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Journal Cover Advance Laboratory Medicine International
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   ISSN (Print) 2228-8961 - ISSN (Online) 2228-8961
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  • Effect of silver nanoparticle on renal cell: a preliminary study

    • Abstract: 2016-11-26T03-01-13Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Alendra Alama, Corrosa Ponteno.
      This is a report on in vitro testing on effect of silver nanoparticle on renal cell. According to this work, it revealed that after mixing the renal cell sediment with silver nanoparticle solution, the silver nanoparticle can be seen within the renal cells. In conclusion, the silver nanoparticle contains penetrating property into renal cell and this is the laboratory report on this observation implying for the possibility of nephrotoxicity due to the use of nanoparticle in the present nanomaterial era.

      PubDate: Tue, 22 Nov 2016 17:18:45 GMT
  • Iodine contents in salt collected from a rural village in the endemic area
           of iodine deficiency disorder in Indochina

    • Abstract: 2016-10-08T15-15-30Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Allerno Giovani, Dorion Pierro.
      Iodine deficiency disorder is an important health problem in Thailand. Due to the geographical limitation of marine salt, Northern and Northeastern Regions of Thailand are the endemic areas of this disorder. In this study, a cross-sectional survey on the daily use of salt by the domestic people in a rural village in central part of Laos PDR was conducted. Salt samples from each home in the village were collected. Of interest, 100 % of the samples showed negative results with the iodine test.

      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 20:22:32 GMT
  • Alterations in Serum Electrolytes in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

    • Abstract: 2016-06-24T23-15-26Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Usha Adiga, Malawadi BN.
      Electrolyte disturbances are often reported in type 2 diabetics and known to originate due to multiple etiologies.It is less researched area in Indian settings which calls for a study on this topic.Objective of the study was to compare the electrolyte levels in type 2 diabetes patients with that of nondiabetic controls as well as to find the correlation of electrolytes with renal disorder of diabetes mellitus. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out in a medical college teaching hospital with 50 type 2 diabetics and 46 non-diabetic controls. Data was obtained from our clinical biochemistry laboratory attached to the 400 bedded teaching hospital. Roche electrolyte analyzer was used to measure serum electrolytes. It works on the principle of ion selective electrodes. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using MDRD formula and it is taken as the diagnostic tool for renal disorder of diabetes mellitus. Significant lowering of sodium and chloride levels were observed in diabetics compared to controls ( p=0.0096 and p=0.0236 respectively). Potassium, even though slightly elevated in patients, statistically wasn’t significant. Calcium didn't differ between both the groups. We found electrolytes in normal reference interval even though we found lowered sodium and chloride levels in patients. But this is an alarming sign to be aware of electrolyte derangements in diabetics and be ready with the treatment options to avoid fatalities associated with electrolyte derangements.

      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2016 07:00:44 GMT
  • Gas chromatographic separation of plasma fatty acids and possible
           relationship between their levels and the metabolic syndrome in Egyptian
           obese subjects.

    • Abstract: 2016-06-19T23-16-26Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Rana H Emara, Gihane Ibrahim Khalil, Nawal A ElSayed,Kamal M Ahmed, Moataza Mahmoud.
      The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. A high intake of fat may influence the progression of obesity, and dietary fat quality may affect insulin sensitivity. The fatty acid (FA) composition of serum lipid esters [cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids] mirrors dietary FA intakes over the previous few weeks and also reflects endogenous FA metabolism. Consequently, the FA composition in serum lipids can be used as a biomarker of fat quality, but also as an indicator of disease risk. The present study aimed at determining the relationship between plasma fatty acids levels and the metabolic syndrome. The study included 70 cases diagnosed as MetS according to the IDF criteria and 70 controls not diagnosed as metabolic syndrome. To all subjects included in the study , a detailed history taking and complete physical examination were performed. In addition, fasting glucose, lipid profile, fasting insulin using chemiluminescent assay and plasma fatty acids profile using gas chromatography were determined. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostatic Assessment Model (HOMA-IR). MetS patients had significantly higher levels of myristic (14:0), arachidonic (20:0), palmitoleic (16:1), n-6 PUFA ; GLA(18:3n-6). They also had significantly lower levels of palmitic (16:0) , stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), n-3 PUFA, EPA(20:5n-3) and DHA(22:6n-3). The ratio between n-6 and n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The present study showed that total level of plasma PUFA, total n-3 PUFA and total n-6 correlated negatively with HOMA-IR in controls. In addition, Linoleic (18:2n-6) was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR in cases . In addition, both eicosadienoic (20:2n-6) and DGLA (20:3n-6) were positively correlated with HOMA-IR in cases. There is a weak positive correlation between the ratios of n-6:n3 PUFA and IR in both cases and controls. Plasma fatty acids profile is very useful laboratory tool for the prediction of occurrence of insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 DM. It could be used as a screening test for prevention of occurrence of insulin resistance and related cardiovascular disease.

      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2016 02:57:22 GMT
  • Seroprevalence of Zika virus in Cambodia: a preliminary report

    • Abstract: 2016-06-08T23-15-25Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Kim San, Veera Rajadhan.
      Zika virus is the present global health problem. It presently widely spreads in America. The information on its epidemiology in other areas is limited but very interesting. Here, the authors report an interesting preliminary data on the seroprevalence of Zika virus in Cambodia, a tropical country with high prevalence of dengue in Southeast Asia.

      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2016 05:43:15 GMT
  • Screening for Helicobacter pylori in Cambodia: economical analysis

    • Abstract: 2016-06-08T23-15-25Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Kim San, Veera Rajadhan.
      Gastric cancer is an important kind of gastrointestinal carcinoma. Presently, it is accepted that gastric cancer has a strong relationship to Helicobacter pylori infection. Screening for H. pylori becomes a new issue in gastric cancer prevention. Here, the author studies and discusses on the use of H. pylori screening as a strategy for gastric cancer prevention based on economical analysis in a scenario of a tropical developing country, Cambodia. According to this study, The finalized cost per unit utility (in 1,000,000 people scale) is equal to 4,950,496 and 4,255,320 US dollars for males and females. For individual scale (1 case), the unit cost is equal to 4.96 and 4.32 US dollars.

      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2016 04:43:40 GMT
  • Infectious waste from ex-hospital laboratory: a data from a rural
           province, Thailand

    • Abstract: 2016-05-12T04-27-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Patthamaporn Apaijitt; Vechayan Kanchan ; Viroj Wiwanitkit.
      This short letter to editor is for presenting and discussing on the primary data of amount of infectious waste generated from ex-hospital laboratory. This kind of primary data is rarely published and not easily available in the laboratory medicine literature.

      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2016 05:32:58 GMT
  • Superficial skin ulcers: histopathological analysis and review of the

    • Abstract: 2016-03-08T09-17-05Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Oluwole OP, Taiwo JO, Awani KU, Adeniran JO.
      Superficial skin ulcers are common clinical problems in the tropics and these pose a major diagnostic challenge to both clinicians and pathologists. The objective of this study is to determine the histological pattern of superficial skin ulcer in our environment. This is a 2-year retrospective histopathological analysis of superficial skin ulcers diagnosed at the Histopathological Unit of Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja, Nigeria, between August 2007 and July 2009. Clinical information and biodata were extracted from histopathology request cards. Histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) was retrieved. Periodic acid Schiff, Gomori methenamine silver and Ziehl Neelson stains were done for cases of chronic granulomatous inflammation to exclude fungal or mycobacterial infection. A total of 19 cases of superficial skin ulcers were analyzed. The age range was 20-69 years with the mean age of 44.5 years. There were 16 males and 3 females. The peak age frequency was in the third decade (20-29 years). The spectrum of lesions in this analysis was categorized into inflammatory, infections, benign and malignant diseases. A total of 6 (31.5%) cases of granulomatous inflammation, two (10.5%) non-specific inflammation, lobular capillary haemangioma 3 (15.8%) and one (5.3%) intermediate mesenchymal tumour- dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans were found. The most common malignant tumour was squamous cell carcinoma 5 (26.3%); this was followed by one (5.3%) case each of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Superficial skin ulcers are common in the tropics and could undergo malignant transformation, if medical intervention is not sought early. So there is need for a high index of suspicion, adequate tissue biopsy and early histopathological diagnosis.

      PubDate: Sat, 05 Mar 2016 06:59:14 GMT
  • A 5-year retrospective study of prostate cancer in Gwagwalada, Abuja,

    • Abstract: 2016-03-08T09-17-05Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Oluwole OP, Abimiku BA, Mukhtar AU, Aisuodionoe-Shadrach OI.
      In the United States and Europe, prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer. However, in spite of under-estimation and reporting of cancer burden in Pathology-based cancer registries in the developing countries; prostate cancer is now ranked among the emerging male malignancy. The objective of this work is to study of prostate cancer among histopathology specimens diagnosed at University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (U.A.T.H), Gwagwalada over a 5-year period. This is a 5-year retrospective histopathological analysis of prostate cancer diagnosed between January 2005- December 2009 in the Department of Histopathology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja. The materials consisted of tissue blocks, slides and duplicate histopathology reports of patients whose prostatic biopsy specimens had been received and processed in the Histopathology laboratory of the hospital. The method of diagnosis is by reviewing of histopathological glass slides and where the slides were not available, paraffin tissue blocks were retrieved, histologic sections were made by microtome machine, mounted on the glass slides; stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and viewed through Olympus microscope. Three consultant pathologists blinded reviewed the slides; they were in agreement over the diagnosis. The setting of the study is a tertiary hospital in the Federal capital city of Nigeria, Gwagwalada, Abuja. The tumours were classified based on WHO classification of Prostatic tumours1. Histological grading was done using Gleason grading system. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Teaching Hospital for this study. Sixty-six (66) cases of prostate cancer were studied. The age range was between 40-89 years with a mean of 64.5 years. There were two bimodal age peaks at the seventh and eighth decades in elderly men. The surgical procedures were Trucut biopsies 64 (96.9%) and 2 (3.1%) cases of prostatectomy. The Gleason scores range from 4 to 10. Three (4.5%) patients with prostate cancers were seen before the age of 50 years. There were 9 (13.6%) cases of well differentiated, 37 (56.0%) cases of moderately differentiated and 20 (30.4%) cases of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. No other histological type was seen. The result was analyzed and presented in the form of pie chart. In this study, there were bimodal age peaks of prostate cancer at the sixth and seventh decades in the elderly men, while moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is the most common presentation.

      PubDate: Sat, 05 Mar 2016 06:56:58 GMT
  • Decreasing level of CEA in a colon cancer patient after nimotuzumab

    • Abstract: 2016-03-02T09-17-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Moreh Mirander, Gonzalez Mirander.
      Using tumor maker is a widely used technique in laboratory medicine. For any new drug, the observation of laboratory result in monitoring and follow-up of a cancerous patient is interesting. In this letter to editor, the authors report on an observation on decreasing CEA level in a colon cancer patient after nimotuzumab. This is an interesting report on effect of nimotuzumab on CEA level in color cancer.

      PubDate: Tue, 01 Mar 2016 20:49:02 GMT
  • Oxidative stress and fungal diseases

    • Abstract: 2016-02-20T04-17-11Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Meral Miraloglu.
      Fungal disease is an increasing problem in both agriculture and human health. Treatment of human fungal disease involves the use of chemical fungicides, which generally target the integrity of the fungal plasma membrane or cell Wall. Chemical fungicides used for the treatment of plant diseases, have more diverse mechanisms of action including inhibition of sterol biosynthesis, microtubule assembly and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, these treatments have limitations, including toxicity and the emergence of resistance. This has led to increased interest in the use of antimicrobial peptides for the treatment of fungal disease in both plants and humans. Antimicrobial peptides are a diverse group of molecules with differing mechanisms of action, many of which remain poorly understood. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that stress response pathways are involved in the tolerance of fungi to both chemical fungicides and antimicrobial peptides. These signalling pathways such as the cell wall integrity and high-osmolarity glycerol pathway are triggered by stimuli, such as cell wall instability, changes in osmolarity and production of reactive oxygen species.

      PubDate: Fri, 19 Feb 2016 07:23:03 GMT
  • Cervical carcinoma, still a burden: histopathological analysis and review
           of the literature

    • Abstract: 2016-02-20T04-17-11Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Oluwole OP,Okoyomo OO, Onile TG, Alabi OO, Gbejegbe JO.
      Globally there are over 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer annually and in excess of 270,000 deaths, accounting for 9% of female cancer deaths. 85% of cases occur in developing countries and in Africa it is the commonest cancer in women with incidencefrequently equating with mortality in the absence of healthcare facilities to deal with thedisease. The Objective is to show that cervical cancer is the commonest cancer among women in our environment and to do its histopathological analysis. This is a 2-year retrospective histopathological analysis of cervical carcinoma diagnosed during August 2007 to July 2009, in the Histopathology Unit of Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja, Kogi State. Clinical information and biodata were extracted from histopathology request cards. Histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) were retrieved and reviewed by two Consultant pathologists who were blinded. Eighteen (18) cases of cervical cancer were reviewed. The age range was between 30-89 years with mean age of 58.5 years. The peak age in this analysis was in the sixth decade with 8 (44.4%), one (5.6%) case each was recorded in the fourth and ninth decades, while 5 (27.7%) and 3 (16.7%) cases were recorded in the seventh and fifth decades respectively. The most common histological type was squamous cell carcinoma; in this review we found the ova schistosoma haematobium was associated with the cancer in a particular patient. Cervical cancer is still prevalent in our environment due poor accessibility to screening facility and skewed distribution of health resources that is concentrated in urban centres.

      PubDate: Mon, 15 Feb 2016 09:12:07 GMT
  • Combined osmotic fragility (OF) and dichlorophenol-indolephenol (DCIP)
           tests for screening for hemoglobin disorder: a reappraisal on the
           diagnostic property from real usage.

    • Abstract: 2016-01-18T23-16-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Beuy Joob.
      Hemoglobin disorders is an important public health problem in Thailand. There have been several trials on many screening methods for detection of hemoglobin disorder among Thai pregnants and good screening property of combined method between osmotic fragility (OF) and dichlorophenol-indolphenol (DCIP) can be seen. For a few years, the combined test has been launched to the rural hospital communities of Thailand, where the high prevalence of disorder is documented. Here, the author performed a reappraisal on usefulness of the program in Thai rural hospitals. According to this study, 3 complete reports on the using of OF and DCIP tests screening for antenatal clinic in rural communities were recruited for further study. All 4,902 pregnant subjects were screened and 2,232 got positive screening results (45.5 %). Of overall 2,232 positive cases from screening, 1,243 cases with confirmed disorder could be detected. According to this study, the overall positive predictive value for the real usage of the combined screening test is about 55 %. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the test cannot be calculated due to the lack of reported data. The expected possibility of any pregnant subjects visiting the antenatal clinic in this study to have hemoglobin disorder is equal to 25.02 %.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jan 2016 06:07:51 GMT
  • Labile plasma iron and transferrin saturation as iron overload markers

    • Abstract: 2015-12-14T23-17-32Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Debwasah Shutty, Roger Durman.
      This letter to editor discuss on usefulness and limitations of labile plasma iron and transferrin saturation as iron overload markers

      PubDate: Thu, 10 Dec 2015 20:05:35 GMT
  • Serum vascular endothelial growth factor to platelet count ratio after
           garlic supplementation in patient with lung cancer

    • Abstract: 2015-10-31T00-22-22Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Mohandras Benopula, Kazoles Hendra, Adica Elene.
      This short letter to editor report experience of author on garlic supplementation in a patient with lung cancer. The observation on serum vascular endothelial growth factor to platelet count (VEGF/PC) ratio in garlic supplementation in this patient is reported.

      PubDate: Mon, 26 Oct 2015 22:12:19 GMT
  • Oral glucose tolerance test: a case study on pre-analytical factor
           interference due to lemonade adding

    • Abstract: 2015-10-16T23-21-12Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Maximo Beraza, Horares Larestha.
      Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a useful test in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Here, the author presented an interesting case study on pre-analytical factor interference on OGTT. Some additional information on the preanalytical error for OGTT is also quoted in this article.

      PubDate: Tue, 13 Oct 2015 06:10:13 GMT
  • Evaluation of the flow cytometric osmotic fragility in the diagnostic of
           hereditary spherocytosis

    • Abstract: 2015-09-22T23-16-39Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Mohammed Nazim Bennaoum, Hassiba Lazreg, Affaf Adda.
      BHereditary spherocytosis is a constitutional hemolytic anemia due to the presence ofspherical red cells in the blood secondary to a genetic defect of some membrane proteins.The test commonly used in the screening is the determination of the osmotic fragility.Practice this test is difficult to interpret and lack of sensitivity and specificity. Thepurpose of this study is to evaluate a new and simple method using flow cytometry forthe determination of osmotic fragility. The principle of the test is to determine thepercentage of residual red cells after the addition of deionised water which acts as anhemolysis-inducing agent. We therefore studied a group of 94 patients with 5 knowncases with hereditary spherocytosis. Each sample was tested by osmotic globularresistance dilution analysis and by flow cytometry. The results are compared byPEARSON's correlation.The test has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96%. Thecorrelation coefficient is -0.626 for the entire population (P

      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2015 21:27:08 GMT
  • Groundnut oil as an alternative clearing agent to xylene in histological
           tissue processing

    • Abstract: 2015-08-14T04-21-26Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Ebenezer OLubunmi Esan, Ayodeji Blessing Ajileye, Samuel Ayobami Fasogbon.
      This research work was conducted to compare the tissue processing suitability of groundnut oil as a clearing agent with that of tissue processed with xylene as a clearing agent. Tissue samples were obtained from the liver, lungs, and small intestine of adult wistar rats. The tissue samples were processed with groundnut oil as a clearing agent and the other tissue samples which were also processed along with xylene as a clearing agent for a period of 4 hours to 24 hours using a manual tissue processing method. All the tissue samples processed with both groundnut oil and with xylene as a clearing agents were all sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with Masson’s Trichrome and Haematoxylin and Eosin methods. Tissue samples labeled G1, G2 and G3, were cleared with Groundnut oil during tissue processing and these tissue samples were processed, but not as well as those tissue samples labeled X1, X2, X3, cleared with xylene during tissue processing. The tissue samples cleared and processed with Groundnut oil did not alter the histochemical staining of tissues. Simple staining techniques like Masson’s Trichrome and haematoxylin and Eosin were employed. The results showed that there was no difference between tissue sections cleared in Groundnut oil and those tissue sections cleared in Xylene. Groundnut oil, which is a cheap, easily available and non-toxic agent is suitable and can be used as a clearing agent in histological tissue processing.

      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2015 04:33:58 GMT
  • Repeat endoscopy in Barrett's esophagus with no dysplasia and low-grade

    • Abstract: 2015-06-24T23-32-38Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Abdulla Mohammad Shendal.
      This letter to editor briefly discusses on the clinical advantage on performing Repeat endoscopy in Barrett's esophagus with no dysplasia and low-grade dysplasia.

      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jun 2015 21:05:26 GMT
  • Diagnostic error in health care: an issue that requires continuous concern

    • Abstract: 2015-05-27T14-20-54Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Theenar Hares Shokar.
      This letter to editor briefly discusses on the common problem, diagnostic errors in healthcare.

      PubDate: Mon, 25 May 2015 21:36:37 GMT
  • Correlation between fever and leukocyte in dengue infection, a clinical

    • Abstract: 2015-05-13T04-17-31Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Sophiank Vong, Arun Kumar Srininath, Rutheran Koff Rodoff.
      Dengue infection is a major public health problem, affecting general population in the Southeast Asia Region. The haematologic aberration including lymphocytosis, coagulopathy and predominant thrombocytopenia are the common manifestation in the patients with dengue infection. Here, the author reported the experience about fever and leukocyte count of 30 patients with dengue infection who visited the author during endemic season, 2013. The average level of leukocyte among these patients was studied. The correlation between the recorded body temperature of the patients and the leukocyte level was investigated. We found that the fever is common in the patient with dengue infection and the lymphocytosis, not leukocytosis is the common leukocyte disorder in these patients. The correlation between body temperature and total white blood cell count and differential white blood cell count is poor and not significant. Therefore, the fever and the leukocyte disorder in the patients with dengue fever is only a co - presentation.

      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2015 00:40:58 GMT
  • Role of immunohistochemistry in differentiating muscularis mucosae and
           muscularis propria as an aid to accurate staging of invasive urothelial
           carcinoma: a pilot study

    • Abstract: 2015-02-23T09-31-21Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Prateek Kinra, Ajay Malik, Vibha Dutta.
      The common prognostic markers for urothelial neoplasms include- tumour grade, invasion into muscle, vascular invasion, histological type, lymph node status and currently molecular markers. However the single most important prognostic marker that has stood the test of time is the extent of invasion into muscularis propria. Treatment of bladder carcinoma is determined by the stage (depth of invasion). Distinguishing bladder muscularis propria from muscularis mucosae can be problematic especially in small transurethral resection specimens cut tangentially. Florid desmoplasia and hyperplastic muscularis mucosa is commonly mistaken for muscularis propria. The sections of 70 cases of urothelial carcinoma were subjected to immunohistochemistry by the three immunohistochemical stains [vimentin (for mesenchymal cells-myofibroblasts), Smooth Muscle Actin (for smooth muscle cells) and smoothelin (specific for muscularis propria)]. Our study showed a sensitivity of 98.23% & specificity of 98.13% for the combination of the three immunohistochemical markers used together in accurately assessing the invasion into muscularis propria. Smoothelin positive predictive value for muscularis propria was very high (96.49%) whereas very low (2.8%) for muscularis mucosa. Immunohistochemistry picked up 3/70 cases that were wrongly diagnosed as invasive (florid desmoplastic response was mistaken for muscularis propria layer). Vimentin showed a moderately high sensitivity and specificity (accuracy of 81.25%) for myofibroblasts in the neighbouring area around tumour thereby assisting in picking up desmoplasia. Immunohistochemistry panel composed of SMA, smoothelin, and vimentin should be used as per the algorithm suggested. This will aid in accurately labelling the muscularis propria and rule out false positive & false negative invasions.

      PubDate: Wed, 18 Feb 2015 03:53:44 GMT
  • Facial demodex infestation among HIV seropositive and seronegative

    • Abstract: 2015-01-29T09-34-48Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Beuy Joob, Chandrigra Singaraja.
      The skin disorder is usually an important problem in the patients with the problem of impaired immunity. The superficial dermatological problems can be seen in HIV infected patients but is not commonly mentioned in dermatology. In fact, in HIV infected cases, several problems can be seen such as onychomycosis, Tinea capitis, etc. Here, the authors report on the observation of facial demodex infestation, a rarely mentioned ectoparasitosis, among HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. A small preliminary survey with improved transparent tape method was performed on 50 HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. The prevalence rate of facial demodex infestation among HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects are equal 74 % and 46 %, respectively. Based on the present study, the similar prevalence of infestation among seronegative subjects to the previous publication on prevalence among healthy adults (44 %). Focusing on the prevalence among HIV infected patients, it is significantly higher than the rate among HIV seronegative group. This report is the pioneer work that addresses the importance of high prevalence of demodex infestation among HIV seropositive patients.

      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jan 2015 04:28:55 GMT
  • Histopathological evaluation of renal biopsy in a tertiary care center in
           South India

    • Abstract: 2014-11-13T08-33-21Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Nisha Jayashankar Marla, Ramesh Naik, Prashanth Kumar, Hilda Fernandes, Jayaprakash CS, Kirana Pailoor.
      Current study was done to evaluate the histopathological findings in glomerulopathies and to correlate the histopathological findings with the clinical disease. Thirty cases of renal biopsy were studied. All biopsies were collected in Bouin’s fluid and processed routinely. Slides were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Methanamine silver (PASM) were done as and when required. Immunofluorescence was performed and was correlated with clinical and microscopic findings in all cases. Among thirty renal biopsies, primary glomerulonephritis accounted for 70% and secondary glomerulonephritis accounted for 30%. Among primary glomerulonephritis, most predominant lesion was focal segmental glomerulosclerosis(FSGS) (28.5%) and post infectious glomerulonephritis (28.5%) followed by minimal change disease(MCD) (14.3%), membranous glomerulonephritis (9.5%), crescentric glomerulonephritis (4.8%). membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (4.8%), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (4.8%), chronic glomerulonephritis (4.8%). Among secondary glomerulonephritis predominant lesion was systemic lupus nephritis (66.7%) followed by diabetes mellitus (22.2%) and amyloidosis (11.1%). Among primary glomerulonephritis increase in occurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and post infectious glomerulonephritis was noted. Among secondary glomerulonephritis increase in occurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus was noted.

      PubDate: Tue, 11 Nov 2014 16:20:29 GMT
  • Clinico-pathological study of adnexal tumors of skin

    • Abstract: 2014-11-13T08-33-21Z
      Source: Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Nisha Jayashankar Marla, Ramesh Naik, Prashanth Kumar, Hilda Fernandes, Jayaprakash CS, Kirana Pailoor.
      The aims of this work is to determine the spectrum of histopathological patterns of Adnexal tumors of skin, to characterise the tumors histologically according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification system for skin adnexal tumors and to analyse the tumor with regard to behaviour, anatomic location and sex of the patient. The study was conducted retrospectively at the department of Pathology; in a Tertiary care Hospital in South India. Study duration was 3 years from June 2009 to June 2012. All the Adnexal tumors received during this period were collected and Hematoxylin and Eosin and slides of special stains of the same were reviewed and lesion were characterised according to WHO classification system for Skin Adnexal Tumors. 40 cases of Adnexal tumors were diagnosed during the study period. 36 cases (90%) were benign, while 4 cases (10%) were malignant. Tumors were observed more commonly in females with M: F ratio of 1.5:2. Most tumors were localized to head and neck region (62.5%), followed by trunk and upper limb (27.5%), abdomen and lower limb (7.5%) and labia majora (2.5%). Most common tumors were Eccrine tumors 18 cases (45%), followed by 12cases (30%) of Pilar tumors, 7 cases (17.5%) of Apocrine tumors and least common being tumors with sebaceous differentiation 3 cases (7.5%). Practically adnexal tumors of Skin have been historically classified into 4 groups. However, in some cases, the diagnosis of Adnexal neoplasm presents unique difficulties. Although most of these tumors are benign, it is important to diagnose them accurately, if incompletely excised can recur and evaluation of margins is recommended.

      PubDate: Tue, 11 Nov 2014 16:16:23 GMT
  • Dynamics of combined oral contraceptive: a study of some biochemical
           parameters in female wistar rats

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Joseph Emberga Toryila, Amadi K, Odeh SA, Adelaiye AB, Egesie UG, Achie LN.
      Contraception is an important health issue in preventive medicine because it protects women globally from the effects of unwanted pregnancy and allows them to integrate into society. Uncontrolled childbearing in underdeveloped countries carries a significant risk of maternal death. Combined oral contraceptive (COC) is the most reliable method of contraception. COCs are currently among the most commonly used drugs in developed countries; over one hundred million women worldwide are currently using oral contraceptives. Estrogens and oral contraceptives are both associated with several liver related complications including intrahepatic cholestasis, sinusoidal dilatation, hepatic adenomas, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic venous thrombosis and an increased risk of gallstones. These side effects are more common with higher doses of estrogens, as were used in the early high-dose estrogen formulation of oral contraceptives, but they have also been described with use of more modern birth control pills and with low dose, estrogen hormonal replacement therapy. This research priority included efforts to discover the effect of COC (DUOFEM) on biochemical parameters. Eighty (80) female wistar rats aged 10-12 weeks weighing 180-250 g were used for the study. They were divided into four groups of 20 rats each comprising 10 treated and 10 control rats. The treated rats received 0.6mg/kg body weight of COC intragastically for 36, 48, 60 and 72 days in five-day cycles (four-days treatment with one-day break). The COC was given intragastically in 5-day cycles (4-day treatment with 1-day break). All controls were given fresh water at ad libitum daily for the period of the experiment. Serum electrolytes determined using Audicom AC99000 and liver function tests by ELISA method. Liver and kidney tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were all elevated in treated groups compared to controls (P

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Aug 2014 07:51:39 GMT
  • Chromogranin A – containing endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa of
           patietns with Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis type B

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Sevgi Bakaris, Ali Çetinkaya.
      The aim of the present study was to examine the chromogranin A containing endocrine cells in gastric mucosa of patients with Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis type B, histological inflammation and interactions among these parameters. In 35 patients (12 males and 23 females, median age 47 years, range 21-86 years) the gastric mucosal tissue was obtained by endoscopic biopsy from the antrum and corpus. Slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue (pH 2.5), periodic acid Schiff, modified Giemsa for Helicobacter pylori, and chromogranin A to visualize endocrine cells. Biopsy specimens were assessed histologically according to the Sydney system. The mean number of stained cells was calculated by counting the number of cells per visual field when using a x 40 objective and a x10 eye piece. Cell counts were made on two visual fields in one section from each specimen (three specimen per site). We studied 24 patients positive for Helicobacter pylori and 11 negative patients. The median chromogranin A containing endocrine cell number in antrum and corpus mucosa was significantly lower in Helicobacter pylori positive than in Helicobacter pylori negative patients (respectively p< 0.01, p< 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between endocrine cell numbers and Helicobacter pylori of the gastric mucosa. On the other hand, endocrine cell numbers of the antral gastric mucosa significantly decreased with inflammatory change associated with Helicobacter pylori gastritis but did not in corpus. This decrease was correlated with the grade of active inflammation and chronic inflammation, which was in close relation to Helicobacter pylori infection. Besides endocrine cell were irregularly distributed, close to inflammatory areas, or near lymphoid follicles. These results indicate that, suggesting a close relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric chromogranin A regulation. A close correlation between an decrease in gastric chromogranin levels and the histologic activity was also present, suggesting that certain peptide-immune reactions in the gastric mucosa exist in HP infection.

      PubDate: Thu, 21 Aug 2014 02:43:00 GMT
  • Genotoxic Effects of Antidepressant Reboxetine in Human Peripheral

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Lale Dönbak, Osman Turan Dal, Mustafa Çelik.
      Antidepressants are drugs of long-term use to treat various psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, chronic pain and are administered to numberless patients. There is some evidence that these drugs might cause the occurence of a mutagenic and/or genotoxic effects. In this study, possible genotoxic effect of reboxetine (Edronax)- a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NARI)-was investigated by using the sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and micronucleus (MN) analysis. The levels of SCE, CA, and MN were determined in human peripheral lymphocytes treated with five different concentrations of reboxetine (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 µg/ml) for both 24 and 48 h and compared with those of negative control. SCE frequency was significantly higher in cells treated with higher concentrations of reboxetine with regard to control. Elevation in the level of CA showed correlation with the increasing reboxetine concentrations both in 24 and 48 h treated cells. Similarly MN frequeny was significantly increased in a dose dependent manner in cells treated for 48 h. However, replication index (RI) and nuclear division index (NDI) were not affected by treatment of reboxetine. Obtained results indicate that reboxetine may demonstrate genotoxic activity in human cells.

      PubDate: Thu, 21 Aug 2014 02:40:20 GMT
  • Clinicopathologic relevance of angiogenesis and mast cells in basal cell
           carcinomas of skin

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Sevgi Bakaris, Muharrem Bitiren.
      Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the skin. We aim to investigate the correlation between tumor vascularization and mast cells with clinicopathologic parameters in BCC. Intratumoral microvessels were stained with anti-CD34 antibody and mast cells with toluidine blue in 45 BCC lesions. A significant correlation was noted between microvessels density (MVD) and mast cell density (MCD) values (p

      PubDate: Wed, 20 Aug 2014 05:20:07 GMT
  • Genotoxic risk of workers from offset printing offices

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Lale Dönbak, Hatice Avan, Ahmet Kayraldız.
      In the present study, a cytogenetic monitoring was carried out to investigate genotoxic risk of workers occupationally exposed to chemicals used in offset printing. The levels of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei (MN) were analysed in the lymphocytes from 30 male workers. The results were compared with a control group consisting of 20 subjects similar to workers with respect to gender, age, and habit. The mean frequencies of CA, SCE, and MN were significantly higher in workers (P

      PubDate: Wed, 20 Aug 2014 05:17:20 GMT
  • Evaluation of reference values and biological variations for neuron –
           specific enolase in sterile human urine

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      ergul belge kurutas, Meral Miraloglu.
      The analytical, intra-individual and inter-individual variations for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were determined and the reference values were established in sterile human urine. A total 400 apparently healthy people, 192 male and 208 female (from 25 to 63 years, average 44 years old), were randomly selected from villages and cities of the southern part of Turkey. Reference values of NSE were established from this population. Furhermore, biological variations of NSE were assessed in 20 apparently healthy subjects for over thirty-day period. NSE activity in spot urines of all individual were determined by ELISA method. The mean value (standard deviation) of the population investigated for NSE was 0.496±0.136 ng/mg Cr. Furhermore, the analytical, intra-individual and inter-individual variations were assessed in 20 apparently healthy subjects and were found to be; NSE: 5.0 %, 20.2% and 14.2%. The results of the index individuality showed that reference values of NSE could be used for diagnostic purposes in various diseases.

      PubDate: Wed, 20 Aug 2014 05:14:25 GMT
  • Workload measurement in governmental primary health care medical
           laboratories- Gaza Strip, Palestine

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Reem Tawfeek Abu Shomar.
      A realistic and accurate assessment of laboratory workload is necessary for effective laboratory management. Workload, the sum of the work achieved or to be achieved, is obtained by multiplying the raw count of each individual procedure by its unit value expressed in units (minutes). For many years, there had been dissatisfaction with the existing method of assessing workload since it doesn't reflect the complexity which varies from test to test. The objective of this work is to develop workload measurement through determination of workload unit values for laboratory tests performed at PHC medical Laboratories and once developed, it will serve as a management tool. Methodology: Time studies were performed by well trained medical technologists on tests performed by Primary Health Care (PHC) laboratories. The study presented the results of unit values per test. An examples were the unit values for Hb, CBC, WBCs, ESR, and Blood grouping & Rh which were 3.5, 2.7, 6.0, 3.3, and 4.1 minutes respectively. Also for Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, Uric Acid, Cholesterol, and Triglyceride the results for unit values were 6.3, 7.9, 8.1, 6.6, 6.5, and 6.5 minutes respectively. The authors recommend utilization of workload unit values determined through the conduction of time studies to develop workload measurement system in the governmental medical PHC laboratories.

      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jun 2014 05:23:34 GMT
  • Cytological appraisal of male thyroid lesions in a tertiary care center

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Deepak Kumar B, Vani BR, Padmapriya Kasukurti, Srinivasa Murthy V.
      It is an established fact that although the prevalence of thyroid nodules is lower in males, the risk of malignancy in males with nodules is significantly higher. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is recommended as the initial diagnostic test for such patients because of its simplicity, reliability, sensitivity and specificity. This study was undertaken to determine the proportion of various thyroid lesions in males based on FNA in our set up; to highlight the importance of FNA as an initial diagnostic tool based on its accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in male sex and to discuss the gender variability of thyroid malignancy. A retrospective analysis of male thyroid lesions was conducted over a 30-month period from Jan 2011 to June 2013. FNA aspiration results were classified into six groups as Non-diagnostic or unsatisfactory, Benign, Atypia of undetermined significance, Follicular Neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Suspicious for malignancy and Malignant. Surgical pathology result was categorized as benign or malignant with specific subtyping of lesions. 89 cases of male thyroid lesions were studied cytologically, out of which histopathological correlation was available in 17% of cases. 13.7% of malignancies were detected. FNA showed a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 85%, accuracy of 80%., PPV of 85%, NPV of 75%, FPR of 14% and FNR of 25%. FNA in male thyroid proves to be a very valuable and readily available tool for evaluating thyroid lesions with a high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, and is of immense help in defining the extent of surgery.

      PubDate: Thu, 15 May 2014 07:17:32 GMT
  • Could adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activity be an indicator of
           active hepatitis B'

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Selma Ates Guler, Fatma İnanc Tolun, Melike Yavuz.
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum levels of ADA and XO in the patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and inactive hepatitis (IH) and to compare the findings with the healthy controls. Association between the activity of these enzymes and the severity of disease was also evaluated. This study consisted of 95 chronic hepatitis B patients and 67 healthy controls. Patients were divided into two groups as IH (n=45) and CAH (n=50). ADA and XO activities were measured using spectrophotometry. While the levels of ADA and XO were significantly different between the controls and the CAH and also with IH patients (p=0.002, p=0.000), no significant differences were noted between the CAH and IH groups. There were also weak correlations between serum ADA and DNA, and also between serum ADA and XSO levels (r=-0.283, p= 0.046; r=-277, p= 0.05). increased levels of ADA and XO can be an indicator of hepatocyte damage in the patients with hepatitis. However, since there was no significant difference between CAH and IH groups based on the levels of these enzymes, they cannot be considered as useful tools in the differentiation of active and inactive hepatitis.

      PubDate: Sun, 20 Apr 2014 05:41:32 GMT
  • Evaluation of Albumin/Globulin and De Ritis ratios as the cost effective
           tools for differential diagnosis of hepatitis

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Gadasala Soma Sekhar, Srinivasan AR, Mohamed Hanifah, Niranjan Gopal.
      The study was primarily undertaken to check the efficacy of De Ritis ratio as a simple, sensitive, reliable and economical biochemical indicator of liver diseases especially alcoholic liver disease. The study was also focused on the controversy surrounding De Ritis ratio as an unequivocal marker of liver diseases. Our study indicated that the De Ritis ratio based on the levels of non-functional proteins is a better indicator of liver diseases in comparison to the ratio of Albumin and Globulin (based on plasma functional proteins). De Ritis ratio values were 1.01+ 0.24, 1.49+ 0.74 and 2.39+ 0.94** respectively with viral hepatitis, non viral hepatitis and Alcoholic liver disease. De Ritis ratio was highly significant as also the Total bilirubin (p-value 0.000 for both). Hence, the De Ritis ratio could be used in association with serum total bilirubin in differentiating Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) from viral (VH) and non viral hepatitis (NVH). The levels of Total protein and Albumin in serum and also the Albumin/ Globulin ratio were insignificant, thereby implying that the ratio of the Non-functional proteins (AST/ALT—the de Ritis ratio) could be used as an independent and reliable indicator of liver diseases in general and ALD in particular.

      PubDate: Thu, 10 Apr 2014 07:28:06 GMT
  • Relationship between antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in patients
           with chronic hepatitis B

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Selma ATES GULER, Fatma Inanc Tolun, Hasan Ucmak, Gulcan Haskaya, Melike Yavuz.
      The hepatitis B virus is a significant pathogen that causes cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer as a result of the damage it causes to liver cells. Its infection affects more than 400 million people globally. Although there is an effective vaccine and treatment methods, almost 1, 000, 000 people die every year. We aimed to evaluate the oxidant and antioxidant systems in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB). 50 patients with inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) carrier state (IHBCS), 44 patients with CHB and 50 healthy adults were included in this study. The following values were measured and compared in all groups: Glutatyon peroksidaz (Gpx), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In patients with chronic hepatitis B, these values were compared with groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), MPO, MDA levels were higher in the CHB group compared to the other groups (p values

      PubDate: Fri, 07 Mar 2014 02:05:43 GMT
  • Biological variations of Xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase in sterile
           human urine

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014
      Source:Advance Laboratory Medicine International
      Meral Miraloglu, Ergul Belge Kurutas, Pınar Ciragil.
      The analytical, intra-individual and inter-individual variations were determined forxanthine oxidase (XO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the reference values wereestablished. A total of 380 apparently healthy people, 177 male and 203 female (from 20to 82 years, average 40 years old), were randomly selected from villages and cities of thesouthern part of Turkey. XO and MPO activities in human sterile urine samples weremeasured by spectrophometric method. The distributions were Gaussian and nosignificant difference was observed between the male and female subjects. The meanvalue (standard deviation) of the population investigated for XO was 414.0 (93.3) U/L,and for MPO 104.5 (49.2) U/L, respectively. The analytical, intra-individual and interindividualvariations were assessed in 20 apparently healthy subjects and were found tobe; XO: 6.2 %, 21.2%, and 19.2% MPO: 4.0%, 16.4%, 11.7% respectively. The results ofthe index individuality showed that reference values of XO and MPO could be used fordiagnostic purposes in various diseases.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jan 2014 17:38:47 GMT
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