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Journal Cover Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
  [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0794-5698
   Published by ScopeMed Homepage  [98 journals]
  • Reduction of Sulphur Content of Urals Crude Oil Prior To Processing Using
           Oxidative Desulphurization

    • Abstract: 2016-07-10T00-05-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A. Abubakar, I.A. Mohammed-Dabo and A.S. Ahmed.
      The presence of sulphur in crude oil poses enormous challenges as regards its negative environmental and economic impacts. As such, the safety of the personnel and the equipment is at high risk during the processing of Urals crude oil in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) because of its sour nature. This study was aimed at reducing the sulphur content of the Urals crude oil prior to processing by subjecting it to oxidative desulphurization where peracetic acid was used as the oxidant in the actual mass-to-stoichiometric mass ratio ranging from 1 to 5. The oxidized sulphur compounds were thereafter extracted using acetic acid as the extraction solvent. Furthermore, atmospheric distillation was carried out on both the raw and the desulphurized crude oil samples. Finally, the sulphur contents of the various crude oil samples and their fractions were analyzed. The results showed drastic reductions in the sulphur contents up to actual mass-to-stoichiometric mass ratio of 2 but the reductions became progressively insignificant afterwards. Meanwhile, the highest reduction in the sulphur content of the crude oil was 61.6 % while those of the gasoline, kerosene, diesel and residue were 32.0, 45.1, 68.9 and 75.0 % respectively. Therefore, peracetic acid is an effective oxidant for oxidative desulphurization of the crude oil.

      PubDate: Sat, 09 Jul 2016 07:39:16 GMT
       
  • Microbiological Assessment of Bacterial Isolates from Ear, Nose And Throat
           (ENT) Among Patients Attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
           

    • Abstract: 2016-07-10T00-05-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.M Ahmad, Z.M. Kurawa, I. Shu’aibu, and G. Yahaya.
      Samples from patients who reported to in-patient ENT unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano were isolated for further microbiological assessment. One hundred (100) from both male and female patients comprising 55 ear swabs, 30 and 15 throat and nose swabs respectively were screened between February and April 2014 and the samples were analysed using culture technique, direct microscopy and identification of bacteria (using API 20E strip). Finding from the study identified eight genera of bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Haemophilus streptococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Staphylococcus aureus recorded the highest rates (24.17%) which was isolated in ear, nose and throat swabs, while P. aeruginosa has (19.78%) isolated in only ear swabs. The numbers of microorganisms isolated are as follows: 52 (ear), 14 (nose) and 25 (throat).

      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2016 07:14:35 GMT
       
  • Role of Vitamins and Cofactors in the Management of Oxidative
           Stress-Induced Neuromuscular Diseases

    • Abstract: 2016-06-30T09-16-52Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S.A. Balarabe, M.M. Watila.
      Vitamins and cofactors are essential micronutrients required for various biochemical and physiological processes. Insufficient intake of vitamins and mineral components or inability to digest, assimilate, or utilize them are associated with a wide range of neuromuscular diseases such as Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged-Red Fibres(MERRF) and Kearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS). Well defined conditions affecting nerve and/or muscle may occur as a result of deficiencies of vitamins and/or cofactors. Considerable headway has been made in genetics that has led to the identification of causative mutations in the previously undiagnosed or clinically complex hereditary disease conditions such as "Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), Brown-Vialetto-Laere 1 syndrome and Riboflavin-Responsive Multiple Acyl-coA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (RR-MADD)".Therefore, on the basis of antioxidant role of micronutrients in energy metabolism, it may be rational to consider use of vitamins as supplement to conventional treatments in nerve and muscle diseases. Recently, it has been shown that a subset of patients with these conditions responds to vitamin replacement therapy. This review focuses on vitamin/cofactor responsive conditions affecting nerve and/or muscle. Databases of Google Scholar, Web of Science, PubMed, and Embase were searched for relevant studies with vitamin/cofactor responsive conditions affecting nerve and/or muscle. All relevant human and animal studies were includ

      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2016 07:34:47 GMT
       
  • Gastroprotective Activities of the n-Hexane Fraction of Heliotropium
           indicum on Gastric Ulceration

    • Abstract: 2016-06-30T09-16-52Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.D. Ayoola, A.A. Akinlolu, S. Adeboga and J.O. Otulana.
      Heliotropium indicum has been established to possess gastroprotective properties. We evaluated the gastroprotective properties of the non-polar (n-hexane) fraction of H. indicum to establish its anti-ulcer activities. Rats of Groups I and II received physiological saline and 80 mg/kg/body weight (bw) of Indomethacin respectively. Rats of Groups III – VI received orally 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/bw of the n – hexane fraction of methanolic extracts of dried leaves of H. indicum and 50 mg/kg/bw of Ranitidine respectively before the induction of gastric ulceration. One hour after administration of extract doses and Ranitidine, 80 mg/kg/bw of Indomethacin (an ulcerogen) was administered orally to rats of Groups III – VI. Morphological analyses show that administrations of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/bw of extract and Ranitidine resulted in percentage ulcer reductions of 45%, 50%, 75% and 95% respectively. Histological analyses of the stomach in rats of Groups II and III show erosion of mucus-secreting cells, parietal cells, gastric pit and glands. Erosion of few mucus-secreting cells, gastric pit and parietal cells were observed in rats of Group IV. Normal cytoarchitectures of the mucosa layer were observed in rats of Groups I, V and VI. Our findings show that the n-hexane fraction of H. indicum possessed gastroprotective properties.

      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2016 06:57:34 GMT
       
  • Nutrient Content of Four Lesser – Known Green Leafy Vegetables
           Consumed by Efik and Ibibio People in Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2016-06-30T09-16-52Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      U. E. Inyang.
      Leaves of four lesser – known leafy vegetable species (Heinsia crinita, Lasianthera africana, Colocasia esculenta and Ipomea batatas) used for traditional food preparations by the Efik and Ibibio ethnic groups in Nigeria were analyzed for proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral contents. The leaves were washed, cut (2-3mm width) and dried in a conventional oven at 50oC prior to analysis. Crude protein, crude lipid, ash, crude fibre, available carbohydrate and caloric value ranged from 17.15 – 20.73%, 3.67 – 4.66%, 11.50 – 13.75%, 17.98 – 19.36%, 43.78 – 47.23% and 289.62 – 299.98 kcal/100g, respectively. The total amino acids, total essential amino acids and percentage total essential amino acid to total amino acid ranged from 59.58 – 72.24g/100g protein, 27.52 – 31.01g/100 protein and 41.36 – 46.19%, respectively. The K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe and Zn contents in the leaves ranged from 62.55 – 395.26mg/100g, 127.38 – 763.90mg/100g, 25.59 – 75.69mg/100g, 102.38 – 140.68mg/100g, 7.36 – 18.59mg/100g and 57.65 – 65.35mg/100g, respectively. The result of the study reveals that the four vegetable species contained appreciable levels of crude protein, mineral and crude fibre but low crude lipid. The high crude fibre content suggests that the vegetables may be used in the management of diabetes, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders.

      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2016 06:33:15 GMT
       
  • Effects of Human Blood Levels of Cadmium, Chromium, Manganese and Zinc on
           the Invitro Availability of Ciprofloxacin

    • Abstract: 2016-06-30T09-16-52Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A. Musa, M.T. Odunola and I. Nasir.
      Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and accumulate in select tissues of the human body after exposure. Metal ions form chelate complexes with certain drug molecules which may result in therapeutic consequence. In this study, the in vitro availability of ciprofloxacin alone and then in the presence of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) at concentrations reported in human blood in Zaria, Nigeria, was evaluated. The interactions were carried out in simulated blood pH (phosphate buffer pH 9) at 37oC over a period of 180 minutes. A double scanning UV/VIS spectrophotometer (Helios Zeta, Model 164617) was used to analyze the drug content by measuring absorbance at 271.4 nm. The availability of ciprofloxacin alone reached a maximum of 105.3 % after 105 minutes. Afterwards, it gradually declined to 90.4 % by 180 minutes. Free ciprofloxacin observed in the presence of Cd, Cr and Zn was 92.9, 84.0 and 76.0 % respectively after 180 minutes, revealing significant decreases (P < 0.001) in the availability of the drug. However, the availability of ciprofloxacin was not significantly (P < 0.05) affected in the presence of Mn, with the drug achieving an availability of 96 % after 180 minutes. The results indicate that the availability of ciprofloxacin may be reduced in the presence of Cd, Cr and Zn which can result in unpredictable therapeutic outcomes.

      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2016 05:42:26 GMT
       
  • Construction of an Algebraic Structure Using a Concatenation Map

    • Abstract: 2016-06-30T09-16-52Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.I. Garba and J. Abubakar.
      In this paper, modular arithmetic is used to construct an algebraic structure. Some algebraic and number theoretic properties of the structure are enumerated. The structure is then extended by embedding a special cycle into it. A concatenation map is then defined on the extended structure and it is discovered that the extended structure is an abelian group under the concatenation map.

      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2016 04:19:55 GMT
       
  • Perception of Forestry as a Career Among Senior Secondary School Students
           in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2016-06-24T23-16-38Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      O.J. Olujobi and F.A.Sale.
      This study assessed the level of awareness of forestry as a profession among senior secondary school students in Ekiti State. A total of two hundred and forty pre-tested questionnaires were randomly administered to respondents to collect data in selected secondary schools in the state. The study reveal that 86.7 % and 75.8 % of the students in public and private schools respectively were aware of forestry as a course of study, while 63.3 % and 60 % of the respondents in public and private schools respectively already knew about tree planting campaigns. But only 9.2 % of the students were willing to study forestry, while career preference by the students show that Medicine was ranked first, while Forestry was ranked nineteenth with 21.2 % and 0.5 % respectively. The study recommended that Government should include forestry into the secondary school curriculum to further broaden students’ knowledge so as to increase their interest in the course.

      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:11:20 GMT
       
  • Biochemical Changes in Lumbricus terrestris and Phytoaccumulation of Heavy
           Metals from Ugberikoko Petroleum Flow Station Swamps, Delta State, Nigeria
           

    • Abstract: 2016-05-02T04-18-50Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      R.O. Arise, J.A. Aboyewa and E. Osioma.
      Biochemical changes in L. terrestris, physicochemical parameters and heavy metal contents in soil and phytoremediation quotient of Talinum triangulare were investigated. Soil samples, T. triangulare roots and stems and earthworms were obtained in two oil exploration environs (A and B) of Ugberikoko and Oton Village (control; site C) in Delta State and were subjected to chemical and biological analyses. Results obtained showed that cadmium, lead, copper, manganese, zinc, iron and nickel levels in soil were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sites A and B compared to site C whereas arsenic and cobalt were below detection limit. The pH, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, hardness and magnesium contents were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sites A and B compared to site C. The heavy metal content in roots and shoots of T. triangulare were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sites A and B compared to site C. The order of mobility and bioavailability of the metals analysed shows that Mn> Cu> Fe> Zn> Cr. Oxidative stress indicators such as MDA, GST, CAT and SOD were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in the supernatant of earthworms from sites A and B when compared with site C whereas GSH level was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in sites A and B compared to site C. The activity of acetylcholinesterase was significantly lowered (p < 0.05) in sites A and B compared to C. This result suggests that earthworm may be a good candidate for the assessment of soil pollution and that T. triangulare could be used for commercial and environmental friendly phytoremediation.

      PubDate: Thu, 28 Apr 2016 07:35:11 GMT
       
  • Estimation of Height Using Arm Span of The Itsekiris in Delta State of
           Nigeria.

    • Abstract: 2016-04-21T20-37-08Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A. K. Iteire, E. Anibor and M.E. Akpo.
      Arm span (AS) has been reported to be a good substitute for height measurement in osteoskeletally deformed patients and in the elderly with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between arm span and height of the Itsekiris of Nigeria. The study employed a cross-sectional study design involving 300 healthy Itsekiris between the age of 20 and 70 years. The height and arm span of all volunteers were measured to the nearest centimeter. Height was measured with the subject on bare feet, feet together and with the calf, heel, buttocks and upper back touching the wall or stadiometer. The subject’s head was positioned erect with the eyes looking forward. Arm span accordingly was measured with a tape from the tip of the middle finger of one hand to the tip of the middle finger of the other hand, with the subject standing straight and back to the wall, both arms adducted to 90°. In this index, there was a weak positive correlation (0.048) which was not significant (p ≥ 0.05) between the male height and arm span, which suggested that arm span is not a good estimator of height for the male population. In the female population, there was a strong positive relationship (0.797) which was significant (p ≤ 0.001) between female height and arm span. This suggests that arm span was a good estimator of height for the females only in the population considered. Since arm span was a good predictor of height in only the female population, it is important for separate height models to be developed for each population on the account of ethnic, racial and gender differences.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 10:10:10 GMT
       
  • Consumer Preferences and Willingness To Pay for Conventional Cowpea
           Intrinsic Attributes Among Federal University Students in Zaria and
           Sokoto, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2016-04-21T20-37-08Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.I. Abubakar, Z. Amadou and T.G. Ashiko.
      Consumer preferences for conventional cowpea characteristics using hedonic pricing have been well- studied, but these preferences are almost undocumented using conjoint analysis in discrete choice context. This study investigated the impact of educational level on consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay for white, red, black and brown conventional cowpea attributes. A conjoint choice experiment (CCE) was used to design the survey conducted at the Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria and Usmanu Danfodiyo University (UDU), Sokoto in April/May, 2010. Conditional logit consistent with random utility theory was used to analyze the stated choice data. Results reveal that high protein content is a statistically significant (P

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 09:07:18 GMT
       
  • Estimation of Efficiency Differentials in Artisanal Fishery: Implications
           for Poverty Reduction in Selected States in North Central, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2016-04-21T20-37-08Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Y.U. Oladimeji, Z. Abdulsalam, M.A. Damisa and D.F. Omokore.
      Despite Nigeria’s abundant fisheries resources, the country is still largely a protein deficient nation. This paper examines the technical efficiency gaps between motorised and non-motorised artisanal fishery enterprises in North Central Nigeria, with a view to identifying gaps that may help optimize the use of available inputs. Multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting 320 respondents for the study. Empirical estimate shows that the mean technical efficiency value for motorised was about 0.78 compared to non-motorised unit with 0.61. This is an indication that on the average, the fishermen were operating technical efficiency of 0.12 and 0.39 below the frontier for the motorised and non-motorised respectively. Technical inefficiency coefficient of fishing experience (-0.499) and adjusted household size (-0.256) in non-motorised unit, and motorised fishermen’s experience, education and credit coefficients (-0.783, -0.856 and -0.693) show that these variables increased technical efficiency. Government policy should be directed at educating the fishing households through skill-enhancing trainings by extension agents to adopt new innovations and techniques which will improve the fishermen’s productivity, sustainable fishery development, standard of living and apparently reduce poverty in the study area.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 08:56:49 GMT
       
  • Antiulcerogenic Effect of Aqueous Seed and Rind Extracts of Citrullus
           lanatus (Water Melon) in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer Albino Rats

    • Abstract: 2016-04-21T20-37-08Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S. Rabiu and S.A. Muhammad.
      The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti ulcer activity of aqueous seed and rind extracts of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) in ethanol induced gastric ulcer model in albino rats. The experiment was divided in to two models ( A: animals pre-treated with aqueous seed extract of watermelon ; B: those per-treated with aqueous rind extract of watermelon ) in each, four groups of rats were pre-treated with distilled water (control), Ranitidine (300mg/kg) for each, 150 and 300mg/kg seed and rind extracts were given to pre-treated animals in both models. Rats pre-treated with seed and rind extracts showed significant (P˂0.05) dose-dependent decrease in gastric lesions formation. Ulcerogenesis was significantly (P˂0.05) reduced in pre-treated groups compared with control (P˂0.05). However, the per centage curative effect was effectively high in (seed 75% and rind 70%) and was also dose dependent. The result indicates that Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seed and rind possess potential gastroprotective and antiulcerogenic activities in ethanol induced gastric ulceration. And is probably due to high citrulline and flavonoid contents which might influence both NO synthesis and antioxidant defence mechanism that cumulatively inhibit gastric acid secretion.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2016 01:15:13 GMT
       
  • The Synergy between Meteorological Parameters and the Total Suspended
           Particles in the Atmosphere using Polynomial as Model

    • Abstract: 2016-03-28T07-00-12Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      T.F. Ediagbonya, E.E. Ukpebor, F.E. Okieimen, and E.I. Unuabonah.
      Pollutants in the atmosphere are influenced by weather and chemistry thus making it difficult to know when they will concentrate and cause poor air quality. The only way to be sure of this is to monitor the air pollution at as many sites as possible and very often as well. In this study, particulate matter was captured at ten locations using SKC Air check XR5000 High volume Gravimetric sampler. The meteorological parameter was captured by LM-8000 Anemometer and with hydro thermograph -RS humidity /temperature meter .This study was conducted from May to October, 2010 in Sapele, Nigeria. The mean concentration range from156.25-850.70μg/m3 while the correlation of suspended particulate matter with wind speed and temperature were both positive and the correlation of suspended particulate matter with relative humidity was negative. It was observed that the total suspended particulate matter correlated well with relative humidity and poorly with wind speed and temperature.

      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2016 04:31:20 GMT
       
  • Effect of Heat on Antioxidant Activity of Some Tropical Leafy Vegetables

    • Abstract: 2016-03-28T07-00-12Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      S.O. Nwozo, B.J. Oso, and B.E. Oyinloye.
      The present study examined the effect of different cooking times on total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant properties of seven tropical leafy vegetables: Pterocarpus mildbraedii, Gongronema latifolium, Ocimum gratissimum, Solanecio biafrae, Piper guineense, Celosia argentea and Solanum melongena. The thermal treatments employed were both long simmer (20 minutes at 80oC) and short simmer (5 minutes at 80oC). The result show that both short and long simmer results to a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the ascorbic acid content in all the vegetables. There was a significant increase in the total phenol, total flavonoid, DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing property, Fe2+ chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. In like manner, short simmer treatment enhances the total antioxidant activities of all the vegetables. These results suggest that although thermal treatments enhances the nutritional value of vegetables by increasing the bio-accessible phenolic content and total antioxidant activity, long simmer treatment results in the disruption of the phytochemicals constituents present. The study therefore concludes that short time simmer treatment may result to optimum yield of antioxidant activities in leafy vegetables.

      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2016 11:11:34 GMT
       
  • Anticonvulsant and sedative activities of aqueous leave extract of Leucas
           martinicensis (Jacq.) R. Br.

    • Abstract: 2016-03-28T07-00-12Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Chinenye J. Ugwah-Oguejiofor, Uche A. Eze, Shaibu O. Bello, Emmanuel U. Etuk, eorge I. Ameh and guejiofor M. Ugwah.
      Leucas martinicensis is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat convulsions and epilepsy. The present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant and sedative effects of the aqueous leave extract of L. martinicensis in Wistar rats. The anticonvulsant activities of L. martinicensis (50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg i.p.) were evaluated using maximal electroshock seizure (MES) - and strychnine (STR) -induced seizure models while the sedative properties were evaluated using the diazepam-induced sleep model in Wistar rats. The 400 mg/kg of the extract protected rats (100%) against seizures in both models while at 200 mg/kg seizure protection (100%) was only in STR model. There was a significant (p

      PubDate: Wed, 23 Mar 2016 10:12:19 GMT
       
 
 
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