed for its physicochemical properties and yielded the following properties; kinematic viscosity at 40oC (5.80 cSt), acid value (1.66 mgKOHg-1), flash point (96 oC), cloud point (+9oC), sulphur content (0.03 wt %), and free glycerol (0.54%). The results obtained showed that most of the important properties were within the recommended standards for a biofuel grade biodiesel and suggest the potential of L. microcarpa seeds as a source of biodiesel.

      PubDate: Fri, 26 Jul 2013 08:50:38 GMT
       
  • Kinetic Studies of Alkaline Phosphatase from the Liver of Agama agama
           Lizard

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.K. Abubakar, R.S.U. Wasagu and M.I. Umar.
      Kinetic studies were carried out on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from the liver of Agama agama lizard. Incubation of ALP extract with para – nitrophenyl phosphate formed the basis for the determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme, and the kinetic constants: Maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis Menten constant (Km) were calculated. The Km and Vmax values were 2.5mM and 1.538 X 10-3 µmol/min respectively. Inhibition studies show that the enzyme activity was competitively inhibited by 0.67mM sodium hydrogen orthophosphate (NaH2PO4) with inhibition constant (Ki) of 2.27mM. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 9.9 and the optimum temperature was 35OC. The enzyme exhibited linear Arrhenius relationship with corresponding catalytic energy of activation (Ea) of 1.44KJmol-1. This study gives an insight of the catalytic properties of ALP extracted from the liver of Agama agama lizard.

      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jul 2013 06:01:39 GMT
       
  • Preliminary Evaluation of Some Qualitative Traits of Sugarcane Germplasm
           of North-Western Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      L. Abubakar, A.A. Aliero, S.G. Mohammed, S. Mohammed, M. Musa and T.S. Bubuche.
      Thirty five local sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) accessions were collected in an expedition in North-Western Nigeria, covering Sokoto, Kebbi, Zamfara, Katsina, Kaduna, Kano and Jigawa States in September 2011. The germplasm accessions were maintained at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. Data on leaf colour, leaf sheath colour, thrashability, ligular process, spines (pubescence), stem colour and bud groove were collected. The study indicate that shape of the accessions could be used either directly or indirectly as a selection tool for pest resistance and mechanical cultivation in sugarcane. Leaf sheath colour and number of green leaves per plant could form additional selection tools for high photosynthesis efficiency to the already existing ones.

      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jul 2013 02:56:18 GMT
       
  • Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Abilities of some Indigenous
           Nigerian Drinks

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      H.A. Oboh and E.O. Okhai.
      Antioxidant contents of five local Nigerian drinks namely: ‘Kunu’, palmwine, plantain, soyabean and ‘zobo’ drinks were analyzed for flavonoids, phenols and vitamin C. The antioxidant scavenging abilities were evaluated using four invitro methods. ‘Zobo’ drink with sugar (Zs) had the highest phenolic contents (16.00 ±0.26mg/ml) while ‘zobo’ drink with ginger (ZG) recorded the highest flavonoids and vitamin C (3.91±0.02mg/ml and 2.31±0.01mg/ml) respectively. Local palm wine had the lowest phenols, flavonoids and vitamin C contents. (1.44± 0.00mg/ml, 0.10±0.04mg/ml and 0.29±0.02mg/ml respectively. ‘Zobo’ drink without sugar (ZNS) had the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging abilities of (70.18±0.65 % and 52.63±0.00%) respectively. ZG had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), of 32.43±0.19 mgGAE/ml . A strong positive correlation exists between the total flavonoid, phenol and vitamin C content with their antioxidant capacities. Soybean was second to ‘zobo’ drinks in the scavenging of the DPPH radical and ferric reducing ability. ‘Kunu’ drinks had the lowest ability to mop up the DPPH radical (12.85±0.00 ), but a fair ability in the mopping up of the ABTS (0.32±0.001 ) and NO (21.05±7.44 ) radicals.. Plantain drink showed significantly (P≤ 0.05) lower levels of flavonoids and vitamin C in comparison to kunu drink.

      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jul 2013 01:06:03 GMT
       
  • Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol Oxidase from
           some Common Fruits

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      AB Bello, MS Sule.
      The effect of temperature on the activity and thermal stability of crude polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extracted from garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum), pawpaw (Carica papaya), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), guava (Psidium guajava) and bush mango (Irvingia gabonnensis) fruits were studied using 20 mM Catechol solution as a substrate. The optimum temperature was found to be 30oC for the enzyme extracted from guava, 40oC for that extracted from both pawpaw and pumpkin and 50oC for that from both garden egg and bush mango. The PPO extracted from all the fruits is stable upon incubation for 10 to 120 minutes at temperature between 20- 70oC. The activity of the crude enzyme from all the fruits used was found to decrease at various degrees after incubation for 10 to 120 minutes at temperature greater than 70oC. Therefore increasing the incubation temperature above 70oC would cause decrease in the activity of the enzyme and can be a good method of controlling undesirable changes caused by the enzyme in the products of these fruits.

      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jul 2013 11:01:47 GMT
       
  • Antioxidant Properties of Methanolic Extracts of some Nigerian Plants on
           Nutritionally-Stressed Rats

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      ES Omoregie, AU Osagie.
      The antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of six locally consumed plants in Nigeria were comparatively evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The plants included V. amygdalina (bitter leaf); C. rubens (‘ebolo’); A. hybridus (‘tete’); J. tanjorensis (jatropha); G. africana (‘okazi’) and T. triangulare (water leaf). The in vitro study indicate that the DPPH radical scavenging activity was highest (p

      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jul 2013 10:48:39 GMT
       
  • Phytochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Root and Leaf Extracts of
           Calotropis procera

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      MM Mainasara, BL Aliero, AA Aliero, M Yakubu.
      Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of water, methanol and ethanol extracts obtained from root and leaf of Calotropis procera were investigated. Antibacterial growth inhibition was determined using Ditch method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyrogenes. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and cardiac glycosides, balsams and volatile oil and steroids with higher amount in water extracts. The concentration of the phytochemical constituents were in the order of water> methanol> ethanol. Water extracts showed broad spectrum activity against the tested organisms at concentrations of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg/ml. Methanol and ethanol extracts did not show a significant effect against the tested organisms at 120 mg/ml as compared with those of tetracycline. The result of this study validates the use of water extract of this species in ethnomedicine and could provide a lead in the isolation of antibacterial agents from water extracts of Calotropis procera.

      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jul 2013 10:37:26 GMT
       
  • Variability Pattern for Resistance to Purple Blotch (Alternaria porri )
           Disease of Onions (Allium cepa L.) in North Western Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      L. Abubakar and S.G. Ado.
      Five onion cultivars Red Creole, Kaharda, Koumassa, Sokoto local and ori were selected on the basis of diverse genetic backgrounds with respect to resistance to Alternaria porri (Ellis.) Cif. The cultivars were crossed in a complete diallel, the 25 F1s generated and their parents were evaluated in replicated yield trials at Sokoto in Sokoto State and Talata Mafara in Zamfara State, Nigeria, during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 dry seasons. The experiments were laid out in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Analysis of the variance component for the combined seasons and locations indicate that genotypic variance was greater than the environmental variance for all characters under consideration with exception of bulb weight. Disease incidence recorded 31.20%, 30.58% and 5.42% as phenotypic, genotypic and environmental coefficients of variability. Disease severity recorded 34.96%, 32.84% and 11.00% as phenotypic, genotypic and environmental coefficients of variability. With respect to fresh bulb yield 94.90%, 93.53% and 15.78% were observed as phenotypic, genotypic and environmental coefficients of variability for the genotypes. Cured bulb yield recorded 103.47%, 102.27% and 14.96% respectively as phenotypic, genotypic and environmental coefficients of variability. Similarly 29.43%, 24.79% and 17.91% were observed for days to maturity, as phenotypic, genotypic and environmental coefficients of variability. Variability was found to exist among the genotypes for the various characters they were evaluated for.

      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jul 2013 04:43:01 GMT
       
  • Chemical Composition of Kapok (Ceibapentandra) Seed and Physicochemical
           Properties of its Oil

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      K.M. Anigo,B.M.D. Dauda,A.B. Sallau and I.E.Chindo.
      Determination of the chemical composition of Kapok (Ceibapentandra) seeds and physicochemical properties of its oil were carried out using standard methods. Mature dried fruits of Kapok from which seeds were obtained were collected from in and around Basawa village, Sabon Gari Local Government Area, Kaduna State. Results of proximate analysis show crude fat (23.10%) and crude protein, (36.70%) while calcium (1212mg/kg) was most abundant among minerals analysed. Kapok seed oil had clear bright yellowish colour with offensive odour with iodine value, (76.80g I/100 g oil) and saponification value, (179.77mg KOH/g oil). Lignin content of the kapok fiber was 5.54%. We concluded that the kapok seeds, which are under-utilized and often discarded as an agrowaste in our environment, is rich in oil and protein therefore, has a reasonable economic potential which can be harnessed.

      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jul 2013 10:21:40 GMT
       
  • Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava Processing
           Mills in Sub-Urban Areas of Delta State, Southern Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      C.M.A. Iwegbue, F.I. Bassey, G.O. Tesi, G.E Nwajei and A.I. Tsafe.
      The concentrations, contamination/pollution index, anthropogenic input and enrichment factors for metals in soil in the vicinity of cassava processing mills in sub-urban areas of Delta State of Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of metals in all sites and depths ranged from 0.1 to 383.2 mg kg-1 for Mn, 4.0 to 11.3 mg kg-1 for Ni, 1746.4 to 2839.6 mg kg-1 for Fe, 0.01 to 3.70 mg kg-1 for Cr, 3.7 to 29.5 mg kg-1 for Cu, 21.9 to 97.3 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.01 to 1.60 mg kg-1 for Cd and Ni> Cu> Fe> Cr> Pb.

      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jul 2013 08:19:13 GMT
       
  • Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth Performance of
           Quality Protein Maize in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria.

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.A. Mahadi, S.A. Dadari, B. Tanimu, N.C. Kuchinda, A.I. Sharifai and M.S. Bature.
      Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial combinations of eight weed control treatments which include application of (Atrazine + Acetochlor + Terbuthylazine at a ratio of 1:1:1, Atrazine + Metolachlor at a ratio of 1:2 each at 3.0 and 4.0kg a.i/ha, Atrazine at 4.0 and 5.0kg a.i/ha, Hoe weeding at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing and a weedy check) with four cow dung manure levels at (0, 4, 8 and 12t/ha and a recommended NPK mineral fertilizer check at the rate of 120kg N, 26kg P and 50kg K/ha). The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replicates. In the mean data, application of Atrazine + Metolachlor at 4.0kg a.i/ha and the two hoe weedings produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher and similar values for total dry matter and crop growth rate, whereas Atrazine + Metolachlor at 4.0kg a.i/ha only produced significantly (P

      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jul 2013 07:48:52 GMT
       
  • Biogas production through Co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent with cow
           manure

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Umar Hayatu Sidik, Firdausi Bin Razali, Sharifah Rafidah Wan Alwi, Fadimtu Maigari.
      Palm oil mill effluent (POME) and cow manure (CM) are excellent substrates for biogas production. Biogas production potentials from POME and CM as a single substrate were extensively researched by many researchers. In this work, the biogas potentials from POME and CM as a single substrate as well as co-substrates were investigated. In addition, the effect of removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) towards biogas production and its methane content were also investigated. Batch anaerobic digesters used for the digestion were operated at ambient temperature (28oC to 34°C) for 21 days. The digesters were operated at different mixing ratios. Maximum cumulative biogas yield and its methane content were obtained as 1875ml and 61.13%, respectively in the mixture containing 70: 30 (POME: CM). Co-digestion of 70% POME + 30% CM improved the removal efficiency up to 75% (COD) and 68% (VS). Biogas yield from digesters D3, D4 and D5 were improved by 21%, 162% and 110% v/v using the co-digestion as compared to the digestion of POME alone and 95%, 323% and 240% v/v as compared to the digestion of CM alone respectively. These results show that biogas and its methane content production can be enhanced efficiently through co-digestion process.

      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2013 07:28:22 GMT
       
  • The Ångström Exponent and Turbidity of Soot Component in the
           Radiative Forcing of Urban Aerosols

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      D.O. Akpootu and M. Momoh.
      In this work, we extracted data from Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) using FORTRAN program to model the effect of soot on optical depth, scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, single scattering albedo, extinction coefficient and asymmetry parameter at spectral range of 0.25 to 1.00 m for eight different relative humidities (RHs) (0, 50, 70, 80, 90, 95, 98 and 99%). The concentration of sootwas varied as 1.10×〖10〗^5,1.20×〖10〗^5and 1.30×〖10〗^5 〖cm〗^(-3) while the insoluble and water soluble were kept constant at 1.50 and 15,000 cm-3 respectively. The optical parameters were used to determine the Radiative forcing (RF). Origin 50 software was used to plot the graphs. SPSS 16.0 Software was used to determine the Ångström exponent,  and Curvature, 2. The  reflects the dominance of fine-mode particles while 2 at 0% RH reflects the dominance of coarse-mode particles and at 50-99%RHs reflects the dominance of fine-mode particles, the turbidity,  indicates a relatively hazy atmosphere, the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) show a relatively higher value indicating a polluted urban air, the asymmetry parameter, g falls between 0.64 and 0.77. However, from our graphs of Radiative forcing against wavelength, we report that addition of soot concentration reflects warming effect; therefore soot has a relatively high absorption coefficient.

      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2013 07:25:06 GMT
       
  • An Integrated Textual Case-Based System

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A. Almu.
      Textual Case-Based Reasoning as a problem solving approach allows knowledge source to be integrated with a view to improving the effectiveness of the system during retrieval. The earlier proposed Textual Case-based System depends on statistical similarity alone and most of the time does not retrieve the solution to the problem even if it exists. In this paper, the WordNet is being integrated to the developed Textual Case-Based Mobile Phone Diagnosis Support system in order to take the synonyms similarity of the problem terms into account while diagnosing a given problem. Thus, the integration will makes the system not to depend on statistical similarity alone but rather take synonyms similarity of the problem term into consideration. The result of the experimental evaluation using some set of problems has demonstrated that retrieval by incorporating WordNet works better since it diagnosed 95% of the problems with relevant solutions than the retrieval without WordNet which diagnosed 75% of the problems with relevant solutions.

      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2013 07:21:38 GMT
       
  • A Comparative Analysis of Nutrients and Mineral Elements Content of
           Andropogon gayanus Kunth and Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.F. Waziri, S.A. Anka, A.Y. Bala and H. Shehu.
      Comparative studies on the nutrients and mineral elements content of the two grass species was conducted at Gangam Rangeland, Shagari L.G.A., Sokoto state. Sokoto lies on latitude 12.000 and 13.600N and longitude 4.800 and 6.500E and altitude 350m above sea level. The result show that P. pedicellatum had high crude protein (Cp) ad crude fibre (Cf) content than A. gayanus. The high Cp content was attributed to its leafy nature (having abundant leaves) as Cp is more concentrated in leaves, whereas the high Cf content was possibly due to its stemmy nature particularly at the end of the growing period. However, in terms of Ether extract (Ee) and Ash content, A. gayanus had more. The high Ash content was probably as a result of high mineral elements content of the grass species. On the other hand, A. gayanus had high Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) content, while P. pedicellatum has high Calcium (Ca) and Sodium (Na) content. The high mineral elements content of A. gayanus made the grass more useful for grazing and feeding of livestock. The high Ca content of P. pedicellatum may account for its high Cf content as Ca forms structural components of cell walls and membranes.

      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2013 07:18:43 GMT
       
  • Intra-colonial Population of Macrotermes bellicosus (Smeathman) [Isoptera:
           Termitidae] in Sokoto, Semi-Arid Zone of North-Western Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      H. M. Bandiya, Q. Majeed, N.D. Ibrahim, M.M. Yahaya and M.A. Yahaya.
      The intra-colonial population of individuals within the mounds of mound- building termite, Macrotermes bellicosus (Smeathman) occurring in some selected Local Government Areas of Sokoto State were studied. A total of 72 cone shaped mounds were selected based on their heights. Populations were estimated by randomly collecting and counting core samples from the mounds using a small bucket as the mounds were being excavated. At the end of the excavation, the total sand removed from the mound was crushed and measured using the same bucket. Total number of termites from a mound was extrapolated from the above estimates. Results indicate the presence of five different castes; reproductives, workers, minor and major soldiers and nymphs. The population of individuals per mound apart from the reproductives, ranged between 14158.00 and 24777.67 with an average of 18,795.49 termites per mound. The nymphs were the largest (5,942.60) closely followed by the workers (5,547.70), while the minor soldiers are the least with 3,279.38. Significant difference (p

      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2013 04:59:30 GMT
       
  • Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Andrographis
           paniculata Nees Against Carbon Tetrachloride – Induced
           Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A. Nasir, M.G. Abubakar, R.A. Shehu, U. Aliyu, and B.K. Toge.
      Hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata was investigated against CCl4 – induced hepatic injury in rats. Significant (P

      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2013 04:57:09 GMT
       
  • Enumeration, Isolation and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria
           Associated With Mobile Cellphones in a University Environment

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.H. Kawo and A.M. Musa.
      A study was carried out between February and March, 2012, to enumerate, isolate and identify bacteria associated with mobile cell phones in a University environment. This was with a view to determining the bacterial load and their susceptibility pattern to some commonly-used antibiotics. Samples were collected from mobile cell phones of staff, marketers and students in Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria using aseptic swab technique. A total of thirty-five (35) mobile phones were randomly sampled from the following study groups: 10 University staff, 12 marketers and 13 students. For each mobile phone, two sterile swabs moistened with normal saline were rotated over the surface of both sides of the mobile phone and soaked in 10 ml peptone water. Enumeration of the bacterial counts was carried out using pour-plate technique while the bacterial isolates were identified using cultural, morphological and biochemical techniques. The results showed that marketers, students and University staff had the overall mean aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts of 5.25 x 102, 4.48 x 102 and 2.50 x 102 cfu/ml respectively. Twenty-eight bacterial isolates belonging to four genera: Escherichia coli 7(25.0%), Staphylococcus aureus 15(53.6%), Salmonella species 2(7.1%) and Klebsiella species 4(14.3%) were identified. Generally, S. aureus was the most isolated with 15(53.6%) while the least was Salmonella species with only 2(7.1%). Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates indicated that S. aureus species had the highest susceptibility of 14(93.3%) against cipfloxacin while Salmonella species had 1(50.0%) against augmentin whereas Klebsiella species had 1(25.0%) each against gentamycin and streptomycin. On the other hand, Salmonella species was not susceptible to gentamycin, perfloxacin and streptomycin each with 0(0.0%). Overall susceptibility was highest against ciprofloxacin with 24(85.7%) while the least was recorded against gentamycin with 6(21.4%). The identified bacteria have pathogenic potential and hence their presence on the cell phones surfaces could serve as a source of cross-transmission of bacterial infections in the University community and its environs.

      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2013 04:53:53 GMT
       
  • Antifungal Resistance Among Candida Species From Patients with
           Genitourinary Tract Infection at Muhammad Abdullahi Wase Specialist
           Hospital, Kano - Nigeria.

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      D.W. Taura, M. H. Maje, A.M. Koki, and M.G. Musa.
      The increasing incidence of Candidiasis affecting the genitourinary tracts as well as the introduction of new antifungal drugs has recently highlighted the need for performing fungal susceptibility tests. To determine the antifungal resistance among Candida species from the genitourinary tracts, 689 Urine and High vaginal swab (HVS) samples were collected from female patients clinically diagnosed with genitourinary tract infection between September 2011 to January 2012. The samples were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Isolates from SDA were placed on Corn Med agar (CMA) to ensure detection of mixed cultures. Germ tube tests were performed for identification of the isolates. Susceptibility tests were carried on the isolates using broth dilution method. The occurrence rate of Candida species were as follows: Candida albicans 124 (48.4%), Candida glabrata 89 (34.8%), Candida krusei 23 (9.0%) and Candida Tropicalis 20 (7.8%). The rate of occurrence of Candida species in high vaginal swab 76 (61.3%) was significantly higher than that of urine 48 (38.7%). Distribution of Candida species among different age groups show that, the highest incidence was in age brackets 20 – 30 158 (61.7%), while that of 41-50 and above 8 (3.1%) had the least. High rate of susceptibility was observed for each isolate against Fluconazole 23 (65.7%) and Ketoconazole 22 (62.9%). The resistance rate was 12 (34.3%) for Fluconazole and Ketoconazole 13 (37.1%). These results incriminate C. albicansas the most common Candida species causing genitourinary tract infection in women. This surveillance study has established Fluconazole and Ketoconazole as very effective antifungal agents for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections caused by Candida species.

      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jun 2013 23:52:02 GMT
       
  • Retrieval and Representation of Nucleotide Sequence of Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae Cystathionine Gamma-Lyase (CYS3) Gene in Five Formats

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      R. A. Umar, H. Abdullahi and N. Lawal.
      Educational programmes all over the world are facing increasing pressure to integrate information technology in the curriculum. Knowledge of bioinformatics is at infancy in Nigeria it is therefore imperative to develop and build the capacity for high-throughput determination and computational analysis of the nucleotide base sequences of the genomes of organisms. The present communication navigated the ENTREZ Web page and downloaded sequences of Cystathionine gamma- lyase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sequence is then represented in the five best known database formats namely Plain, FASTA, EMBL, GCG and Genebank thereby making it more visible and available for other research applications such as comparative genomic analysis, evolutionary studies, searching for and identification of regulatory elements and scanning for mutations. The present study highlights data retrieval and representation. Data retrieval is important as it provides the opportunity to engage in data mining for discovery, a convenient alternative to traditional wet laboratories, providing biological insights, and proficiency to access and use the vast repository of computational and web-based resources which are the most available information in the world today.

      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jun 2013 23:47:06 GMT
       
  • Survey of Gross Alpha Radioactivity in Bore Hole and Well Water in Sokoto
           City North-Western Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.Saidu and E.E. Ike.
      A survey of the gross alpha radioactivity in drinking water from wells and bore holes in Sokoto city was carried out. Forty samples were drawn at random from locally dug wells and bore holes in Sokoto city, Northern Nigeria. The samples were analyzed using the Eurysis system- eight channel gas filled proportional counter. The result shows that the range of alpha activity varied from 0.01 to 6.00Bq/L, with a geometric mean of 0.26Bq/L. Seventy five percent (75%) and 25% of alpha activity were respectively below and above the USEPA contaminant limit of 0.55Bq/L radioactivity in water. Thirty two and half percent (32.5%) and 67.5% of the alpha activity were respectively below and above the contaminant limit of 0.5Bq/L, as set out by WHO. The gross alpha effective dose was 0.068msv/y (WHO range is 0.04-0.1mSv/y).

      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jun 2013 23:43:02 GMT
       
  • Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of Pineapple: Effect of Blanching Temperature
           – Time Combination

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S.E. Agarry, A.O. Ajani and M.O. Aremu.
      Drying is an energy intensive unit operation and long drying periods tend to increase the energy requirements for the production of a unit dry product. In this study, the effect of blanching temperature - time combinations treatment conditions on the drying behavior of pineapple slices was investigated. Slices of pineapple were blanched at different temperature-time combinations before being dried in an oven dryer at a dry bulb temperature of 70oC. Four thin-layer drying models were fitted to the experimental drying data. The results show that drying rates and drying times were affected by the blanching temperature-time combinations. Drying times increased as blanching temperature-time combinations increased. The predominant drying regime of the blanched pineapple was observed to be in the falling rate period. The logarithmic model best describe the drying behaviour of blanched pineapple slices with goodness of fit (> 0.99). The effective moisture diffusivity of blanched samples decreased with increase in blanching temperature-time combinations. This implied enhanced mass transfer activities of blanched pineapple slices at decreasing blanching temperature-time combinations. Therefore, blanching pretreatment at lower temperature-time combinations in the drying of fruits and vegetables reduces the drying time and energy cost of drying.

      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jun 2013 23:38:19 GMT
       
  • Aquifer Vulnerability Investigation Using Geoelectric Method in Parts of
           Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      E. A. Atakpo.
      The electrical resistivity survey has been used in the determination of the overburden protective capacity in Amukpe area of Delta State, Nigeria. Nineteen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) were carried out with maximum electrode separation of 1000m. The data were presented as VES curves interpreted quantitatively by computer iteration using the Resist Software to obtain the first order geoelectric parameters. Three geoelectric layers namely the topsoil, laterite/clayey sand and sand (medium to coarse grained) were delineated from the survey. The topsoil has resistivity values ranging from 43 to 1067m and thickness varying from 0.8 to 1.6 m. The second geoelectric layer is composed of clayey sand and laterite with resistivity values ranging from 77 to 644 m and thickness varying from 3.8 to 6.7 m. While the third geoelectric layer represents the aquiferous unit with resistivity values ranging from 200 to 1067 m diagnostic of sand (fine to coarse grained). The interpreted geoelectric data correlated with lithologic logs of a borehole drilled in the study area. The overburden protective capacity in an area was evaluated by utilizing the total longitudinal unit conductance values. The generated longitudinal conductance map showed poor protective capacity (

      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jun 2013 09:45:37 GMT
       
 
 
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