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Journal Cover   Advance Laboratory Medicine International
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2228-8961 - ISSN (Online) 2228-8961
   Published by ScopeMed Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Role of immunohistochemistry in differentiating muscularis mucosae and
           muscularis propria as an aid to accurate staging of invasive urothelial
           carcinoma: a pilot study

    • Abstract: 2015-02-23T09-31-21Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Prateek Kinra, Ajay Malik, Vibha Dutta.
      The common prognostic markers for urothelial neoplasms include- tumour grade, invasion into muscle, vascular invasion, histological type, lymph node status and currently molecular markers. However the single most important prognostic marker that has stood the test of time is the extent of invasion into muscularis propria. Treatment of bladder carcinoma is determined by the stage (depth of invasion). Distinguishing bladder muscularis propria from muscularis mucosae can be problematic especially in small transurethral resection specimens cut tangentially. Florid desmoplasia and hyperplastic muscularis mucosa is commonly mistaken for muscularis propria. The sections of 70 cases of urothelial carcinoma were subjected to immunohistochemistry by the three immunohistochemical stains [vimentin (for mesenchymal cells-myofibroblasts), Smooth Muscle Actin (for smooth muscle cells) and smoothelin (specific for muscularis propria)]. Our study showed a sensitivity of 98.23% & specificity of 98.13% for the combination of the three immunohistochemical markers used together in accurately assessing the invasion into muscularis propria. Smoothelin positive predictive value for muscularis propria was very high (96.49%) whereas very low (2.8%) for muscularis mucosa. Immunohistochemistry picked up 3/70 cases that were wrongly diagnosed as invasive (florid desmoplastic response was mistaken for muscularis propria layer). Vimentin showed a moderately high sensitivity and specificity (accuracy of 81.25%) for myofibroblasts in the neighbouring area around tumour thereby assisting in picking up desmoplasia. Immunohistochemistry panel composed of SMA, smoothelin, and vimentin should be used as per the algorithm suggested. This will aid in accurately labelling the muscularis propria and rule out false positive & false negative invasions.

      PubDate: Wed, 18 Feb 2015 03:53:44 GMT
  • Facial demodex infestation among HIV seropositive and seronegative

    • Abstract: 2015-01-29T09-34-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Beuy Joob, Chandrigra Singaraja.
      The skin disorder is usually an important problem in the patients with the problem of impaired immunity. The superficial dermatological problems can be seen in HIV infected patients but is not commonly mentioned in dermatology. In fact, in HIV infected cases, several problems can be seen such as onychomycosis, Tinea capitis, etc. Here, the authors report on the observation of facial demodex infestation, a rarely mentioned ectoparasitosis, among HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. A small preliminary survey with improved transparent tape method was performed on 50 HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. The prevalence rate of facial demodex infestation among HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects are equal 74 % and 46 %, respectively. Based on the present study, the similar prevalence of infestation among seronegative subjects to the previous publication on prevalence among healthy adults (44 %). Focusing on the prevalence among HIV infected patients, it is significantly higher than the rate among HIV seronegative group. This report is the pioneer work that addresses the importance of high prevalence of demodex infestation among HIV seropositive patients.

      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jan 2015 04:28:55 GMT
  • Histopathological evaluation of renal biopsy in a tertiary care center in
           South India

    • Abstract: 2014-11-13T08-33-21Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Nisha Jayashankar Marla, Ramesh Naik, Prashanth Kumar, Hilda Fernandes, Jayaprakash CS, Kirana Pailoor.
      Current study was done to evaluate the histopathological findings in glomerulopathies and to correlate the histopathological findings with the clinical disease. Thirty cases of renal biopsy were studied. All biopsies were collected in Bouin’s fluid and processed routinely. Slides were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Methanamine silver (PASM) were done as and when required. Immunofluorescence was performed and was correlated with clinical and microscopic findings in all cases. Among thirty renal biopsies, primary glomerulonephritis accounted for 70% and secondary glomerulonephritis accounted for 30%. Among primary glomerulonephritis, most predominant lesion was focal segmental glomerulosclerosis(FSGS) (28.5%) and post infectious glomerulonephritis (28.5%) followed by minimal change disease(MCD) (14.3%), membranous glomerulonephritis (9.5%), crescentric glomerulonephritis (4.8%). membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (4.8%), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (4.8%), chronic glomerulonephritis (4.8%). Among secondary glomerulonephritis predominant lesion was systemic lupus nephritis (66.7%) followed by diabetes mellitus (22.2%) and amyloidosis (11.1%). Among primary glomerulonephritis increase in occurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and post infectious glomerulonephritis was noted. Among secondary glomerulonephritis increase in occurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus was noted.

      PubDate: Tue, 11 Nov 2014 16:20:29 GMT
  • Clinico-pathological study of adnexal tumors of skin

    • Abstract: 2014-11-13T08-33-21Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Nisha Jayashankar Marla, Ramesh Naik, Prashanth Kumar, Hilda Fernandes, Jayaprakash CS, Kirana Pailoor.
      The aims of this work is to determine the spectrum of histopathological patterns of Adnexal tumors of skin, to characterise the tumors histologically according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification system for skin adnexal tumors and to analyse the tumor with regard to behaviour, anatomic location and sex of the patient. The study was conducted retrospectively at the department of Pathology; in a Tertiary care Hospital in South India. Study duration was 3 years from June 2009 to June 2012. All the Adnexal tumors received during this period were collected and Hematoxylin and Eosin and slides of special stains of the same were reviewed and lesion were characterised according to WHO classification system for Skin Adnexal Tumors. 40 cases of Adnexal tumors were diagnosed during the study period. 36 cases (90%) were benign, while 4 cases (10%) were malignant. Tumors were observed more commonly in females with M: F ratio of 1.5:2. Most tumors were localized to head and neck region (62.5%), followed by trunk and upper limb (27.5%), abdomen and lower limb (7.5%) and labia majora (2.5%). Most common tumors were Eccrine tumors 18 cases (45%), followed by 12cases (30%) of Pilar tumors, 7 cases (17.5%) of Apocrine tumors and least common being tumors with sebaceous differentiation 3 cases (7.5%). Practically adnexal tumors of Skin have been historically classified into 4 groups. However, in some cases, the diagnosis of Adnexal neoplasm presents unique difficulties. Although most of these tumors are benign, it is important to diagnose them accurately, if incompletely excised can recur and evaluation of margins is recommended.

      PubDate: Tue, 11 Nov 2014 16:16:23 GMT
  • Dynamics of combined oral contraceptive: a study of some biochemical
           parameters in female wistar rats

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Joseph Emberga Toryila, Amadi K, Odeh SA, Adelaiye AB, Egesie UG, Achie LN.
      Contraception is an important health issue in preventive medicine because it protects women globally from the effects of unwanted pregnancy and allows them to integrate into society. Uncontrolled childbearing in underdeveloped countries carries a significant risk of maternal death. Combined oral contraceptive (COC) is the most reliable method of contraception. COCs are currently among the most commonly used drugs in developed countries; over one hundred million women worldwide are currently using oral contraceptives. Estrogens and oral contraceptives are both associated with several liver related complications including intrahepatic cholestasis, sinusoidal dilatation, hepatic adenomas, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic venous thrombosis and an increased risk of gallstones. These side effects are more common with higher doses of estrogens, as were used in the early high-dose estrogen formulation of oral contraceptives, but they have also been described with use of more modern birth control pills and with low dose, estrogen hormonal replacement therapy. This research priority included efforts to discover the effect of COC (DUOFEM) on biochemical parameters. Eighty (80) female wistar rats aged 10-12 weeks weighing 180-250 g were used for the study. They were divided into four groups of 20 rats each comprising 10 treated and 10 control rats. The treated rats received 0.6mg/kg body weight of COC intragastically for 36, 48, 60 and 72 days in five-day cycles (four-days treatment with one-day break). The COC was given intragastically in 5-day cycles (4-day treatment with 1-day break). All controls were given fresh water at ad libitum daily for the period of the experiment. Serum electrolytes determined using Audicom AC99000 and liver function tests by ELISA method. Liver and kidney tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were all elevated in treated groups compared to controls (P

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Aug 2014 07:51:39 GMT
  • Chromogranin A – containing endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa of
           patietns with Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis type B

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Sevgi Bakaris, Ali Çetinkaya.
      The aim of the present study was to examine the chromogranin A containing endocrine cells in gastric mucosa of patients with Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis type B, histological inflammation and interactions among these parameters. In 35 patients (12 males and 23 females, median age 47 years, range 21-86 years) the gastric mucosal tissue was obtained by endoscopic biopsy from the antrum and corpus. Slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue (pH 2.5), periodic acid Schiff, modified Giemsa for Helicobacter pylori, and chromogranin A to visualize endocrine cells. Biopsy specimens were assessed histologically according to the Sydney system. The mean number of stained cells was calculated by counting the number of cells per visual field when using a x 40 objective and a x10 eye piece. Cell counts were made on two visual fields in one section from each specimen (three specimen per site). We studied 24 patients positive for Helicobacter pylori and 11 negative patients. The median chromogranin A containing endocrine cell number in antrum and corpus mucosa was significantly lower in Helicobacter pylori positive than in Helicobacter pylori negative patients (respectively p< 0.01, p< 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between endocrine cell numbers and Helicobacter pylori of the gastric mucosa. On the other hand, endocrine cell numbers of the antral gastric mucosa significantly decreased with inflammatory change associated with Helicobacter pylori gastritis but did not in corpus. This decrease was correlated with the grade of active inflammation and chronic inflammation, which was in close relation to Helicobacter pylori infection. Besides endocrine cell were irregularly distributed, close to inflammatory areas, or near lymphoid follicles. These results indicate that, suggesting a close relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric chromogranin A regulation. A close correlation between an decrease in gastric chromogranin levels and the histologic activity was also present, suggesting that certain peptide-immune reactions in the gastric mucosa exist in HP infection.

      PubDate: Thu, 21 Aug 2014 02:43:00 GMT
  • Genotoxic Effects of Antidepressant Reboxetine in Human Peripheral

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Lale Dönbak, Osman Turan Dal, Mustafa Çelik.
      Antidepressants are drugs of long-term use to treat various psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, chronic pain and are administered to numberless patients. There is some evidence that these drugs might cause the occurence of a mutagenic and/or genotoxic effects. In this study, possible genotoxic effect of reboxetine (Edronax)- a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NARI)-was investigated by using the sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and micronucleus (MN) analysis. The levels of SCE, CA, and MN were determined in human peripheral lymphocytes treated with five different concentrations of reboxetine (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 µg/ml) for both 24 and 48 h and compared with those of negative control. SCE frequency was significantly higher in cells treated with higher concentrations of reboxetine with regard to control. Elevation in the level of CA showed correlation with the increasing reboxetine concentrations both in 24 and 48 h treated cells. Similarly MN frequeny was significantly increased in a dose dependent manner in cells treated for 48 h. However, replication index (RI) and nuclear division index (NDI) were not affected by treatment of reboxetine. Obtained results indicate that reboxetine may demonstrate genotoxic activity in human cells.

      PubDate: Thu, 21 Aug 2014 02:40:20 GMT
  • Clinicopathologic relevance of angiogenesis and mast cells in basal cell
           carcinomas of skin

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Sevgi Bakaris, Muharrem Bitiren.
      Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the skin. We aim to investigate the correlation between tumor vascularization and mast cells with clinicopathologic parameters in BCC. Intratumoral microvessels were stained with anti-CD34 antibody and mast cells with toluidine blue in 45 BCC lesions. A significant correlation was noted between microvessels density (MVD) and mast cell density (MCD) values (p

      PubDate: Wed, 20 Aug 2014 05:20:07 GMT
  • Genotoxic risk of workers from offset printing offices

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Lale Dönbak, Hatice Avan, Ahmet Kayraldız.
      In the present study, a cytogenetic monitoring was carried out to investigate genotoxic risk of workers occupationally exposed to chemicals used in offset printing. The levels of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei (MN) were analysed in the lymphocytes from 30 male workers. The results were compared with a control group consisting of 20 subjects similar to workers with respect to gender, age, and habit. The mean frequencies of CA, SCE, and MN were significantly higher in workers (P

      PubDate: Wed, 20 Aug 2014 05:17:20 GMT
  • Evaluation of reference values and biological variations for neuron
           – specific enolase in sterile human urine

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      ergul belge kurutas, Meral Miraloglu.
      The analytical, intra-individual and inter-individual variations for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were determined and the reference values were established in sterile human urine. A total 400 apparently healthy people, 192 male and 208 female (from 25 to 63 years, average 44 years old), were randomly selected from villages and cities of the southern part of Turkey. Reference values of NSE were established from this population. Furhermore, biological variations of NSE were assessed in 20 apparently healthy subjects for over thirty-day period. NSE activity in spot urines of all individual were determined by ELISA method. The mean value (standard deviation) of the population investigated for NSE was 0.496±0.136 ng/mg Cr. Furhermore, the analytical, intra-individual and inter-individual variations were assessed in 20 apparently healthy subjects and were found to be; NSE: 5.0 %, 20.2% and 14.2%. The results of the index individuality showed that reference values of NSE could be used for diagnostic purposes in various diseases.

      PubDate: Wed, 20 Aug 2014 05:14:25 GMT
  • Workload measurement in governmental primary health care medical
           laboratories- Gaza Strip, Palestine

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Reem Tawfeek Abu Shomar.
      A realistic and accurate assessment of laboratory workload is necessary for effective laboratory management. Workload, the sum of the work achieved or to be achieved, is obtained by multiplying the raw count of each individual procedure by its unit value expressed in units (minutes). For many years, there had been dissatisfaction with the existing method of assessing workload since it doesn't reflect the complexity which varies from test to test. The objective of this work is to develop workload measurement through determination of workload unit values for laboratory tests performed at PHC medical Laboratories and once developed, it will serve as a management tool. Methodology: Time studies were performed by well trained medical technologists on tests performed by Primary Health Care (PHC) laboratories. The study presented the results of unit values per test. An examples were the unit values for Hb, CBC, WBCs, ESR, and Blood grouping & Rh which were 3.5, 2.7, 6.0, 3.3, and 4.1 minutes respectively. Also for Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, Uric Acid, Cholesterol, and Triglyceride the results for unit values were 6.3, 7.9, 8.1, 6.6, 6.5, and 6.5 minutes respectively. The authors recommend utilization of workload unit values determined through the conduction of time studies to develop workload measurement system in the governmental medical PHC laboratories.

      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jun 2014 05:23:34 GMT
  • Cytological appraisal of male thyroid lesions in a tertiary care center

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Deepak Kumar B, Vani BR, Padmapriya Kasukurti, Srinivasa Murthy V.
      It is an established fact that although the prevalence of thyroid nodules is lower in males, the risk of malignancy in males with nodules is significantly higher. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is recommended as the initial diagnostic test for such patients because of its simplicity, reliability, sensitivity and specificity. This study was undertaken to determine the proportion of various thyroid lesions in males based on FNA in our set up; to highlight the importance of FNA as an initial diagnostic tool based on its accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in male sex and to discuss the gender variability of thyroid malignancy. A retrospective analysis of male thyroid lesions was conducted over a 30-month period from Jan 2011 to June 2013. FNA aspiration results were classified into six groups as Non-diagnostic or unsatisfactory, Benign, Atypia of undetermined significance, Follicular Neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Suspicious for malignancy and Malignant. Surgical pathology result was categorized as benign or malignant with specific subtyping of lesions. 89 cases of male thyroid lesions were studied cytologically, out of which histopathological correlation was available in 17% of cases. 13.7% of malignancies were detected. FNA showed a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 85%, accuracy of 80%., PPV of 85%, NPV of 75%, FPR of 14% and FNR of 25%. FNA in male thyroid proves to be a very valuable and readily available tool for evaluating thyroid lesions with a high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, and is of immense help in defining the extent of surgery.

      PubDate: Thu, 15 May 2014 07:17:32 GMT
  • Could adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activity be an indicator of
           active hepatitis B'

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Selma Ates Guler, Fatma İnanc Tolun, Melike Yavuz.
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum levels of ADA and XO in the patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and inactive hepatitis (IH) and to compare the findings with the healthy controls. Association between the activity of these enzymes and the severity of disease was also evaluated. This study consisted of 95 chronic hepatitis B patients and 67 healthy controls. Patients were divided into two groups as IH (n=45) and CAH (n=50). ADA and XO activities were measured using spectrophotometry. While the levels of ADA and XO were significantly different between the controls and the CAH and also with IH patients (p=0.002, p=0.000), no significant differences were noted between the CAH and IH groups. There were also weak correlations between serum ADA and DNA, and also between serum ADA and XSO levels (r=-0.283, p= 0.046; r=-277, p= 0.05). increased levels of ADA and XO can be an indicator of hepatocyte damage in the patients with hepatitis. However, since there was no significant difference between CAH and IH groups based on the levels of these enzymes, they cannot be considered as useful tools in the differentiation of active and inactive hepatitis.

      PubDate: Sun, 20 Apr 2014 05:41:32 GMT
  • Evaluation of Albumin/Globulin and De Ritis ratios as the cost effective
           tools for differential diagnosis of hepatitis

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Gadasala Soma Sekhar, Srinivasan AR, Mohamed Hanifah, Niranjan Gopal.
      The study was primarily undertaken to check the efficacy of De Ritis ratio as a simple, sensitive, reliable and economical biochemical indicator of liver diseases especially alcoholic liver disease. The study was also focused on the controversy surrounding De Ritis ratio as an unequivocal marker of liver diseases. Our study indicated that the De Ritis ratio based on the levels of non-functional proteins is a better indicator of liver diseases in comparison to the ratio of Albumin and Globulin (based on plasma functional proteins). De Ritis ratio values were 1.01+ 0.24, 1.49+ 0.74 and 2.39+ 0.94** respectively with viral hepatitis, non viral hepatitis and Alcoholic liver disease. De Ritis ratio was highly significant as also the Total bilirubin (p-value 0.000 for both). Hence, the De Ritis ratio could be used in association with serum total bilirubin in differentiating Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) from viral (VH) and non viral hepatitis (NVH). The levels of Total protein and Albumin in serum and also the Albumin/ Globulin ratio were insignificant, thereby implying that the ratio of the Non-functional proteins (AST/ALT—the de Ritis ratio) could be used as an independent and reliable indicator of liver diseases in general and ALD in particular.

      PubDate: Thu, 10 Apr 2014 07:28:06 GMT
  • Relationship between antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in patients
           with chronic hepatitis B

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Selma ATES GULER, Fatma Inanc Tolun, Hasan Ucmak, Gulcan Haskaya, Melike Yavuz.
      The hepatitis B virus is a significant pathogen that causes cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer as a result of the damage it causes to liver cells. Its infection affects more than 400 million people globally. Although there is an effective vaccine and treatment methods, almost 1, 000, 000 people die every year. We aimed to evaluate the oxidant and antioxidant systems in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB). 50 patients with inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) carrier state (IHBCS), 44 patients with CHB and 50 healthy adults were included in this study. The following values were measured and compared in all groups: Glutatyon peroksidaz (Gpx), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In patients with chronic hepatitis B, these values were compared with groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), MPO, MDA levels were higher in the CHB group compared to the other groups (p values

      PubDate: Fri, 07 Mar 2014 02:05:43 GMT
  • Biological variations of Xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase in sterile
           human urine

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Meral Miraloglu, Ergul Belge Kurutas, Pınar Ciragil.
      The analytical, intra-individual and inter-individual variations were determined for xanthine oxidase (XO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the reference values were established. A total of 380 apparently healthy people, 177 male and 203 female (from 20 to 82 years, average 40 years old), were randomly selected from villages and cities of the southern part of Turkey. XO and MPO activities in human sterile urine samples were measured by spectrophometric method. The distributions were Gaussian and no significant difference was observed between the male and female subjects. The mean value (standard deviation) of the population investigated for XO was 414.0 (93.3) U/L, and for MPO 104.5 (49.2) U/L, respectively. The analytical, intra-individual and interindividual variations were assessed in 20 apparently healthy subjects and were found to be; XO: 6.2 %, 21.2%, and 19.2% MPO: 4.0%, 16.4%, 11.7% respectively. The results of the index individuality showed that reference values of XO and MPO could be used for diagnostic purposes in various diseases.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:38:47 GMT
  • The laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus infection, a review

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Kameel Mungrue..
      Since no protective vaccine or specific treatments are available for dengue fever accurate diagnosis is critical for the early initiation of specific preventive health measures to curtail epidemic spread and reduce economic losses as well as the timely monitoring of patients to prevent fatalities. Commonly used diagnostic methods for confirming dengue infection involve virus isolation, detection of virus antigen or RNA, and the presence of dengue virus-specific antibodies.

      PubDate: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 07:04:22 GMT
  • Adenosine deaminase and its isoenzyme as a diagnostic marker in tubercular

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Mrinal Pal, Subinay Datta, Chinmoy Ghosh, Partha Sarathi Das, Tarasankar Malik.
      Mortality and residual morbidity is quit high in tubercular meningitis particular in children. Several investigations have been developed for early diagnosis but this sill poses a lot of diagnostic problem in developing countries like India. So, the present study was performed to search a quick and definite investigation for easy and rapid diagnosis of tubercular meningitis and CSF ADA and its isoenzymes activity was selected to differentiate between tubercular and non-tubercular meningitis. Among 57 meningitis patients, 27 were tubercular, 13 were pyogenic, 12 were viral and 6 were cerebral malaria selected. Cerebrospinal fluid total ADA and ADA2 activity were measured and compared with 23 healthy controls and within the infective meningitis. The CSF ADA activity was significantly elevated in all infective meningitis than control (p

      PubDate: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 07:01:45 GMT
  • Pre-preanalytical concerns on the MonoSED - SR for the new MicroSed-SR
           erythrocyte sedimentation rate analyzer

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Sora Yasri.
      The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a time-honored blood test, useful in laboratory medicine. There are several new techniques developed for determination ESR at present. Automated ESR analyzer have been launched for a few years and approved for the laboratory diagnostic property. Here, the authors reported the mechanical consideration and pre-analytical user response to the new Automated ESR analyzer. All of the phlebotomist (8 phlebotomists) noted that this new vacuum tube is not comfortable for usage due to two reasons; a) the length of the tube exceeds the fully extension span between thumb and index fingers and b) the diameter of the tube is too small comparing to the standard needle holder. They said that these two reasons bring the delay in the venipuncture process for 1 – 2 minutes/ cases. The tube length of MonoSed-SR is 2 times about greater than the length of the needle holder and the diameter of MonoSed-SR is about a half of that of the needle holder. These facts make the users felt uncomfortable to use the tube. In addition, mechanical fulcrum can be expected and can bring the failure of venipuncture.

      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2013 02:14:55 GMT
  • Biomarkers for neurofibromatosis

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Faik İlik.
      Biomarkers provide a dynamic and powerful approach to understanding the spectrum of neurological disease with applications in observational and analytic epidemiology, screening, diagnosis and prognosis. Biomarkers would be useful to verify NF1 diagnosis, monitor tumor burden, and/or detect transformation. This brief review describes the major uses of biomarkers in clinical investigation.

      PubDate: Sun, 22 Sep 2013 21:14:28 GMT
  • Serum vaspin and insulin resistance: predictors of steatosis and fibrosis
           in Egyptian patients with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Ragaa Abdelkader Ramadan.
      Individual variation in the course of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is remarkable with implication of host, viral and metabolic factors as well as a suggested genotype dependent pattern. Vaspin and leptin, members of adipokines, are involved in regulation of inflammatory response and insulin resistance (IR) which has a potential role in CHC pathogenesis. Vaspin and leptin levels, viral load, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed in non-diabetic non-cirrhotic CHC-4 Egyptian patients to recognize variables independently associated with IR, steatosis, and fibrosis. This study included 175 subjects; 30 healthy volunteers with age 43.4±4.2 years, and 145 CHC-4 patients with age 44.4±5.4 years. Of the total patients, 55% had steatosis. Seven parameters were significantly associated with IR in CHC-4 patients including; body mass index (BMI), serum AST, TG, vaspin and leptin, and grades of steatosis and fibrosis. Logistic regression analysis identified TG (p=0.01) and fibrosis (p=0.001) as the independent predictors of IR. In multivariate analysis HCV viral load (p=0.03), vaspin (p=0.007), HOMA-IR (p=0.016), and HAI (p=0.009) were independently associated with grades of steatosis. The factors independently associated with liver fibrosis identified by multivariate analysis were BMI (p

      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jul 2013 09:31:18 GMT
  • Antibacterial activity of some natural Duhokian honey against clinical
           isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Iraq

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Najim Abdulla yassin, Alaa Muyassar Ahmad, Adnan Abdulla Mohammed.
      Antibiotic resistance of bacteria is on the rise, namely multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus which are resistant to all of the antibiotics in common use. Thus the discovery of alternative theuraptic agents is urgently needed. Honey is an ancient wound treatment that was re-introduced into modern medical practice and possesses therapeutic potential, including wound healing properties and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study is to investigate and comparison of antibacterial activity of four types of natural honey, found in Duhok city, with commercial one against a multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from wounds and burns infections in Duhok city, Iraq. Methods A total of 100 wound and burn swabs were collected and analyzed by screened on Blood, Mannitol salt, MacConkey and Nutrient agar followed by the identification of the isolates based on their cultural characteristics and their reactions in standard biochemical tests. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the disk diffusion technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines on Muller Hinton Agar. The antibacterial activity of four natural honeys (agriculture college honey, Barwari Bala , Emadia and Shingal) and one commercial Al-Sheefa honey was evaluated by agar diffusion assay and determination of MIC values. Of the 100 swabs, 25 (25%) swab yielded positive culture of Staphylococcus aureus; the organism exhibited high resistance rates to all used antibiotics. The all natural honeys exhibited highest antibacterial activity than commercial one. Moreover, agriculture college honey had excellent antibacterial activity, at very low concentration 5% (wt/vt) produce inhibition zones, followed by Barwari Bala, Emadia then Sningal honey. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of four types of natural honeys were found to be 5, 25, 50 and 50 %(v/v) for AC honey, Barwari Bala, Emadi and Shingal honey respectively. This study highlights that some natural Duhokian honey has complete and partial antibacterial activity when tested in vitro against a multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from wounds and burns infections.

      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jul 2013 16:49:54 GMT
  • Histopathological examination of all resected gall bladder specimens
           – Requisite or redundant?

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Vani BR, Deepak Kumar B, Srinivasa Murthy V, Padma Priya Kasukurti.
      Unsuspected gall bladder carcinoma constitutes 0.3 to 2.85% of cholecystectomies. In the light of its poor prognosis and aggressive nature, the importance of incidentally diagnosed carcinoma cannot be highlighted enough. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of various gall bladder lesions in insured patients of a model hospital and highlighting the need of gallbladder resection. Histopathological study of cholecystectomy specimens was conducted over a period of 2 years. 229 were chronic cholecystits among which 177 were associated with calculi. 27 cases were cholesterolosis, in whom 16 had associated chronic inflammation in the wall induced by calculi. Two cases of adenocarcinoma were detected in clinically and grossly unsuspected cholecystitis cases with associated gall stones (mixed type). Histopathological detection of carcinoma is a gold standard and will continue to be superior to clinical and radiological examination.

      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jun 2013 02:23:16 GMT
  • Blood glucose levels in nephritic syndrome patients undergoing renal

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Ogu Carison, Kim Cheon.
      Nephrotic syndrome is classified as a disease associated with immune impairment. Nephrotic syndrome associated with other metabolic disorders is often manifested in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the authors analyzed the prevalence of hyperglycemia in 316 patients suffering from nephrotic syndrome and who were undergoing renal biopsy. According to our study, 34 (10.8%) of the 316 subjects presented hyperglycemia fulfilling criteria for diabetes (fasting blood glucose> 126 mg/dL) and a considerable number of diabetic cases was detected . As intensive management of diabetic nephropathy has not been recorded, the combination of diabetes mellitus and nephrotic syndrome should be looked for in all cases with this syndrome.

      PubDate: Sun, 26 May 2013 23:20:20 GMT
  • Histopathological diagnosis of gastric biopsies in correlation with
           endoscopy – a study in a tertiary care centeR.

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Dr.Kirana Pailoor, Dr.Murali Keshava Sarpangala, Ramesh C.N Naik.
      This study was done to evaluate the histopathological diagnosis of gastric endoscopic biopsies and to correlate the endoscopic and histopathological diagnosis of these neoplastic and non-neoplastic gastric lesions. A total of fifty-two endoscopic biopsies were studied retrospectively. Biopsies were retrieved using flexible fibre – optic endoscope and also video-endoscope. They were transferred to a bottle containing 10% neutral formalin, processed and stained routinely with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Special stains such as Mucicarmine and Giemsa were done as and when required. Out of 52(100%) gastric endoscopic biopsies, 29(56%) were malignant and 23(44%) were benign. The correlation of endoscopic and histopathological diagnosis of these gastric lesions was 57.28%. The sensitivity was 65.96%, specificity 90.57%, positive predictive value 86.11% and negative predictive value was 75%. Endoscopic examination and biopsy is a convenient procedure for accurate objective assessment of patients with symptoms of gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopy is incomplete without biopsy and pathology is the gold standard for the diagnosis of endoscopically detected lesions.

      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2013 22:46:42 GMT
  • Serum concentration of liver function indicators in HIV patients on
           different classes of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Idonije OB, Osadolor HB, Festus OO.
      Soon after the introduction of HAART , drug related toxicities became recognized and well characterized, thus liver toxicity has become a growing problem among HIV patients on HAART hence this study. Liver function was assessed in 290 HIV patients {80 on NNRTIs-based HAART, 80 on NRTIs-based HAART, 80 on PIs-based HAART and 50 newly diagnosed and not on any antiretroviral medication serving as test control} using plasma concentration of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) as test indicators. Each of the three groups on HAART were further subdivided into four subgroups of 3, 6, 12 and>12 months based on the duration on HAART with each subgroup consisting of twenty patients. The ALT and AST concentration were determined using standard methods. When the patients on different classes of HAARTS were compared with the control group, the differences in enzyme (ALT and AST) activities were significantly higher in 3 and 6 months duration on HAART for all the three classes of HAART used. The NNRTIs and PIs-based groups also showed a significant difference only in ALT activity in the 12 months duration on HAART. When the ALT and AST activities of patients on NRTIs- based HAART group were compared with the NNRTIs and PIs- based HAART groups, statistically significant differences were observed only in the 3 and 6 months duration on HAART. Conclusively HAART has a duration and drug dependent effects on the liver cells integrity and functions. This effect is lesser with NRTIs as compared with NNRTIs and PIs. It is therefore recommended that routine liver function tests be instituted in HIV patients on HAART regimen.

      PubDate: Wed, 17 Apr 2013 07:08:00 GMT
  • Correlation between fever and leukocyte in dengue infection, a clinical

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Tuk Chea Sovannah, Vein Roun Haang.
      Dengue infection is a major public health problem, affecting general population in the Southeast Asia Region. The hematologic aberration including lymphocytosis, coagulopathy and predominant thrombocytopenia are the common manifestation in the patients with dengue infection. Here, the author reported the experience about fever and leukocyte count of 130 patients with dengue infection who visited the author during endemic season, 2012. The average level of leukocyte among these patients was studied. The correlation between the recorded body temperature of the patients and the leukocyte level was investigated. We found that the fever is common in the patient with dengue infection and the lymphocytosis, not leukocytosis is the common leukocyte disorder in these patients. The correlation between body temperature and total white blood cell count and differential white blood cell count is poor and not significant. Therefore, the fever and the leukocyte disorder in the patients with dengue fever is only a co - presentation.

      PubDate: Sun, 24 Mar 2013 00:55:05 GMT
  • In vitro effect of Ginseng, Ficus fovealata Wall. and Elephantopus scaber
           Linn. on spermatozoa

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Rakshmi Opas Singh, Kandhi Thamma Singh, Pisuth Gutta Prasad.
      Millions of world populations suffer from sexual drive dysfunction in their life. Despite the increasing availability of effective conventional medical treatments, alternative medicine, especially plant-derived and herbal remedies, continue to provide a popular alternative for men and women seeking to improve their sex life. Nevertheless, the efficacy of most herbal agents in treating sexual problems remains uncertain. Here, the author perform an in vitro test to study the effect of three herbs, which are widely used due to the belief that they can promote good sexual activity: Panax Ginseng, Ficus fovealata Wall., and Elephantopus scaber Linn. We found that the spermatic count and motility rate in the Ficus fovealata Wall., and Elephantopus scaber Linn. - added samples were lower than controls but the Ginseng – added were higher than the control.

      PubDate: Sun, 24 Mar 2013 00:33:13 GMT
  • Osteoporosis associated with aromatase inhibitors is different from
           post-menopausal osteoporosis

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Hasan Mutlu, Tuncay Aslan, Güler Silov Yılmaz, Abdülsamet Erden, Yasemin Benderli Cihan, Zeki Akca, Arzu Aksahin, Abdullah Büyükçelik.
      Osteoporotic effects are one of the known side effects of aromatase inhibitors that are used in the treatment of breast cancer. In our study, osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with the use of aromatase inhibitors were examined for their difference compared to postmenopausal osteopenia and osteoporosis. Total 84 patients admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were included in the study. 103 patients without any malignancy were enrolled as control group. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results of the groups were compared. There was significant difference between the groups when the regions with the lowest bone mineral density were compared and femoral involvement was more prevalent in patients on aromatase inhibitors compared to the other group (p=0,014). Furthermore, there was significant difference for the regions with the lowest bone density in femur (p=0,015). Osteopenic and osteoporotic response in patients using aromatase inhibitors is different from the patients who do not use aromatase inhibitors and femoral region is more commonly affected compared to the other regions.

      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 01:23:47 GMT
  • Stable isotope breath test: is it problematic in post nuclear crisis'

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Beuy Joob, Arran Pumawa, Rajendraraj Prasadsingh.
      The application of isotope in medicine is helpful and this can be used in several physiological testing. A well-known isotope test for physiological assessment of gastrointestinal function is “stable isotope breath test”. In this letter, the authors raise a question whether [(13) C]-Spirulina platensis gastric emptying breath test is problematic in post nuclear crisis

      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2012 16:41:09 GMT
  • The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio may be an indicator of advanced disease in
           patietns with non small cell lung cancer

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Hasan Mutlu, Abdülsamet Erden, Tuncay Aslan, Zeki Akca, Arzu Aksahin, Abdullah Büyükçelik.
      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in both men and women. Some studies have identified that neutrophils stimulate tumor angiogenesis and these studies have determined that the elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is a poor prognostic factor for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In presented study we aimed to evaluate the prognostic implications of the neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio in patients with NSCLC. Between 2009-2012, total of 207 consequitive patients with NSCLC from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital were analysed retrospectively, using hospital records. The patients were divided to two groups according to N/L ratio>5 or 5 was 6,80±1,07 months, OS of patients with N/L ratio 5 was higher in patients with advanced stage. The higher N/L ratio may be a result of tumor pathogenesis in patients with cancer and the higher N/L ratio (>5) may be a indicator for advanced disease in patients with NSCLC. The higher N/L ratio effected survival but it was not independent factor for survival.

      PubDate: Sun, 16 Dec 2012 16:25:46 GMT
  • Discriminant functions for identifying of hemoglobin E disorders,
           experience in 200 pregnant subjects

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Tuk Chea Sovanna, Vein Roun Haang.
      Hemoglobin disorder, especially for hemoglobin E disorder, is the major problem of Southeast Asia. Based on the modern electronic cell counter, quick differential screenings by discriminant functions have been widely developed. However, originally, these DFs were mostly applied to the differentiation of iron deficiency anemia from beta thalassemia. Only a few studies on its property in screening for other abnormal hemoglobin have been reported. Here, the functions evaluated were: a) F 1= 0.01 x MCH X (MCV)2, b) F2 = RDW x MCH x (MCV)2 / Hb x 100, c) F3 = MCV/RBC and d) F4 = MCHC/RBC. Their abilities to identify HbE - containing blood samples among 200 pregnant subjects were assessed in this experiment. Conclusively based primarily on hemoglobin typing as A2A, EA and EE, the means of F1 F2, F3 and F4 of A2A > EA> EE. However, the tested blood index and discriminant functions, with exception of the F4 showed no statistical significance difference among the three groups. Only the F4 showed statistical significant differences between the EE group from the other groups (P < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, false positive and false negative of using F4 in identification of EE group are100 %, 93.4 %, 6.6 % and 0 %, respectively. In conclusion, the four tested DFs are not good screening tool of the normal (A2A) from abnormal (disease: EE and carrier: EA) but F4 might be used as screening tool for disease (EE). Due to the fact that these DFs do not pose good diagnostic property in screening for abnormal and require automated analyzer, implying to high screening cost, they seems not appropriate screening tool for antenatal care.

      PubDate: Mon, 26 Nov 2012 22:37:42 GMT
  • Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by rapid urease test in oral
           lesions of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      perihan ozturk, savas ozturk, ozer arican, cahit polat.
      Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is characterized by ulcers restricted to the oral mucosa. The possibility of bacterial involvement in the progression of aphthae has been suggested due to the histological similarities between peptic ulcers and RAS and due to the identified role of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in peptic ulcer. Although there are many studies showing the relationship between HP and RAS, rapid urease test (RUT) has not been studied in oral ulcers yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the presence of HP by using RUT in the lesions of RAS. 32 patients with RAS and 21 control subjects were included in the study. HP colonization was investigated by RUT under local anesthesia in oral lesion of RAS patients and oral mucosa in healthy control group. Color change was respectively checked at the 30th, 60th minute and at the 4th hour. If the color of the test is yellow or yellow-green the result was negative but red or pink color was considered as positive. RUT showed HP colonization in the 22 out 32 patients with RAS (68.75%) and in the 5 of the control group (23.80 %). The positivity of RUT in patients with RAS were statistically and significantly higher than the control (p

      PubDate: Wed, 03 Oct 2012 03:26:19 GMT
  • Liver enzymes and protein among petrol hawkers and petrol-pump attendants
           in a Nigerian population

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Gali RM, Daja A, Mamza YP, Ani GI.
      Among Nigerians, studies on immune responses were concentrated on those exposed to infectious agents or heavy metals, neglecting those working in petrol station and roadside hawkers. With the increasing numbers of petrol hawkers in Maiduguri metropolitan due to the immediate financial gain without considering the long term effect of this product, could there be such effects on them' One hundred subjects participated in the study. Twenty (25%) were petrol hawkers, thirty-five (35%) petrol attendants and forty (40%) apparently healthy individuals. Enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin were determined. Mean age of the subjects was 27.09 ± 6.75.Subjects between the ages of 21- 30 years were 62% while 7% of the subjects were between the ages of 41-50 years, among the entire participant 93 (93%) were male while 7 (7%) were female. Student t- test among the groups and controls are statistically significant at p < 0.05. This study shows high levels of all the liver enzymes, and low albumin levels in petrol hawkers compared with the controls, whereas in petrol-pump attendants only alkaline phosphatase is elevated when compared to controls.

      PubDate: Mon, 20 Aug 2012 07:50:20 GMT
  • Total leukocyte count and its diagnostic utility in predicting malarial
           infestation in endemic area

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Vaidya KA, Vernekar P.
      This is a study conducted at malaria endemic area, comprised of 175 confirmed cases of acute malarial infestation in which total WBC count was performed by automated hematology analyser before starting antimalarial drugs. We analyzed and compared the WBC counts of these uncomplicated malaria patients. Leukopenia was observed in 20% of the patients. Leukocytosis, on the other hand, was noted in around 4.57%. Leukopenia can be identified as one of the useful indicators along with thrombocytopenia in predicting the possibility of malaria in endemic areas.

      PubDate: Sun, 05 Aug 2012 07:21:27 GMT
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia in four year-old child. A case report

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Guido D'Angelo, Lorena Ceriani, Anna Maria Hotz, Daniela Mazzola, Roberta Ranalli.
      30% of pediatric oncohematologic malignancy are acute leukemias and in this area the AML incidence is very low, much less than the acute promyelocytic leukemia. We report the case of a 4 year old girl with acute promyelocytic leukemia whose blasts showed the morphology characteristic of acute promyelocytic leukemia variant and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization confirmed the presence of t(15;17) translocation. The case is reported because in the pediatric population the acute promyelocytic leukemia is a rare occurrence; moreover, it represent a true oncohematologic emergency, in this case the laboratory has a significant role since the timing of diagnosis must be very short.

      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2012 03:01:43 GMT
  • Role of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Ashutosh Sharma, Aditi Baghla, Vinit Mehrotra, Vinita Kalra, Ashok Kumar Lal, Monika Girdhar.
      Hypertension is probably one of the most important public health problems in developed as well as developing countries. Most patients that present with hypertension eventually causes progressive renal damage and further leading to death in 10% of the patients due to renal lesions. Hypertension can lead to injury to glomerular basement membrane causing small sized plasma proteins like albumin to leak into the urine. Thus detection of this microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/dl) is the earliest indicator of renal damage due to hypertension. In the present study which was conducted on total 81 subjects out of which 56 were hypertensive patients and 25 were taken as control group. These 56 hypertensive patients with normal serum creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels, their mean urinary microalbumin levels are correlated with age, sex and duration of hypertension in the patients. Along with it, their serum cholesterol levels are also evaluated and correlated statistically.

      PubDate: Sun, 10 Jun 2012 07:36:30 GMT
  • Association of levels of HbA1C with triglycerides/ high density
           lipoprotein ration - an indicator of low density lipoprotein particle size
           in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Niranjan Gopal, Arun Mitra S, Srinivasan A R, Muthurangan G, Saha S, Ramesh Ramasamy.
      Quantitative estimation of serum Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) is not the solitary indicator, as the size of LDL-C plays an important role, in the assessment of risk for developing vascular complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2 DM). The small dense LDL-C penetrates the vascular endothelium more easily and accelerates the atherosclerotic process. Direct quantitation of LDL-C particle size is not routinely possible and hence an alternative, reliable, indirect & a feasible marker of LDL-C particle size measured as TAG / HDL ratio acquires practical significance. Newly diagnosed cases of T2 DM were included for this study. Patients with Type 1 DM, Gestational diabetes and other specific causes of Diabetes were excluded from this study. Patients with known micro and macro vascular complications were excluded. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), HbA1c and serum lipids were estimated and the lipid ratios were computed. FPG, HbA1c, TAG, VLDL-C, Lipid ratios (TAG/HDL, Total Cholesterol/HDL, LDL/HDL) were significantly elevated in cases (p

      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jun 2012 06:59:23 GMT
  • Phytochemistry and some heamatological implications of oral administration
           of oral administration of aqueous whole plant extract of Phyllanthus
           niruri in albino rats

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Ezeonwu VU.
      The phytochemical composition and the effects of various concentrations of aqueous whole plant extract of Phyllanthus niruri on some hematological parameters in albino rats were investigated. In this study, it was observed that the extract contains alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, anthraquinones, reducing sugars and polyphenols. The hematological studies showed no significant difference in the WBC levels of all treated groups when compared with the control. There was no appreciable change in the PCV analysis of the treated group when compared to the control. The observation shows that the extract may not have affected the WBC and PCV levels of the treated groups. There was a significant decrease in the HB% of Groups C (9.64 ± 1.40) and E (8.08 ± 0.72) when compared to that of the control (12.81 ± 0.57) at p

      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2012 02:17:38 GMT
  • A potential diagnostic biomarker for human uterine mesenchymal tumor:
           proteasome LMP2/ β 1i subunit - differential expression

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Hayashi T, Horiuchi A, Gur G, Aburatani H, Ishiko O, Yaegashi N, Shiozawa T, Zharhary D, Tonegawa S, Konishi I.
      Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) develops more often in myometrium of the uterine body than in the uterine cervix. The development of gynecologic tumors is often correlated with female hormone secretion; however, the development of ULMS is not substantially correlated with hormonal conditions, and the risk factors are not yet known. Importantly, a diagnostic-biomarker which distinguishes malignant tumor ULMS from benign tumor leiomyoma (LMA) is yet to be established. Accordingly, it is necessary to analyze risk factors associated with ULMS, to establish a treatment method. The mice with a homozygous deficiency for proteasome subunit, low-molecular mass polypeptide 2(LMP2)/β1i spontaneously develop ULMS, with a disease prevalence of ~40% by 14 months of age. In the recent study, we found LMP2/β1i expression to be absent in human ULMS, but present in human uterine LMA. Moreover, LMP2/β1i is reported to negatively regulate human ULMS. Therefore, LMP2/β1i is a potential diagnostic-biomarker for human ULMS, and may be a targeted-molecule for a new therapeutic approach.

      PubDate: Thu, 31 May 2012 04:08:27 GMT
  • Chromosome study for leukemia: a review on laboratory technique

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Ghali ZH, Ahmed IH.
      Identification of chromosome abnormalities and precise localization of breakpoints involved in specific chromosomal abnormalities has prompted the recognition, molecular characterization and isolation of genes possibly responsible for the condition studied, which could potentially form the basis for new approaches to therapy. The cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic techniques used for chromosome study of leukemia are reviewed in this article. Conventional cytogenetic (karyotype) and molecular cytogenetic techniques (fluorescent in situ hybridization) are the main methods used in chromosome study of leukemia .We conclude that chromosomal analysis by conventional cytogenetic in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization is important for the management of patients with leukemia.

      PubDate: Thu, 17 May 2012 02:02:03 GMT
  • Filariasis and diagnostic tools: review of literature

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Vaidya KA, Vaidya SSK.
      Filariasis is one of the causes of morbidity and long-term disability. In the past, diagnostic tools for diagnosing filarial infestation were limited to clinical diagnosis and detection of microfilariae in blood smears. There have been significant advances in diagnostic tools in recent years. It is obvious that the thoughtful use of these new tools are helpful in combating against filariasis.

      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2012 06:49:46 GMT
  • A clinicopathological study of immunobullous lesions of the skin

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Leena J B, Chandrashekhar M, Vijaya B, Sunila R, Manjunath GV.
      ABSTRACT Background : Immune mediated vesiculobullous diseases can be diagnosed by close attention to the clinical details, histological confirmation and the clinical setting of the blistering. Confirmatory studies such as immunofluorescence will help in diagnosis of cases where histopathological features alone are not diagnostic. Objectives: To evaluate clinical findings in association with histopathological findings, to study the histopathological findings in various vesiculobullous lesions of skin, and to confirm with immunofluorescence wherever possible. Methods: In the present study 40 cases of vesiculobullous lesions were evaluated histopathologically and correlated clinically. Results: 40 cases of immune mediated vesiculobullous lesions were included in the present study. Of these 40 cases, 18(45%) were Pemphigus vulgaris, 16(40%) were Bullous pemphigoid and 2(5%) were pemphigus vegetans. Less common cases were Pemphigus erythematosus (2.5%), IgA pemphigus (2.5%), Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (2.5%) and Dermatitis herpetiformis (2.5%). After clinical correlation, histopathological diagnosis was offered in these cases. Immunofluorescence was done in a few cases to confirm the diagnosis. Interpretation and conclusion: Histopathological features were conclusive in most of the cases of primary vesiculobullous lesions of the skin. The study also revealed additional histopathological findings not encountered normally. Analysis of subtle light microscopic features apart from the classical diagnostic features assisted in the diagnosis of difficult cases. Immunofluorescence study done in a few cases helped in confirming the diagnosis where histopathology and clinical features alone were inconclusive.

      PubDate: Fri, 30 Mar 2012 04:57:25 GMT
  • The influence of smoking on maternal biochemical and ultrasound markers
           and the impact of using localized correction factors

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Yasemin Ustundag Budak, Kağan Huysal.
      The aim of this study is to determine the influence of cigarette smoking on first trimester screening parameters in our regional population. In this study we evaluated the data from a routine antenatal screening programme for Down's syndrome of 2100, singleton, spontaneously conceived pregnancies who admitted to our Hospitals’ Laboratory for the prenatal double test between October 2008 and February 2011 that delivered apparently healthy child at term, retrospectively. Fetal nuchal translucency thickness (fetal NT), maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free B-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were measured at 11 weeks 0 days to 13 weeks 6 days of gestation in all women. Women were grouped according to smoking status. Statistical analysis of the marker levels in the smoking and non-smoking group were carried out. Prevalence of smoking was 9.5%. The median MoM free B-hCG was not significantly different in the smokers (0.93 vs 1.01) as was that for NT (1.03 vs 1.00) (p>0.05 for log10 MoM). The median MoM PAPP-A was 1.06 in the non-smokers and 0.82 in the smokers, the log10 MoM PAPP-As were also significantly different (p

      PubDate: Sun, 18 Mar 2012 17:43:59 GMT
  • Escherichia coli K5 and type III scretion system mutant interaction with

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Khalid Mehmood, Nadia Gul, Suk Yul Jung, Abdul Matin.
      The existence of symbiotic relationships between Acanthamoeba and a variety of bacteria is well-documented. However it is the ability of Acanthamoeba to host bacterial pathogens that has gained particular attention. Here, using invasive Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 (a CSF isolate), K5 (namely EC10), TTKO mutated with type III secretion systems (TSSs) derived from EC10 and a non-invasive laboratory strain E. coli K12, we tried to understand the roles of type III secretion systems in E. coli K5 and their interactions with Acanthamoeba T4 (keratitis isolate). The EC10 and TTKO exhibited significantly lower association with, invasion of and survival inside Acanthamoeba compared with the K1. Moreover, the ratio of EC10 and TTKO per amoeba was significantly lower with Acanthamoeba as compared with K1. In particular, intracellular invasion and survival of EC10 and TTKO was very similar to K12. Obviously, TTKO exhibited no survival in the Acanthamoeba cysts as compared with EC10 showing higher survival. Moreover, to determine the pathogenic potential of K1, association, invasion and intracellular survival assays were performed using recovered K1 from Acanthamoeba cyst and trophozoites. There were no significant differences between K1 from Acanthamoeba cyst and trophozoites in the interactions of Acanthamoeba trophozoites. These findings showed that type III secretion systems in K5 would play a very important role in survival of Acanthamoeba cysts. Therefore, this study may provide the understanding of K5 pathogenesis and virulence of TSSs.

      PubDate: Tue, 14 Feb 2012 23:56:49 GMT
  • Utility of frozen plasma at a tertiary care hospital: an audit

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Bhat AW, Aziz R, Churoo BA, Ahmed SI, Iqbal Q.
      The study was conducted to study and know the appropriate use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) by various departments of the hospital. FFP is often inappropriately used despite existence of guidelines. We observed inappropriate requests in 67% of episodes. An audit was conducted with the aim of making recommendations to reduce inappropriate use.

      PubDate: Wed, 25 Jan 2012 08:50:23 GMT
  • HDL/LDL ration - as a cardiovascular risk factor in male type 2 diabetes

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Gowtham K, Mahendra B Gandhe, Kartik J Salwe, A R Srinivasan..
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia, due to deficiency or diminished effectiveness of insulin. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to investigate the HDL/LDL ratio and their correlation with other biochemical parameters like fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c(glycated hemoglobin) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus male subjects, since no significant correlation could be established between Lp(a) and LDL: HDL ratio. Here, the lipoprotein (a) is not considered as an indicator, instead HDL/LDL ratio is taken as the indicator for cardiovascular diseases in Type 2 Diabetic male patients. Moreover, HDL/LDL ratio is an economically viable alternative to Lp(a) estimation. The study included 30 male cases (Diabetic group) and 30 controls (Non Diabetic group). Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria 2000 (Fasting glucose level ¡İ126mg/dl and 2-hour postprandial ¡İ200mg/dl). In the present study, we quantified HDL and LDL cholesterol levels and correlated HDL/LDL ratio with HbA1c levels and fasting blood glucose. The levels of the fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were found to be significantly increased in the male Diabetic group as compared to the control group. The typical pattern of dyslipidaemia seen in male Type 2 Diabetes is normal or slightly elevated total cholesterol, elevated triacylglycerol and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels are variably elevated, but not significantly different from non-diabetic patients. From the present study, we can conclude that male Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with increased levels of Low density Lipoprotein cholesterol invariably in some cases but statistically not significant LDL alteration and decreased level of High density Lipoprotein cholesterol due to which there is significantly low HDL: LDL ratio in male diabetic group as compared with the control group. Also, there is significant correlation between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and HDL: LDL ratio. The HDL/LDL ratio is the most appropriate related predictor of future cardiovascular events in male Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jan 2012 06:18:17 GMT
  • Cytology of an unusual neck mass - extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Kishan Prasad H L, Teerthanath S, Vadhish Bhat, Harish Permi S.
      Abstract Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumour commonly occurring in extremities. In cytology, diagnostic difficulty can occur when the site is unusual and cellular differentiation is not distinct. We report a case of 35 year old male who presented with slow growing neck swelling since 10months. Computed Tomography showed cystic soft tissue without involvement of the underlying bone. On fine needle aspiration, possibility of myxoid neoplasm, probably extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma was considered based on the distinctive cells within myxoid background. Subsequent excision of the mass, on histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed as extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. We highlight the importance of preoperative cytology in diagnosis of myxoid soft tissue neoplasms, for appropriate management and follow up.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2012 03:16:54 GMT
  • Transient bullous dermolysis of the newborn

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International

      PubDate: Wed, 21 Sep 2011 21:35:06 GMT
  • Fibrocystic change in axillary polymastia with absent nipple: report of a
           case at Federal Medical Center Gombe Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Dauda Madachi Ayuba.
      Polymastia usually occur along the embryonic milk lines extending from the axilla to the groin. Polymastia in female patients has been reported to manifest during pregnancy or lactation. We report a 19-year-old adolescent with axillary supernumerary breast. She had painful axillary swelling which was missed diagnosed as infected lipoma clinically. The mass in the right axilla was excised with pathologic report of supernumerary breasts with fibrocystic changes. When a mass is located along the milk line, the possibility of the presence of breast tissue should be considered

      PubDate: Mon, 18 Apr 2011 19:39:07 GMT
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