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Journal Cover   Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
  [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0794-5698
   Published by ScopeMed Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive Toxicity
           in Male Rats

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      W.A. Oyeyemi, S.T. Shittu, T.A. Kolawole, P. Ubanecheand A.O. Akinola.
      The current study assessed the protective role of vitamin E in alleviating the detrimental effect of nicotine on reproductive functions in male rats. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats. Control group was treated orally with 1.1 ml/kg body weight normal saline, nicotine treated group received 1.0 mg/kg body weight of nicotine, vitamin E treated group received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin E while nicotine plus vitamin E treated group received 1.0 mg/kg body weight of nicotine plus 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin E. The administration of nicotine and vitamin E were done orally for 40 days. Nicotine caused a significant reduction (p

      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2015 14:58:23 GMT
       
  • Resource use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Odeda Local
           Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.M. Sanusi and A.O. Adesogan.
      This study estimated the resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling procedure; analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The result reveal that 90.2% male, with 21.7 years of sweet potato farming experience, 87.8% were married, 64.6% have a household size of 8 persons on average, 81.7% have no formal education, 96.4% acquired land through leasehold. Only 13.4% are members of farmers’ cooperative society. Multiple regression analysis show that the quantity of fertilizer used and the age of farmers were significantly related to quantity of output produced at (p

      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2015 14:32:32 GMT
       
  • Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Anacardium occidentale
           Leaves and Bark Extracts

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      B.T. Thomas, M.O. Soladoye, T.T. Adegboyega, G.C. Agu and O.D. Popoola.
      Anacardium occidentale is a local medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, constipation,pain and inflammation. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant parts were assessed for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities using experimental animal model and agar disc diffusion methods respectively. Results show that the ethanolic extract of the plant were more efficacious than the aqueous extract in inhibiting the carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats in a non dose-dependent manner( P>0.05).No significant difference was found between the ethanolic extract of the leaves and bark (P>0.05). Also, the antibacterial activity was apparently higher in ethanolic extract than in aqueous extract for both leaves and barkwith the bark extract displaying a significantly (P

      PubDate: Fri, 08 May 2015 16:00:29 GMT
       
  • Intestinal parasitic infestation among HIV Seropositive and HIV
           Seronegative patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching
           Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria.

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A. Nuhu, A.I. Umar, M. Abdulrazak, G. Kabiru, E.I. keh, I. Garba.
      A research study on prevalence of intestinal parasitism among HIV positive patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto between January-September 2010 was conducted. A total of 315 stool samples were collected; 205 samples were obtained from confirmed HIV/AIDS positive patients and 105 samples from HIV negative patients. These samples were examined using saline preparation, iodine preparation, formol ether concentration technique and modified cold Ziehl Neelsen staining technique. The prevalence rate of parasitic infection in HIV positive patients was 20.5% with the following parasites Cryptosporidium parvum 19(9.3%), Hookworm 6(2.9%), Giardia lamblia 13(6.3%), Taenia spp 2(1%), and Entamoeba histolytica 2(1 %). While in the HIV negative patients examined, the prevalence of parasitic infection was 11.8% with the following Hookworm 5(4.5%), E. histolytica 2(2%), G. lamblia 3(3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides 3(3%). Gender distribution of the intestinal parasitism shows that male patients had 17% infection rate while in the female group 3% infection rate was recorded. There is no significant (P>0.05) association between the gender and parasitic infection.

      PubDate: Fri, 08 May 2015 15:13:05 GMT
       
  • Liver function of Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats Orally
           

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.A. Omonkhua, E.A. Adebayo, J.A. Saliu, T.H. Ogunwa and T.T. Adeyelu.


      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2015 10:06:06 GMT
       
  • Comparative Study of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf
           Extracts of Alstonia boonei and Eupatorium odoratum

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-18-40Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      E.S. Omoregie, K. Oriakhi, E.I. Oikeh, O.T. Okugbo and D. Akpobire.
      This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Alstonia boonei and Eupatorium odoratum leaves. Total phenol, flavonoid and flavonol content of the extracts were estimated to determine the levels of phenolics in the extracts. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts were assessed through diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reducing power (RP). The results revealed that the DPPH radical scavenging ability of aqueous extract of E. odoratum (with IC50 = 0.07± 0.003mg/ml) compares favourably with that of the standard ascorbic acid (IC50 = 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/ml). There was a dose-dependent increase in FRAP and RP capacity in all the extracts. The ethanol extract of E. odoratum had the highest FRAP while the aqueous extract of A. boonei showed the highest RP ability when compared with the other extracts. However, flavonol content was highest in the aqueous extract of E. odoratum followed by ethanol extract of A. boonei. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts of E. odoratum were higher than that of A. boonei extracts. This study, therefore, reveals that aqueous extract of A. boonei and ethanol extract of E. odoratum leaf are more effective free radical scavengers and antioxidants relative to the other extract forms. These findings support the use of these extracts as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2015 09:46:52 GMT
       
  • Changes in Liver Function Enzymes of HIV/AIDS Patients Treated with
           Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVS) in Specialist Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      M.G. Abubakar, M.M. Abduljalil, Y.I. Nasiru.
      This study assessed the effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) on liver enzyme markers (Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphatase) and CD4 T-cells. A total of Seventy Five (75) individuals were enrolled into the study, which comprised Twenty Five (25) HIV negative (control), Twenty Five (25) HIV positive non-treated with ARVs and Twenty Five (25) HIV positive treated with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). Females were found to be the majority of HIV infected patients and most patients were at the middle age of 20-39 years. AST and ALT were assessed according to the Reitman and Frankel’s (1957) method, while ALP was based on King Armstrong’s (1980) method and CD4 T-cells using a method assayed of Cassens et al., (2004). The result show a significant increase (p

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:57:08 GMT
       
  • Determination of Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances of Selected Fresh
           Leafy Vegetables Obtained from Minna Town, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      Amanabo Musa and Emmanuel O. Ogbadoyi.
      Determination of antinutrients and toxic substances in leafy vegetables is an imperative facet in nutritional studies as it establishes the baseline concentrations index for phytotoxins in the vegetables. Concentrations of cyanide, nitrate, soluble and total oxalates were quantitatively determined in the common leafy vegetables (Amaranthus cruentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Corchorus olitorius, Telfairia occidentalis and Vernonia amygdalina) consumed in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, using colourimetric and titrimetric methods. The results show that the concentration of cyanide in the leafy vegetables is within the permissible level of 200 mg/kg fresh weight while the concentration of nitrate in V. amygdalina and H. sabdariffa is within the acceptable daily intake of 219.00 mg/day, those of A. cruentus, C. olitorius and T. occidentalis is enough to induce toxicity in man. The soluble and total oxalates content in the vegetables are higher than the permissible level except that the concentration of soluble oxalate in H. sabdariffa is within the acceptable level of 250 mg/100 g. The results suggest that while the concentrations of cyanide in the analysed vegetables and nitrate in V. amygdalina and H. sabdariffa are safe for consumption, the concentrations of soluble and total oxalates in the vegetables and nitrate in A. cruentus, C. olitorius and T. occidentalis may contribute to nutritional problems if ingested without proper processing.

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:52:50 GMT
       
  • Effect of Dried Lake Salt (Kanwa) on Lipid profile and Heart Histology of
           Female Albino Rats

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.S. Muhammad, Y. Saidu, L.S. Bilbis, A. Onu, S.A. Isezuo, S. Sahabi.
      Peripatum cardiomyopathy is a devastating form of cardiac failure affecting women mainly in their last month of pregnancy or early postpartum with high incidence in Northern Nigeria where the consumption of dried lake salt postpartum is high. The current work was designed to study the effect of dried lake salt on lipid profile and histology of heart in female albino rats. The rats were administered graded doses of the salt for 4 weeks. The group administered 300mg/kg body weight of the dried lake salt has significantly (P0.05) increase in low density lipoprotein-cholesterol but total cholesterol, triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein- cholesterol levels were lower compared to the control. Atherogenic index of the group administered 300mg/kg body weight was significantly (P

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:47:02 GMT
       
  • Physicochemical Flux and Phytoplankton diversity in Shagari
           Reservoir,Sokoto, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      I.M. Magami, T. Adamu and A.A. Aliero.
      Nutrients availabilty is one of the major contributors to distribution and growth of phytoplankton species. Physicochemical properties and phytoplankton species and their distribution in Shagari Reservoir were evaluated. Standard methods of UNEP were used to determine monthly physicochemical flux properties, diversity and distribution of phytoplankton species were also determined. Phytoplankton classes identified included Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cynophyceae and Dinophyceae. Class Chlorophyceae had the highest annual percentage distribution (37.55%) with four species identified. The least monthly percentage (7.64%) was recorded in November by Dinophyceae. Anabaena wisconsineae (Dinophyceae) had the highest frequency of occurence (96.6%). August, September and October were the most turbid months using Secchi disc measurement with 8.30, 9.0 and 9.8cm respectively. The monthly variation in the physicochemical parameters may be due to seasonal changes and human activities. The levels of nitrogen and phosphorus ranged from 0.30-7.30 Mg/l and 0.1-0.8Mg/l respectively. The reservoir has low species of phytoplankton, which may be due to low levels of nutrients and age of the reservoir.

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:43:29 GMT
       
  • Seroprevalence of Rubella Specific IgG Antibody among Pregnant Women
           Attending Ante-Natal Clinics in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      H.K. Mangga, Maryam Aminu and H.I. Inabo.
      Rubella infection is generally mild in children. However, infection during pregnancy can leads to fetal death or congenital defects known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome. The seroprevalence of IgG to rubella virus was determined using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay among 400 pregnant women between the ages of 15-45 years attending ante-natal clinics in Kaduna metropolis. Of the 400 samples tested, consisting 20 in their first trimester, 260 in second and 120 in third trimester, 386 (96.5%) were IgG seropositive. Seroprevalence of 95.2% - 100% was obtained across the age groups. In relation to stages of pregnancy 19 (95.0%), 251 (96.5%) and 116 (96.7%) were seropositive in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively. The seroprevalence obtained in this study indicates that majority of the pregnant women had protective antibody due to previous exposure to the virus. However, 3.5% of the pregnant women were susceptible. Therefore, there is a need for government to incorporate rubella vaccine to be part of national immunization programme and screening of women of childbearing age so as to reduce subsequent burden of congenital rubella.

      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 01:40:44 GMT
       
  • Hepatotoxic and Nephrotoxic Effects of Petroleum Fumes on Petrol
           Attendants in Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2015-04-28T23-28-09Z
      Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
      A.L. Ogunneye, D.A. Omoboyowa, A.L. Sonibare, A.J. Adebusuyi and T.P. Faniran.
      The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of petroleum fumes on male and female petrol attendants. Investigations had been carried out on thirty (30) adult petrol attendants from different filling stations in Ibadan metropolis of Nigeria with ten (10) healthy adults as control. All the subjects involved in this study were between the ages of 27-35 years. The subjects were grouped according to the duration of time they had worked in the filling station. Serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total bilirubin concentration were determined to evaluate hepatotoxicity. Kidney function tests were also evaluated using serum creatinine, total protein and urea level. Electrolytes (potassium, chloride and sodium ions) leakages into the serum were also evaluated. The results reveal that serum AST, ALT, ALP activities and total bilirubin concentration in the petrol attendants were significantly (P

      PubDate: Mon, 27 Apr 2015 10:03:31 GMT
       
 
 
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