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Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International    [9 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2228-897X - ISSN (Online) 2228-897X
     Published by ScopeMed Homepage  [75 journals]
  • Internet addiction among children in slum, Surin province, Thailand
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Pailin Umpai, Wasana Kaewla, Viroj Wiwanitkit.
      Internet becomes a common available communication tool that helps bridge the people from remote area together. There is a worldwide distribution of internet at present. It becomes a new concern in public health among the side effect of using internet. The internet addiction becomes a new challenge in the present day. Here, the authors briefly report on a preliminary survey on internet addition among children in slum, Surin province, Thailand. Conclusively, the problem is existed and it is the hot issue in public health for management of this problem.

      PubDate: Mon, 17 Feb 2014 04:59:32 GMT
       
  • Brain pathology in H7N9 bird flu: the present evidence.
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Beuy Joob.
      This is a letter to editor discussing on the brain pathology in H7N9 bird flu.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Dec 2013 13:40:11 GMT
       
  • Dengue, clozapine and schizophrenia
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Wollard Sovy Marchy.
      This is a letter to editor discussing on the interrelationship between dengue, clozapine and schizophrenia. The use of clozapine in dengue patient is hereby discussed.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Dec 2013 13:29:26 GMT
       
  • Influenza in solid organ transplant recipients: risk, complications and
           vaccination.
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Wu Jain Fu.
      Transplantation is a definitive treatment for many end-stage diseases. An important concern on the transplant recipients is on the infection. Due to the immunosuppressive drug requirement, the severe clinical manifestation among the transplant recipients can be expected. Due to the recent pandemic influenza in the recent years, the topic of influenza infection among the transplant recipient should be discussed. Here, the author briefly summarized on risk, complications and vaccination for influenza among solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR).

      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 23:22:36 GMT
       
  • H1N1 influenza pandemic, lesson really learnt
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Beuy Joob.
      This is a letter to editor discussing on the "lesson learnt" from the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic.

      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2013 01:32:59 GMT
       
  • Sinogenic orbital infections in a Nigerian teaching hospital
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Taiwo Olugbemiga Adedeji, Adedayo Olugbenga Olaosun, James E Tobih, Olubusayo Olubukola Adejumo.
      Orbital complications of sinusitis are medical and surgical emergencies that threaten both the vision and life of the affected. This study reviews orbital infections with particular attention to its sinogenic origin, stages at presentation, treatment modalities and outcome. A retrospective review of all patients that were admitted and managed for orbital infections between July 2003 and June 2013. There were total of 25 patients with male to female ratio 1.8: 1 and age group 11 – 20 years was mostly affected. Eighty percent were due to rhinosinusitis and majority (65%) of the patients with sinogenic orbital infections had stage II disease. In the sinogenic orbital infections, affectation of more than 2 sinuses (multi-sinusitis) was found in 36% of patients. Forty eight percent of the patients were treated conservatively while 52 % had surgery. Twenty eight percent of the patients developed other associated complications. Orbital complications from sinusitis still remain a challenging problem especially in the developing world. Despite improvement in diagnostic accuracy with clinical and radiological facilities, grave sequale still occur due largely to ignorance, poverty and mismanagement by quacks. Health education and awareness programmes aimed at understanding the magnitude of the problem, high index of suspicion on the part of the managing physician and urgent and appropriate measures should be instituted on time. Keyword: Orbital infections, Rhinosinusitis, Blindness, Intracranial abscess

      PubDate: Fri, 25 Oct 2013 07:22:26 GMT
       
  • The Dengue Epidemic of 2010 in Trinidad, lessons learned
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Kameel Mungrue, Vishala Tewari, Varun Bridgelal, Lian Sampath, Venessa Harrynarine.
      In 2010, the incidence of dengue fever (DF) in Trinidad reached epidemic levels. DF is endemic in the Caribbean with cycles of epidemics occurring every 3-5 years. This epidemic for the first time offers the opportunity to describe more accuratly the clinical features and outcomes, as the majority of patients were seen at designated areas. The aim of ths is study is to describe the clincal pattern and outcomes of this epidemic All patients presenting to Accident & Emergency Departments (AED) of the major public hospitals on the island as well as specially commissioned clinics were the sources used to find cases. Data from private hospitals was logistically difficult to gather. The WHO definition of a suspected dengue case was used in this study. Data collected include: demographic data, symptomology, location, platelet count, and haematocrit. Univariate analyses were conducted and means and proportions were reported with appropriate dispersion measures. We identified 4099 suspected dengue cases which represented 86% of cases collected by the Ministry of Health. The majority of cases (3473, 84.7%) were managed in a primary care setting while 626 patients were admitted for inpatient hospital care resulting in a hospital admission rate of 15.3%. The epidemic of 2010 had a bimodal distribution by age when divided into four age categories with children 0-5 years (849, 20.7%) and adults 20 years and older (2287, 55.7%), the age group 0-5 years had the highest proportion among all other age groups emphasizing that in this epidemic children were at greater risk than adults. This is the second largest epidemic of DF to occur over the past 16 years with children0-5 years being the predominant group affected.

      PubDate: Wed, 09 Oct 2013 17:26:27 GMT
       
  • Blood BUN and creatinine level in the cases with novel H7N9 influenza
           infection
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Saksena Nerama.
      N/A

      PubDate: Sat, 17 Aug 2013 22:53:49 GMT
       
  • Acute renal failure in E.coli O104:H4: a review
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Setthi Sutthi.
      The present outbreak of E.coli in Europe is the important global medical problem. The causative agent is E.coli O104:H4 which is considered pathogenic. The induction of renal impairment is observed. In this brief state-of-art review, the author summarizes the available evidences for acute renal failure in E.coli O104: H4 infection.

      PubDate: Wed, 14 Aug 2013 06:20:28 GMT
       
  • Screening for malaria and hepatitis C in blood donor in India: an issue on
           cost effectiveness
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Sirinath Nimmus, Amaritha Prakashita.
      Screening for infectious pathogen in donated blood is an important issue in transfusion medicine. In tropical world, the important concern is on the tropical blood infections. Due to the limitation on resource in developing countries, it is usually questionable on the cost effectiveness of screening for tropical infections. In this short article, the authors discuss on cost effectiveness of Screening for malaria and hepatitis C in blood donor in India.

      PubDate: Sun, 07 Jul 2013 07:27:48 GMT
       
  • Vaccination for malaria: a brief review
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Nicholas Nimmus, Prakashita Amaritha.
      Mosquito borne infectious disease is an important group of disease worldwide. Vaccination is available for some tropical mosquito-borne diseases, especially for Japanese encephalitis virus infection and yellow fever. However, there is no available vaccine for malaria at present. In this article, the authors briefly review the issues on vaccination for malaria.

      PubDate: Mon, 27 May 2013 21:27:56 GMT
       
  • H7N9 influenza and diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Beuy Joob.
      In this specific letter, the author discuss on the present global concern on new atypical influenza, H7N9 influenza. The interrelationship between H7N9 influenza infection and diabetes mellitus is specifically focused in this letter.

      PubDate: Tue, 14 May 2013 04:18:55 GMT
       
  • Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
           among students in Faculty of Medical Sciences, Duhok University
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Najim Abdulla yassin, Ayman Othman Hassan.
      Since, medical students take the applied medical education in the hospital units they can become colonized with various pathogen microorganisms and can propagate these bacteria to other health personnel and patients. This study aimed to research MRSA/MSSA carriage in the nose and evaluation of their antibiotic susceptibility tests among students of various schools in faculty of medical sciences, Duhok University, Iraq. For this purpose, a total of 284 students from nursing, medical, dentistry and pharmacy school taking medical education were included in the research. The nose swab samples taken from students were examined through microbiological methods. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the disk diffusion technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines on Muller Hinton Agar. The prevalence of S aureus was 26(9.2%) over total number of nasal swabs examined, of them 13(50%) were methicillin-resistant S aureus MRSA, where, high prevalence were recorded among nursing 8(72.7%) followed by medical students 3 (37.5%). MRSA expressed high frequency of resistance to ampicillin, cefixime and amoxicillin and high percentage of resistance collectively to all antibiotics used were recorded particularly among students of nursing school. Generally, methicillin-sensitive S aureus MSSA exhibited low percentage of resistance collectively to all antibiotics used particularly among students of medical school. A total of 3 distinct resistotype patterns were obtained with isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; predominant resistotype was 3. This study highlighted that students submitted in faculty of medical sciences might have been contaminated with MSSA/MRSA during clinical practice. That MSSA/MRSA being an important pathogen is seen in students taking a medical education.

      PubDate: Mon, 13 May 2013 07:33:37 GMT
       
  • Potential Social, economic, and health impacts of dengue on Florida.
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      O&#;Shea J, Niekus MR.
      The analysis conducted represents an attempt to understand the social, economic and health impacts of dengue in Florida. Dengue is a rising (yet not widely recognized) threat that may have great social and economic effects. Although there is historical evidence on the potential scope of the impact of dengue, the absence of recent epidemics may have lead to complacency. In addition, public health budgets have been cut or at best been reduced and relevant research is hampered, with field surveillance and vector control feeling the strain between the rising number of cases and the limited resources. Given a lack of data, a proxy dataset for the United States (based on data from the World Health Organization (WHO) DengueNet using a regression plane) was used to estimate potential dengue events in the United States. Using a population breakdown in accordance with the January 10.C/50.F isotherm (given the year-round survival of Adeas Aegypti, the principal mosquito vector of dengue viruses), the number of Florida cases was estimated. Using a measure of Gross Domestic Production (GDP), the direct medical and non-medical cost, indirect cost, and induced cost were estimated (in terms of production foregone due to a loss of employed labor years) for both the U.S. and Florida. The research findings come to an average of 77.3 employed labor years lost for the U.S. with 22.6 employed labor years in Florida for a total average of $12.7 million and $2.75 million, respectively. However, given the skewness of the probability for potential dengue outbreaks, it is even more important to examine the risk of larger and thus more costly impacts of dengue. It is estimated that the cost for the U.S. could run from $55.6 million to well over $78.6 million, whereas the cost for Florida could run from $12 million to $17⅔ million (ranges per the 95% and 97.5% one-sided confidence intervals). Not researched (and thus not included in the total costs mentioned) are the present production and allocation of resources for research, surveillance and vector control for dengue. Also not included are production losses in the case of potential deaths due to dengue. Recommended are diligence in prevention, better public risk awareness, the education of health care workers and training of physicians, nurses and laboratory staff in the management of dengue patients and the treatment of emerging infectious diseases, including emergency response.

      PubDate: Sun, 21 Apr 2013 05:07:30 GMT
       
  • Antibiograming Profiles of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Various
           Clinical Specimens in Duhok City, Iraq
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Najim Abdulla yassin, Alaa Muyassar Ahmad, Halima Hassan Mohammed.
      Summary The emergence of multidrug resistance in Gram-positive bacteria is a particularly important development. Perhaps the pathogen of greatest concern is Staphylococcus aureus, because of its intrinsic virulence. The objective of this study was undertaken to find out the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various clinical specimens and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility patterns among outpatients visited Central Health Laboratory in Duhok city, Iraq. For this purpose, a total of 786 various clinical specimens were collected involved urine, pus, high vaginal swab, wound swab, middle ear swab, throat swab, fluids, blood and stool. The samples were analyzed by screened on Blood, Mannitol salt, MacConkey and Nutrient agar followed by the identification of the isolates based on their cultural characteristics and their reactions in standard biochemical tests. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the disk diffusion technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines on Muller Hinton Agar. 203 (25.8%) specimen yielded positive culture of Staphylococcus aureus. The highest occurrence was recorded in urine155 (76.4%), followed by 19(9.4%) in pus, 16 (7.8%) in high vaginal swab, 10 (4.9%) in wound swab, 2 (1%) in middle ear swab and 1(0.5%) in throat swab. On other hand, no positive culture was recorded among blood cultures, stool and fluids specimens (semen, ascetic and cerebrospinal fluid). The overall susceptibility test results were variable; amikacin, gentamicin and doxycycline exhibited high susceptibility rates among over specimens, in addition to nitrofurantoin in urine isolates alone. The lowest susceptibility rates occurred with amoxicillin, amoxiclav, erythromycin, cefotaxime, cefixime, co-trimaxozole and cefuroxime in current study. This study highlighted the occurrence and importance of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains among different clinical specimens in study area.

      PubDate: Thu, 07 Mar 2013 00:54:27 GMT
       
  • A survey of potential risk factors associated with cystic echinococcosis
           in pastoral communities in Kasese distract, Uganda
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Nyakarahuka Luke, Ejobi Francis, Lalobo O Micheal, Kankya Clovice, Siefert Ludwig, Ocaido Micheal.
      This study was conducted in Kasese district in Uganda. This district borders Queen Elizabeth National Park and is inhabited by Basongora and Bakonzo pastoral communities. Our objective was to identify factors associated with Cystic Echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic neglected zoonotic disease. It is transmitted to man via eggs of a tapeworm found in dogs’ feces whereas livestock act as intermediate hosts. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred and eighty four (384) respondents selected by systematic sampling using a sampling frame provided by the local government authorities. A structured questionnaire was developed, pre-tested and administered to the study respondents. In addition, key informants were identified and interviewed, and focused group discussions (FGD) were held. Quantitative data were entered in Epi Info® statistical software and exported to STATA® Version 11.2 for statistical analysis. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis were performed. Content analysis was performed on qualitative data. Factors identified as potential risk factors for CE included dog ownership with 64.0%(244/384), presence of stray dogs with 99.2%(381/384), absence of dog de-worming with 91.7%(352/384), home slaughtering of animals with 82.8%(318/384), no hand washing with 89.3%(332/384), not boiling drinking water with 78.9%(302/384) and feeding uncooked infected organs to dogs with 54.4%(209/384). All these listed factors were statistically significant using odds ratios with a p-value < 0.001.We conclude that predisposing factors are many in pastoral communities studied. There is need to educate these communities on transmission, prevention, and control of this disease

      PubDate: Wed, 06 Mar 2013 03:13:20 GMT
       
  • Sexual risky behaviors and condom use among students in Kenyan
           Universities.
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Magu D, Wanzala P, Mutugi M, Ndahi L, Gathara D.
      The youth accounted for approximately 50% of new HIV infections across the globe (UNAIDS, 2008). Lack of condom use is associated with the HIV/STI risks. SSA have majority of the youth with multiple partners during the previous 12 months though in 2000, condom use has increased by 10% (UNICEF, 2010). A cross sectional study was conducted during the month of August 2011 to February 2012. During data analysis, Chi square and multivariate analysis were used. There was no significant association between gender and first sexual intercourse at the Universities P= 0.275. There was significant relationship between gender and condom use at the Universities P

      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2013 01:26:51 GMT
       
  • Rabies vaccination in special scenarios: a review
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Starry Joob.
      Rabies is a viral encephalitis with high fatality. Post exposure vaccination is the standard practice for rabies exposure. In this article, the author will review the rabies vaccination in special scenarios. The situation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected cases, pregnant cases and infantile cases will be focused and reviewed.

      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jan 2013 20:18:59 GMT
       
  • A summary on the Anti HIV serology status among the male patients from the
           record in a rural hospital in hilltribal community in the Golden Triangle.
           
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Areewan Sadudeejit, Myn Myn Ong, Suriya Nhakham.
      In Southeast Asia, HIV infection is still an important public health problem. Although the prevalence of anti-HIV seropositivity in the Southeast Asian population has decreased in the recent years, the closed control for this widespread infection is still necessary. Here, a small-scale seroepidemiological report of screening test for Anti HIV in a rural hilltribal district in the Golden Triangle area of Southeast Asia, was presented. The data from 86 males who had got AntiHIV screening test during year 2010 were reviewed in this study. Of the total 86 studied subjects, seropositive results were detected in 2 cases, giving the total infection rate equaled to 2.32 %. The peak prevalence was found in the age group 21 - 40 years old.

      PubDate: Fri, 21 Dec 2012 03:55:11 GMT
       
  • The role of social behavior in mycobacterial infection management: A case
           study of pastoral communities of Uganda.
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Kankya C, Muwonge A, Munyeme M, Skjerve E, Oloya J, Rich RM.
      In sub-Saharan African arid pastoral regions, the socio-behavioral indigenous knowledge mystical systems associated with actions and response by communities to mycobacterial infections in the pastoral ecosystems of Uganda remains largely unknown in Uganda and across the African continent. These drivers are important as they often magnify the problems linked to co-infection with HIV/AIDS. This study sought to determine the socio-behavioral, indigenous knowledge mystical systems and other factors associated with mycobacterial infections and their management among the pastoralist communities. Socio-demographic, environmental, and household-level behavioral and attitudinal variables data was collected through a cross sectional questionnaire-based study administered to a total of 301 pastoralists from Mubende and Nakasongola pastoral districts of Uganda. In addition, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Consumption of raw and half cooked animals’ products, drinking untreated water, and smoking as well as sharing of cigarette sticks and drinking straws, coughing and spitting, and excessive alcoholism were the socio-behaviors perceived to expose the pastoralist communities to mycobacterial infections. Stigmatization was related to chronic illness and faith-based perceptions facilitated mycobacterial infection transmission. Involvement in the risky production actions and social livelihood ventures such as charcoal production are perceived as being responsible for mycobacterial infection transmission. High degree of stigmatization, discrimination (S&D) and abandonment of the patients suffering from mycobacterial infections among the pastoralist communities have been revealed. Socio-consumption behaviors were perceived the main routes for acquisition of mycobacterial infections. Pastoralist communities perceived that livestock act as sources of mycobacterial infections and therefore pose a health threat to the humans living at the human-animal interface.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Nov 2012 16:41:00 GMT
       
  • Biomonitoring of exposure to traffic benzene vapor: analysis of sister
           chromatid exchange and urine biomarker, trans, trans - muconic acid of
           traffic policemen
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Sorontones SR, Muttamori BM, Spergangio AK.
      Benzene exposure is of particular concern because recent research indicating that benzene exposure can result in chronic toxicity including matagenesis and carcinogenesis. This study was set aiming at determination for sister chromatid exchange (SCE), a marker for genotoxicity, and its correlation to the novel urine biomarker for benzene exposure urine trans,trans - muconic acid (tt-MA) among a sample of traffic police. A total of 89 police (all males) were included into this study. The reported average (mean +/- SD) urine tt-MA level in these police was 0.79 +/- 1.43 mg/gCr. The average (mean +/- SD) SCE in these police was 4.21 +/- 0.86 (/cell). Concerning the regression analysis, the least square equation plot SCE (Y) versus urine ttMA (X) is 0.37 X + 0.28 (r = 0.94, p = 0.14). The correlation study between urine ttMA and SCE in this study can show a significant correlation. It can say that high exposure, determined from high urine ttMA, can imply the high chromosome aberration or mutagen. Of interest, the monitoring for benzene exposure among the at-risk workers is recommended. In cases with high urine ttMA from screening, the special consideration on the risk for cancer should be set.

      PubDate: Wed, 07 Nov 2012 16:20:49 GMT
       
  • Predicted epitopes of filarial heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) by
           bioinformatics method: a clue for further vaccine development
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Soressto NR, Guillemo TM, Ronaldo EK.
      Filariasis is an important tropical infection. Development and approval of new vaccines are the hope for infectious control of the possible emerging pandemic of this pathogen. Filarial heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) may have value as a protective immunogen in novel vaccines. Here, the author reports the preliminary data from the computation analysis of HSP70 to find potential T-cell epitopes using a new bioinformatics tool. According to this work, the possible alternatives are reported. Among all alleles, the results from DRB0101, A0203 and A0201 show significant lower IC50 than other alleles. According to this work, 605 PIITKLYQS613 corresponding to DRB0101 allele is the peptide with the best binding affinity. These data are useful for further vaccine development because these promiscuous peptide binders allows to minimize the total number of predicted epitopes without compromising the population coverage required in the design of vaccines.

      PubDate: Wed, 07 Nov 2012 16:18:55 GMT
       
  • Sexual behavior, awareness of HIV/AIDS, and attitudes of unmarried
           tertiary school students to HIV Counseling & Testing: implications for
           control of HIV transmission
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Obiako OR, Muktar HM, Mamman AI, Sheikh TL, Tabi-Ajayi E, Obiako CO.
      HIV/AIDS is found commonly among sexually active young adults, many of whom may be undergraduates. This group may serve as the gateway for HIV transmission to the general population because of their vulnerable lifestyle, and lack of information about the disease and its prevention. Aims/objectives are to assess knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behavior, and attitudes/ reactions to HCT. Cross sectional questionnaire-based study of 400 students in 4 higher institutions in Zaria was done. Exclusion criteria included married students, science students of biology, medical laboratory, veterinary medicine, human medicine, pharmacy and nursing. 395 students completed questionnaire (99% response rate). 51% females (ᾱ age =22.1 ±3.9 years) versus males (23.0 ±4.3 years), Muslims/ Christians (50% / 50%). Two-third, half and one-third knew meaning of HIV/AIDS, routes of HIV transmission/ prevention, and VCT respectively. 70% have had sexual intercourse, 40% had> 1 sexual partners, 56% do not use condoms always and> 90% think they have low risk for HIV. Majority supported free premarital HCT, initiated by couples, but results to be revealed to individuals alone. 60% would break relationship if partner refused to disclose HCT result, 95% would do so if partner has HIV+ result while 81% would marry themselves if both have positive HIV results. Many tertiary school students do not protect themselves against HIV, although they would shun marriage with HIV positive partner.

      PubDate: Fri, 14 Sep 2012 17:46:12 GMT
       
  • The prevalence of vaginal infection among a sample of sexual workers
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Areewittha Suradeezen, Hiran Hiransiguttha.
      This letter is to describe an interesting observation on prevalence of vaginal infection among a sample of sexual worker in a developing country. Since the infection rates of these controllable diseases are still high, the promotion of screening for all sexual workers is necessary.

      PubDate: Fri, 14 Sep 2012 09:10:26 GMT
       
  • Prevalence of traumatic ocular injuries in a teaching hospital in
           south-south Nigeria – a two year review
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Emem Godwin Abraham, Uwemedimbuk Smart Ekanem.
      Although the eyes represent only 0.1% of the total body surface and 0.27% of the anterior body surface, their significance to the individual and society is disproportionally higher. Ocular trauma is the most common reason for extended hospitalization of ophthalmic patients in industrialized nations and the commonest cause of uniocular blindness. Aim and objective is to determine the prevalence of ocular injuries amongst all presenting patients in an eye clinic. This is a retrospective study of all the patients who reported in the eye clinic between 2008 and 2009. 220 of the 5,416 patients seen within that period had one form of ocular trauma or the other. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS version 17 for Windows package. 220 of the 5,416 patients seen within the study period had ocular trauma giving a prevalence of 4.06%. Males were more affected than women and people in the productive age group (21-50) were most affected. Commonest site of injury was lid/conjunctiva. Commonest source of injury was assault. Prevalence of ocular injury is high in our environment and assault is the commonest source of injury. Conditions that encourage violence at home and work place should be looked into more closely by the authorities concerned. As part of eye health education, patient must be taught the importance of early presentation of all cases of eye injuries to the hospital.

      PubDate: Sat, 11 Aug 2012 07:28:48 GMT
       
  • Pattern of infection by six intestinal-parasite species among inmates of
           the New Bakassi Resettlement Camp in Ekpiri-Ikang, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Uttah EC, Ibeh D, Wokem GN.
      The study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of intestinal parasites among Bakassi resettlees. A faecal sample was collected from every consenting participant processed directly using the formol-ether concentration method. Six species of intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia intestinalis were observed among the New Bakassi resettlees. The prevalence of intestinal parasites were as follows ascariasis (38.9%, 37.2% for males, 40.4% for females), trichiuriasis (17.2%, 16.2% for males, 18.2% for females), hookworm (44.8%; 39.4% for males, 49.6% for females), Strongyloidiasis (4.0%; 3.2% for males, 4.7% for females), amoebiasis (10.4%; 9.9% for males, 10.8% for females), giardiasis (7.5%; 7.3% for males, 7.7% for females). Prevalence of infection by these parasites varied considerably in relation to age. In all, Single species infection constituted 59.3% of all parasitic infections while 40.7% were either double or triple species infections. The double and triple species infections decreased in prevalence with increase in age until the 30-39 years age group. The high prevalence of intestinal parasites recorded among the resettlees in this study could be attributable to the extremely poor sanitary conditions, the high population and concentration of inmates, palpable poor socioeconomic conditions, poor personal hygiene and poor disposal of human excreta. Favourable environmental factors also played important role in the high prevalence, as the New Bakassi Resettlement Camp is in the rainforest region. Infection was most prevalent among people of working age groups. The overall high prevalence in adults underscores the need for an all-encompassing control plan involving all socio-demographic groups.

      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2012 06:35:33 GMT
       
  • A note on comparative study of serum cholinesterase between the residents
           in the rural area and in the downtown
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Hans GT, Serensaris SA.
      Organophosphate pesticides are powerful inhibitors of cholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter at parasympathetic and myoneural junctions, in autonomic ganglia, and in the brain. Based on the concept of environmental medicine, the use of biological monitoring has been found to be valuable. Measurement of serum cholinesterase is a quick screening test indicated for cases of possible exposure to organophosphate compounds. However, there are only a few reports comparing between subjects in the rural and downtown communities. Here, we report our comparative study on the serum cholinesterase between samples of 75 residents in rural (n = 30) and downtown (n = 45) communities. The mean blood cholinesterase level in rural residents was 16.77 + 6.95 U/mL. The mean blood cholinesterase level in downtown residents was 24.91 + 11.67 U/mL. The mean blood cholinesterase level in the rural residents was significantly lower than that of the downtown residents (P = 0.005). The difference of average serum cholinesterase between both groups can imply the need for different follow up protocol and laboratory cut-off references.

      PubDate: Sat, 23 Jun 2012 07:45:28 GMT
       
  • The effect of the big flooding in Thailand on the reproductive medicine
           society
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Starry Joob.
      The recent big flooding in Thailand (October to November 2011) caused serious problems to the Thai social. Focusing on the reproductive medicine society in Thailand, the problems can also be seen although it is not as much as that of general medicine.

      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jun 2012 00:10:31 GMT
       
  • A story of traditional dish and intestinal parasite contamination: what we
           learn from viability study
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Joob B.
      The effect of food preparation on the viability of parasite in traditional dish is of interest. There are few studies in this area. A kind of useful study is the simulation on the traditional dish preparation and further assessment of the preparation effect on parasite viability. Here, the author shortly discuss on this story in the letter to editor.

      PubDate: Wed, 16 May 2012 05:18:03 GMT
       
  • Outcome of admissions in a university teaching hospital in Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Akande TM, Sekoni OO, Aderibigbe SA.
      There is a pressing need to develop measures of health outcome for use in medical audit and in shaping decisions on the allocation of resources. This study determines the outcome of admissions in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. This retrospective survey was conducted at the General Wing of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Available records of patients admitted over a 3 year period from January 2000 to December 2003 were used for the study. The age of patients ranged from one month to 100 years with a mean age of 34.6 ± 22.7 years. Most patients were babies less than one year (24.1%) with majority of the patients being male (59.1%). Non communicable diseases were the major causes of admissions across all age groups. Mortality was higher for admitted patients with Communicable (18.3%) than among those with non communicable diseases (16.3%) The mean duration of hospital stay was 9.97 ± 12.97 days for those discharged against medical advice, 11.91 ± 16.67 for those who died and 16.74 ± 31.72 for those discharged. The burden of non communicable diseases is generally becoming higher than that of communicable diseases. Shorter duration of hospital days is significantly associated with death. Though the rate of DAMA is low, they are significantly associated with communicable diseases. Infectious diseases account for highest mortalities. Improved public health education, raising the socio-economic status of people and improving the standards of healthcare facilities and personnel would prevent a large proportion of deaths.

      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2012 03:32:04 GMT
       
  • Recent trends in the diagnosis of classical swine fever
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      SANDIP CHAKRABORTY, SOUMEN CHOUDHURY.
      Classical swine fever is a disease of pig having significant economic impact. The disease is enzootic in several countries including India. CSFV is a difficult virus to work with and major progress only became possible with the development and availability of sophisticated virological methods. The present review deals with the several diagnostic methods to detect the presence of whole virus, viral antigen or antibodies against the virus which ultimately strengthens the prevention and control policies.

      PubDate: Thu, 22 Mar 2012 06:45:43 GMT
       
  • Is behaviour change communication an effective strategy for increasing
           immunization coverage'
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Rajesh Nair, Sapna Sachdeva Nair.
      Increase in immunisation coverage to reduce disease burden is a tangible challenge for public health programmers. This challenge is even bigger under recourse scarce conditions, especially in less industrialised countries. Effectiveness of behaviour change communication (BCC) for increasing immunisation coverage were investigated using epidemiological studies and public health intervention reports via online database ‘PubMed’ and ‘Web of Science’. The lessons learnt and future aspects of BCC in increasing immunisation coverage were analysed. World over immunisation coverage varies disproportionately between industrialised and less industrialised countries. BCC activities are used based on varied levels of expertise of health care providers and availability of resources. BCC messages and tools are designed based on the characteristics of respective community viz. literacy, knowledge, poverty, cultural and religious beliefs, myths and misconception related to immunisation etc. The review has supported use of BCC as an effective strategy for scaling up coverage of immunisation. The analysis has suggested effectiveness of BCC strategy when used in mix with other immunisation interventions.

      PubDate: Fri, 02 Mar 2012 07:22:43 GMT
       
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards cystic echinococcosis in
           Pastoral communites in Kasese District, Uganda
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Luke Nyakarahuka, Micheal Oryema-Lalobo, Clovice Kankya, Ludwig Siefert, Micheal Ocaido, Francis Ejobi.
      This study was conducted in the district of Kasese located in western Uganda. This district borders Queen Elisabeth National Park and is populated by Basongora pastoral communities. Our objective was to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pastoral communities towards Cystic Echinococcosis (CE), a neglected parasitic zoonotic disease in Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 384 respondents were selected by systematic sampling using a sampling frame provided by the local government authorities. A structured questionnaire was developed, pre-tested and administered to the study respondents. In addition, key informants were identified and interviewed and focused group discussions we held. Quantitative data were entered in Epi Info® and exported to STATA® Version 11.2 for statistical analysis. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis were performed. Content analysis was performed on qualitative data captured during key informant interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). Of the 384 respondents, only 3.9% knew about CE, while 10.7% and 6.7% had seen the disease in man and animals respectively. Only 36.9% of the respondents perceived themselves being at risk of acquiring CE. Risk increasing practices for CE transmission included dog ownership (64.0%), presence of stray dogs (99.2%), absence of de-worming of dogs (91.7%), home slaughters (82.8%) and feeding uncooked infected organs to dogs (54.4%). There was a significant association between knowledge and perception about CE with religion, occupation, education levels, and pastoralism. FGDs revealed that people think CE is caused by witchcraft. We conclude that knowledge about CE was low in the pastoral community studied. There is therefore a need to educate this community on the transmission, prevention, and control of this disease

      PubDate: Wed, 29 Feb 2012 08:50:03 GMT
       
  • New bird flu death, new epidemic and new public health issue
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Viroj Wiwanitkit.
      In January 2012, a warning sign of the new emerging influenza infection is observed. The new bird flu death in Vietnam and Cambodia becomes the hot issue in public health at present.

      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2012 08:05:21 GMT
       
  • Perception, attitude and compliance wth the use of car safety seatbelts
           among workers in Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      James Olusegun Bamidele, Wasiu Olalekan Adebimpe, Adefisoye Oluwaseun Adewole.
      Background: Injuries associated with road traffic accidents is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our environment. Despite the enactment of laws mandating the use of car seatbelts by motorists, expected behavioral change has not been achieved to effectively influence occurrences of these accidents. This study aims to determine the perception, attitude and compliance to the use of car seatbelts amongst workers in a teaching hospital in south western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 386 workers of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo using stratified sampling technique. Research instruments employed were semi structured; self administered pre tested questionnaires and data analyzed using the SPSS software version 13.0. Results: Mean age of respondents was 34 (+ 1.4) years. One hundred and ninety five (50.5%) of the respondents were females, 226 (58.5%) were married, 360(93.3%) had tertiary education, 329(85.2%) drives at least a vehicle while 218(56.5%) of them often travel outside their locality. Three hundred and one (78.0%) strongly agreed that use of seatbelt provides safety in road traffic crashes, 291(75.4%) agreed that seatbelt should be used regularly, 257(66.6%) strongly agreed that seatbelt enforcement will improve usage while 224 (58.0%) strongly agreed that people should be fined for non-usage of seatbelt. Compliance with the use of seatbelt showed 360 respondents (93.3%) using seatbelt for safety reasons. Other reasons for compliance include to avoid sanctions by police 199(52.4%) and FRSC officials 222(57.5%). Common reasons for non compliance include feeling of discomfort 45(11.7%), difficulty with fastening or unlocking the seatbelt 9(2.3%) and sense of insecurity with seatbelt use among 12(3.1%) of respondents. Health care workers with a tertiary education and age above 30 years are twice fold more likely to use seat belts for safety reasons compared to the much younger and less educated respondents (OR=0.06, and p=0.019). Conclusion: Compliance with the use of seatbelt from the study is high coupled with fair perception and good attitude towards its proven and effective methods of reducing morbidity and mortality. To compliment efforts of government and non governmental agencies towards this drive, health workers should be adequately informed about the importance of seatbelt in order to reach out to the public at large.

      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2012 16:07:39 GMT
       
  • Myths, perceptions knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) linked to
           mycobacterial infection management among the pastoralist communities of
           Uganda
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Clovice Kankya, Anthony Mugisha, Adrian Muwonge, Eystein Skjerve, Eunice Kyomugisha, James Oloya.
      The present study was conducted to assess community myths, perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, practices (KAP) of the pastoral farmers and explore mycobacterial infection management practices. Both structured questionnaire survey and participatory rural appraisal approaches were used. This study revealed that mycobacterial infection especially tuberculosis as referred to in vernacular as akakonko, akasubba or akafuba because of the persistent cough and other respiratory symptoms. Knowledge attitudes and practices: congestion under extended family homes, sharing of houses, consumption of untreated milk and drinking untreated water as means of mycobacterial infections spread to humans. Perceptions: sharing the drinking straws and cigarette sticks. Community myths: witchcraft, family history and genetic heritability. Mycobacterial infections and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) were closely linked and these infections issued stigmatisation among the community members. Mycobacterial infection management methods: Sixty five percent (65 %) of the respondents visited traditional healers and local herbs while 35% use modern medicines. The multivariate model identified sex, marital status, and age influencing the choice of managing mycobacterial infections. Sustainable community intervention require a thorough understanding of traditional indigenous knowledge, attitudes, practices myths, beliefs and perceptions in designing disease prevention and control strategies at the human- environment-animal interface in the pastoral ecosystems of Uganda.

      PubDate: Fri, 04 Nov 2011 12:40:16 GMT
       
  • Nutritional management in dengue
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Chaiyasit K, Trakulkongsmut P.
      N/A

      PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2011 17:23:21 GMT
       
  • Antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella isolated from some hospitals in South
           West, Nigeria to third generation cephalosporins
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      A O Egbebi, O Famurewa.
      Antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella spp isolated from different samples in four different hospitals in South Western, Nigeria was investigated. Of the 970 samples (urine, high vaginal swab, blood, ear swab, sputum, pus, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, stool and nasal swab) collected, 544 (56.1%) Klebsiella spp were isolated. Based on susceptibility phenotype, 125 representative isolates were selected and tested for resistance to third generation cephalosporin using disk agar diffusion method. The result showed that resistance to individual antibiotics was highest against ceftazidime 120(96.0%), followed by aztreonam 117(93.6%), cefotaxime had 109 (87.2%) while the least resistance was against ceftriaxone with 106 (84.8%). It also showed that resistance to cefotaxime was highest at Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti (96.0%) and lowest at University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti (80.0%). For ceftriaxone, the resistance ranged from General Hospital, Lagos (93.0%) to (72.0%) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ilesa. Similarly, the resistance to ceftazidime varied from 100.0% at University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti to 92.0% at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ilesa. Resistance to aztreonam ranged from 100.0% at University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti and Federal Medical Centre, Owo to 86.7% at General Hospital, Lagos. This study showed that there is high resistance to third generation cephalosporins among Klebsiella isolated in this region. Antibiotics should be prescribed with caution, also, industries and government should encourage basic research for identifying new and effective molecules to fight the increasing resistance.

      PubDate: Fri, 09 Sep 2011 00:30:25 GMT
       
  • Human influenza virus in the respiratory tract of healthy individuals
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Freeman Oluowo, Lawrence Ehis Okoror, Efosa Ogie-Odia.
      Influenza is a cause of morbidity and mortality with very few reports in the tropics. In other to investigate the carriage of influenza in the population, 250 blood samples and throat and sputum consecutively and randomly from healthy individuals and screened using the haemaglutination assay (HA). Of the 250 blood samples screened for influenza haemaglutination antibody, 106 (42.4%) were positive of which 54 (21.6%) were males and 52 (20.8%) were females. The 250 throat swabs and sputum which were cultured into chicken’s embryonated eggs shows that 69 (27.4%) were positive. There was no significant difference between males and females in both culture and HA test but the results gave a distribution according to age. There was also significant difference between the HA and the culture results and they vary differently. Since some samples were positive to culture which differs from the HA it therefore affirms that some individuals in the sample population were infected with the influenza virus without having the influenza flu but could be actively shedding the organism. And if this is not checked could lead to spread in less immuned individuals and then an outbreak of influenza

      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jun 2011 03:17:04 GMT
       
  • Microbiological safety of herbal drinks sold in Ado Ekiti Metropolis
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      A O Egbebi.
      The microbiological safety of three indigenous herbal preparations (Jedi, Iba and Opaeyin herbal drinks) from five different hawkers in Ado Ekiti Metropolis was investigated. The assessment of the microbial contamination on the herbal products were carried out using standard methods: total viable counts, coliform counts and fungal counts. The average results for total viable count in Jedi herbal drink, Iba and Opaeyin herbal drink were 7.4 x 105cfu/ml, 6.3 x 105cfu/ml and 6.3 x 105cfu/ml respectively while the average counts for coliforms in Jedi, Iba and Opaeyin were 6.3 x 104cfu/ml, 6.4 x 104cfu/ml and 4.8 x 104cfu/ml respectively. Also, the average fungal counts for Jedi, Iba and Opaeyin herbal were 4.9 x 103cfu/ml, 4.4 x 103cfu/ml and 4.1 x 103cfu/ml respectively. The results of this work showed the presence of microorganisms that could impair these herbal products, and which may in be a source of infection consumer, therefore, strict Good Manufacturing Practices should be considered in the production and sale of these herbal drinks in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis, and even elsewhere.

      PubDate: Sun, 05 Jun 2011 19:58:21 GMT
       
  • Effect of on-call work on transfusion scientists working in a Nigerian
           tertiary institution
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Adeolu Oyemade Adegoke.
      Background: The study investigated the effects of on-call duty on the physical health, mental health personal and work behaviours of transfusion scientists in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin-City, Nigeria. Aim: This descriptive exploratory study was aimed at identifying the effect of call duty and addressing the issue of how stress during call hours can be effectively managed, reduced, or prevented by the government and hospital management boards in order to enhance the health of the scientists, as well as improving their personal and work behaviours. Material and Methods: The study was carried out among 20 transfusion scientists working in UBTH. A single questionnaire tagged “Call Duty Assessment Questionnaire for Hospital Transfusion Scientists (CDAQFHTS)” was developed and used for the study. It contains 72 items, measuring demographic variables, job stress, physical and mental symptoms, personal and work behaviour. Results: The findings showed that 40% of the transfusion scientists working on-call had a problem of insomnia, and occupational hazards. In addition, the results indicated that transfusion scientists experience health problem and their work productivity is affected by the long hours associated with call duty. Conclusion/Recommendation: The study established that on-call duty has significant effect on physical and mental health of the scientists. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the government (Federal or State) and Hospital Management Boards should improve the welfare of the medical laboratory scientists. It was also recommended that their morale should be boosted by involving them in policy or decision-making concerning their welfare or care of their patients. Their salary should be reviewed and that they should be promoted as at when due.

      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jun 2011 04:15:53 GMT
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey regarding the safe use of
           medicines in rural area of Gujarat
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Shah AP, Parmar SA, Ramkishan A, Mehta AA.
      KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) studies are highly focused evaluations that measure changes in human knowledge, attitudes and practices in response to a specific intervention, usually outreach, demonstration or education. The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the general public toward the usage of medicines. Survey was performed at four villages of Dascroi District, Gujarat about the drug usage and awareness. Apart from their basic personnel information and history, various questionnaires were asked to respondents with respect to extra medications, storage, expiry date and disposal of drugs. KAP survey showed that community persons were not aware about the proper usage of drugs. 7% of respondents were found using nonprescription medicines by exchanging them with their family members. About one third of study population was aware about storage of medicine. Approximately 36% respondents were aware about the expiry date of medications. None of respondents were having idea about disposal of medicines. There is a need for repeated training and continuous education to change the perceptions and practices of the community members toward safe use of medicines.

      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2011 18:14:01 GMT
       
  • Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in Uyo, a community in
           South-south Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Abasiubong F, Akpan N, Upong DI, Umanah I, Udoh SB..
      There is increasing recognition of skin diseases in our environment. However, no information is currently available on the functional status of patients with these conditions. This study examines the quality of life and pattern of skin diseases among patients in Uyo, a community in South-South Nigeria. Between January and June 2009, 136 patients attending the dermatological clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital were assessed for various indices of quality of life, using Dartmouth COOP Charts screening instrument. Fifty nine (43.4%) of the participants were males and 77 (46.6%) females. Of the 136 patients with skin diseases, 22 (16.2%) had pruritus, 21 (15.4%) eczema, 16 (11.8%) acne, 16 (11.8%) urticaria, 14 (10.3%) pediculosis capitis, 13 (9.5%) tinea capitis, 9 (6.6%) scabies, 8 (5.9%) pyodermas, 7 (5.1%) infective skin disorders, 5 (3.7%) chronic and debilitating skin diseases, while 5 (3.7%) had moles and lumps. The domains of quality of life, with respect to life satisfaction or lack of it were variables. Most indices of quality of life, except the social support and resources, were significantly poor in females than males (p=0.001). Skin diseases are common and are associated with adverse impact on the quality of life. In view of the unprecedented high risk factors for these conditions in our environment, there is need for understanding the complexities of various indices of quality of life. This would help in determining the choice of care and increase the use of healthcare services, for purposes of improving the overall well-being and functional capabilities of the people with the disorders.

      PubDate: Mon, 04 Apr 2011 04:43:14 GMT
       
  • Observed variations in malariometric indices between some close urban and
           rural communities in Edo State, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Osazuwa F, Ayo OM, Ibadin KO, Ibeh IN, Nzei J, Ugbebor O, Zabayo O.
      A significant difference in malariometric index was observed in three close rural communities of Ekosodin, Evbuomore and Isiohor in a preliminary survey of rural malaria exposure levels. This study report findings from an immediate follow up cross –sectional survey comparing the malariometric index of two close urban communities of Uselu and Ugbowo and that of the three rural communities studied. The secondary aim of the study was to compare the association between malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in the children. A total of 611 children, 316 and 295 from rural and urban communities respectively, between the ages of 1 and 15 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO) age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin was used to classify anemia. Significant Variations were observed in the malaria prevalence and density between the rural and urban communities (P

      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2011 05:40:52 GMT
       
  • Impact of forest conversion to shifting cultivation farming on arthropod
           abundance in Urhonigbe Forest Reserve, Edo State, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Ogedegbe ABO, Omoigberale M.
      The study on the impact of forest conversion to shifting cultivation farming on overall arthropod abundance and composition is reported here. Arthropod abundance collected from the canopy and leaf litter for 4months (April-July, 2010) were compared between primary forest, logged forest and farmland. The line transect count was used to record the abundance of arthropods in three habitat types. For each habitat, the diversity indices of arthropod abundance were calculated. The result indicated that arthropod abundance was highest in the natural forest reserve, low in the logged forest and lowest in the farmland. Both canopy and litter contained a lower abundance (canopy: 62.7%, litter: 3.2% reduction) of arthropods in the farmland compared with the primary forest. Results showed that forest conversion to shifting cultivation farming impacts adversely on arthropods in all compartments of the forest ecosystem.

      PubDate: Tue, 22 Mar 2011 23:40:59 GMT
       
  • Endosulfan poisoning precipitating as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Jain G, Dhama SS.
      Endosulfan is a chlorinated hydrocarbon, widely used as an insecticide. Acute poisoning can have multisystem involvement & even renal failure. We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning precipitating as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), after being admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis of NDI was suspected due to symptoms like polyuria and thirst, developing on the second day of admission; confirmation was done by antidiuretic hormonal essay and positive water deprivation test. We emphasize that, if there are symptoms like polyuria and thirst in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of NDI should be considered as one possibility when aetiology is not certain.

      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2011 08:51:22 GMT
       
  • Role of retromolar intubation for airway management in trauma
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Jain G, Dhama SS, Singh DK..
      Management of facial injuries is one of the most challenging issue, clinicians are facing worldwide. From the reports of success and safety with the technique, it is evident that the retromolar intubation is an attractive option for maintaining the airway in these cases requiring intraoperative dental occlusion for fixation of fractures. This technique is not only non-invasive, but also avoids the need of submental intubation and tracheostomy for securing the airway in patients with facial trauma. A review of this technique and analysis of the equipments utilized may provide a better impression about this technique, and its usage for the airway management of facial trauma.

      PubDate: Tue, 08 Feb 2011 20:48:14 GMT
       
  • Effect of vitamin B complex and C on some copper, chromium and nickel
           induced hematological changes in Orytolagus cunniculus
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Oghenekevwe O, Prekeyi TF, Damian I.
      The moderating effect of vitamin B complex and vitamin C supplementation on hematological changes induced by copper, chromium and nickel in Orytolagus cunniculus was investigated. Rabbits were exposed to increasing doses of CuSO4, CrCl3 and NiSO4 per kilogram body weight with 5mg vitamin B complex and 200mg vitamin C administered orally as abatement. Physical changes observed include skin lesions, reduced appetite, agility and excessive salivation. The severity of these changes increased with increase in dose and showed no alteration in vitamin supplemented group. Decreases in WBC and haemoglobin concentration as well as elevated PCV, lymphocyte and erythrocye counts were observable hematological changes. However, with the exception of WBC and haemoglobin concentration, all hematological indices studied were not affected by vitamin B complex and vitamin C supplementation and further highlight the haemotoxic effect of the trinal combination of copper, chromium and nickel in Orytolagus cunniculus.

      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jan 2011 07:46:37 GMT
       
  • Sublethal effect of zinc phosphide on some hematological and biochemical
           indices in albino rats; potential moderating role of vitamin C
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Oghenekevwe O, Prekeyi TF.
      This study investigated the effects of vitamin C supplementation on hematological and biochemical changes jinduced by exposure to zinc phosphide in Rattus novergicus. Rats were exposed to oral doses of 5mg/kg body weight zinc phosphide for two weeks after which zinc phosphide application was discontinued in groups A, B and C but continued in group D for another two week period during which 100mg vitamin C was incorporated into the diet of rats in groups C and D as abatement. Zinc phosphide induced hematological and biochemical changes include significant alterations in WBC, RBC, Hct and lymphocyte counts, BUN, and liver function indices. Physical and behavioral changes consisted basically of marked reduction in appetite/feed consumption and agility. The severity of these hematological and biochemical changes was significantly modulated in treatment groups with zinc phosphide withdrawn and vitamin C applied as abatement in contrast with groups with concurrent adminstration of zinc phosphide and vitamin C. However, application of vitamin C had no effect on physical and behavioral changes observed.

      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jan 2011 07:38:30 GMT
       
  • Lassa virus: a cause of pyrexia of unknown origin in Edo Central and Edo
           North of Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Lawrence OE, Iyobosa OO.
      Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) is a challenging medical problem. In dealing with this medical problem local epidemiological conditions must be taken into consideration. Lassa virus has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Edo Central and Edo North of Nigeria and Lassa virus symptoms mimmicking those of malaria and typhoid fever hence the difficulty in diagnosis emperically. Blood samples were collected from patients visiting clinics in these locality and tested for Lassa virus IgG and IgM using the microimmunoflourescence assay. Of the samples collected, there were high titres of both Lassa virus IgG and IgM, thereby confirming Lassa virus as a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin in these localities.

      PubDate: Fri, 14 Jan 2011 18:39:31 GMT
       
 
 
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