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Journal Cover Advance Laboratory Medicine International
  [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2228-8961 - ISSN (Online) 2228-8961
   Published by ScopeMed Homepage  [98 journals]
  • Alterations in Serum Electrolytes in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

    • Abstract: 2016-06-24T23-15-26Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Usha Adiga, Malawadi BN.
      Electrolyte disturbances are often reported in type 2 diabetics and known to originate due to multiple etiologies.It is less researched area in Indian settings which calls for a study on this topic.Objective of the study was to compare the electrolyte levels in type 2 diabetes patients with that of nondiabetic controls as well as to find the correlation of electrolytes with renal disorder of diabetes mellitus. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out in a medical college teaching hospital with 50 type 2 diabetics and 46 non-diabetic controls. Data was obtained from our clinical biochemistry laboratory attached to the 400 bedded teaching hospital. Roche electrolyte analyzer was used to measure serum electrolytes. It works on the principle of ion selective electrodes. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using MDRD formula and it is taken as the diagnostic tool for renal disorder of diabetes mellitus. Significant lowering of sodium and chloride levels were observed in diabetics compared to controls ( p=0.0096 and p=0.0236 respectively). Potassium, even though slightly elevated in patients, statistically wasn’t significant. Calcium didn't differ between both the groups. We found electrolytes in normal reference interval even though we found lowered sodium and chloride levels in patients. But this is an alarming sign to be aware of electrolyte derangements in diabetics and be ready with the treatment options to avoid fatalities associated with electrolyte derangements.

      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2016 07:00:44 GMT
       
  • Gas chromatographic separation of plasma fatty acids and possible
           relationship between their levels and the metabolic syndrome in Egyptian
           obese subjects.

    • Abstract: 2016-06-19T23-16-26Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Rana H Emara, Gihane Ibrahim Khalil, Nawal A ElSayed,Kamal M Ahmed, Moataza Mahmoud.
      The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. A high intake of fat may influence the progression of obesity, and dietary fat quality may affect insulin sensitivity. The fatty acid (FA) composition of serum lipid esters [cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids] mirrors dietary FA intakes over the previous few weeks and also reflects endogenous FA metabolism. Consequently, the FA composition in serum lipids can be used as a biomarker of fat quality, but also as an indicator of disease risk. The present study aimed at determining the relationship between plasma fatty acids levels and the metabolic syndrome. The study included 70 cases diagnosed as MetS according to the IDF criteria and 70 controls not diagnosed as metabolic syndrome. To all subjects included in the study , a detailed history taking and complete physical examination were performed. In addition, fasting glucose, lipid profile, fasting insulin using chemiluminescent assay and plasma fatty acids profile using gas chromatography were determined. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostatic Assessment Model (HOMA-IR). MetS patients had significantly higher levels of myristic (14:0), arachidonic (20:0), palmitoleic (16:1), n-6 PUFA ; GLA(18:3n-6). They also had significantly lower levels of palmitic (16:0) , stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), n-3 PUFA, EPA(20:5n-3) and DHA(22:6n-3). The ratio between n-6 and n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The present study showed that total level of plasma PUFA, total n-3 PUFA and total n-6 correlated negatively with HOMA-IR in controls. In addition, Linoleic (18:2n-6) was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR in cases . In addition, both eicosadienoic (20:2n-6) and DGLA (20:3n-6) were positively correlated with HOMA-IR in cases. There is a weak positive correlation between the ratios of n-6:n3 PUFA and IR in both cases and controls. Plasma fatty acids profile is very useful laboratory tool for the prediction of occurrence of insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 DM. It could be used as a screening test for prevention of occurrence of insulin resistance and related cardiovascular disease.

      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2016 02:57:22 GMT
       
  • Seroprevalence of Zika virus in Cambodia: a preliminary report

    • Abstract: 2016-06-08T23-15-25Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Kim San, Veera Rajadhan.
      Zika virus is the present global health problem. It presently widely spreads in America. The information on its epidemiology in other areas is limited but very interesting. Here, the authors report an interesting preliminary data on the seroprevalence of Zika virus in Cambodia, a tropical country with high prevalence of dengue in Southeast Asia.

      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2016 05:43:15 GMT
       
  • Screening for Helicobacter pylori in Cambodia: economical analysis

    • Abstract: 2016-06-08T23-15-25Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Kim San, Veera Rajadhan.
      Gastric cancer is an important kind of gastrointestinal carcinoma. Presently, it is accepted that gastric cancer has a strong relationship to Helicobacter pylori infection. Screening for H. pylori becomes a new issue in gastric cancer prevention. Here, the author studies and discusses on the use of H. pylori screening as a strategy for gastric cancer prevention based on economical analysis in a scenario of a tropical developing country, Cambodia. According to this study, The finalized cost per unit utility (in 1,000,000 people scale) is equal to 4,950,496 and 4,255,320 US dollars for males and females. For individual scale (1 case), the unit cost is equal to 4.96 and 4.32 US dollars.

      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2016 04:43:40 GMT
       
  • Infectious waste from ex-hospital laboratory: a data from a rural
           province, Thailand

    • Abstract: 2016-05-12T04-27-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Patthamaporn Apaijitt; Vechayan Kanchan ; Viroj Wiwanitkit.
      This short letter to editor is for presenting and discussing on the primary data of amount of infectious waste generated from ex-hospital laboratory. This kind of primary data is rarely published and not easily available in the laboratory medicine literature.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2016 05:32:58 GMT
       
  • Superficial skin ulcers: histopathological analysis and review of the
           literature

    • Abstract: 2016-03-08T09-17-05Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Oluwole OP, Taiwo JO, Awani KU, Adeniran JO.
      Superficial skin ulcers are common clinical problems in the tropics and these pose a major diagnostic challenge to both clinicians and pathologists. The objective of this study is to determine the histological pattern of superficial skin ulcer in our environment. This is a 2-year retrospective histopathological analysis of superficial skin ulcers diagnosed at the Histopathological Unit of Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja, Nigeria, between August 2007 and July 2009. Clinical information and biodata were extracted from histopathology request cards. Histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) was retrieved. Periodic acid Schiff, Gomori methenamine silver and Ziehl Neelson stains were done for cases of chronic granulomatous inflammation to exclude fungal or mycobacterial infection. A total of 19 cases of superficial skin ulcers were analyzed. The age range was 20-69 years with the mean age of 44.5 years. There were 16 males and 3 females. The peak age frequency was in the third decade (20-29 years). The spectrum of lesions in this analysis was categorized into inflammatory, infections, benign and malignant diseases. A total of 6 (31.5%) cases of granulomatous inflammation, two (10.5%) non-specific inflammation, lobular capillary haemangioma 3 (15.8%) and one (5.3%) intermediate mesenchymal tumour- dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans were found. The most common malignant tumour was squamous cell carcinoma 5 (26.3%); this was followed by one (5.3%) case each of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Superficial skin ulcers are common in the tropics and could undergo malignant transformation, if medical intervention is not sought early. So there is need for a high index of suspicion, adequate tissue biopsy and early histopathological diagnosis.

      PubDate: Sat, 05 Mar 2016 06:59:14 GMT
       
  • A 5-year retrospective study of prostate cancer in Gwagwalada, Abuja,
           Nigeria

    • Abstract: 2016-03-08T09-17-05Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Oluwole OP, Abimiku BA, Mukhtar AU, Aisuodionoe-Shadrach OI.
      In the United States and Europe, prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer. However, in spite of under-estimation and reporting of cancer burden in Pathology-based cancer registries in the developing countries; prostate cancer is now ranked among the emerging male malignancy. The objective of this work is to study of prostate cancer among histopathology specimens diagnosed at University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (U.A.T.H), Gwagwalada over a 5-year period. This is a 5-year retrospective histopathological analysis of prostate cancer diagnosed between January 2005- December 2009 in the Department of Histopathology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja. The materials consisted of tissue blocks, slides and duplicate histopathology reports of patients whose prostatic biopsy specimens had been received and processed in the Histopathology laboratory of the hospital. The method of diagnosis is by reviewing of histopathological glass slides and where the slides were not available, paraffin tissue blocks were retrieved, histologic sections were made by microtome machine, mounted on the glass slides; stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and viewed through Olympus microscope. Three consultant pathologists blinded reviewed the slides; they were in agreement over the diagnosis. The setting of the study is a tertiary hospital in the Federal capital city of Nigeria, Gwagwalada, Abuja. The tumours were classified based on WHO classification of Prostatic tumours1. Histological grading was done using Gleason grading system. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Teaching Hospital for this study. Sixty-six (66) cases of prostate cancer were studied. The age range was between 40-89 years with a mean of 64.5 years. There were two bimodal age peaks at the seventh and eighth decades in elderly men. The surgical procedures were Trucut biopsies 64 (96.9%) and 2 (3.1%) cases of prostatectomy. The Gleason scores range from 4 to 10. Three (4.5%) patients with prostate cancers were seen before the age of 50 years. There were 9 (13.6%) cases of well differentiated, 37 (56.0%) cases of moderately differentiated and 20 (30.4%) cases of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. No other histological type was seen. The result was analyzed and presented in the form of pie chart. In this study, there were bimodal age peaks of prostate cancer at the sixth and seventh decades in the elderly men, while moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is the most common presentation.

      PubDate: Sat, 05 Mar 2016 06:56:58 GMT
       
  • Decreasing level of CEA in a colon cancer patient after nimotuzumab
           therapy

    • Abstract: 2016-03-02T09-17-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Moreh Mirander, Gonzalez Mirander.
      Using tumor maker is a widely used technique in laboratory medicine. For any new drug, the observation of laboratory result in monitoring and follow-up of a cancerous patient is interesting. In this letter to editor, the authors report on an observation on decreasing CEA level in a colon cancer patient after nimotuzumab. This is an interesting report on effect of nimotuzumab on CEA level in color cancer.

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Mar 2016 20:49:02 GMT
       
  • Oxidative stress and fungal diseases

    • Abstract: 2016-02-20T04-17-11Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Meral Miraloglu.
      Fungal disease is an increasing problem in both agriculture and human health. Treatment of human fungal disease involves the use of chemical fungicides, which generally target the integrity of the fungal plasma membrane or cell Wall. Chemical fungicides used for the treatment of plant diseases, have more diverse mechanisms of action including inhibition of sterol biosynthesis, microtubule assembly and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, these treatments have limitations, including toxicity and the emergence of resistance. This has led to increased interest in the use of antimicrobial peptides for the treatment of fungal disease in both plants and humans. Antimicrobial peptides are a diverse group of molecules with differing mechanisms of action, many of which remain poorly understood. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that stress response pathways are involved in the tolerance of fungi to both chemical fungicides and antimicrobial peptides. These signalling pathways such as the cell wall integrity and high-osmolarity glycerol pathway are triggered by stimuli, such as cell wall instability, changes in osmolarity and production of reactive oxygen species.

      PubDate: Fri, 19 Feb 2016 07:23:03 GMT
       
  • Cervical carcinoma, still a burden: histopathological analysis and review
           of the literature

    • Abstract: 2016-02-20T04-17-11Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Oluwole OP,Okoyomo OO, Onile TG, Alabi OO, Gbejegbe JO.
      Globally there are over 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer annually and in excess of 270,000 deaths, accounting for 9% of female cancer deaths. 85% of cases occur in developing countries and in Africa it is the commonest cancer in women with incidence frequently equating with mortality in the absence of healthcare facilities to deal with the disease. The Objective is to show that cervical cancer is the commonest cancer among women in our environment and to do its histopathological analysis. This is a 2-year retrospective histopathological analysis of cervical carcinoma diagnosed during August 2007 to July 2009, in the Histopathology Unit of Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja, Kogi State. Clinical information and biodata were extracted from histopathology request cards. Histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) were retrieved and reviewed by two Consultant pathologists who were blinded. Eighteen (18) cases of cervical cancer were reviewed. The age range was between 30-89 years with mean age of 58.5 years. The peak age in this analysis was in the sixth decade with 8 (44.4%), one (5.6%) case each was recorded in the fourth and ninth decades, while 5 (27.7%) and 3 (16.7%) cases were recorded in the seventh and fifth decades respectively. The most common histological type was squamous cell carcinoma; in this review we found the ova schistosoma haematobium was associated with the cancer in a particular patient. Cervical cancer is still prevalent in our environment due poor accessibility to screening facility and skewed distribution of health resources that is concentrated in urban centres.

      PubDate: Mon, 15 Feb 2016 09:12:07 GMT
       
  • Combined osmotic fragility (OF) and dichlorophenol-indolephenol (DCIP)
           tests for screening for hemoglobin disorder: a reappraisal on the
           diagnostic property from real usage.

    • Abstract: 2016-01-18T23-16-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Beuy Joob.
      Hemoglobin disorders is an important public health problem in Thailand. There have been several trials on many screening methods for detection of hemoglobin disorder among Thai pregnants and good screening property of combined method between osmotic fragility (OF) and dichlorophenol-indolphenol (DCIP) can be seen. For a few years, the combined test has been launched to the rural hospital communities of Thailand, where the high prevalence of disorder is documented. Here, the author performed a reappraisal on usefulness of the program in Thai rural hospitals. According to this study, 3 complete reports on the using of OF and DCIP tests screening for antenatal clinic in rural communities were recruited for further study. All 4,902 pregnant subjects were screened and 2,232 got positive screening results (45.5 %). Of overall 2,232 positive cases from screening, 1,243 cases with confirmed disorder could be detected. According to this study, the overall positive predictive value for the real usage of the combined screening test is about 55 %. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the test cannot be calculated due to the lack of reported data. The expected possibility of any pregnant subjects visiting the antenatal clinic in this study to have hemoglobin disorder is equal to 25.02 %.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jan 2016 06:07:51 GMT
       
  • Osteoporosis associated with aromatase inhibitors is different from
           post-menopausal osteoporosis

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Hasan Mutlu, Tuncay Aslan, Güler Silov Yılmaz, Abdülsamet Erden, Yasemin Benderli Cihan, Zeki Akca, Arzu Aksahin, Abdullah Büyükçelik.
      Osteoporotic effects are one of the known side effects of aromatase inhibitors that are used in the treatment of breast cancer. In our study, osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with the use of aromatase inhibitors were examined for their difference compared to postmenopausal osteopenia and osteoporosis. Total 84 patients admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were included in the study. 103 patients without any malignancy were enrolled as control group. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results of the groups were compared. There was significant difference between the groups when the regions with the lowest bone mineral density were compared and femoral involvement was more prevalent in patients on aromatase inhibitors compared to the other group (p=0,014). Furthermore, there was significant difference for the regions with the lowest bone density in femur (p=0,015). Osteopenic and osteoporotic response in patients using aromatase inhibitors is different from the patients who do not use aromatase inhibitors and femoral region is more commonly affected compared to the other regions.

      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 01:23:47 GMT
       
  • Stable isotope breath test: is it problematic in post nuclear crisis'

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Beuy Joob, Arran Pumawa, Rajendraraj Prasadsingh.
      The application of isotope in medicine is helpful and this can be used in several physiological testing. A well-known isotope test for physiological assessment of gastrointestinal function is “stable isotope breath test”. In this letter, the authors raise a question whether [(13) C]-Spirulina platensis gastric emptying breath test is problematic in post nuclear crisis

      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2012 16:41:09 GMT
       
  • The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio may be an indicator of advanced disease in
           patietns with non small cell lung cancer

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Hasan Mutlu, Abdülsamet Erden, Tuncay Aslan, Zeki Akca, Arzu Aksahin, Abdullah Büyükçelik.
      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in both men and women. Some studies have identified that neutrophils stimulate tumor angiogenesis and these studies have determined that the elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is a poor prognostic factor for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In presented study we aimed to evaluate the prognostic implications of the neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio in patients with NSCLC. Between 2009-2012, total of 207 consequitive patients with NSCLC from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital were analysed retrospectively, using hospital records. The patients were divided to two groups according to N/L ratio>5 or 5 was 6,80±1,07 months, OS of patients with N/L ratio 5 was higher in patients with advanced stage. The higher N/L ratio may be a result of tumor pathogenesis in patients with cancer and the higher N/L ratio (>5) may be a indicator for advanced disease in patients with NSCLC. The higher N/L ratio effected survival but it was not independent factor for survival.

      PubDate: Sun, 16 Dec 2012 16:25:46 GMT
       
 
 
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