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Journal Cover Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2228-897X - ISSN (Online) 2228-897X
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  • Blood culture findings in patients with acute cholangitis and

    • Abstract: 2016-01-08T19-08-25Z
      Source: Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Beuy Joob, Junomma Kanoma, Atulla Singh.
      Acute cholangitis is an infection of the biliary tract with the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. There is no report concerning the causative agents of acute cholangitis in the cholangiocarcinoma patients. This retrospective review was made on 56 hospitalized patients who had been diagnosed as cholangiocarcinoma with cholangitis. Bacterial pathogens were identified in eighteen (64.3 %) of the 56 cases. Most positive blood cultures contained Gram-negative aerobes. In conclusion, the causative agents for acute cholangitis in the cholangiocarcinoma are similar to those seen in non cholangiocarcinoma.

      PubDate: Wed, 06 Jan 2016 19:53:01 GMT
  • A summary on the Anti HIV serology status among the male patients from the
           record in a rural hospital in hilltribal community in the Golden Triangle.

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Areewan Sadudeejit, Myn Myn Ong, Suriya Nhakham.
      In Southeast Asia, HIV infection is still an important public health problem. Although the prevalence of anti-HIV seropositivity in the Southeast Asian population has decreased in the recent years, the closed control for this widespread infection is still necessary. Here, a small-scale seroepidemiological report of screening test for Anti HIV in a rural hilltribal district in the Golden Triangle area of Southeast Asia, was presented. The data from 86 males who had got AntiHIV screening test during year 2010 were reviewed in this study. Of the total 86 studied subjects, seropositive results were detected in 2 cases, giving the total infection rate equaled to 2.32 %. The peak prevalence was found in the age group 21 - 40 years old.

      PubDate: Fri, 21 Dec 2012 03:55:11 GMT
  • The role of social behavior in mycobacterial infection management: A case
           study of pastoral communities of Uganda.

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Kankya C, Muwonge A, Munyeme M, Skjerve E, Oloya J, Rich RM.
      In sub-Saharan African arid pastoral regions, the socio-behavioral indigenous knowledge mystical systems associated with actions and response by communities to mycobacterial infections in the pastoral ecosystems of Uganda remains largely unknown in Uganda and across the African continent. These drivers are important as they often magnify the problems linked to co-infection with HIV/AIDS. This study sought to determine the socio-behavioral, indigenous knowledge mystical systems and other factors associated with mycobacterial infections and their management among the pastoralist communities. Socio-demographic, environmental, and household-level behavioral and attitudinal variables data was collected through a cross sectional questionnaire-based study administered to a total of 301 pastoralists from Mubende and Nakasongola pastoral districts of Uganda. In addition, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Consumption of raw and half cooked animals’ products, drinking untreated water, and smoking as well as sharing of cigarette sticks and drinking straws, coughing and spitting, and excessive alcoholism were the socio-behaviors perceived to expose the pastoralist communities to mycobacterial infections. Stigmatization was related to chronic illness and faith-based perceptions facilitated mycobacterial infection transmission. Involvement in the risky production actions and social livelihood ventures such as charcoal production are perceived as being responsible for mycobacterial infection transmission. High degree of stigmatization, discrimination (S&D) and abandonment of the patients suffering from mycobacterial infections among the pastoralist communities have been revealed. Socio-consumption behaviors were perceived the main routes for acquisition of mycobacterial infections. Pastoralist communities perceived that livestock act as sources of mycobacterial infections and therefore pose a health threat to the humans living at the human-animal interface.

      PubDate: Mon, 12 Nov 2012 16:41:00 GMT
  • Biomonitoring of exposure to traffic benzene vapor: analysis of sister
           chromatid exchange and urine biomarker, trans, trans - muconic acid of
           traffic policemen

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Sorontones SR, Muttamori BM, Spergangio AK.
      Benzene exposure is of particular concern because recent research indicating that benzene exposure can result in chronic toxicity including matagenesis and carcinogenesis. This study was set aiming at determination for sister chromatid exchange (SCE), a marker for genotoxicity, and its correlation to the novel urine biomarker for benzene exposure urine trans,trans - muconic acid (tt-MA) among a sample of traffic police. A total of 89 police (all males) were included into this study. The reported average (mean +/- SD) urine tt-MA level in these police was 0.79 +/- 1.43 mg/gCr. The average (mean +/- SD) SCE in these police was 4.21 +/- 0.86 (/cell). Concerning the regression analysis, the least square equation plot SCE (Y) versus urine ttMA (X) is 0.37 X + 0.28 (r = 0.94, p = 0.14). The correlation study between urine ttMA and SCE in this study can show a significant correlation. It can say that high exposure, determined from high urine ttMA, can imply the high chromosome aberration or mutagen. Of interest, the monitoring for benzene exposure among the at-risk workers is recommended. In cases with high urine ttMA from screening, the special consideration on the risk for cancer should be set.

      PubDate: Wed, 07 Nov 2012 16:20:49 GMT
  • Predicted epitopes of filarial heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) by
           bioinformatics method: a clue for further vaccine development

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Soressto NR, Guillemo TM, Ronaldo EK.
      Filariasis is an important tropical infection. Development and approval of new vaccines are the hope for infectious control of the possible emerging pandemic of this pathogen. Filarial heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) may have value as a protective immunogen in novel vaccines. Here, the author reports the preliminary data from the computation analysis of HSP70 to find potential T-cell epitopes using a new bioinformatics tool. According to this work, the possible alternatives are reported. Among all alleles, the results from DRB0101, A0203 and A0201 show significant lower IC50 than other alleles. According to this work, 605 PIITKLYQS613 corresponding to DRB0101 allele is the peptide with the best binding affinity. These data are useful for further vaccine development because these promiscuous peptide binders allows to minimize the total number of predicted epitopes without compromising the population coverage required in the design of vaccines.

      PubDate: Wed, 07 Nov 2012 16:18:55 GMT
  • Sexual behavior, awareness of HIV/AIDS, and attitudes of unmarried
           tertiary school students to HIV Counseling & Testing: implications for
           control of HIV transmission

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Obiako OR, Muktar HM, Mamman AI, Sheikh TL, Tabi-Ajayi E, Obiako CO.
      HIV/AIDS is found commonly among sexually active young adults, many of whom may be undergraduates. This group may serve as the gateway for HIV transmission to the general population because of their vulnerable lifestyle, and lack of information about the disease and its prevention. Aims/objectives are to assess knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behavior, and attitudes/ reactions to HCT. Cross sectional questionnaire-based study of 400 students in 4 higher institutions in Zaria was done. Exclusion criteria included married students, science students of biology, medical laboratory, veterinary medicine, human medicine, pharmacy and nursing. 395 students completed questionnaire (99% response rate). 51% females (ᾱ age =22.1 ±3.9 years) versus males (23.0 ±4.3 years), Muslims/ Christians (50% / 50%). Two-third, half and one-third knew meaning of HIV/AIDS, routes of HIV transmission/ prevention, and VCT respectively. 70% have had sexual intercourse, 40% had> 1 sexual partners, 56% do not use condoms always and> 90% think they have low risk for HIV. Majority supported free premarital HCT, initiated by couples, but results to be revealed to individuals alone. 60% would break relationship if partner refused to disclose HCT result, 95% would do so if partner has HIV+ result while 81% would marry themselves if both have positive HIV results. Many tertiary school students do not protect themselves against HIV, although they would shun marriage with HIV positive partner.

      PubDate: Fri, 14 Sep 2012 17:46:12 GMT
  • The prevalence of vaginal infection among a sample of sexual workers

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Areewittha Suradeezen, Hiran Hiransiguttha.
      This letter is to describe an interesting observation on prevalence of vaginal infection among a sample of sexual worker in a developing country. Since the infection rates of these controllable diseases are still high, the promotion of screening for all sexual workers is necessary.

      PubDate: Fri, 14 Sep 2012 09:10:26 GMT
  • Prevalence of traumatic ocular injuries in a teaching hospital in
           south-south Nigeria – a two year review

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Emem Godwin Abraham, Uwemedimbuk Smart Ekanem.
      Although the eyes represent only 0.1% of the total body surface and 0.27% of the anterior body surface, their significance to the individual and society is disproportionally higher. Ocular trauma is the most common reason for extended hospitalization of ophthalmic patients in industrialized nations and the commonest cause of uniocular blindness. Aim and objective is to determine the prevalence of ocular injuries amongst all presenting patients in an eye clinic. This is a retrospective study of all the patients who reported in the eye clinic between 2008 and 2009. 220 of the 5,416 patients seen within that period had one form of ocular trauma or the other. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS version 17 for Windows package. 220 of the 5,416 patients seen within the study period had ocular trauma giving a prevalence of 4.06%. Males were more affected than women and people in the productive age group (21-50) were most affected. Commonest site of injury was lid/conjunctiva. Commonest source of injury was assault. Prevalence of ocular injury is high in our environment and assault is the commonest source of injury. Conditions that encourage violence at home and work place should be looked into more closely by the authorities concerned. As part of eye health education, patient must be taught the importance of early presentation of all cases of eye injuries to the hospital.

      PubDate: Sat, 11 Aug 2012 07:28:48 GMT
  • Pattern of infection by six intestinal-parasite species among inmates of
           the New Bakassi Resettlement Camp in Ekpiri-Ikang, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Uttah EC, Ibeh D, Wokem GN.
      The study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of intestinal parasites among Bakassi resettlees. A faecal sample was collected from every consenting participant processed directly using the formol-ether concentration method. Six species of intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia intestinalis were observed among the New Bakassi resettlees. The prevalence of intestinal parasites were as follows ascariasis (38.9%, 37.2% for males, 40.4% for females), trichiuriasis (17.2%, 16.2% for males, 18.2% for females), hookworm (44.8%; 39.4% for males, 49.6% for females), Strongyloidiasis (4.0%; 3.2% for males, 4.7% for females), amoebiasis (10.4%; 9.9% for males, 10.8% for females), giardiasis (7.5%; 7.3% for males, 7.7% for females). Prevalence of infection by these parasites varied considerably in relation to age. In all, Single species infection constituted 59.3% of all parasitic infections while 40.7% were either double or triple species infections. The double and triple species infections decreased in prevalence with increase in age until the 30-39 years age group. The high prevalence of intestinal parasites recorded among the resettlees in this study could be attributable to the extremely poor sanitary conditions, the high population and concentration of inmates, palpable poor socioeconomic conditions, poor personal hygiene and poor disposal of human excreta. Favourable environmental factors also played important role in the high prevalence, as the New Bakassi Resettlement Camp is in the rainforest region. Infection was most prevalent among people of working age groups. The overall high prevalence in adults underscores the need for an all-encompassing control plan involving all socio-demographic groups.

      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2012 06:35:33 GMT
  • A note on comparative study of serum cholinesterase between the residents
           in the rural area and in the downtown

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Hans GT, Serensaris SA.
      Organophosphate pesticides are powerful inhibitors of cholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter at parasympathetic and myoneural junctions, in autonomic ganglia, and in the brain. Based on the concept of environmental medicine, the use of biological monitoring has been found to be valuable. Measurement of serum cholinesterase is a quick screening test indicated for cases of possible exposure to organophosphate compounds. However, there are only a few reports comparing between subjects in the rural and downtown communities. Here, we report our comparative study on the serum cholinesterase between samples of 75 residents in rural (n = 30) and downtown (n = 45) communities. The mean blood cholinesterase level in rural residents was 16.77 + 6.95 U/mL. The mean blood cholinesterase level in downtown residents was 24.91 + 11.67 U/mL. The mean blood cholinesterase level in the rural residents was significantly lower than that of the downtown residents (P = 0.005). The difference of average serum cholinesterase between both groups can imply the need for different follow up protocol and laboratory cut-off references.

      PubDate: Sat, 23 Jun 2012 07:45:28 GMT
  • The effect of the big flooding in Thailand on the reproductive medicine

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Starry Joob.
      The recent big flooding in Thailand (October to November 2011) caused serious problems to the Thai social. Focusing on the reproductive medicine society in Thailand, the problems can also be seen although it is not as much as that of general medicine.

      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jun 2012 00:10:31 GMT
  • A story of traditional dish and intestinal parasite contamination: what we
           learn from viability study

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Joob B.
      The effect of food preparation on the viability of parasite in traditional dish is of interest. There are few studies in this area. A kind of useful study is the simulation on the traditional dish preparation and further assessment of the preparation effect on parasite viability. Here, the author shortly discuss on this story in the letter to editor.

      PubDate: Wed, 16 May 2012 05:18:03 GMT
  • Outcome of admissions in a university teaching hospital in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International
      Akande TM, Sekoni OO, Aderibigbe SA.
      There is a pressing need to develop measures of health outcome for use in medical audit and in shaping decisions on the allocation of resources. This study determines the outcome of admissions in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. This retrospective survey was conducted at the General Wing of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Available records of patients admitted over a 3 year period from January 2000 to December 2003 were used for the study. The age of patients ranged from one month to 100 years with a mean age of 34.6 ± 22.7 years. Most patients were babies less than one year (24.1%) with majority of the patients being male (59.1%). Non communicable diseases were the major causes of admissions across all age groups. Mortality was higher for admitted patients with Communicable (18.3%) than among those with non communicable diseases (16.3%) The mean duration of hospital stay was 9.97 ± 12.97 days for those discharged against medical advice, 11.91 ± 16.67 for those who died and 16.74 ± 31.72 for those discharged. The burden of non communicable diseases is generally becoming higher than that of communicable diseases. Shorter duration of hospital days is significantly associated with death. Though the rate of DAMA is low, they are significantly associated with communicable diseases. Infectious diseases account for highest mortalities. Improved public health education, raising the socio-economic status of people and improving the standards of healthcare facilities and personnel would prevent a large proportion of deaths.

      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2012 03:32:04 GMT
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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