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Journal Cover Anatomica Karnataka - an International Journal
  [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2229-7545 - ISSN (Online) 2249-5398
   Published by ScopeMed Homepage  [98 journals]
  • Establishment of reference ranges for Serum Leptin and C-Peptide using
           enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay method: a preliminary report

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Mainasara Abdullah Sulaiman, Dahiru Shafi’u Gumel, Umar Zayyanu Usman, Anaja Peter Ocheni, Yakubu Abdulmumini, Rosemary Nwaelugo Adanze and Yeldu Mohammed Haruna.
      Reference ranges (RR) or Reference Intervals (RIs) are very important values for accurate interpretation of clinical laboratory test results. Any test result that is not accompanied by a valid RR value is less informative and may not be interpreted correctly. However, reference values of most analytes for Nigerian population are not readily available. The present study aims at establishing reference values of Serum Leptin and C-Peptide for Dutse, Jigawa State. In a cross sectional study, eighty (80) reference individuals were recruited. Serum Leptin and C-Peptide were analysed using ELISA methods. Following an accepted guideline, population specific reference intervals were established for these analytes and found to be 3.13ng/mL to 14.09ng/mL for Leptin and 0.56ng/mL to 5.64ng/mL for C-Peptide, respectively. Populations sharing similar physical and socio-economic characteristics may adapt these intervals if validated and considered suitable for their laboratory methods.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:58:16 GMT
       
  • Productive and reproductive performances of Brown Bengal goat (Hilly goat)
           at research farm level

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Azharul Islam Talukder, Md. Moklesur Rahman, Md. Ashadul Alam and Md. Abu Hemayet.
      A nucleus-breeding flock of selected Brown Bengal goat was established in the Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Regional Station, Naikhongchari, Bandarban, with the objective of characterization, conservation and improvement of the breed. A total of 69 does of different generations (Foundation = 07, Generation one = 32, Generation two = 23 and Generation three = 07.) and 07 bucks (All were first generation) were used to study the genetic parameters of Brown Bengal goat on productive and reproductive traits. The studied Animals were bred naturally. Goats were reared under semi-intensive management system in which goats were browsing in nature and allowed to graze in field as well as mounting in hills. All goats were housed in a plastic made floor house and allowed to graze 6-8 hours in a day and concentrate was offered twice daily during morning and evening at the rate of 1% of their body weight per day. The adult body weight of hilly goat was 20.95 kg. The phenotypic characteristics like the face, horn, ear and udder length were 15.56, 7.18, 12.19 and 12.67 cm respectively. On the other hand the hearth girth, front leg, hind leg and body length were 61.51, 46.8, 49.48 and 55.24 cm respectively. The gestation length, kidding to first heat, kidding to conception and kidding interval were 148.52 ± 1.06, 33.48 ± 2.85, 33.40 ± 1.98 and 176.86 ± 1.98 days, respectively. According to parity the GL, AFH, KC and KI were not followed trends up to 3rd parity but kid birth weight was increasing trends with increasing parity up to fifth. The birth weight of male kid (1.25 ± 0.25 kg) was higher than that of female kid (1.13± 0.27 kg). The highest birth weight (1.24±0.02 kg) was found in single birth. According to litter size the birth weight of single kid (1.24 ± 0.01 kg) stood first followed by twine (1.20 ± 0.01), triplet (1.1±0.03 kg) and quadruplet kids (0.93±0.08 kg). . The productive and reproductive performances of brown Bengal goat were not affected by parity. Birth weights of kids were significantly varied with birth type.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:52:30 GMT
       
  • Impact of stocking density on growth and production performance of monosex
           tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in ponds

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Mamunur Rahman, Debashis Kumar Mondal, Md. Rurul Amin and Mohammad Golam Muktadir.
      Stocking density is considered one of the important factors affecting fish growth. The study was aimed to compare the growth parameters of monosex tilapia at various stocking densities. The experiment was carried out during the period from 06 August to 22 December 2014. Three stocking densities were used as 125, 250 and 375 fish/dec and designated as treatment T1, T2 and T3 respectively each having two replicates. All the fishes were of same age group having average initial body weight of 1.34g. A commercial feed was supplied at the rate of 40% of the body weight and then gradually it was readjusted to 20%, 10%, 5% and 3% respectively and continued up to the end of the experiment. The water quality parameters were monitored at 14 days interval and the ranges were: temperature 19.34 to 31.40°C, pH 6.83 to 8.03, dissolved oxygen 4.78 to 6.82 mg/l and transparency 29.02 to 49.45cm.The result of the present study showed that the mean weight gain was significantly (P

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:50:34 GMT
       
  • Investigation of health condition of small indigenous species Channa
           punctatus from Sherpur and Mymensingh areas

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Gias Uddin Ahmed, Sahara Khatun and Md. Mamunur Rahman.
      Investigation on the health condition of small indigenous fish, Channa punctatus was carried out through clinical and histological observation from Jailka beel of Sherpur sadar, Sherpur district and Kailla beel of Ishargonj upazila, Mymensingh district for a period of six months from October 2014 to March 2015. Water quality parameters like water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate were recorded. Water temperature and total hardness were found at unfavorable level for fish in December and January. Clinical examinations of the fish were also carried out for any kind of abnormalities at monthly intervals. Clinically, it was observed that fish was affected with numerous red spots and patches in lateral and ventral regions, large deep whitish ulcers reached up to deep ulcers especially in December and January in both the beels. Samples of skin, muscle, gill, liver and kidney were collected and processed for histological observations. Major pathology in the skin and muscle were epidermis separated from dermis, presence of fungal granuloma, vacuums, hemorrhage and necrosis. Loss of primary and secondary gill lamellae, hypertrophy and primary gill lamellae separated, necrosis and hemorrhage were found in the gill. Large vacuums, necrosis and hemorrhage were observed in liver and kidney. Among the affected fish organs, skin and muscle, gills were found to be more affected than those of the internal organs like liver and kidney. Overall, under the clinical and histopathological observations the fish were found to be more affected in December and January. Whereas, in the months of February and March, the pathological condition of fish gradually healed up to normal except few vacuums and hemorrhage. Under histopathological observations, fish of Jailka beel were more affected than the fish of Kailla beel. In clinical and histopathological observation C. punctatus was more affected due to EUS.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:47:59 GMT
       
  • Management and treatment patterns of diabetes patients having blood
           pressure complications living in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman, Lutful Haque Saran, Md. Mamun-Ur-Rashid and Adnan Taher.
      A study way carried out in Dhaka city to find out the management and treatment patterns of diabetic patients those having blood pressure complications. It was a cross sectional study of 150 patients by using self administered survey questionnaire and founded data was analyzed and described. In this study, it is found that almost all of the patients (92%) were from Dhaka and just were a few those were outsider but came as referred patients. The male and female percentages were accordingly 64.67% and 35.33% and among those diabetes patients 47.33% had hypertension and 10.66% had hypotension and most of them (74%) check their diabetes monthly. Among those patients 79.33% patients were prescribed only drugs while 17% patients were prescribed to change their routine only and 4% were prescribed both (drug and routine). Most of the diabetes patients having blood pressure complicacy were prescribed only drugs which is very significant and those are going to do further research in this aspect will be benefited by getting this information.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:44:34 GMT
       
  • Growth performance and survival of guppy (Poecilia reticulata): different
           formulated diets effect

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Ishrat Zahan Anka, Jakia Sultana Jothi, Joyshri Sarker, Avijit Talukder and Md. Sadrul Islam.
      Growth performance of guppy fries was assessed by providing four different types of formulated diets comprised of some available ingredients (fish meal (FM), prawn meal (PM), meat and bone meal (MBM), wheat flour (WF), corn flour (CF), starch (S) and soya bean oil) and the result was compared with supplied commercial diet as control. After 30 days experimental period, diet 1 (FM: PM=6:1) showed the best result in case of length gain (0.48 cm) in guppies whereas lowest (0.01 cm) was reported from diet 2 (PM: MBM= 4:3). The body weight gain in guppies was also found higher (0.004 g) in diet 1 than other diets. Specific growth rate (SGR) of all formulated diets was between 1.03% to 4.8% while 0.7% was found in commercial diet. Maximum survival rate (95%) was recorded in formulated diet 1 whereas 80% was investigated in control .Growth trend of guppies from all the supplied formulated diets resulted better rather than the imported commercial diets. So, Commercial diets might be replaced by experimental diets for the better production of guppy.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:42:16 GMT
       
  • Yield and grain dimensions of T. Aman rice varieties as influenced by date
           of transplanting

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Syeda Nuzhat Reza, Nahid Nadia Tani, Muhammad Salim, Ahmed Khairul Hasan and Mst. Arjina Akter.
      A field experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during June 2013 to December 2013 to study the yield and grain dimensions of transplant aman rice varieties as influenced by date of transplanting. The experimental factors comprised of two factors namely, date of transplanting and variety. Date of transplanting comprised of 18 July, 19 August and 18 September. The variety comprised of Binadhan-7, BRRI dhan57, BR11 and Bashiraj. The experimental field was laid out in a split plot design. Most of the yield parameters were significantly affected by the date of transplanting. The yield and yield contributing characters were highest at 19 August transplanting and lowest at 18 September transplanting. Variety had significant effect on most of the yield and yield contributing characters. BR11 gave the highest grain yield (4.47 t ha-1) and the lowest value was obtained in BRRI dhan57. Among the grain dimensions, Binadhan-7 with 18 July transplanting gave the highest grain length (9.64 mm) whereas BR11 with 18 September transplanting gave the lowest value (7.82mm). Results showed that yield components were highest at 19 August transplanting and after that the reduction occurred at 18 September may be due to low temperature and short day length at flowering stage.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:39:16 GMT
       
  • Economic analysis of the fishery activities of Bergobindapur baor at
           Chaugachha upazila under Jessore district of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      B.M. Newaz Sharif, Md. Yousuf Ali, Manos Kumar Saha, Md. Anam Ahmad, Md. Aminur Islam and Md. Ruhul Amin.
      The study was conducted on Bergobindapur baor at Chaugachha upazila under Jessore district. The study period was February to June, 2015. Data were collected by using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools and personal observation. Net return was loss in 2013-2014 and the loss amount was BDT 254200. Cost benefitratio in 2013-2014 was 0.99. Major income (83.30%) of the fishermen community was drawn from the fishery activities of Bergobindapur baor. In 2014-2015, average income of fishermen was BDT 25250 during the fishing period. Within the household of fishermen community, the expenditure for food was 19%, clothing, 3%, children’s education, 19%, medical, 3%, dowry and religion, 33%, agriculture, 13% and others, such as business, accommodation, sanitation etc. 10%, which came from baor activities. The findings of this study indicated that Bergobindapur baor plays a vital role for the support of livelihood of fishermen and net profit from baor was not satisfactory. A long-term strategy should be developed to make the baor profitable. The developed strategic plans should be initiated immediately for the profitability of the baor as well as improving the livelihood conditions of the fishermen engaged with the boar fishery activities.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:36:39 GMT
       
  • Effects of stocking density on growth, survival and production of mirror
           carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) spawn in nursery pond

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Abdus Samad, Aliza Khatun, Md. Selim Reza, Md. Asrafuzzaman and Most. Habiba Ferdaushy.
      The research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on growth, survival and production of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) spawn in nursery pond for a period of 35 days. Three treatments differing in stocking density of hatchling viz., T1:172900 individuals/ha, T2:148200 individuals/ha and T3:123500 individuals/ha were employed each having three replicates. Fries were fed same diet in three different treatments consisting of (28.5%) at the rate of 6-10% of body weight. The Physico-chemical characteristics of pond water were measured weekly. The mean values of some water quality parameters such as temperature (°C) were 30.41 1.15 (T1), 30.381.08 (T2), 30.451.10 (T3); transparency (cm) 40.000.90 (T1), 39.740.51 (T2), 39.930.70 (T3); dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 6.790.45 (T1), 6.710.38 (T2), 7.020.29 (T3); pH 7.550.18 (T1), 7.670.16 (T2), 7.620.20 (T3) and alkalinity (mg/l) 116.200.64 (T1), 99.360.45 (T2), 96.470.93 (T3) from 35 days respectively. Except alkalinity no significant value were found for parameters. Sampling was also done weekly. The mean value of final weight (g) was 0.350.004 (T1), 0.420.008 (T2), 0.590.006 (T3). The survival rate of Cyprinus carpio var. specularis was 54.20% (T1), 62.90% (T2) and 74.56% (T3) respectively. The highest survivability was found in T3. The production (kg/ha) of Cyprinus carpio var. specularis was 76.324.96 (T1), 77.605.19 (T2), 91.046.02 (T3) respectively. Significantly (p< 0.05) highest production was found in T3.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:34:01 GMT
       
  • Arsenic deposition in different organs or tissues in an experimental
           toxicosis of White Newzealand Rabbit

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Shaifuddin Ahmed, Md. Saiful Islam Siddiqui, Kamrul Islam, Md. Nazrul Islam, Mohammad Usman Gani, Sharifunnessa Moonmoon, Md. Harun-or-Rashid and Md. Abdul Awal.
      The present study was undertaken for the detection of arsenic in different organs or tissues in an experimentally induced arsenicosis affected adult Newzealand white rabbits. The experiment was carried out on a total of 30 (01 month old) adult Newzealand white rabbits. Experimental arsenicosis were developed in rabbits by oral administration of arsenic trioxide alone and along with tannic acid, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP), alum and As contaminated water after filtration using SCIF bed along with alum. For this, the rabbits were randomly divided in to six (6) equal groups (A,B,C,D,E & F) at the ratio of three males and two females in each group, rats of group A was kept as control without giving any treatment, rabbits of group B received arsenic trioxide@100ppm, group C received arsenic trioxide @ 100ppm plus tannic acid @100ppm, group D received arsenic trioxide @ 100ppm plus di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) @100ppm, group E received arsenic trioxide @100ppm plus alum @100ppm orally daily for 60 days in all cases and group F received alum@100ppm in SCIF-bed filtrated water orally daily for 60 days. The different organs and tissues of both dead and sacrificed rabbits (Liver, kidney, heart, Lungs spleen, stomach, muscle and skin) were collected for detection of arsenic. Arsenic was detected qualitatively by Reinsch test, semiquantitatively by Merck Arsen test kit. The distribution of arsenic concentration was highest in liver and lowest in skin. It has been concluded that arsenic were deposited in different organs or tissues of rabbit in an experimentally induced arsenicosis as like as natural occurrence.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:30:22 GMT
       
  • Water quality, feeding management and cost-benefit analysis of a fish
           hatchery in Jessore district of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Monirul Islam, Rashidul Hassan, B.M. Newaz Sharif, Md. Mostafizur Rahaman, Md. Aminur Islam and Md. Ruhul Amin.
      The study was conducted at Ma-Fatema Fish Hatchery in Jessore from January to March, 2016. The present study was emphasized on water quality parameters, feeding management and cost- benefit analysis. The water quality parameters temperature (0C), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) (mg/l) and transparency (cm) were measured by Celsius thermometer, pH meter, DO meter and secchi disk, respectively. The proximate composition of feed ingredients was determined by the Association of Analytical Chemists, 1980. Brood fishes were reared all year round in the brood ponds by supplying formulated feeds. Temperature was 19oC -26°C in brood ponds and 18oC-24oC in hatching jars; pH was 6.93–7.87 in brood ponds and 6.79-7.54 in the hatching jars; dissolved oxygen was 4.8-6.3 mg/l in brood ponds and 4.8-6.7 mg/l in hatching jars; transparency was 1418 cm in the brood ponds. The percentage of farm made feed was protein (27.76%), lipid (4.9%), CHO (18.62%), ash (11.31%), fiber (6.4%), moisture (31.01%). The cost benefit ratios were 1.54, 1.32 and 1.23 and net profits were BDT 49911.67, BDT 24816.67and BDT 16366.67 respectively in January, February and March. Management of brood fish by providing quality feed and physico-chemical parameters of water were maintained in according to scientific procedure. Cost-benefit ratio of the hatchery in common carp production was satisfactory.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:24:57 GMT
       
  • Effects of periparturient anthelmintic treatment on milk yield and quality
           in dairy cows

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Adil Borman, Md. Faruk Islam, Md. Shajedur Rahman, Md. Fazlul Hoque, Sandip Kispotta and Md. Anowarul Haque.
      This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of anthelmintics against gastrointestinal parasite in periparturient dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and quality. Sixty mixed breed pregnant cows were selected divided into four groups, A (n=18), B (n=14), C (n=16) and D (n=12) and group D kept as control. Cows of group A were treated with Nitroxynilat the rate of 10 mg/kg bwt. s/c, 30 days before parturition and average feacal egg per gram(EPG) was reduced from 506.1 ± 172.3 to 157.8 ± 24.9 within 14 days.Group B were treated with combined triclabendazole and levamisoleat the rate of19.5 mg/kg bwt. orally at calving. The average EPG was reduced from 967.7 ± 237.1 to 172.0 ± 25.9. Group C were treated with same as group B at calving and 42 days after. The mean EPG fall from 794.6 ± 310.5 to 166.7 ± 26.2.In group D average EPG increased from 791.7 ± 268.5 to 864.2 ± 290.7. The mean change in EPG 14 days after treatment was significantly higher (p

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:21:18 GMT
       
  • Antidiabetogenic impact of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and garlic
           (Allium sativum) on alloxan induced diabetic rabbit model

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Ambiara, Fahima Binthe Aziz, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Shajedur Rahman, Misrat Masuma Parvez, Kishor Kumar Roy and Md. Anowarul Haque.
      The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the Bitter melon and Garlic on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental rabbits. At 2 to 3 months of age, rabbits were assigned into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) and each group was remained 4 rabbits. Group A was kept for control, Group B was treated with Alloxanintramuscullarly at a dose of 75mg /kg body weight, Group C was treated with bitter melon 250gm/kg body weight orally, Group D was treated with garlic 750mg/kg body weight orally, Group E treated with combined at previous dose. After acclimatization, diabetes was induced in four groups of rabbits (B, C, D and E) by administering Alloxan injection in a dose of 75mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) intramuscularlly. There was significant decreased in blood glucose level in all treated group C, D, E compared to the B group and lowest glucose was recorded in E group when treated with combined medicinal herbs and body weight was increased in all treated group C, D, E compared to the B group and highest was recorded in Dgroup while treated with those.% of PCV level and Hb gm/dl concentration was the highest in group E which was treated with both garlic and bitter melon compare to the A group. ESR was highest in group B treated with Alloxan and lowest in group E. The present study reveals that combined treatment increases body weight and decreases glucose level without affecting health of rabbits.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:18:08 GMT
       
  • Determination of antibiotics sensitivity profiles of bacteria isolated
           from raw milk

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      MuktaTalukder and H. M. Manir Ahmed.
      The extensive progress of dairy sectors in a developing country like Bangladesh, led to widespread use of antibiotics to improve the health and productivity of animals. Prolonged usage may lead to antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin; hence, the emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Accurate data on the antibiotic usage in livestock treatment, antibiotic residues and antimicrobial resistances in raw milk in Bangladesh are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the types and usages of antibiotics in cattle, their potential microbial resistances in raw milk samples. To do so, a total of 54 raw milk samples were evaluated and the bacterial isolates were identified and measured for resistance to 4 antibiotics most commonly used during bacterial infection Bangladesh. Amongst all 54 (100%) isolates were positive to S. aureus and 36 (66.67%) isolates were positive to E coli. Determination of the antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates showed that all isolates of S. aureus were resistant to cefoxitin (81.48%), ampicillin (64.81%), ciprofloxacin (51.85%), and gentamycin (70.37%). E. coli showed resistance to cefoxitin (69.44%), ampicillin (83.33%), ciprofloxacin (77.78%), and gentamycin (86.11%). However multidrug resistance pattern was also found. The obtained results provide evidence that antimicrobial resistant strains of the above pathogens have become remarkably widespread in raw milk. This requires better management for antibiotic usages among livestock farmers to control sources of food contamination and reduce the health risks associated with the development of resistant microbial strains.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:15:03 GMT
       
  • Tobacco smoking among school adolescents in Northern Sabah

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Swe, Than Myint and Mon Mon Yee.
      Tobacco smoking in adolescent age group has become a major public health concern as it is one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases leading to burden of adverse health effects in their later life. Those who start smoking tobacco at an early age are more likely to develop nicotine addiction and continue smoking throughout their adulthood. The general objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking, their initiation and perception towards tobacco smoking among school adolescents in Kudat District, Sabah State, Malaysia. It was a school based cross sectional descriptive study which employed a twostaged stratified random sampling method and used self-administered structured questionnaire for data collection. A total of 257 students aged between 15 to 19 years old from two upper secondary schools participated in the study. This study revealed that (26.6%) were ever smokers and (8.6%) were current smokers. The earliest age of started smoking was 7 years old and 9 years old among male and female ever smokers respectively. Majority of the respondents perceived that smoking was a bad habit which would cause environmental pollution and harmful effects on health. The most common reasons to start smoking among ever smokers were peer pressures, curiosity and experimenting and to relieve the feeling of pressured and stress. Among the current smokers, 86.4%had ever attempted to quit smoking but they failed to stop smoking because they thought smoking could give feeling pleasure (50%), relieve their anxiety or craving (27.3%) and because of peer pressures (22.7%). The findings suggested that although tobacco smoking prevalence among school adolescents in Kudat was comparatively lower than that of national prevalence reported by GYTS, there is still need for early interventions with holistic approach to prevent them from initiation and to help them for cessation of tobacco smoking.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:10:23 GMT
       
  • Quality control and interest of the determination of anti-CCP antibodies
           and rheumatoid factor in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Amoussou Nathalie Gisèle, Gounongbé Marcelle, Dougnon Tamègnon Victorien, Zomalheto Zavier, Loko Frédéric and Bigot André.
      The rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an auto-immune, rheumatic and chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by joints damage. The early diagnosis of RA allows the initiation of a treatment which offers to the patients more chance of remission and avoids the evolution towards the unrecoverable deformity of joints. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of recent tests for the determination of anti -CCP antibodies and FR by ELISA in Benin Republic. This analytical, retrospective (2 years 6 months) and prospective (7 months) study allowed us to collect 36 patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA and 24 controls. A comparison was made with the latex agglutination test for rheumatoid factors and a search of rheumatoid factors (RF) on the one hand and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide. In our study, the specificity of anti-CCP assay (100 %) is higher than that of RF-ELISA (91.7%). The sensitivity of RF-ELISA assay is higher (77.8 %) than that of anti-CCP assay (66.7%). The latex test for rheumatoid factors has a sensitivity of 33.3 %. The positive predictive value (PPV) of anti-CCP assay (100 %) is higher than that of RF-ELISA assay (93.33 %). The positive-likelihood ratio (LR+) of anti-CCP assay is higher than the LR+ of RF-ELISA assay (4.96). The negative-likelihood ratio (LR-) of anti-CCP assay (0.33) is higher than the LR- of RF-ELISA assay (0.24). In conclusion, the anti-CCP assay has the highest specificity and RF-ELISA assay shows the highest sensitivity. In conclusion, the association of the two assays enhances a better diagnosis value for RA.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:04:21 GMT
       
  • Changes in hematological parameters and gill morphology in common carp
           exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of Malathion

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Sadia Sharmin, Md. Abdus Salam, Farhana Haque, Md. Sadiqul Islam and Md. Shahjahan.
      Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide widely used in the agricultural field in Bangladesh and reach in the aquatic environment through rain wash. In the present study, we examined the effects of Malathion on hematological parameters and gills morphology in common carp exposed to two sub-lethal concentrations (1.5 and 3.0 mg/L) for a period of 192h (8 days). For hematological parameters fish were sacrificed at 24, 48, 72, and 96h after start of exposure. Gills were collected at 192h after start of exposure. The blood glucose level was significantly elevated with increasing the concentration of Malathion. Red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) values were significantly decreased after the exposure of Malathion. Significant increments were observed in case of the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), while no distinct changes were noted for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Interestingly, white blood cells (WBCs) count was significantly increased with toxicity of Malathion. Several morphological changes, such as telangiectasia, blood lamellar congestion, hypertrophy of filaments, lamellar fusion were observed in the gills of fish exposed to Malathion. The present study revealed that the insecticide had adverse effects on various blood parameters and gills morphology in common carp. Thus, the use of insecticide in the agriculture field may be a threat to fauna and flora of the aquatic environment.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 05:01:04 GMT
       
  • Modalities of treatment for sleep disordered breathing

    • Abstract: 2016-10-29T02-55-15Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Win Tin and Khin Maung Ohn.
      Sleep disordered breathing is a spectrum of diseases that includes snoring, upperairway resistance syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It occurs more in obese males, resulting in hypertension and cardiac complications if untreated. There are various treatments, conservatively and surgically, starting from simple tonsillectomy to multi-level surgeries and multi discipline. Literature review was carried out on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, complications, diagnosis and various treatments, using internet Google, search PubMed. Additional information was obtained by cross referencing, using text and journals in the medical libraries.

      PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 04:58:10 GMT
       
  • The activities of Bangladesh water development board on the social
           environment of Bhadrabila union, Narail sadar upazila, Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-10-01T05-26-02Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Rimi Bhattacharjee, Molla Rahman Shaibur and Md. Amit Hasan.
      The study was conducted at Bhadrabila union, Narail sadar upazila, Narail in Bangladesh. The study period was carried out during September to December, 2013. In the selected areas, the study was conducted on 375 persons. The collected information was totally interview and observation based study. In the study area the highest age distribution was 50% in 21-40 years. The second highest was 39% for 41-60 years. The third highest was 7% for the year of 1-20. The lowest age distribution was for the year of 60 and above. This study found that the highest respondents of 39% are the member of 3-4 family member range. 32% respondents are in the member of 5-6 family member range. 12% respondents are in the member of 7-8 family member range. This study represent that 18% houses were kacha, 27% houses were tin shade 29% half building and 26% house were building. Almost 3% respondents were in class 1-3, 31% were in class 4-6, 46% were in between class 7-9, 10% in S.S.C level and left 9% were in above S.S.C level. Almost 79% had sanitary latrine. . It was found that 28% peoples were and poor their monthly income was 3,000-6,000 taka, 40% peoples were middle class their monthly income was 6,000-9,000 taka, about 24% peoples were rich their monthly income was 9,000-12,000 and lest 8% peoples income were 12,000+. 90% tube wells were arsenic free and only 10% tube wells are arsenic contaminated. About 77% were related with the BWDB and rests 13% were not the beneficiary of the BWDB. About 86% respondants were benifited by the activities of the BWDB. About 100% of respondents are fully satisfied by the activities of BWDB in arsenic test. It was shown that the social life of the respondents of Bhadrabila Union Parisad was getting better. The most important thing is almost 100% of the respondents were satisfied by the activities of BWDB.

      PubDate: Tue, 27 Sep 2016 23:25:17 GMT
       
  • Excavation of irrigation canal changes the cropping pattern in 2013-14:
           Auria Union, Narail, Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-10-01T05-26-02Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Amit Hasan, Molla Rahman Shaibur, Md. Shamsur Rahman, Md. Atiqur Rahman, Shaswata Biswas, Rimi Bhattacharjee and Md. Maruf Shaikah.
      The principal crop during winter is Bororice and it occupies about 70% of crops. Being a country of 140 million inhabitants, agriculture is still the major water using sector in order to feed a growing population where at least 40 million people do not have a square meal. Recently, Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) launched some projects to various water user groups for maintenance and expenditure recovery. Chenchuri Irrigation Sub Project is under South-West Area Integrated Water Resources Planning and Management Project (SWAIWRPMP). The project area covers the South Western Narail District along with Auria Union at Narail Sadar Upazila. Data were collected from 150 farmers of 6 villages in Auria Union. This research investigates the overall cropping pattern in Auria Union, Narail Sadar Upazila, before the construction of canal (during 1987-88), after the construction of canal (during 2009-10)and after re-excavation of canal (2012-13). The result showed that, before the construction of canal (during 1987-88) there were 5 types of cropping pattern and after the construction of canal (during 2009-10) there were 6 types of cropping pattern. But after re-excavation of canal (2012-13), 12 types of cropping pattern were recorded. Among them, the T. Aman and Boro were the most prominent cropping pattern. In Kharif 1, Kharif 2 and Rabi seasons, various types of crops were cultivated. Such as Aus, B. Aman, T. Aman, Boro, Jute, Sesame, Summer vegetables, Chilly, Garlic, Chickpea, Lentil, Mustard, Onion, Sugarcane, Turmeric, Wheat, Winter vegetables etc. The result revealed that, the re-excavation of canal have significantly positive impact on the Boro, Wheat, Turmeric, Chilly, Chick pea, Sugarcane, Lentil production. The Boro rice cultivation increased significantly day by day and it replaced other crops gradually. Because, farmers get irrigation water easily and cheaply from canal in Rabi season (16 October – 15 March). The present study showed that, the excavation of irrigation canal completely changes the cropping pattern at auriaunion in Narail, Bangladesh.

      PubDate: Tue, 27 Sep 2016 23:22:27 GMT
       
  • Physicochemical properties and plankton composition of the river Meghna,
           Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-09-03T14-41-51Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Robiul Awal Hossain, Md. Mehedi Hasan Pramanik, Flura, Md. Istiaque Haidar and Yahia Mahmud.
      The present study was conducted to assess the physicochemical properties and plankton composition of water from the river Meghna (Shatnol to Chor Alexander) in thirteen (13) sampling spots during the period of July 2014 to June 2015. Ten (three were physical and seven were chemical) physicochemical parameters of water viz temperature (air and water), transparency, dissolved oxygen (DO), free carbon dioxide (CO2), Conductivity, pH, total hardness, total alkalinity and ammonia (NH3), plankton community of both phytoplankton and zooplanktons were studied in aforesaid 13 sampling spots of the river Meghna. Maximum air temperature was recorded 37°C at Ananda Bazar. Maximum water temperature was recorded 30°C at Kaligonj, Chor Ludhua and Chor Alexander area of the river Meghna. Transparency was found minimum 12 cm at Chor Ludhua and maximum 75 cm at Horina Ghat. The concentration of dissolved oxygen was found maximum at Chor Voirabi and Horina Ghat 7.3 mg/l and was found minimum at Kaligonj 3.5 mg/l. Free CO2 was found highest at Kaligonj 17 mg/l and lowest at Horina Ghat 5 mg/l. pH was found ranged from almost neutral to alkaline (Minimum 7.2 to Maximum 9). Total hardness was found highest at Chor Alexander 802 mg/l and lowest at Eklaspur 35 mg/l. Total alkalinity was found highest at Chor Alexander 145 mg/l and found minimum at Madrasa Ghat and Hizla 29 mg/l. Conductivity was found highest at Chor Alexander and Chor Ludhua 1000 μs/cm. Ammonia concentration was found ranged from 0.00 to 0.03mg/l. The mean contribution of phytoplankton was about 90.5% of the total planktonic organisms and zooplankton contributed the rest. The major groups of phytoplankton were found Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Myxophyceae and Xanthophyceae. Total 9 genera of zooplankton were identified from four families namely Rotifera with 2 genera, Cladocera with 3 genera, Copepoda with 3 genera and Ostracoda with 1 genus from the selected sampling spots.

      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2016 04:54:46 GMT
       
  • Distribution of sul genes and their variants in uropathogenic Escherichia
           coli isolated from two hospitals of Sabah

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Zaw Lin, Yun Mei Lai, Myo Thura Zaw and Ahmad Toha Samsudin.
      Sulphonamides resistant strains are highly prevalent in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates. Sul genes encode sulphonamide resistance and are present on transferrable plasmids. Integrons (IGNs) are genetic elements containing integrase gene, attl site and gene cassettes which carry multiple antibiotic resistant genes. Class 1 integrons have been extensively studied because these were most prevalent among clinical isolates. In this study, UPEC isolates were determined for the antibiotic susceptibility patterns to four antibiotics commonly used for urinary tract infections, which include co-trimethoxazole (TMP-STX). Distribution of sul genes and integrase1 gene (intI1) was studied in TMP-STX resistant UPEC isolates by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Sul genes variants were investigated by DNA sequencing of the whole open reading frame of sul1 and sul2 genes and PCR product of sul3 gene. Sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes were prevalent in 37 (24.7%) of 150 UPEC isolates. IntI1 is positive in 22 sul genes positive isolates. Of six isolates positive with sul2 genes, sul2(a) and sul2(b) variants, which were described in the previous study, in the four isolates and the two isolates respectively were observed. This is the first mPCR which investigates the prevalence of three sul genes and intI1 in the UPEC clinical isolates from two hospitals of Sabah.

      PubDate: Mon, 08 Aug 2016 08:26:40 GMT
       
  • Effect of milk replacer on kid performance among small holder farmers

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      M.Z. Rahman, M.A.I. Talukder, Md.Yousuf Ali and Most. Sumona Akter.
      An experiment was conducted with 15 Black Bengal kids of both sexes (in 3 groups) were fed two different milk replacer using ingredient shotti (T1), skim milk (T2) and no milk replacer- kids with mother, termed as control group (T0) at Southern agro trade, Subarnachar, Noakhali. The average total DM intake and milk dry matter intake were not significantly differed among the treatment group. Total dry matter intake was not affected by intake of liquid milk replacer or goat milk. The CP intake were ranged from 19.97 to 20.93 g/d. Total CP intake was not significantly differed among the group but T1 group was slightly higher(0.42 g/d) than T0 and T2. The amount of protein intake (g/d) was followed NRC (1985) recommendation. DMI from concentrate (g/d), DMI from green grass (g/d) and DMI from percent live weight were not significantly differed among the treatment groups. The average daily gain was not significantly (P>0.05) differed among the treatment group. The average growth rate (57.42 – 61.20 g/d) of all kid of Black Begal goat was lower than the Angora goats (115.00-125.00 g/d) and Alpine goats (153.00-258.00 g/d). Dry matter (DM) digestibility (%) was significantly (p

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 09:17:54 GMT
       
  • Prevalence and pathology of Newcastle disease in broiler at Bochaganj
           Upazila of Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Pabitra Kumar, S. M. Harun-ur-Rashid, Md. Haydar Ali, Hosne Mobarak, Md. Aminul Islam and Rifat Haydar.
      The study was schemed to investigate the prevalence, pathological conditions, mortality and clinical features of Newcastle disease in the small scale commercial broiler farms at Bochaganj upazila of Dinajpur district during January to June, 2014. A total 1950 birds (from 5 farms), among which 160 diseased and dead birds were selected out of which 99 (5.35%) birds were found to be positive for Newcastle disease. The clinical signs of the affected birds were sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge, laboured breathing, and torticolis. Broiler were inactive, weak and rough in appearance, greenish watery diarrhoea occur severely. Nervous sign include clonic, spasm and paralysis of the legs and wings. In this observation, the gross pathological lesions were slight to severe haemorrhages in caecal tonsils, typical lesions were proventricular haemorrhage, most commonly seen in the surface near the junction with the proventriculus. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in Bochaganj upazila was 5.35%. Mortality of Newcastle disease in non-vaccinated and vaccinated broiler flock was 20.76% and 4.6%, respectively.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 09:15:08 GMT
       
  • Comparative performances of hilly chicken and naked neck hilly chicken at
           Naikhongchari hilly areas of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Azharul Islam Talukder, Md. Ashadul Alam, Md. Moklesur Rahman, Md. Abu Hemayet and Md. Asadul Islam.
      A total of 115 hilly chickens (92 female and 23 males) and 35 naked neck hilly Chickens (28 females and 7 males) were reared in open sided poultry house for 10 months period to compare their productive and reproductive performances. The mean body weights of adult female and male hilly birds and naked neck hilly birds were 2244, 2005 and 2664, 2576 g respectively. The age at first egg of both type of birds were 147 and 159 days respectively and hen-day egg production were 27±1.4 and 35±3.3 respectively. The average egg weight was 41±4 and 38±3.6 g respectively. Both type of bird per day average feed consumption were 97.61±11 and 102±22 g and mortality were 15.56±3.7 and 11.42±2.7 percent respectively. The average hatchability percentage performed by 14 broody hens reared on litter floor was 67.5±10 and 57±22 percent respectively. The average hatching egg weight and chick weight were 47.28±3, 41.48±1 and 31.4±3, 29.6±4 g respectively. The body weight of growing hilly bird and Naked Neck hilly bird after eleven weeks of age were 727.3±17.4 and 645±97.6g, respectively and Feed conversion ratios (FCR) were 3.39 and 3.34 respectively. It was concluded that Hilly chicken improved by body weight than previous year and both feathered and Naked Neck Hilly chicken given an indication of meat type native chicken and required to reproduce to have large stock for undertaking conservation and further improvement programme.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 09:12:03 GMT
       
  • A study on consumption of iodine by an individual in selected area in
           Tangail, Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Sabina Yeasmin, Najia Kamrul, M. Burhan Uddin and Md. Fahad Jubayer.
      The purpose of this study was to assess consumption of iodized salt by an individual (g/person/day) in a village of Tangail district and to compute the intake of iodine by an individual (µg/person/day) in a village in Tangail district. Vacuum evaporated salt was used for the study. The salt was analyzed for chemical composition and iodine content. Various physico-chemical characteristics of salt were analyzed to determine the moisture content, chloride content (as NaCl), water insoluble matter, pH, calcium content, magnesium content, and iodine content. Study was done among 68 families for a period of 35 days. Family member was divided into 4 groups according to their age – below 5 years, 5-9 years, 10-19 years and above 19 years. Male member among the family members was minimum 1 and maximum was 8. In case of female, minimum number was 1 and maximum number was 7. Among family members, 45.58% were male and 54.42% were female consumers. Percentage of salt consumers among Family members below 5 years was 11.81%, in 5-9 years it was 6.94%. Percentage of salt consumer in family members between 10-19 years was 24.54%, and salt consumers percentage in family members above 19 years was 56.71%. By statistical analysis among data, mean value of salt consumption g/ person /day was 12.49, standard deviation was 2.05 and minimum salt consumption among family members was 10.02 g/person/day and maximum value was 18.47 g/person/day. Among the family members, mean value of intake of iodine was 399.68 µg/person/day, maximum intake of iodine was 591.04 µg/person/day and minimum intake was 320.64 µg/person/day. Finding of this study was that, salt consumption rate are satisfactory and intake of iodine by individual in village Chamuria in Tangail district is adequate to avoid Iodine Deficiency Disorder in normal health condition.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 09:09:07 GMT
       
  • Isolation, molecular identification and antibiotic susceptibility profile
           of Aeromonas hydrophila from cultured indigenous Koi (Anabus testudineus)
           of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Shuvho Chakra Borty, Fabaya Rahman, A.K.M. Ali Reza, Mst. Sharifa Khatun, Md. Luthful Kabir, Muhammed Hafizur Rahman and Md. Shirajum Monir.
      Fish play a crucial role in the Bangladeshi diet, providing more than 60% of animal source food, representing a crucial source of micro-nutrients and possessing an extremely strong cultural attachment. In this study isolation and identification of Aeromionas hydrophila was done by studying cultural properties, Gram’s staining and biochemical properties of isolates of diseased indigenous Koi fish (Anabas testudineus) of different upazillas of Mymensingh district. Antibiogram profile of the isolated bacteria was studied by using wide range of commercially available antibiotics. Quantitative study of bacteria isolated from diseased indigenous Koi fish showed variation of number in different organ. Total bacterial load was found to be 1.90 × 105, 1.19 × 105, 3.21 × 105, 2.18 × 106 and 3.14 × 105 cfu/g in lesions; 2.52 × 107, 2.34 × 108, 5.41 × 108, 2.54 × 109 and 5.21 × 109 cfu/g in liver; 2.54 × 108, 2.41 × 108, 1.90 × 107, 3.65 × 107 and 3.45 × 108 cfu/g in spleen; 3.51 × 107, 5.28 × 107, 3.14 × 106, 1.85 × 107 and 4.52× 107 cfu/g in kidney in diseased Koi of Mymensingh sadar, Muktagacha, Tarakanda, Gouripur and Fulpur upazillas, respectively under Mymensingh districts. Aeromonas hydrophila was initially identified by their specific morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Then molecular detection of A. hydrophila was done by PCR. PCR products of desired 760 bp were obtained for A. hydrophila. The results of the antibiotic sensitivity test is exhibited that most of the bacterial samples were sensitive against ciprofloxacin (92%) and levofloxacin (84%), intermediate resistant against gentamicin (40%) and resistant against novobiocin (84%), ampicillin (100%) and penicillin (92%).

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 09:05:50 GMT
       
  • Effect of seed washing either alone or in combination with garlic extract
           and Knowin 50WP on quality of jute seeds

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      M. S. Islam and M. S. Monjil.
      Efficacy of seed washing, garlic extract, prewashed seeds treated with garlic extract, Knowin 50 WP (Carbendazim) and prewashed seeds treated with Knowin 50WP were evaluated on seed borne fungi of jute seeds. Nine seed borne fungi were detected on both deshi and tossa jute seed samples collected from sadar upazilla of Barisal district viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium spp, Colletotrichum corchori, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp.. Physical seed washing and garlic extract were found effective against seed borne diseases of jute which significantly decrease the association of seed borne fungi from jute seeds. Prewashed seeds treated with garlic extract showed highest germination and highest reduction of seed borne mycoflora from desi and tossa jute seeds. Knowin 50WP or prewashed seeds treated with Knowin 50WP were found effective to reduce seed borne fungi from jute seeds. Highest vigor index was obtained in jute seedlings raised from prewashed seeds treated with Garlic or Knowin 50WP. Thus, prewashed seeds treated with Garlic or Knowin 50WP resulting significant reduction of seed-borne fungal population and enhancing seeding vigor.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:59:27 GMT
       
  • Potentiality of producing summer cauliflower as influenced by organic
           manures and spacing

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Laila Farzana, Abul Hasnat M Solaiman and Md. Ruhul Amin.
      The experiment was conducted to find out the effect of organic manures and spacing on the growth and yield of cauliflower in summer season. In this study, the treatment consisted of three organic manures viz. F0: no organic manure, F1: cowdung, F2: vermicompost and three spacing viz. S1 (60 × 30) cm, S2 (60 × 40) cm, S3 (60 × 50) cm. Two factorial experiments were laid out in the RCBD with three replications. Significant variations in all parameter were observed due to organic manure and spacing at different days after transplanting. For organic manure, highest yield of cauliflower (12.98 t ha-1) was obtained from F2 and lowest (8.24 t ha-1) from F0. For spacing, highest yield of cauliflower (11.25 t ha-1) was obtained from S1 and lowest (10.57 t ha-1) from S3. For combined effect, highest yield of cauliflower (13.33 t ha-1) was obtained from F2S1 and the lowest (7.91 t ha-1) from F0S3. The highest BCR (3.79) was found from F2S1 and lowest (2.7) from F0S3. It is found from the experiment that growth and yield of summer cauliflower were positively correlated with organic manure and spacing. However, white beauty cultivars can be cultivated in summer season and use of vermicompost with 60×50 cm spacing would be beneficial for the farmers.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:56:14 GMT
       
  • Deep placement of N fertilizers influences N use efficiency and yield of
           BRRI dhan29 under flooded condition

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Samia Lutfa Hasan, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Mahmud Hossain Sumon and Azmul Huda.
      An experiment was conducted at the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during boro season of 2014 to evaluate the effect of deep placement of nitrogen (N) fertilizers on N use efficiency and yield of BRRI dhan29 under flooded condition. The soil was silt loam in texture having pH 6.27, organic matter content 1.95%, total N 0.136%, available P 3.16 ppm, exchangeable K 0.095 me%, available S 10.5 ppm and EC 348 μS cm-1. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments were T1 [Control], T2 [Prilled urea (130 kg N ha-1)], T3 [USG, 130 kg N ha-1], T4 [USG, 104 kg N ha-1], T5 [USG, 78 kg N ha-1], T6 [NPK briquette, 129 kg N ha-1], T7 [NPK briquette, 102 kg N ha-1] and T8 [NPK briquette, 78 kg N ha-1]. All the treatments except T6, T7 and T8 received 25 kg P and 64 kg K ha-1 as TSP and MoP respectively. In T6, T7 and T8 treatments, P and K were supplied from NPK briquettes. Prilled urea was applied in three equal splits. USG and NPK briquettes were applied at 10 DAT and were placed at 8-10 cm depth within four hills at alternate row. After deep placement of USG and NPK briquette, and each split application of PU, the water samples were collected for 5 consecutive days and analyzed for NH4-N concentration in surface water. After application of N fertilizers, the NH4-N in floodwater reached peak on the 2nd day in PU treated plots and then decreased rapidly over time. In the USG and NPK briquette treated plots, the NH4-N was generated slowly but spontaneously over the entire growth period as compared to PU indicating a beneficial role of USG and NPK briquette. The highest grain yield of 7.16 t ha-1 was recorded for T6 [NPK briquette, 129 kg N ha-1] which was statistically similar to that of T3 [USG, 130 kg N ha-1] and T4 [USG, 104 kg N ha-1]. The highest straw yield of 8.05 t ha-1 was obtained for T3 [USG, 130 kg N ha-1]. The deep placement of USG and NPK briquettes enhanced the recovery of applied N and N use efficiency in comparison with the broadcast application of N fertilizers.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:45:11 GMT
       
  • Study on effect of different levels of concentrate on growth performance
           of both male and female lamb

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Masum Billah, Md. Humayun Kabir, Md. Hafizur Rahman and Md. Abdul Hamid.
      The present study was carried out to assess the effect of concentrate on growth performances of both male and female lamb. For this purpose twenty four (12 male and 12 female) lamb aged about 5-6 months were selected and divided into three groups (Treatment group T1, T2 and control group T0). In each group having 4 males and 4 females lamb, all lambs were supplied green roughages ad-libitum, control group T0 was allowed no concentrate and treatment group T1 & T2 were supplied 100 gm & 200 gm concentrate mixture respectively for 90 days experimental period. Animals were weighed at 15 days interval. Significant differences of live weight gain among these three groups were found. Allowing 100 gm (T1) concentrate mixture along with green grass improved growth rate in both male and female lamb. Increasing of concentrate supplementation improved live weight gain (found in T2 group). Total live weight gain (kg) and average daily live weight gain (g/d) were 4.25±0.52 kg and 47.20±5.75 g, 5.38±0.83 kg and 59.73+9.17 g and 7.00±0.54 kg and 77.78±6.00 g in male lambs and 2.25±0.21 kg and 25.00±2.34 g, 3.18±0.32 kg and 35.39±3.63 g and 3.81±0.24 kg and 42.33±2.77 g in female lambs for the To, T1 and T2 groups respectively. Live weight was significantly (P

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:42:03 GMT
       
  • Uses of milk in sweetmeat shops and consumer preferences to milk products
           at Mymensingh municipality in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      A.B.M. Kawsar Ahmed, Md. Rezwanul Habib, Samia Afrin, Mohammad Ashiqul Islam and Md. Harun-ur-Rashid.
      The work has been designed to investigate the utilization of milk for consumption of fluid milk and milk products, their distribution pattern, pricing, shelf life and consumer’s preference of Mymensingh municipality in Bangladesh. The study was based on milk and milk products and data were collected from the selected sweetmeat shops by direct interview, of which 20 samples were collected from sweetmeat shops and 7 from goalas. Both tabular and statistical methods were used for collected data analysis. Shopkeepers of different sweetmeat shops received raw milk from farmers (52.6%) and goalas (47.4%) and the highest amount of whole milk was required in per unit production of rasomalai (21%) and ghee (18%) whereas the lowest amount in chomchom (9%). Milk products prices were not remained same throughout the year in this municipality due to fluctuation of raw milk availability and their price. Eid, Puja festivals and other educational activities results that may increase milk products selling especially rasogolla and kalojam. Research findings also showed nonsignificant difference in case of pricing, distribution pattern, shelf life and selling of milk and milk products following sweetmeats.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:38:56 GMT
       
  • Evaluation of growth performance of Brahman cross calves to local
           environment of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md Azizul Haque, Mst. Fatematuzzohora, Md. Azharul Hoque and Md. Younus Ali.
      The present study was conducted using growth performance data on 624 Brahman cross (25%) calves collected from three villages adjacent to Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Growth performance data of 289 Brahman cross (50%) calves were also collected from record sheet maintained at 12 Upazila Livestock Offices under the “Beef breed development project” of Department of Livestock Services to compare performance between 25% and 50% Brahman cross calves. Growth performance traits were considered birth weight, weight at three-, six-, nine-, twelve-month of age, average daily gain from birth to twelve-month of age. Calving difficulties (dystocia) and calf mortality were also included in the study area. The birth weight, weight at three-, six-, nine- and twelve-month average daily gain for 25% Brahman cross calves were 19.79±0.20, 52.72±1.31, 86.61±2.02, 129.90±3.08, 172.60±3.48 kg and 426.00±4.99g, respectively. The average birth weight (21.40±0.24 kg) and twelve-month weight (229.62±2.08 kg) of 50% Brahman cross calves were significantly higher (p

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:35:59 GMT
       
  • Determination of appropriate level of fat in milk for the production of
           good quality dahi

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Morsheda Yesmin, Md. Rezaul Hai Rakib, Al Amin Hossain, Akhi Khan and Md. Nurul Islam.
      The research was conducted to determine the approximate fat in milk for good quality dahi production and to inform dahi manufacturers’ about the acceptable level of milk fat to be used and also their economic benefit. Quality assessment tests were conducted on four different types of dahi prepared by adding different percentage of milk fat such as 3.5% (A), 4.0% (B), 4.5% (C) and 5.0% (D) respectively. All the samples were analyzed for organoleptic, chemical and microbiological qualities. The scores for smell and taste, body and texture, color and appearance, and total scores for four types of dahi samples showed significant differences at various levels (p

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:32:42 GMT
       
  • Effect of fortification of skim milk with coconut milk on the proximate
           composition and manufacture of dahi, a traditional sweet curd

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Rezaul Hai Rakib, Morsheda Yesmin, Md. Abu Hemayet, Md. Ahsanul Kabir and Md. Nurul Islam.
      The experiment was conducted to measure the feasibility of partial replacement of skim milk with different levels of coconut milk in the manufacture of dahi. Skimmed milk was replaced by 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of coconut milk to produce Dahi designated as A, B, C, D and E. All the samples were analyzed for organoleptic, chemical and microbiological qualities. Replacement of skim milk up to 10% with coconut milk increased total organoleptic score but score decreased when level of coconut milk was 15% and 20%. Dahi manufactured by incorporating 5% coconut milk gave superior results for body and consistency and also for colour and texture. In all levels of replacement increased fat, carbohydrates, ash and total solids were obtained, while protein and pH content were significantly decreased in Dahi samples. Total bacterial count was higher in the dahi manufactured by replacement of coconut milk than control. It could be concluded that 5 and 10% replacement of skim milk with coconut milk for the manufacturing of Dahi was acceptable and reduced the production cost and they were better in compare to others, according to organoleptic, chemical and microbiological analysis. The work showed the potential of coconut as an alternative source of skim milk in dahi manufacturing with improved nutritional value and consumer acceptability.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:27:55 GMT
       
  • Molecular characterisation of oomycetes from fish farm located in
           Mymensingh sadar during summer

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      K. M. Mahfujur Rahman and Mohammad Nasif Sarowar.
      Oomycetes, also known as water molds, can cause serious infection to plants and animals especially at lower temperature although they dwell in freshwater and moist ecosystem throughout the year. The aim of this research was to investigate the diversity of oomycetes inhabiting in small water bodies during summer. Three types of samples i.e. water, fish mucus and apparently infected muscle samples of fish were collected from a large fish farm consisting of over 100 medium to large ponds in Mymensingh during summer (March to June) in 2015. A total number of 385 samples (284 of water, 79 of mucus and 22 of apparently infected muscle samples) were collected in 15 ml sterile falcon tubes with baits in each. Eleven of the isolates were isolated in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) plates and were identified using molecular methods that included DNA extraction, PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing of the ITS region of the genomic DNA of the samples. BLAST analysis to GenBank revealed that two of the isolates were 99% similar to Pythium sp. (HQ643814), three of the isolates were 98-99% similar to Pythium sp. (KT247392), and each of the remaining four isolates was similar up to 99% to Pythium sp. (KF836354), 99% to Pythium sp. (EU544193), 99% to Pythium rhizo-oryzae (HQ643757) and 100% to Pythium catenulatum (KP862946). Two of the eleven isolates were not assessed due to sequencing error. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that six of the isolates are of clade B1 and three of the isolates are of clade B2 in the Pythium phylogeny. The results partially suggest that plant pathogenic oomycetes are more common in summer than animal or fish pathogenic isolates in the sampled farm however; intensive sampling with a broad range of freshwater ecosystems during summer can give a clearer view on oomycete diversity in Bangladesh.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:21:35 GMT
       
  • Gross and histomorphological effects of formaldehyde on brain and lungs of
           Swiss albino mice

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Marya Afrin, Tanjina Amin, Md. Rabiul Karim and M. Rafiqul Islam.
      Formaldehyde (FA) is toxic over a range of doses and of particular concern to anatomists and medical students on laboratory use. FA induces several characteristics of neurotoxicity in addition to systemic effects. Therefore, to know the toxic effects of FA on brain and lungs, mice were collected from international center for diarrheal disease research. They were divided into four groups i.e. control, inhalation, oral and intraperitoneal. The inhalation, oral and intraperitoneal exposure groups further divided into three subgroups which were subjected to exposure of FA daily for 30 days in case of inhalation and oral groups and 10 days in intraperitoneal group for acute toxic effects. Morphological study showed gross abnormalities i.e. congestion on lungs. But no gross abnormal features observed on brain. In 5 ppm treated inhaled group, lungs tissue revealed hemorrhages. In the inhaled groups, brain tissue showed degenerating neurons with either pyknotic or karyorrhectic nuclei are gradually increased in highest concentration group. These data supports the view that FA has adverse effects on the morphology of brain and lungs.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:16:09 GMT
       
  • Growth response of Aspergillus flavus IMS1103 isolated from poultry feed

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Monzur Morshed Ahmed, Md. Fakruddin, Md. Nur Hossain, Khandaker Rayhan Mahbub and Abhijit Chowdhury.
      Aspergillus flavus strains were isolated from locally available poultry feeds. Effect of temperature, pH and culture media on growth of Aspergillus flavus was studied. Temperature ranged from 4-42°C (4, 10, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42°C) was examined. Except for 4°C and 10°C, the isolate was able to grow for the whole temperature range. The growth was maximum at 25°C and was influenced with increasing or decreasing of temperature from 42°C to 20°C.The lag time was strongly influenced by the temperature at lower temperature level than at higher temperature range. Effect of pH on growth of Aspergillus flavus was also examined; from comparison of 3 different pH levels, it is concluded that at most temperatures pH 6.5 showed a higher growth rate and as a consequence required a shorter time to achieve maximum colony diameter. No significant variations in the lag time were observed. A natural poultry feed meal agar medium (FMAM) was developed in the laboratory and growth of A. flavus was compared with other 2 synthetic dehydrated media namely; Czapek’sdox Agar (CDA) and potato dextrose Agar (PDA). Poultry feed meal agar medium showed better growth response than Czapek’sdox agar and potato dextrose agar at all conditions. At 25°C and pH 6.5 found optimum for growth of Aspergillus flavus in feed meal agar medium whereas, temperature 30°C and pH 6.5 found optimum for growth for Czapek’sdox agar media and temperature 30°C and pH 6 showed high growth rate on potato dextrose agar. Poultry feed meal media showed high affinity for growth of mycelium and early spore formation than other media examined.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:12:44 GMT
       
  • Present status, problem and prospect of duck farming in rural areas of
           Mymensingh district, Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Asadul Islam, Md. Abdur Rahman Howlider, Md. Ashadul Alam, Md Abu Heyamet and Manika Debnath.
      The study was conducted to know the present status, existing production system of duck and assess the potentiality of duck rearing in rural areas of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Data were collected randomly from 50 duck rearing farmers using a pre-tested interview schedule during March to May 2010 from several villages under sadar upazilla of Mymensingh. The results reveal that most of the farmers (60%) were middle aged. About 32% farmers were illiterate. Most of the farmers (52%) reared deshi duck and duck population per household was 11.1. About 80% wife of farmer’s household were responsible for duck rearing. All farmers reared duck in semi scavenging system. About 36% farmers used wood and tin for construction of duck house and 94% farmers used bedding materials for their duck house. All farmers used rice in the diet for duck and 62% farmers accumulated rice and rice polish to make diet for their ducks. About 40% farmers provided on an average of 121.91g supplemental diet to each duck/day and cost of the diet was Tk. 0.85/duck/day. Most of the farmers (72%) provided diet to their ducks twice a day. The age and weight of duck at maturity were 183.6 days and 1.69 kg, respectively. Egg production/duck/year and weight of each egg were 117.5 no’s and 63.8g, respectively. All farmers incubated duck egg under broody hen and they got 85.83% hatchability on set eggs. Most of the farmers (52%) mentioned that most prevalent disease of duck was cholera and their duck mortality was 15.2%. About 52% farmers controlled their duck disease with medication and only 14% farmers used vaccine to prevent duck disease. About 22% and 13.5% people did not consume duck meat and egg, respectively because of odour, asthama and allergy. Most of the farmers (50%) incubating duck eggs for ducklings. About 66% farmers purchased duckling by Tk. 24-25 and 58% farmers sell adult duck by Tk. 175-190. Most of the farmers (81.25%) stated that the duck farming is decreasing day by day. About farmers (51%) stated that reason of decreasing duck farming was lack of scavenging area. It was concluded that duck rearing knowledge of the farmers such as breeding, feeding, housing, prevention and control of diseases are not satisfactory of this areas. Introducing of improved duck breeds/varieties, training to duck farmers, ensuring vaccination to ducks, financial and technical support to the farmers could increase the duck rearing with increased household income and employment to youth, rural women and the small-holder marginal farmers.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 02:55:29 GMT
       
  • Factor shares analysis of livestock products in selected areas of
           Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Mamun Or Rashid, M. Kamruzzaman and Md. Kaosar Niaz Bin Sufian.
      A study was undertaken to assess the contribution of different inputs such as feed, labor veterinary services and depreciation cost etc. to the development of livestock sector including poultry in the study area. The factor shares of livestock products was estimated based on the primary data for the periods of April to July, 2012.The factor shares of livestock production suggested that current factors (Feed, hired labor, veterinary services and other inputs) and family labor was the major component in the livestock production. Traditional milk producing farmers in Gazipur were not benefited from their farming due to residual share was negative (11.15%). For commercial milk production, on an average the largest share current factors (60.54 percent) followed by residual (28.1 percent), family labor (6.63 percent), depreciation (4.74 percent), respectively and residual share was positive. Production of beef cattle on an average the largest share current factors (74.26 percent) followed by family labor (21.73 percent), depreciation (46.425 percent), respectively and residual share was negative (-2.41 percent). Production of egg by traditional management was found profitable enterprise in small and large categories of farms. As a result, residual share was positive (1.54 percent and 12.01 percent) for small and large farms. In case of commercial poultry production on an average the largest share current inputs (74.29 percent), residual ((19.64 percent), followed by family labor (5.64 percent) and depreciation (0.44 percent) respectively. In addition, on an average broiler production the largest share current inputs (84.18 percent), residual (12.53 percent), followed by family labor (2.68 percent) and depreciation (0.62 percent) respectively.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 02:52:38 GMT
       
  • Effect of heat stress on milk production and its composition of Holstein
           Friesian crossbred dairy cows

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Mahmud Al Reyad, Md. Abid Hasan Sarker, Md. Elias Uddin, Raihan Habib and Md. Harun-ur-Rashid.
      The aim of this research was to observe the effect of heat stress on milk yield and milk compositions of Holstein Friesian crossbred (HF) dairy cows. To fulfill the objectives, a total of 9 Holstein Friesian crossbred cows were selected for this study. Green grasses (German, Para) were supplied adlibitum and concentrate feeds (mixture of wheat bran, rice polish, mustard oil cake, di-calcium phosphate and salt) were supplied at the rate of 2.0 kg/day/cow. Management practices for all the cows were similar following the BAU Dairy farm practices. Data were collected on milk yield (l/h/d), relative humidity (%) and barn temperature (0C). The obtained temperature humidity index (THI) of July, August, September and October were 84.95, 81.99, 81.40 and 79.57, respectively. The highest THI was found in July which indicated higher heat stress during this month. A significant difference (p

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 02:46:55 GMT
       
  • Effect of lead acetate alone and in combination with whole milk (Star
           ship®) on body growth and liver functions in an experimentally induced
           lead toxicity in rat

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Mohammad Usman Gani, Md. Saiful Islam Siddiqui, Md. Harun-or-Rashid, Kamrul Islam, Sharifunnessa Moonmoon, Shaifuddin Ahmed and Mahbub Mostofa.
      The Effect of lead acetate alone and in combination with whole milk on body weight gain and some biochemical parameters were carried out on a total of 15 (15 days old) male weaning Long- Evans strain rats. The rats were randomly divided into three equal groups, each consisting of five rats. Rats of group A were kept as control (without giving any treatment), group B received lead acetate alone @ 6mg/ml drinking water and group C received lead acetate @ 6mg/ml plus whole milk (Star ship®) 150 mg/ml drinking water. The result showed that body weight gain of control group per week per rat was found to increase but in treated group B, the body weight gain was found to decrease most significantly (P< 0.01) on day 56 while in group C, body weight was reduced significantly (P< 0.05) on day 56. The reducing body weight gain was less in group C than group B. A most significantly (P< 0.01) increased SGOT and SGPT values were observed in Group B but in group C, those count increased significantly (P< 0.05) on day 56 of experiment. From the study it was concluded that treatment with lead acetate at low doses has adverse effects on body growth and liver functions in experimental animals.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 02:41:49 GMT
       
  • Molecular detection of cattle and buffalo species meat origin using
           mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Sirazum Munira, Fatema Tuz Jahura, Md. Munir Hossain and Mohammad Shamsul Alam Bhuiyan.
      The study was conducted to adopt PCR based technique for identification of species origin from meat samples of cattle and buffalo using mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene fragment. A total of 42 ear tissue and meat samples were collected from different slaughterhouses and farms of Mymensingh, Bogra and Rangpur districts and stored in 96% ethanol at room temperature. Genomic DNA was extracted from all samples using GeNet Bio genomic DNA isolation kit. The average DNA yield of considered samples was found 204.57 ng/µl where the purity ranged from 1.82–1.99. Two (2) pair species-specific primers were used to amplify Cyt b gene fragments of 472 bp and 124 bp for cattle and buffalo, respectively. The PCR results revealed different species specific amplified fragments which could discriminate between cattle (472 bp) and buffalo (124 bp) species precisely from pure and mixed samples of those species. This study suggests an accurate molecular technique for identification of cattle and buffalo species meat origin and differentiates species present in adulterated meat samples. In conclusion, this DNA based technique could be utilized for prevention of malpractice in slaughterhouse and chain shops and thereby to protect consumer’s right.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 02:38:47 GMT
       
  • Prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination in shrimp
           (Penaeus monodon) farms, depots and processing plants in different areas
           of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Faridullah, Vikash Chandra Roy and Ulfat Jahan Lithi.
      A study was conducted to determine the level of contamination by indicator organisms (Salmonella and Escherichia coli) in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) farms, depots and processing plants of Cox’s Bazar, Khulna, Bagerhat and Satkhira districts of Bangladesh using conventional technique of bacterial isolation and identification. The results of this study revealed that prevalence of Salmonella positive samples was 43.7%, 62.5%, 20% and 0.0% for water, pond scum, shrimp and basket samples, respectively at farm level. Meanwhile, the prevalence of E. coli positive samples was 62.5%, 43.7%, 60% and 60% for water, pond scum, shrimp and basket samples, respectively at farm level. In case of depots, shrimp, basket and mat samples were analyzed and found 20%, 56.3% and 23% positive for Salmonella and 53.3%, 37.5% and 92.3% positive for E. coli. Bacteriological assessment of the shrimp samples obtained from four seafood processing plants revealed that all the samples were found contaminated with Salmonella and E. coli except the samples of one industry. Investigation finally showed that with few exceptions all the samples from farms, depots and processing plants have different levels of contamination by Salmonella and E. coli, which is very much alarming for shrimp industry of Bangladesh.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 02:36:20 GMT
       
  • Changes in hepatosomatic index and histoarchitecture of liver in common
           carp exposed to organophosphate insecticide sumithion

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Sabrina Hossain, Md. Idris Miah, Md. Sadiqul Islam and Md. Shahjahan.
      Sumithion is widely used in larval rearing aquaculture ponds to control aquatic insects. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of sumithion on hepatosomatic index and liver morphology in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Acute toxicity of sumithion (96 h LC50 value) was first determined and it was 8.05 ppm for common carp. The fish were exposed to two sub-lethal concentrations (0.85 and 1.7ppm) of sumithion for a period of 21 days. A control set was also run for the same time with the same number of fish without sumithion (0 ppm). There was a marked increase in the hepatosomatic index in both concentrations (0.85 and 1.70 ppm) compared to control (0 ppm). Several histological changes of liver, such as necrosis, patchy degeneration, degenerated hepatocytes, vaculation and blood spilling were observed after exposure to sumithion with dose and exposure time dependent manner. The present investigation revealed the toxic potentiality of sumithion on common carp which alters liver morphology that may lead metabolic changes in fish.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 02:26:34 GMT
       
  • Therapeutic use of Adhatoda vasica

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Tofazzal Hossain and Md. Obydul Hoq.
      Adhatoda vasica Nees belonging to family Acanthaceae, commonly known as Adosa, is found many regions of India and throughout the world, with a multitude of uses in traditional Unani and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. It is also called “Vasaka”. It is a well-known herb in indigenous systems of medicine for its beneficial effects, particularly in bronchitis. Vasaka leaves, bark, the root bark, the fruit and flowers are useful in the removal of intestinal parasites. Vasaka herb is used for treating cold, cough, chronic bronchitis and asthma. In acute stages of bronchitis, vasaka gives unfailing relief, especially where the sputum is thick and sticky. It liquefies the sputum so that it is brought up more easily. For relief in asthma, the dried leaves should be smoked. The juice from its leaves should be given in doses of 2 to 4 grams in treating diarrhea and dysentery. A poultice of its leaves can be applied with beneficial results over fresh wounds, rheumatic joints and inflammatory swellings. A warm decoction of its leaves is useful in treating scabies and other skin diseases. In olden times its leaves were made into a decoction with pepper and dried ginger. But the modern medicine searched its active ingredients and found out that vasicine, oxyvascicine and vasicinone are the alkaloids present in vasaka and in which vasicine is the active ingradient for expelling sputum from the body.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 02:23:03 GMT
       
  • Therapeutic use of Withania somnifera

    • Abstract: 2016-08-10T04-18-05Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Md. Khorshed Alam, Md. Obydul Hoq and Md. Shahab Uddin.
      Withania somnifera (L) Dunal is commonly called as Ashwagandha/Asgand and it belongs to the family Solanaceae. It is a well known medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of many clinical conditions in Indian subcontinent. It is an important medicinal plant commonly known as Asgand which has been used either single or in combination with other drugs in Unani as well as Ayurvedic system of medicine for centuries. It has been described by Dioscorides (78 AD) in his book “Kitab-ul-Hashaish”. Asgand consists of the roots of Withania somnifera which has various therapeutic actions such as anti – inflammatory (Muhallil-e-Warm), sedative (Musakkin), aphrodisiac (Muqawwi-e-Bah), hepatoprotective, immune-modulator activity, antioxidant, anti-ageing, anti-tumour activity, adaptogenic activity and has anti-anticonvulsant activity. Keeping in view the medicinal properties of Withania somnifera Dunal (Asgand), an attempt has been made in this paper to explore various dimensions of the drug including phytochemical and pharmacological studies carried out on this herb.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Aug 2016 02:20:41 GMT
       
  • Prevalence of canine parvovirus and canine influenza virus infection in
           dogs in Dhaka, Mymensingh, Feni and Chittagong districts of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-07-25T23-15-29Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      Soumitra Sen, Md. Siddiqur Rahman, Minakshi Nag, Mohummad Muklesur Rahman, Roma Rani Sarker and S. M. Lutful Kabir.
      Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine influenza virus (CIV) are highly contagious virus infecting members of the canine family including dogs, coyotes, foxes and wolves. The research work was carried out to determine the prevalence of CPV and CIV in dogs (stray and pet dogs) in Dhaka, Mymensingh, Feni and Chittagong districts by using RapiGen CPV and CIV Ag test kit. Fecal samples were collected from 50 dogs of different age and sex from different spots of Dhaka and Chittagong districts. Nasal fluid samples were collected from 50 dogs of different age and sex from different spots. The samples were tested with RapiGen canine parvovirus Ag test kit and RapiGen canine influenza Ag test kit. Overall prevalence of CPV in pet dogs was 22% and in stray dogs was 30%. The prevalence of canine parvovirus in relation to age was gradually decreasing with higher age group and the prevalence was 28% in 1-6 months age, 16.66% in 7-12 months age group 11.11% over 18 months age group. The prevalence of canine parvovirus was significantly higher in male (24.13%) than that in female (19.04%). All samples showed negative test result for canine influenza virus. Prevalence of canine influenza virus infection were 00.00% in all age groups and sex. Overall prevalence of CIV in all pet and stray dogs were 00.00%.

      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2016 04:59:32 GMT
       
  • Management of seed borne fungal pathogens of okra collected from seed
           companies

    • Abstract: 2016-07-25T23-15-29Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      G. M. Kibria Hossain, S.M. Ahsan and Tanjila Ahmed.
      Effect of mehogoni, mehedi and allamanda extracts were tested to control seed borne fungi of okra seeds collected from 6 companies of notunbazar in Mymensingh district. Prevalence of seed borne fungi was studied by blotter method in the Seed Pathology Center (SPC) and MS Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. The highest germination percentage was recorded from ACI seeds (88%), while lowest (70%) in BADC seeds. Six predominant fungal genera were identified. These species were Fusarium oxysporum (5.08%), Aspergillus flavus (4.50%), Aspergillus niger (6.50%), Colletotrichum dematium (4.67%), Rhizopus stolonifer (3.33%) and Penicillium spp. (3.00%). Germination percentage and fungal association varied from company to company. The germination was ranged from 70-95% and infections were recorded 0.80-6.1% in all the treated seeds. Mehogoni extracts at the rate of 1:1 showed best performance in increasing seed germination (96.00%) next to allamanda (70%). Vigour index of okra seeds were increased 19.14% over untreated seeds by the treatment of mehogoni seed extracts at the rate of 1:1. Mehogoniseed extract at the rate of 1:1 seemed to be adoptable at the farmer‟s level as an organic management practice.

      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2016 04:55:50 GMT
       
  • Assessment of nutritional composition and heavy metal content in some
           edible mushroom varieties collected from different areas of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: 2016-07-19T23-35-06Z
      Source: Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
      K.M. Mohiuddin, Md. Mehediul Alam, Md. Taufique Arefin and Istiaq Ahmed.
      Four edible mushroom species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Volvariella volvacea, Ganoderma lucidum) from different locations of Bangladesh, were analysed for their protein and metal content profile (K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Pb, As and Cd). Trace metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Na and K by flame emission spectrophotometer and protein by micro Kjeldhal method. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The protein content of mushrooms varied from 13.8%–34.3% and the metal content of samples ranged from 0.54–2.25% for K and 12.6–81.6, 69.5–626.2, 39.2–163.4, 30.1–75.5, 52.9–104.5, 0.20–0.30, 0.13–0.59 μg g-1 for Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, respectively.Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were below the detection limit of the method used. The detection limits of the method for As and Cd are 0.01 μg g-1 for each element. In general, K and Fe content were higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of Cu and Zn in some mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits.

      PubDate: Sun, 17 Jul 2016 07:17:45 GMT
       
 
 
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