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Journal Cover Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
  [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0794-5698
   Published by ScopeMed Homepage  [99 journals]
  • Biochemical Changes in Lumbricus terrestris and Phytoaccumulation of Heavy
           Metals from Ugberikoko Petroleum Flow Station Swamps, Delta State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2016-05-02T04-18-50Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      R.O. Arise, J.A. Aboyewa and E. Osioma.
      Biochemical changes in L. terrestris, physicochemical parameters and heavy metal contents in soil and phytoremediation quotient of Talinum triangulare were investigated. Soil samples, T. triangulare roots and stems and earthworms were obtained in two oil exploration environs (A and B) of Ugberikoko and Oton Village (control; site C) in Delta State and were subjected to chemical and biological analyses. Results obtained showed that cadmium, lead, copper, manganese, zinc, iron and nickel levels in soil were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sites A and B compared to site C whereas arsenic and cobalt were below detection limit. The pH, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, hardness and magnesium contents were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sites A and B compared to site C. The heavy metal content in roots and shoots of T. triangulare were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sites A and B compared to site C. The order of mobility and bioavailability of the metals analysed shows that Mn> Cu> Fe> Zn> Cr. Oxidative stress indicators such as MDA, GST, CAT and SOD were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in the supernatant of earthworms from sites A and B when compared with site C whereas GSH level was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in sites A and B compared to site C. The activity of acetylcholinesterase was significantly lowered (p < 0.05) in sites A and B compared to C. This result suggests that earthworm may be a good candidate for the assessment of soil pollution and that T. triangulare could be used for commercial and environmental friendly phytoremediation.

      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2016 07:35:11 GMT
  • Estimation of Height Using Arm Span of The Itsekiris in Delta State of

    • Abstract: 2016-04-21T20-37-08Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A. K. Iteire, E. Anibor and M.E. Akpo.
      Arm span (AS) has been reported to be a good substitute for height measurement in osteoskeletally deformed patients and in the elderly with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between arm span and height of the Itsekiris of Nigeria. The study employed a cross-sectional study design involving 300 healthy Itsekiris between the age of 20 and 70 years. The height and arm span of all volunteers were measured to the nearest centimeter. Height was measured with the subject on bare feet, feet together and with the calf, heel, buttocks and upper back touching the wall or stadiometer. The subject’s head was positioned erect with the eyes looking forward. Arm span accordingly was measured with a tape from the tip of the middle finger of one hand to the tip of the middle finger of the other hand, with the subject standing straight and back to the wall, both arms adducted to 90°. In this index, there was a weak positive correlation (0.048) which was not significant (p ≥ 0.05) between the male height and arm span, which suggested that arm span is not a good estimator of height for the male population. In the female population, there was a strong positive relationship (0.797) which was significant (p ≤ 0.001) between female height and arm span. This suggests that arm span was a good estimator of height for the females only in the population considered. Since arm span was a good predictor of height in only the female population, it is important for separate height models to be developed for each population on the account of ethnic, racial and gender differences.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 10:10:10 GMT
  • Consumer Preferences and Willingness To Pay for Conventional Cowpea
           Intrinsic Attributes Among Federal University Students in Zaria and
           Sokoto, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2016-04-21T20-37-08Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.I. Abubakar, Z. Amadou and T.G. Ashiko.
      Consumer preferences for conventional cowpea characteristics using hedonic pricing have been well- studied, but these preferences are almost undocumented using conjoint analysis in discrete choice context. This study investigated the impact of educational level on consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay for white, red, black and brown conventional cowpea attributes. A conjoint choice experiment (CCE) was used to design the survey conducted at the Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria and Usmanu Danfodiyo University (UDU), Sokoto in April/May, 2010. Conditional logit consistent with random utility theory was used to analyze the stated choice data. Results reveal that high protein content is a statistically significant (P

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 09:07:18 GMT
  • Estimation of Efficiency Differentials in Artisanal Fishery: Implications
           for Poverty Reduction in Selected States in North Central, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2016-04-21T20-37-08Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Y.U. Oladimeji, Z. Abdulsalam, M.A. Damisa and D.F. Omokore.
      Despite Nigeria’s abundant fisheries resources, the country is still largely a protein deficient nation. This paper examines the technical efficiency gaps between motorised and non-motorised artisanal fishery enterprises in North Central Nigeria, with a view to identifying gaps that may help optimize the use of available inputs. Multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting 320 respondents for the study. Empirical estimate shows that the mean technical efficiency value for motorised was about 0.78 compared to non-motorised unit with 0.61. This is an indication that on the average, the fishermen were operating technical efficiency of 0.12 and 0.39 below the frontier for the motorised and non-motorised respectively. Technical inefficiency coefficient of fishing experience (-0.499) and adjusted household size (-0.256) in non-motorised unit, and motorised fishermen’s experience, education and credit coefficients (-0.783, -0.856 and -0.693) show that these variables increased technical efficiency. Government policy should be directed at educating the fishing households through skill-enhancing trainings by extension agents to adopt new innovations and techniques which will improve the fishermen’s productivity, sustainable fishery development, standard of living and apparently reduce poverty in the study area.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 08:56:49 GMT
  • Antiulcerogenic Effect of Aqueous Seed and Rind Extracts of Citrullus
           lanatus (Water Melon) in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer Albino Rats

    • Abstract: 2016-04-21T20-37-08Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S. Rabiu and S.A. Muhammad.
      The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti ulcer activity of aqueous seed and rind extracts of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) in ethanol induced gastric ulcer model in albino rats. The experiment was divided in to two models ( A: animals pre-treated with aqueous seed extract of watermelon ; B: those per-treated with aqueous rind extract of watermelon ) in each, four groups of rats were pre-treated with distilled water (control), Ranitidine (300mg/kg) for each, 150 and 300mg/kg seed and rind extracts were given to pre-treated animals in both models. Rats pre-treated with seed and rind extracts showed significant (P˂0.05) dose-dependent decrease in gastric lesions formation. Ulcerogenesis was significantly (P˂0.05) reduced in pre-treated groups compared with control (P˂0.05). However, the per centage curative effect was effectively high in (seed 75% and rind 70%) and was also dose dependent. The result indicates that Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seed and rind possess potential gastroprotective and antiulcerogenic activities in ethanol induced gastric ulceration. And is probably due to high citrulline and flavonoid contents which might influence both NO synthesis and antioxidant defence mechanism that cumulatively inhibit gastric acid secretion.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 01:15:13 GMT
  • Construction of an Algebraic Structure Using a Concatenation Map

    • Abstract: 2016-04-21T20-37-08Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.I. Garba and J. Abubakar.
      In this paper, modular arithmetic is used to construct an algebraic structure. Some algebraic and number theoretic properties of the structure are enumerated. The structure is then extended by embedding a special cycle into it. A concatenation map is then defined on the extended structure and it is discovered that the extended structure is an abelian group under the concatenation map.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 01:10:00 GMT
  • The Synergy between Meteorological Parameters and the Total Suspended
           Particles in the Atmosphere using Polynomial as Model

    • Abstract: 2016-03-28T07-00-12Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      T.F. Ediagbonya, E.E. Ukpebor, F.E. Okieimen, and E.I. Unuabonah.
      Pollutants in the atmosphere are influenced by weather and chemistry thus making it difficult to know when they will concentrate and cause poor air quality. The only way to be sure of this is to monitor the air pollution at as many sites as possible and very often as well. In this study, particulate matter was captured at ten locations using SKC Air check XR5000 High volume Gravimetric sampler. The meteorological parameter was captured by LM-8000 Anemometer and with hydro thermograph -RS humidity /temperature meter .This study was conducted from May to October, 2010 in Sapele, Nigeria. The mean concentration range from156.25-850.70μg/m3 while the correlation of suspended particulate matter with wind speed and temperature were both positive and the correlation of suspended particulate matter with relative humidity was negative. It was observed that the total suspended particulate matter correlated well with relative humidity and poorly with wind speed and temperature.

      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2016 04:31:20 GMT
  • Effect of Heat on Antioxidant Activity of Some Tropical Leafy Vegetables

    • Abstract: 2016-03-28T07-00-12Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S.O. Nwozo, B.J. Oso, and B.E. Oyinloye.
      The present study examined the effect of different cooking times on total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant properties of seven tropical leafy vegetables: Pterocarpus mildbraedii, Gongronema latifolium, Ocimum gratissimum, Solanecio biafrae, Piper guineense, Celosia argentea and Solanum melongena. The thermal treatments employed were both long simmer (20 minutes at 80oC) and short simmer (5 minutes at 80oC). The result show that both short and long simmer results to a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the ascorbic acid content in all the vegetables. There was a significant increase in the total phenol, total flavonoid, DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing property, Fe2+ chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. In like manner, short simmer treatment enhances the total antioxidant activities of all the vegetables. These results suggest that although thermal treatments enhances the nutritional value of vegetables by increasing the bio-accessible phenolic content and total antioxidant activity, long simmer treatment results in the disruption of the phytochemicals constituents present. The study therefore concludes that short time simmer treatment may result to optimum yield of antioxidant activities in leafy vegetables.

      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2016 11:11:34 GMT
  • Anticonvulsant and sedative activities of aqueous leave extract of Leucas
           martinicensis (Jacq.) R. Br.

    • Abstract: 2016-03-28T07-00-12Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Chinenye J. Ugwah-Oguejiofor, Uche A. Eze, Shaibu O. Bello, Emmanuel U. Etuk, eorge I. Ameh and guejiofor M. Ugwah.
      Leucas martinicensis is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat convulsions and epilepsy. The present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant and sedative effects of the aqueous leave extract of L. martinicensis in Wistar rats. The anticonvulsant activities of L. martinicensis (50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg i.p.) were evaluated using maximal electroshock seizure (MES) - and strychnine (STR) -induced seizure models while the sedative properties were evaluated using the diazepam-induced sleep model in Wistar rats. The 400 mg/kg of the extract protected rats (100%) against seizures in both models while at 200 mg/kg seizure protection (100%) was only in STR model. There was a significant (p

      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2016 10:12:19 GMT

    • Abstract: 2015-09-22T23-18-36Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

      PubDate: Mon, 21 Sep 2015 08:28:01 GMT
  • Geochemical Investigation of Vertical Migration of Petroleum through
           Mudstones I: Origin of the Hydrocarbon Shows

    • Abstract: 2015-09-22T23-18-36Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Mohammed Bello Adamu and Aminu Bayawa Muhammad.
      Hydrocarbon shows and seeps are frequently associated with petroleum migration through caprocks. However, leakage of petroleum from reservoirs does not necessarily result in surface seeps, nor do all occurrences of surface petroleum result from trap leakage. Cretaceous Shetland Group mudrocks which serves as caprock (seal) for the petroleum reservoir of the Heidrun Field was observed to contain liquid hydrocarbon as evidenced from UV florescence. Is this oil indigenous of the caprock or from the underlying reservoir thereby indicating possible failure of the seal' Samples from the caprock were analysed with the aim of establishing the origin of the oil stains. The investigation comprised bulk geochemical analyses in order to estimate various leakage indicators (S1 & PI). High Extractable Organic Matter (EOM) values of up to 6 mg/g rock were obtained in most of the samples. The high S1 and PI values obtained from the samples suggest oil staining. Furthermore, Iatroscan SARA analysis was used to identify compositional variability between the oil present in the caprock and the reservoir oil. The reservoir oil predominantly consisted of saturated hydrocarbons, which, in contrast, represent only a fraction of the caprock EOM. The caprock EOM is dominated by polar compounds, and the saturate fraction increases with increasing proximity to the caprock/reservoir boundary. High gas wetness of more than 80% was recorded at caprock/reservoir boundary, suggesting a good relationship between the distribution of gaseous hydrocarbons in the caprock and the gas content of the reservoir oil. The oil stains in the caprock are therefore established to be sourced from the reservoir.

      PubDate: Fri, 18 Sep 2015 04:55:46 GMT
  • Principal Components as a Tool in Statistical Quality Control: A Case
           Study of Sokoto Portland Cement

    • Abstract: 2015-09-17T23-18-16Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.B. Zoramawa and Y. Musa.
      The principal components analysis and Hotelling’s T2 statistic are used in studying the clinker minerals of Portland Cement Company of Northern Nigeria (CCNN). The cement produced is considered to be a mixture of eight minerals, each being sensitive to the presence of fly ash. Effort was made in this paper to show that the dependence on only one mineral in detecting fault or diagnosing noise was not effective but rather using the entire components such that each component’s contribution to variation is measured thereby making a valid interpretation about fault.

      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2015 00:21:21 GMT
  • Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activities of the Leaves and Stem of
           Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (Water Spinach)

    • Abstract: 2015-09-17T23-18-16Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      K.J. Umar, M.J. Muhammad, N.A. Sani, S. Muhammad and M.T. Umar.
      Leaves and stem extracts of Ipomoea aquatic Forsk were analysed for their antioxidant activities. Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods were used to quantify total phenolic and flavonoid contents while 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay was used to examine the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The respective total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the stem (18.00 ± 1.20 and 20.00 ± 1.40 μg Catechin equivalent, CEQ g-1 DW) show no significant (p> 0.05) difference when compared to leaves (16.00 ± 1.10 and 30.00 ± 2.1 μg CEQ g-1 DW). In DPPH scavenging assay, the reference standard i.e. vitamin C (IC50 = 0.0660µg/ml) had significantly (p

      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2015 00:17:32 GMT
  • Activation of Rat Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase by Taurine May be an
           Alternative Mechanism of Endotoxemic Injury Protection

    • Abstract: 2015-09-12T23-19-59Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      R.O. Arise, A. Igunnu, A. Olajunyin, O.S. Akiode and O.J. Olatomiwa.
      Investigation of the effect of taurine on the hydrolysis of para-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) by rat intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP), L-phenylalanine inhibition of ALP and the mechanism of ALP activation by taurine as well as its role in endotoxemic injury protection was carried out. Rat intestinal ALP was exposed to taurine, and L-phenylalanine at varying concentrations and periods of time. Substrate concentration-dependent kinetic analysis was carried out at 10 mM concentration of taurine and 5.17mM of p-NPP. The concentration dependent kinetic analysis of L-phenylalanine was also investigated at 60 mM. The partially purified rat intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity was also investigated in the presence of taurine. Their interactive effect on L-phenylalanine inhibition was also analyzed. Investigation of the effect of taurine on rat intestinal ALP hydrolysis of p-NPP revealed that taurine is an activator of intestinal ALP. At 10 mM taurine and 60 mM L-phenylalanine, taurine relieved L-phenylalanine inhibition of rat intestinal ALP. The effect of lipopolysaccharide in the absence and presence of taurine on ALP activity was also carried out in vivo. The kinetic analysis of the data from the in vivo study revealed that rat intestinal ALP activity is higher (12x10-3nmol-1min-1mg protein) in the presence of taurine and LPS when compared with the activity in the presence of LPS (9x10-3nmol-1min-1mg protein) or taurine (8.8x10-3nmol-1min-1mg protein) alone. From this study, it may be concluded that the activation of rat intestinal ALP by taurine may be one of the mechanisms of endotoxemic injury protection.

      PubDate: Wed, 09 Sep 2015 00:58:18 GMT
  • Immune Dysfunction in HIV infected stroke patients: Role of low CD4 counts

    • Abstract: 2015-09-12T23-19-59Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S.A. Balarabe and M.M. Watila.
      Whether or not low CD4 count directly contributes to stroke among HIV infected stroke patients is yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to ascertain the role of low CD4 count in the pathophysiology of stroke in HIV infection. This was a hospital-based, case-control study. Sixty five (65) consecutive stroke patients (36 males and 29 females) aged 20-68 years and sixty five (65) age-and-sex matched controls were enrolled. A structured questionnaire was administered. Neurological examination was performed and computed tomography scan of the brain done. Blood samples were taken for HIV 1&2 screening using ELISA method. Positive test using two different kits constituted a positive result. CD4 count was determined by western blot method. The mean CD4 count of HIV positive stroke patients (224.92 cells/cm3) is significantly lower (P

      PubDate: Wed, 09 Sep 2015 00:53:11 GMT
  • Influence of ARVs on Some Biochemical Changes in Liver Non Enzymatic
           Markers of HIV Positive Patients Attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto,

    • Abstract: 2015-09-03T17-34-59Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.G. Abubakar, M.M. Abduljalil, G. Bola-Alaka, Y.I. Nasiru.
      Both HIV infection and antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are associated with abnormalities of liver function, revealed by both enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers. This study evaluated the effect of HIV infection and antiretroviral drugs on the liver non enzymatic marker (total and direct bilirubin, total protein and albumin level) of HIV positive patients (pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy and those on therapies) attending the voluntary counselling and testing units in the state. Seventy five subjects were enrolled into the study, which constituted 25 HIV negative individuals (control group), 25 HIV positive patient not on antiretroviral therapy and 25 on the therapy. Bilirubin, albumin, total protein and CD4 cell count were determined using standard methods. Significantly (p

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2015 05:32:47 GMT
  • Interaction Effect of Season, Habitat and Leaf Age on Proximate
           Composition of Senna occidentalis and Senna obtusifolia Leaves Grown in
           Fadama and Upland Locations in Sokoto, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-09-03T17-34-59Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      U. Tambari, B. L. Aliero, S. Muhammad and L.G. Hassan.
      This study was aimed to assess the effect of season, habitat and leaf age on proximate composition of leaves of Senna occidentalis L. and S. obtusifolia L. Leaves samples were collected from stands of Fadama Research Farm and Upland (Biological garden) at Permanent Site, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto and analyzed for nutrient contents using oven drying, muffle furnace ashing, soxhlet extraction, distillation and ashing, micro Kjeldahl method, and difference (NFE) methods. Data was subjected to ANOVA and LSD at 0.05% for means separation. The results for interaction effect were all statistically significant (P

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2015 04:28:58 GMT
  • Toxicity Evaluation and Cytogenetic Screening of Process Water Using a
           Plant Bioassay

    • Abstract: 2015-09-03T17-34-59Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      D.I. Olorunfemi, J.O. Olomukoro and O.A. Anani.
      The effect of toxic substances on aquatic lives from a wastewater indiscriminately discharged into the environment during oil and gas exploration activities in Nigeria is the focus of this study. A plant bioassay, the Allium cepa test, was used for the cytogenotoxicity screening of process water on root growth inhibition and chromosome abnormalities in the meristematic roots of the plant. Results of the physicochemical analysis of the wastewater collected from Nigerian Agip Oil Company (NAOC) facility at Ogboinbiri in Bayelsa State at the point of discharge into the environment showed that it had an unpleasant odour, was slightly alkaline (pH 7.72) and had high electrical conductivity (2793.33 µS/cm). Lead, manganese, iron, chromium and nickel were present at amounts (0.13, 0.33, 4.47, 0.17 and 0.10 mg/l respectively) above national (NESREA) and international (USEPA) limits for effluent discharge. Macroscopic evaluation of A. cepa cultivated in the wastewater resulted in significant (p

      PubDate: Sat, 29 Aug 2015 09:53:38 GMT
  • Role of International Fund for Agricultural Development/ Community Based
           Agricultural and Rural Development Programme (IFAD/CBARDP) in Improving
           the Livelihood of Rural Women: A Case Study of Aliero Local Government
           Area, Kebbi State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-09-03T17-34-59Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.I. Illo, A.K, Ango, H. Usman, and Z. Aminu.
      This study examined the role of IFAD/CBARDP on improving rural women’s livelihood in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted to select 80 IFAD participating women. Structured questionnaire was used in data collection. Descriptive statistics was used to present the data obtained. Majority of the women were married, and at active productive ages. Qur’anic education was the common educational status of the participants. The findings also reveal that all the IFAD participating women were provided with assistance based on needs and interest and the common assistance provided was the training on tailoring, knitting, soap and cream making and later the participants were provided with such machines. In addition, the participants were also provided cash loan. The programme has lead to improvement of the living standards of the participants after programme participation. Attitudinal dispositional test using 3 points Likert’s scale reveal that the participating women strongly agreed that the programme has improved their living standard, the loan was adequate, and all the assistance provided was based on their needs and interest. It is concluded that the participating women were involved in decision making, most especially on the assistance provided, and the management of the assistance. It’s recommended that effort should be geared towards increasing women participation in any intervention programme that could uplift the livelihood of the rural communities.

      PubDate: Sat, 29 Aug 2015 08:39:22 GMT
  • Isolation and Characterization of Stigmasterol and Bis-(5,
           7-diacetyl-catechin-4’-α-rhamnopyranoside) from the Stem bark of
           Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine) Prance (Chrysobalanaceae)

    • Abstract: 2015-07-15T09-18-21Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.J. Yusuf, M.I. Abdullahi, A.K. Haruna, A.Y. Idris and A.M. Musa.
      Neocarya macrophylla belongs to the Chrysobalanaceae family and is extensively used in folk medicine as an antibacterial, antivenin, antiasthmatic, anticancer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. This study was aimed at isolation and characterization of compounds from the stem bark of Neocarya macrophylla. Pulverized plant material was exhaustively extracted with methanol using maceration method and concentrated in-vacuo with the aid of rotary evaporator at 40oC to afford a reddish brown crude methanol extract (ME). The methanol extract was successively partitioned into hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions. Stigmasterol was isolated from the hexane fraction and a catechin glycoside, Bis-(5,7-diacetyl-catechin-4’-α- rhamnopyranoside) was isolated from the ethylacetate soluble fraction using a combination of silica gel column, gel filtration (sephadex LH-20) and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of chemical tests, spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with reference spectral data.

      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jul 2015 23:53:59 GMT
  • Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive Toxicity
           in Male Rats

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      W.A. Oyeyemi, S.T. Shittu, T.A. Kolawole, P. Ubanecheand A.O. Akinola.
      The current study assessed the protective role of vitamin E in alleviating the detrimental effect of nicotine on reproductive functions in male rats. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats. Control group was treated orally with 1.1 ml/kg body weight normal saline, nicotine treated group received 1.0 mg/kg body weight of nicotine, vitamin E treated group received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin E while nicotine plus vitamin E treated group received 1.0 mg/kg body weight of nicotine plus 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin E. The administration of nicotine and vitamin E were done orally for 40 days. Nicotine caused a significant reduction (p

      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2015 14:58:23 GMT
  • Resource use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Odeda Local
           Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.M. Sanusi and A.O. Adesogan.
      This study estimated the resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling procedure; analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The result reveal that 90.2% male, with 21.7 years of sweet potato farming experience, 87.8% were married, 64.6% have a household size of 8 persons on average, 81.7% have no formal education, 96.4% acquired land through leasehold. Only 13.4% are members of farmers’ cooperative society. Multiple regression analysis show that the quantity of fertilizer used and the age of farmers were significantly related to quantity of output produced at (p

      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2015 14:32:32 GMT
  • Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Anacardium occidentale
           Leaves and Bark Extracts

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      B.T. Thomas, M.O. Soladoye, T.T. Adegboyega, G.C. Agu and O.D. Popoola.
      Anacardium occidentale is a local medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, constipation,pain and inflammation. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant parts were assessed for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities using experimental animal model and agar disc diffusion methods respectively. Results show that the ethanolic extract of the plant were more efficacious than the aqueous extract in inhibiting the carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats in a non dose-dependent manner( P>0.05).No significant difference was found between the ethanolic extract of the leaves and bark (P>0.05). Also, the antibacterial activity was apparently higher in ethanolic extract than in aqueous extract for both leaves and barkwith the bark extract displaying a significantly (P

      PubDate: Fri, 08 May 2015 16:00:29 GMT
  • Intestinal parasitic infestation among HIV Seropositive and HIV
           Seronegative patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching
           Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria.

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A. Nuhu, A.I. Umar, M. Abdulrazak, G. Kabiru, E.I. keh, I. Garba.
      A research study on prevalence of intestinal parasitism among HIV positive patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto between January-September 2010 was conducted. A total of 315 stool samples were collected; 205 samples were obtained from confirmed HIV/AIDS positive patients and 105 samples from HIV negative patients. These samples were examined using saline preparation, iodine preparation, formol ether concentration technique and modified cold Ziehl Neelsen staining technique. The prevalence rate of parasitic infection in HIV positive patients was 20.5% with the following parasites Cryptosporidium parvum 19(9.3%), Hookworm 6(2.9%), Giardia lamblia 13(6.3%), Taenia spp 2(1%), and Entamoeba histolytica 2(1 %). While in the HIV negative patients examined, the prevalence of parasitic infection was 11.8% with the following Hookworm 5(4.5%), E. histolytica 2(2%), G. lamblia 3(3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides 3(3%). Gender distribution of the intestinal parasitism shows that male patients had 17% infection rate while in the female group 3% infection rate was recorded. There is no significant (P>0.05) association between the gender and parasitic infection.

      PubDate: Fri, 08 May 2015 15:13:05 GMT
  • Liver function of Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats Orally

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.A. Omonkhua, E.A. Adebayo, J.A. Saliu, T.H. Ogunwa and T.T. Adeyelu.

      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2015 10:06:06 GMT
  • Comparative Study of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf
           Extracts of Alstonia boonei and Eupatorium odoratum

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      E.S. Omoregie, K. Oriakhi, E.I. Oikeh, O.T. Okugbo and D. Akpobire.
      This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Alstonia boonei and Eupatorium odoratum leaves. Total phenol, flavonoid and flavonol content of the extracts were estimated to determine the levels of phenolics in the extracts. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts were assessed through diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reducing power (RP). The results revealed that the DPPH radical scavenging ability of aqueous extract of E. odoratum (with IC50 = 0.07± 0.003mg/ml) compares favourably with that of the standard ascorbic acid (IC50 = 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/ml). There was a dose-dependent increase in FRAP and RP capacity in all the extracts. The ethanol extract of E. odoratum had the highest FRAP while the aqueous extract of A. boonei showed the highest RP ability when compared with the other extracts. However, flavonol content was highest in the aqueous extract of E. odoratum followed by ethanol extract of A. boonei. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts of E. odoratum were higher than that of A. boonei extracts. This study, therefore, reveals that aqueous extract of A. boonei and ethanol extract of E. odoratum leaf are more effective free radical scavengers and antioxidants relative to the other extract forms. These findings support the use of these extracts as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2015 09:46:52 GMT
  • Changes in Liver Function Enzymes of HIV/AIDS Patients Treated with
           Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVS) in Specialist Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.G. Abubakar, M.M. Abduljalil, Y.I. Nasiru.
      This study assessed the effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) on liver enzyme markers (Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphatase) and CD4 T-cells. A total of Seventy Five (75) individuals were enrolled into the study, which comprised Twenty Five (25) HIV negative (control), Twenty Five (25) HIV positive non-treated with ARVs and Twenty Five (25) HIV positive treated with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). Females were found to be the majority of HIV infected patients and most patients were at the middle age of 20-39 years. AST and ALT were assessed according to the Reitman and Frankel’s (1957) method, while ALP was based on King Armstrong’s (1980) method and CD4 T-cells using a method assayed of Cassens et al., (2004). The result show a significant increase (p

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:57:08 GMT
  • Determination of Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances of Selected Fresh
           Leafy Vegetables Obtained from Minna Town, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Amanabo Musa and Emmanuel O. Ogbadoyi.
      Determination of antinutrients and toxic substances in leafy vegetables is an imperative facet in nutritional studies as it establishes the baseline concentrations index for phytotoxins in the vegetables. Concentrations of cyanide, nitrate, soluble and total oxalates were quantitatively determined in the common leafy vegetables (Amaranthus cruentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Corchorus olitorius, Telfairia occidentalis and Vernonia amygdalina) consumed in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, using colourimetric and titrimetric methods. The results show that the concentration of cyanide in the leafy vegetables is within the permissible level of 200 mg/kg fresh weight while the concentration of nitrate in V. amygdalina and H. sabdariffa is within the acceptable daily intake of 219.00 mg/day, those of A. cruentus, C. olitorius and T. occidentalis is enough to induce toxicity in man. The soluble and total oxalates content in the vegetables are higher than the permissible level except that the concentration of soluble oxalate in H. sabdariffa is within the acceptable level of 250 mg/100 g. The results suggest that while the concentrations of cyanide in the analysed vegetables and nitrate in V. amygdalina and H. sabdariffa are safe for consumption, the concentrations of soluble and total oxalates in the vegetables and nitrate in A. cruentus, C. olitorius and T. occidentalis may contribute to nutritional problems if ingested without proper processing.

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:52:50 GMT
  • Effect of Dried Lake Salt (Kanwa) on Lipid profile and Heart Histology of
           Female Albino Rats

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.S. Muhammad, Y. Saidu, L.S. Bilbis, A. Onu, S.A. Isezuo, S. Sahabi.
      Peripatum cardiomyopathy is a devastating form of cardiac failure affecting women mainly in their last month of pregnancy or early postpartum with high incidence in Northern Nigeria where the consumption of dried lake salt postpartum is high. The current work was designed to study the effect of dried lake salt on lipid profile and histology of heart in female albino rats. The rats were administered graded doses of the salt for 4 weeks. The group administered 300mg/kg body weight of the dried lake salt has significantly (P0.05) increase in low density lipoprotein-cholesterol but total cholesterol, triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein- cholesterol levels were lower compared to the control. Atherogenic index of the group administered 300mg/kg body weight was significantly (P

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:47:02 GMT
  • Physicochemical Flux and Phytoplankton diversity in Shagari
           Reservoir,Sokoto, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      I.M. Magami, T. Adamu and A.A. Aliero.
      Nutrients availabilty is one of the major contributors to distribution and growth of phytoplankton species. Physicochemical properties and phytoplankton species and their distribution in Shagari Reservoir were evaluated. Standard methods of UNEP were used to determine monthly physicochemical flux properties, diversity and distribution of phytoplankton species were also determined. Phytoplankton classes identified included Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cynophyceae and Dinophyceae. Class Chlorophyceae had the highest annual percentage distribution (37.55%) with four species identified. The least monthly percentage (7.64%) was recorded in November by Dinophyceae. Anabaena wisconsineae (Dinophyceae) had the highest frequency of occurence (96.6%). August, September and October were the most turbid months using Secchi disc measurement with 8.30, 9.0 and 9.8cm respectively. The monthly variation in the physicochemical parameters may be due to seasonal changes and human activities. The levels of nitrogen and phosphorus ranged from 0.30-7.30 Mg/l and 0.1-0.8Mg/l respectively. The reservoir has low species of phytoplankton, which may be due to low levels of nutrients and age of the reservoir.

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:43:29 GMT
  • Seroprevalence of Rubella Specific IgG Antibody among Pregnant Women
           Attending Ante-Natal Clinics in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      H.K. Mangga, Maryam Aminu and H.I. Inabo.
      Rubella infection is generally mild in children. However, infection during pregnancy can leads to fetal death or congenital defects known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome. The seroprevalence of IgG to rubella virus was determined using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay among 400 pregnant women between the ages of 15-45 years attending ante-natal clinics in Kaduna metropolis. Of the 400 samples tested, consisting 20 in their first trimester, 260 in second and 120 in third trimester, 386 (96.5%) were IgG seropositive. Seroprevalence of 95.2% - 100% was obtained across the age groups. In relation to stages of pregnancy 19 (95.0%), 251 (96.5%) and 116 (96.7%) were seropositive in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively. The seroprevalence obtained in this study indicates that majority of the pregnant women had protective antibody due to previous exposure to the virus. However, 3.5% of the pregnant women were susceptible. Therefore, there is a need for government to incorporate rubella vaccine to be part of national immunization programme and screening of women of childbearing age so as to reduce subsequent burden of congenital rubella.

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:40:44 GMT
  • Hepatotoxic and Nephrotoxic Effects of Petroleum Fumes on Petrol
           Attendants in Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.L. Ogunneye, D.A. Omoboyowa, A.L. Sonibare, A.J. Adebusuyi and T.P. Faniran.
      The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of petroleum fumes on male and female petrol attendants. Investigations had been carried out on thirty (30) adult petrol attendants from different filling stations in Ibadan metropolis of Nigeria with ten (10) healthy adults as control. All the subjects involved in this study were between the ages of 27-35 years. The subjects were grouped according to the duration of time they had worked in the filling station. Serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total bilirubin concentration were determined to evaluate hepatotoxicity. Kidney function tests were also evaluated using serum creatinine, total protein and urea level. Electrolytes (potassium, chloride and sodium ions) leakages into the serum were also evaluated. The results reveal that serum AST, ALT, ALP activities and total bilirubin concentration in the petrol attendants were significantly (P

      PubDate: Mon, 27 Apr 2015 10:03:31 GMT
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