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Journal Cover Advance Laboratory Medicine International
  [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2228-8961 - ISSN (Online) 2228-8961
   Published by ScopeMed Homepage  [99 journals]
  • Infectious waste from ex-hospital laboratory: a data from a rural
           province, Thailand

    • Abstract: 2016-05-12T04-27-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Patthamaporn Apaijitt; Vechayan Kanchan ; Viroj Wiwanitkit.
      This short letter to editor is for presenting and discussing on the primary data of amount of infectious waste generated from ex-hospital laboratory. This kind of primary data is rarely published and not easily available in the laboratory medicine literature.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2016 05:32:58 GMT
       
  • Superficial skin ulcers: histopathological analysis and review of the
           literature

    • Abstract: 2016-03-08T09-17-05Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Oluwole OP, Taiwo JO, Awani KU, Adeniran JO.
      Superficial skin ulcers are common clinical problems in the tropics and these pose a major diagnostic challenge to both clinicians and pathologists. The objective of this study is to determine the histological pattern of superficial skin ulcer in our environment. This is a 2-year retrospective histopathological analysis of superficial skin ulcers diagnosed at the Histopathological Unit of Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja, Nigeria, between August 2007 and July 2009. Clinical information and biodata were extracted from histopathology request cards. Histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) was retrieved. Periodic acid Schiff, Gomori methenamine silver and Ziehl Neelson stains were done for cases of chronic granulomatous inflammation to exclude fungal or mycobacterial infection. A total of 19 cases of superficial skin ulcers were analyzed. The age range was 20-69 years with the mean age of 44.5 years. There were 16 males and 3 females. The peak age frequency was in the third decade (20-29 years). The spectrum of lesions in this analysis was categorized into inflammatory, infections, benign and malignant diseases. A total of 6 (31.5%) cases of granulomatous inflammation, two (10.5%) non-specific inflammation, lobular capillary haemangioma 3 (15.8%) and one (5.3%) intermediate mesenchymal tumour- dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans were found. The most common malignant tumour was squamous cell carcinoma 5 (26.3%); this was followed by one (5.3%) case each of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Superficial skin ulcers are common in the tropics and could undergo malignant transformation, if medical intervention is not sought early. So there is need for a high index of suspicion, adequate tissue biopsy and early histopathological diagnosis.

      PubDate: Sat, 05 Mar 2016 06:59:14 GMT
       
  • A 5-year retrospective study of prostate cancer in Gwagwalada, Abuja,
           Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2016-03-08T09-17-05Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Oluwole OP, Abimiku BA, Mukhtar AU, Aisuodionoe-Shadrach OI.
      In the United States and Europe, prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer. However, in spite of under-estimation and reporting of cancer burden in Pathology-based cancer registries in the developing countries; prostate cancer is now ranked among the emerging male malignancy. The objective of this work is to study of prostate cancer among histopathology specimens diagnosed at University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (U.A.T.H), Gwagwalada over a 5-year period. This is a 5-year retrospective histopathological analysis of prostate cancer diagnosed between January 2005- December 2009 in the Department of Histopathology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja. The materials consisted of tissue blocks, slides and duplicate histopathology reports of patients whose prostatic biopsy specimens had been received and processed in the Histopathology laboratory of the hospital. The method of diagnosis is by reviewing of histopathological glass slides and where the slides were not available, paraffin tissue blocks were retrieved, histologic sections were made by microtome machine, mounted on the glass slides; stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and viewed through Olympus microscope. Three consultant pathologists blinded reviewed the slides; they were in agreement over the diagnosis. The setting of the study is a tertiary hospital in the Federal capital city of Nigeria, Gwagwalada, Abuja. The tumours were classified based on WHO classification of Prostatic tumours1. Histological grading was done using Gleason grading system. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Teaching Hospital for this study. Sixty-six (66) cases of prostate cancer were studied. The age range was between 40-89 years with a mean of 64.5 years. There were two bimodal age peaks at the seventh and eighth decades in elderly men. The surgical procedures were Trucut biopsies 64 (96.9%) and 2 (3.1%) cases of prostatectomy. The Gleason scores range from 4 to 10. Three (4.5%) patients with prostate cancers were seen before the age of 50 years. There were 9 (13.6%) cases of well differentiated, 37 (56.0%) cases of moderately differentiated and 20 (30.4%) cases of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. No other histological type was seen. The result was analyzed and presented in the form of pie chart. In this study, there were bimodal age peaks of prostate cancer at the sixth and seventh decades in the elderly men, while moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is the most common presentation.

      PubDate: Sat, 05 Mar 2016 06:56:58 GMT
       
  • Decreasing level of CEA in a colon cancer patient after nimotuzumab
           therapy

    • Abstract: 2016-03-02T09-17-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Moreh Mirander, Gonzalez Mirander.
      Using tumor maker is a widely used technique in laboratory medicine. For any new drug, the observation of laboratory result in monitoring and follow-up of a cancerous patient is interesting. In this letter to editor, the authors report on an observation on decreasing CEA level in a colon cancer patient after nimotuzumab. This is an interesting report on effect of nimotuzumab on CEA level in color cancer.

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Mar 2016 20:49:02 GMT
       
  • Oxidative stress and fungal diseases

    • Abstract: 2016-02-20T04-17-11Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Meral Miraloglu.
      Fungal disease is an increasing problem in both agriculture and human health. Treatment of human fungal disease involves the use of chemical fungicides, which generally target the integrity of the fungal plasma membrane or cell Wall. Chemical fungicides used for the treatment of plant diseases, have more diverse mechanisms of action including inhibition of sterol biosynthesis, microtubule assembly and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, these treatments have limitations, including toxicity and the emergence of resistance. This has led to increased interest in the use of antimicrobial peptides for the treatment of fungal disease in both plants and humans. Antimicrobial peptides are a diverse group of molecules with differing mechanisms of action, many of which remain poorly understood. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that stress response pathways are involved in the tolerance of fungi to both chemical fungicides and antimicrobial peptides. These signalling pathways such as the cell wall integrity and high-osmolarity glycerol pathway are triggered by stimuli, such as cell wall instability, changes in osmolarity and production of reactive oxygen species.

      PubDate: Fri, 19 Feb 2016 07:23:03 GMT
       
  • Cervical carcinoma, still a burden: histopathological analysis and review
           of the literature

    • Abstract: 2016-02-20T04-17-11Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Oluwole OP,Okoyomo OO, Onile TG, Alabi OO, Gbejegbe JO.
      Globally there are over 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer annually and in excess of 270,000 deaths, accounting for 9% of female cancer deaths. 85% of cases occur in developing countries and in Africa it is the commonest cancer in women with incidence frequently equating with mortality in the absence of healthcare facilities to deal with the disease. The Objective is to show that cervical cancer is the commonest cancer among women in our environment and to do its histopathological analysis. This is a 2-year retrospective histopathological analysis of cervical carcinoma diagnosed during August 2007 to July 2009, in the Histopathology Unit of Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja, Kogi State. Clinical information and biodata were extracted from histopathology request cards. Histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) were retrieved and reviewed by two Consultant pathologists who were blinded. Eighteen (18) cases of cervical cancer were reviewed. The age range was between 30-89 years with mean age of 58.5 years. The peak age in this analysis was in the sixth decade with 8 (44.4%), one (5.6%) case each was recorded in the fourth and ninth decades, while 5 (27.7%) and 3 (16.7%) cases were recorded in the seventh and fifth decades respectively. The most common histological type was squamous cell carcinoma; in this review we found the ova schistosoma haematobium was associated with the cancer in a particular patient. Cervical cancer is still prevalent in our environment due poor accessibility to screening facility and skewed distribution of health resources that is concentrated in urban centres.

      PubDate: Mon, 15 Feb 2016 09:12:07 GMT
       
  • Combined osmotic fragility (OF) and dichlorophenol-indolephenol (DCIP)
           tests for screening for hemoglobin disorder: a reappraisal on the
           diagnostic property from real usage.

    • Abstract: 2016-01-18T23-16-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Beuy Joob.
      Hemoglobin disorders is an important public health problem in Thailand. There have been several trials on many screening methods for detection of hemoglobin disorder among Thai pregnants and good screening property of combined method between osmotic fragility (OF) and dichlorophenol-indolphenol (DCIP) can be seen. For a few years, the combined test has been launched to the rural hospital communities of Thailand, where the high prevalence of disorder is documented. Here, the author performed a reappraisal on usefulness of the program in Thai rural hospitals. According to this study, 3 complete reports on the using of OF and DCIP tests screening for antenatal clinic in rural communities were recruited for further study. All 4,902 pregnant subjects were screened and 2,232 got positive screening results (45.5 %). Of overall 2,232 positive cases from screening, 1,243 cases with confirmed disorder could be detected. According to this study, the overall positive predictive value for the real usage of the combined screening test is about 55 %. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the test cannot be calculated due to the lack of reported data. The expected possibility of any pregnant subjects visiting the antenatal clinic in this study to have hemoglobin disorder is equal to 25.02 %.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jan 2016 06:07:51 GMT
       
  • Labile plasma iron and transferrin saturation as iron overload markers

    • Abstract: 2015-12-14T23-17-32Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Debwasah Shutty, Roger Durman.
      This letter to editor discuss on usefulness and limitations of labile plasma iron and transferrin saturation as iron overload markers

      PubDate: Thu, 10 Dec 2015 20:05:35 GMT
       
  • Serum vascular endothelial growth factor to platelet count ratio after
           garlic supplementation in patient with lung cancer

    • Abstract: 2015-10-31T00-22-22Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Mohandras Benopula, Kazoles Hendra, Adica Elene.
      This short letter to editor report experience of author on garlic supplementation in a patient with lung cancer. The observation on serum vascular endothelial growth factor to platelet count (VEGF/PC) ratio in garlic supplementation in this patient is reported.

      PubDate: Mon, 26 Oct 2015 22:12:19 GMT
       
  • Oral glucose tolerance test: a case study on pre-analytical factor
           interference due to lemonade adding

    • Abstract: 2015-10-16T23-21-12Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Maximo Beraza, Horares Larestha.
      Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a useful test in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Here, the author presented an interesting case study on pre-analytical factor interference on OGTT. Some additional information on the preanalytical error for OGTT is also quoted in this article.

      PubDate: Tue, 13 Oct 2015 06:10:13 GMT
       
  • Evaluation of the flow cytometric osmotic fragility in the diagnostic of
           hereditary spherocytosis

    • Abstract: 2015-09-22T23-16-39Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Mohammed Nazim Bennaoum, Hassiba Lazreg, Affaf Adda.
      BHereditary spherocytosis is a constitutional hemolytic anemia due to the presence of spherical red cells in the blood secondary to a genetic defect of some membrane proteins. The test commonly used in the screening is the determination of the osmotic fragility. Practice this test is difficult to interpret and lack of sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new and simple method using flow cytometry for the determination of osmotic fragility. The principle of the test is to determine the percentage of residual red cells after the addition of deionised water which acts as an hemolysis-inducing agent. We therefore studied a group of 94 patients with 5 known cases with hereditary spherocytosis. Each sample was tested by osmotic globular resistance dilution analysis and by flow cytometry. The results are compared by PEARSON's correlation.The test has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96%. The correlation coefficient is -0.626 for the entire population (P

      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2015 21:27:08 GMT
       
  • Groundnut oil as an alternative clearing agent to xylene in histological
           tissue processing

    • Abstract: 2015-08-14T04-21-26Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Ebenezer OLubunmi Esan, Ayodeji Blessing Ajileye, Samuel Ayobami Fasogbon.
      This research work was conducted to compare the tissue processing suitability of groundnut oil as a clearing agent with that of tissue processed with xylene as a clearing agent. Tissue samples were obtained from the liver, lungs, and small intestine of adult wistar rats. The tissue samples were processed with groundnut oil as a clearing agent and the other tissue samples which were also processed along with xylene as a clearing agent for a period of 4 hours to 24 hours using a manual tissue processing method. All the tissue samples processed with both groundnut oil and with xylene as a clearing agents were all sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with Masson’s Trichrome and Haematoxylin and Eosin methods. Tissue samples labeled G1, G2 and G3, were cleared with Groundnut oil during tissue processing and these tissue samples were processed, but not as well as those tissue samples labeled X1, X2, X3, cleared with xylene during tissue processing. The tissue samples cleared and processed with Groundnut oil did not alter the histochemical staining of tissues. Simple staining techniques like Masson’s Trichrome and haematoxylin and Eosin were employed. The results showed that there was no difference between tissue sections cleared in Groundnut oil and those tissue sections cleared in Xylene. Groundnut oil, which is a cheap, easily available and non-toxic agent is suitable and can be used as a clearing agent in histological tissue processing.

      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2015 04:33:58 GMT
       
  • Repeat endoscopy in Barrett's esophagus with no dysplasia and low-grade
           dysplasia

    • Abstract: 2015-06-24T23-32-38Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Abdulla Mohammad Shendal.
      This letter to editor briefly discusses on the clinical advantage on performing Repeat endoscopy in Barrett's esophagus with no dysplasia and low-grade dysplasia.

      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jun 2015 21:05:26 GMT
       
  • Diagnostic error in health care: an issue that requires continuous concern

    • Abstract: 2015-05-27T14-20-54Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Theenar Hares Shokar.
      This letter to editor briefly discusses on the common problem, diagnostic errors in healthcare.

      PubDate: Mon, 25 May 2015 21:36:37 GMT
       
  • Correlation between fever and leukocyte in dengue infection, a clinical
           observation

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-17-31Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Sophiank Vong, Arun Kumar Srininath, Rutheran Koff Rodoff.
      Dengue infection is a major public health problem, affecting general population in the Southeast Asia Region. The haematologic aberration including lymphocytosis, coagulopathy and predominant thrombocytopenia are the common manifestation in the patients with dengue infection. Here, the author reported the experience about fever and leukocyte count of 30 patients with dengue infection who visited the author during endemic season, 2013. The average level of leukocyte among these patients was studied. The correlation between the recorded body temperature of the patients and the leukocyte level was investigated. We found that the fever is common in the patient with dengue infection and the lymphocytosis, not leukocytosis is the common leukocyte disorder in these patients. The correlation between body temperature and total white blood cell count and differential white blood cell count is poor and not significant. Therefore, the fever and the leukocyte disorder in the patients with dengue fever is only a co - presentation.

      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2015 00:40:58 GMT
       
  • Role of immunohistochemistry in differentiating muscularis mucosae and
           muscularis propria as an aid to accurate staging of invasive urothelial
           carcinoma: a pilot study

    • Abstract: 2015-02-23T09-31-21Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Prateek Kinra, Ajay Malik, Vibha Dutta.
      The common prognostic markers for urothelial neoplasms include- tumour grade, invasion into muscle, vascular invasion, histological type, lymph node status and currently molecular markers. However the single most important prognostic marker that has stood the test of time is the extent of invasion into muscularis propria. Treatment of bladder carcinoma is determined by the stage (depth of invasion). Distinguishing bladder muscularis propria from muscularis mucosae can be problematic especially in small transurethral resection specimens cut tangentially. Florid desmoplasia and hyperplastic muscularis mucosa is commonly mistaken for muscularis propria. The sections of 70 cases of urothelial carcinoma were subjected to immunohistochemistry by the three immunohistochemical stains [vimentin (for mesenchymal cells-myofibroblasts), Smooth Muscle Actin (for smooth muscle cells) and smoothelin (specific for muscularis propria)]. Our study showed a sensitivity of 98.23% & specificity of 98.13% for the combination of the three immunohistochemical markers used together in accurately assessing the invasion into muscularis propria. Smoothelin positive predictive value for muscularis propria was very high (96.49%) whereas very low (2.8%) for muscularis mucosa. Immunohistochemistry picked up 3/70 cases that were wrongly diagnosed as invasive (florid desmoplastic response was mistaken for muscularis propria layer). Vimentin showed a moderately high sensitivity and specificity (accuracy of 81.25%) for myofibroblasts in the neighbouring area around tumour thereby assisting in picking up desmoplasia. Immunohistochemistry panel composed of SMA, smoothelin, and vimentin should be used as per the algorithm suggested. This will aid in accurately labelling the muscularis propria and rule out false positive & false negative invasions.

      PubDate: Wed, 18 Feb 2015 03:53:44 GMT
       
  • Facial demodex infestation among HIV seropositive and seronegative
           subjects

    • Abstract: 2015-01-29T09-34-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Beuy Joob, Chandrigra Singaraja.
      The skin disorder is usually an important problem in the patients with the problem of impaired immunity. The superficial dermatological problems can be seen in HIV infected patients but is not commonly mentioned in dermatology. In fact, in HIV infected cases, several problems can be seen such as onychomycosis, Tinea capitis, etc. Here, the authors report on the observation of facial demodex infestation, a rarely mentioned ectoparasitosis, among HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. A small preliminary survey with improved transparent tape method was performed on 50 HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. The prevalence rate of facial demodex infestation among HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects are equal 74 % and 46 %, respectively. Based on the present study, the similar prevalence of infestation among seronegative subjects to the previous publication on prevalence among healthy adults (44 %). Focusing on the prevalence among HIV infected patients, it is significantly higher than the rate among HIV seronegative group. This report is the pioneer work that addresses the importance of high prevalence of demodex infestation among HIV seropositive patients.

      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jan 2015 04:28:55 GMT
       
 
 
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