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Journal Cover Redox Biology
   [3 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Online) 2213-2317
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2575 journals]
  • Hyaluronan synthase-2 upregulation protects smpd3-deficient fibroblasts
           against cell death induced by nutrient deprivation, but not against
           apoptosis evoked by oxidized LDL

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Sandra Garoby-Salom , Myriam Rouahi , Elodie Mucher , Nathalie Auge , Robert Salvayre , Anne Negre-Salvayre
      The neutral type 2 sphingomyelinase (nSMase2) hydrolyzes sphingomyelin and generates ceramide, a major bioactive sphingolipid mediator, involved in growth arrest and apoptosis. The role of nSMase2 in apoptosis is debated, and apparently contradictory results have been observed on fibroblasts isolated from nSMase2-deficient fragilitas ossium (homozygous fro/fro) mice. These mice exhibit a severe neonatal dysplasia, a lack of long bone mineralization and delayed apoptosis patterns of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate. We hypothesized that apoptosis induced by nutrient deprivation, which mimics the environmental modifications of the growth plate, requires nSMase2 activation. In this study, we have compared the resistance of fro/fro fibroblasts to different death inducers (oxidized LDL, hydrogen peroxide and nutrient starvation). The data show that nSMase2-deficient fro/fro cells resist to apoptosis evoked by nutrient starvation (fetal calf serum/glucose/pyruvate-free DMEM), whereas wt fibroblasts die after 48 h incubation in this medium. In contrast, oxidized LDL and hydrogen peroxide are similarly toxic to fro/fro and wt fibroblasts, indicating that nSMase2 is not involved in the mechanism of toxicity evoked by these agents. Interestingly, wt fibroblasts treated with the SMase inhibitor GW4869 were more resistant to starvation-induced apoptosis. The resistance of fro/fro cells to starvation-induced apoptosis is associated with an increased expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNAs and protein, which is inhibited by ceramide. In wt fibroblasts, this HAS2 rise and its protective effect did not occur, but exogenously added HA exhibited a protective effect against starvation-induced apoptosis. The protective mechanism of HAS2 involves an increased expression of the heat-shock protein Hsp72, a chaperone with antiapoptotic activity. Taken together, these results highlight the role of nSMase2 in apoptosis evoked by nutrient starvation that could contribute to the delayed apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate, and emphasize the antiapoptotic properties of HAS2.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-18T09:24:20Z
       
  • Annexin II-dependent actin remodeling evoked by hydrogen peroxide requires
           the metalloproteinase/sphingolipid pathway

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Christel Cinq-Frais , Christelle Coatrieux , Aude Savary , Romina D’Angelo , Corinne Bernis , Robert Salvayre , Anne Nègre-Salvayre , Nathalie Augé
      Actin remodeling is a dynamic process associated with cell shape modification occurring during cell cycle and proliferation. Oxidative stress plays a role in actin reorganization via various systems including p38MAPK. Beside, the mitogenic response evoked by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMC) involves the metalloproteinase (MMPs)/sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) signaling pathway. The aim of this work was to investigate whether this system plays a role in actin remodeling induced by H2O2. Low H2O2 dose (5 µM) rapidly triggered a signaling cascade leading to nSMase2 activation, src and annexin 2 (AnxA2) phosphorylation, and actin remodeling, in fibroblasts and SMC. These events were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of MMPs (Ro28-2653) and p38MAPK (SB203580), and were lacking in MMP2−/− and in nSMase2-mutant (fro) fibroblasts. Likewise, H2O2 was unable to induce actin remodeling in fro and MMP2−/− fibroblasts or in cells pretreated with p38MAPK, or MMP inhibitors. Finally we show that nSMase2 activation by H2O2, depends on MMP2 and p38MAPK, and is required for the src-dependent phosphorylation of AnxA2, and actin remodeling. Taken together, these findings indicate for the first time that AnxA2 phosphorylation and actin remodeling evoked by oxidative stress depend on the sphingolipid pathway, via MMP2 and p38MAPK.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-18T09:24:20Z
       
  • Molecular mechanisms of the microsomal mixed function oxidases and
           biological and pathological implications

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 4
      Author(s): Arthur I. Cederbaum
      The cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of important endogenous substrates as well as in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. The liver P450 system is the most active in metabolism of exogenous substrates. This review briefly describes the liver P450 (CYP) mixed function oxidase system with respect to its enzymatic components and functions. Electron transfer by the NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase is required for reduction of the heme of P450, necessary for binding of molecular oxygen. Binding of substrates to P450 produce substrate binding spectra. The P450 catalytic cycle is complex and rate-limiting steps are not clear. Many types of chemical reactions can be catalyzed by P450 enzymes, making this family among the most diverse catalysts known. There are multiple forms of P450s arranged into families based on structural homology. The major drug metabolizing CYPs are discussed with respect to typical substrates, inducers and inhibitors and their polymorphic forms. The composition of CYPs in humans varies considerably among individuals because of sex and age differences, the influence of diet, liver disease, presence of potential inducers and/or inhibitors. Because of such factors and CYP polymorphisms, and overlapping drug specificity, there is a large variability in the content and composition of P450 enzymes among individuals. This can result in large variations in drug metabolism by humans and often can contribute to drug–drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Because of many of the above factors, especially CYP polymorphisms, there has been much interest in personalized medicine especially with respect to which CYPs and which of their polymorphic forms are present in order to attempt to determine what drug therapy and what dosage would reflect the best therapeutic strategy in treating individual patients.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and cancer in type 2 diabetes

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 4
      Author(s): Kasper Broedbaek , Volkert Siersma , Trine Henriksen , Allan Weimann , Morten Petersen , Jon T. Andersen , Espen Jimenez-Solem , Lars J. Hansen , Jan Erik Henriksen , Steen J. Bonnema , Niels de Fine Olivarius , Søren Friis , Henrik E. Poulsen
      Aims/hypothesis We investigated whether urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation are associated with an increased risk of cancer in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Urine samples from 1381 newly diagnosed diabetes patients were assayed for the oxidatively modified guanine nucleosides 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the relationship between the urinary markers and cancer incidence. Results The crude analyses showed an association between overall cancer and urinary excretion of the RNA oxidation marker 8-oxoGuo (unadjusted hazard ratio for cancer per natural log increase in 8-oxoGuo 1.35 [95% CI, 1.01–1.81]), however, in the adjusted analyses, no significant associations between 8-oxodG or 8-oxoGuo and overall cancer were found. For site-specific cancers 8-oxodG was associated with breast cancer in the crude analyses (unadjusted hazard ratio for breast cancer per natural log increase in 8-oxodG was 2.37 [95% CI, 1.07–5.26]), although the association was attenuated in the adjusted analyses (sex- and age-adjusted hazard ratio 2.15 [95% CI, 0.92–5.02] and multivariate adjusted hazard ratio1.98 [95% CI, 0.95–4.10]). Conclusions Urinary excretion of the nucleic acid oxidation markers 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo at the time of diagnosis was not associated with cancer overall in type 2 diabetes patients. For site-specific cancers, risk elevations were seen for breast cancer (8-oxodG). These findings should be examined in future and larger studies.


      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • The role of the catecholic and the electrophilic moieties of caffeic acid
           in Nrf2/Keap1 pathway activation in ovarian carcinoma cell lines

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 4
      Author(s): R. Sirota , D. Gibson , R. Kohen
      In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated the health benefits of polyphenols. A major portion of polyphenols in western diet are derived from coffee, which is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. It has been shown that many polyphenols gain their beneficial properties (e.g. cancer prevention) through the activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway as well as their direct antioxidant activity. However, activation of Nrf2 in cancer cells might lead to resistance towards therapy through induction of phase II enzymes. In the present work we hypothesize that caffeic acid (CA), a coffee polyphenol, might act as an electrophile in addition to its nucleophilic properties and is capable of inducing the Nrf2/EpRE pathway in cancer cells. The results indicate that CA induces Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus and consequently its transcription. It has been demonstrated that generated hydrogen peroxide is involved in the induction process. It has also been found that this process is induced predominantly via the double bond in CA (Michael acceptor). However, surprisingly the presence of both nucleophilic and electrophilic moieties in CA resulted in a synergetic activation of Nrf2 and phase II enzymes. We also found that CA possesses a dual activity, although inducing GSTP1 and GSR, it inhibiting their enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the mechanism of induction of Nrf2 pathway and phase II enzymes by CA has been elucidated. The electrophilic moiety in CA is essential for the oxidation of the Keap1 protein. It should be noted that while the nucleophilic moiety (the catechol/quinone moiety) can provide scavenging ability, it cannot contribute directly to Nrf2 induction. It was found that this process may be induced by H2O2 produced by the catechol group. On the whole, it appears that CA might play a major role in the cancer cells by enhancing their resistance to treatment.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • A novel role for 12/15-lipoxygenase in regulating autophagy

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 4
      Author(s): Alwena H. Morgan , Victoria J. Hammond , Machiko Sakoh-Nakatogawa , Yoshinori Ohsumi , Christopher P. Thomas , Fabien Blanchet , Vincent Piguet , Kirill Kiselyov , Valerie B. O’Donnell
      12/15-Lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymatically generates oxidized phospholipids in monocytes and macrophages. Herein, we show that cells deficient in 12/15-LOX contain defective mitochondria and numerous cytoplasmic vacuoles containing electron dense material, indicating defects in autophagy or membrane processing, However, both LC3 expression and lipidation were normal both basally and on chloroquine treatment. A LOX-derived oxidized phospholipid, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-phosphatidylethanolamine (12-HETE-PE) was found to be a preferred substrate for yeast Atg8 lipidation, versus native PE, while both native and oxidized PE were effective substrates for LC3 lipidation. Last, phospholipidomics demonstrated altered levels of several phospholipid classes. Thus, we show that oxidized phospholipids generated by 12/15-LOX can act as substrates for key proteins required for effective autophagy and that cells deficient in this enzyme show evidence of autophagic dysfunction. The data functionally link phospholipid oxidation with autophagy for the first time.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Copper–zinc superoxide dismutase-mediated redox regulation of
           bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 4
      Author(s): Kelley Salem , Michael L. McCormick , Erik Wendlandt , Fenghuang Zhan , Apollina Goel
      Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) is a frontline MM drug; however, intrinsic or acquired resistance to BTZ remains a clinical hurdle. As BTZ induces oxidative stress in MM cells, we queried if altered redox homeostasis promotes BTZ resistance. In primary human MM samples, increased gene expression of copper–zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD or SOD1) correlated with cancer progression, high-risk disease, and adverse overall and event-free survival outcomes. As an in vitro model, human MM cell lines (MM.1S, 8226, U266) and the BTZ-resistant (BR) lines (MM.1SBR, 8226BR) were utilized to determine the role of antioxidants in intrinsic or acquired BTZ-resistance. An up-regulation of CuZnSOD, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), and glutathione (GSH) were associated with BTZ resistance and attenuated prooxidant production by BTZ. Enforced overexpression of SOD1 induced BTZ resistance and pharmacological inhibition of CuZnSOD with disulfiram (DSF) augmented BTZ cytotoxicity in both BTZ-sensitive and BTZ-resistant cell lines. Our data validates CuZnSOD as a novel therapeutic target in MM. We propose DSF as an adjuvant to BTZ in MM that is expected to overcome intrinsic and acquired BTZ resistance as well as augment BTZ cytotoxicity.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Uncoupling protein-2 attenuates palmitoleate protection against the
           cytotoxic production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in INS-1E
           insulinoma cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 4
      Author(s): Jonathan Barlow , Verena Hirschberg Jensen , Charles Affourtit
      High glucose and fatty acid levels impair pancreatic beta cell function. We have recently shown that palmitate-induced loss of INS-1E insulinoma cells is related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as both toxic effects are prevented by palmitoleate. Here we show that palmitate-induced ROS are mostly mitochondrial: oxidation of MitoSOX, a mitochondria-targeted superoxide probe, is increased by palmitate, whilst oxidation of the equivalent non-targeted probe is unaffected. Moreover, mitochondrial respiratory inhibition with antimycin A stimulates palmitate-induced MitoSOX oxidation. We also show that palmitate does not change the level of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) and that UCP2 knockdown does not affect palmitate-induced MitoSOX oxidation. Palmitoleate does not influence MitoSOX oxidation in INS-1E cells ±UCP2 and largely prevents the palmitate-induced effects. Importantly, UCP2 knockdown amplifies the preventive effect of palmitoleate on palmitate-induced ROS. Consistently, viability effects of palmitate and palmitoleate are similar between cells ±UCP2, but UCP2 knockdown significantly augments the palmitoleate protection against palmitate-induced cell loss at high glucose. We conclude that UCP2 neither mediates palmitate-induced mitochondrial ROS generation and the associated cell loss, nor protects against these deleterious effects. Instead, UCP2 dampens palmitoleate protection against palmitate toxicity.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Redox-active cerium oxide nanoparticles protect human dermal fibroblasts
           from PQ-induced damage

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 4
      Author(s): Claudia von Montfort , Lirija Alili , Sarah Teuber-Hanselmann , Peter Brenneisen
      Recently, it has been published that cerium (Ce) oxide nanoparticles (CNP; nanoceria) are able to downregulate tumor invasion in cancer cell lines. Redox-active CNP exhibit both selective pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties, the first being responsible for impairment of tumor growth and invasion. A non-toxic and even protective effect of CNP in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) has already been observed. However, the effect on important parameters such as cell death, proliferation and redox state of the cells needs further clarification. Here, we present that nanoceria prevent HDF from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cell death and stimulate proliferation due to the antioxidative property of these particles.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial quality control

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 4
      Author(s): Hong-Min Ni , Jessica A. Williams , Wen-Xing Ding
      Mitochondria are cellular energy powerhouses that play important roles in maintaining cell survival, cell death and cellular metabolic homeostasis. Timely removal of damaged mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy) is thus critical for cellular homeostasis and function. Mitochondria are reticular organelles that have high plasticity for their dynamic structures and constantly undergo fission and fusion as well as movement through the cytoskeleton. In this review, we discuss the most recent progress on the molecular mechanisms and roles of mitochondrial fission/fusion and mitochondrial motility in mitophagy. We also discuss multiple pathways leading to the quality control of mitochondria in addition to the traditional mitophagy pathway under different conditions.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Functional interaction between cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 in response to an
           endogenous electrophile

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 4
      Author(s): Takeshi Kumagai , Hiroko Usami , Nao Matsukawa , Fumie Nakashima , Miho Chikazawa , Takahiro Shibata , Noriko Noguchi , Koji Uchida
      Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is rapidly expressed by various stimuli and plays a key role in conversion of free arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. We have previously identified 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation-derived electrophile, as the potent Cox-2 inducer in rat epithelial RL34 cells and revealed that the HNE-induced Cox-2 expression resulted from the stabilization of Cox-2 mRNA that is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In the present study, we investigated an alternative regulatory mechanism of Cox-2 expression mediated by a transcription factor p53. In addition, to characterize the causal role for Cox-2, we examined the effects of Cox-2 overexpression in RL34 cells. To examine whether the HNE-induced Cox-2 expression was mechanistically linked to the p53 expression, we analyzed changes in Cox-2 and p53 expression levels in response to HNE and observed that the Cox-2 levels were inversely correlated with the p53 levels. Down-regulation of p53 followed by the activation of a transcription factor Sp1 was suggested to be involved in the HNE-induced Cox-2 gene expression. To characterize the effect of Cox-2 expression in the cells, we established the Cox-2-overexpressing derivatives of RL34 cells by stable transfection with Cox-2 cDNA. An oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed a dramatic down-regulation of the proteasome subunit RC1 in the Cox-2 overexpressed cells compared to the empty-vector transfected control cells. Consistent with the Cox-2-mediated down-regulation of proteasome, a moderate reduction of the proteasome activities was observed. This proteasome dysfunction mediated by the Cox-2 overproduction was associated with the enhanced accumulation of p53 and ubiquitinated proteins, leading to the enhanced sensitivity toward electrophiles. These results suggest the existence of a causal link between Cox-2 and p53, which may represent a toxic mechanism of electrophilic lipid peroxidation products.


      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Combined inhibition of glycolysis, the pentose cycle, and thioredoxin
           metabolism selectively increases cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in
           human breast and prostate cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Ling Li , Melissa A. Fath , Peter M. Scarbrough , Walter H. Watson , Douglas R. Spitz
      Inhibition of glycolysis using 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG, 20 mM, 24–48 h) combined with inhibition of the pentose cycle using dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 300 µM, 24–48 hours) increased clonogenic cell killing in both human prostate (PC-3 and DU145) and human breast (MDA-MB231) cancer cells via a mechanism involving thiol-mediated oxidative stress. Surprisingly, when 2DG+DHEA treatment was combined with an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis (l-buthionine sulfoximine; BSO, 1 mM) that depleted GSH > 90% of control, no further increase in cell killing was observed during 48 hours exposures. In contrast, when an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity (Auranofin; Au, 1 µM), was combined with 2DG+DHEA or DHEA-alone for 24 hours, clonogenic cell killing was significantly increased in all three human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, enhanced clonogenic cell killing seen with the combination of DHEA+Au was nearly completely inhibited using the thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 20 mM). Redox Western blot analysis of PC-3 cells also supported the conclusion that thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) oxidation was enhanced by treatment DHEA+Au and inhibited by NAC. Importantly, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) were not as sensitive to 2DG, DHEA, and Au combinations as their cancer cell counterparts (MDA-MB-231). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that inhibition of glycolysis and pentose cycle activity, combined with inhibition of Trx metabolism, may provide a promising strategy for selectively sensitizing human cancer cells to oxidative stress-induced cell killing.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Interplay between ROS and autophagy in cancer cells, from tumor initiation
           to cancer therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Laura Poillet-Perez , Gilles Despouy , Régis Delage-Mourroux , Michaël Boyer-Guittaut
      Cancer formation is a complex and highly regulated multi-step process which is highly dependent of its environment, from the tissue to the patient. This complexity implies the development of specific treatments adapted to each type of tumor. The initial step of cancer formation requires the transformation of a healthy cell to a cancer cell, a process regulated by multiple intracellular and extracellular stimuli. The further steps, from the anarchic proliferation of cancer cells to form a primary tumor to the migration of cancer cells to distant organs to form metastasis, are also highly dependent of the tumor environment but of intracellular molecules and pathways as well. In this review, we will focus on the regulatory role of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and autophagy levels during the course of cancer development, from cellular transformation to the formation of metastasis. These data will allow us to discuss the potential of these molecule or pathway as putative future therapeutic targets.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Epalrestat increases glutathione, thioredoxin, and heme oxygenase-1 by
           stimulating Nrf2 pathway in endothelial cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Kaori Yama , Keisuke Sato , Natsuki Abe , Yu Murao , Ryosuke Tatsunami , Yoshiko Tampo
      Epalrestat (EPS) is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Recently, we found that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH) in rat Schwann cells. GSH plays a crucial role in protecting endothelial cells from oxidative stress, thereby preventing vascular diseases. Here we show that EPS increases GSH levels in not only Schwann cells but also endothelial cells. Treatment of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), an in vitro model of the vascular endothelium, with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. This was concomitant with the up-regulation of glutamate cysteine ligase, an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Moreover, EPS stimulated the expression of thioredoxin and heme oxygenase-1, which have important redox regulatory functions in endothelial cells. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant genes. EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels in BAECs. Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced glutamate cysteine ligase, thioredoxin-1, and heme oxygenase-1 expression. Interestingly, LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, abolished the EPS-stimulated GSH synthesis, suggesting that the kinase is associated with Nrf2 activation induced by EPS. Furthermore, EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2 and tert-butylhydroperoxide, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Taken together, the results provide evidence that EPS exerts new beneficial effects on endothelial cells by increasing GSH, thioredoxin, and heme oxygenase-1 levels through the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has the potential to prevent several vascular diseases caused by oxidative stress.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Ethanol-induced oxidant stress modulates hepatic autophagy and proteasome
           activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 3
      Author(s): Terrence M. Donohue Jr. , Paul G. Thomes
      In this review, we describe research findings on the effects of alcohol exposure on two major catabolic systems in liver cells: the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy. These hydrolytic systems are not unique to liver cells; they exist in all eukaryotic tissues and cells. However, because the liver is the principal site of ethanol metabolism, it sustains the greatest damage from heavy drinking. Thus, the focus of this review is to specifically describe how ethanol oxidation modulates the activities of the UPS and autophagy and the mechanisms by which these changes contribute to the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury. Here, we describe the history and the importance of cellular hydrolytic systems, followed by a description of each catabolic pathway and the differential modulation of each by ethanol exposure. Overall, the evidence for an involvement of these catabolic systems in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease is quite strong. It underscores their importance, not only as effective means of cellular recycling and eventual energy generation, but also as essential components of cellular defense.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Intestinal CYP2E1: A mediator of alcohol-induced gut leakiness

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 3
      Author(s): Christopher B. Forsyth , Robin M. Voigt , Ali. Keshavarzian
      Chronic alcohol use can result in many pathological effects including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). While alcohol is necessary for the development of ALD, only 20–30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) with progressive liver disease leading to cirrhosis and liver failure (ALD). This suggests that while chronic alcohol consumption is necessary it is not sufficient to induce clinically relevant liver damage in the absence of a secondary risk factor. Studies in rodent models and alcoholic patients show that increased intestinal permeability to microbial products like endotoxin play a critical role in promoting liver inflammation in ALD pathogenesis. Therefore identifying mechanisms of alcohol-induced intestinal permeability is important in identifying mechanisms of ALD and for designing new avenues for therapy. Cyp2e1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes alcohol has been shown to be upregulated by chronic alcohol use and to be a major source of oxidative stress and liver injury in alcoholics and in animal and in vitro models of chronic alcohol use. Because Cyp2e1 is also expressed in the intestine and is upregulated by chronic alcohol use, we hypothesized it could play a role in alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability. Our in vitro studies with intestinal Caco-2 cells and in mice fed alcohol showed that circadian clock proteins CLOCK and PER2 are required for alcohol-induced permeability. We also showed that alcohol increases Cyp2e1 protein and activity but not mRNA in Caco-2 cells and that an inhibitor of oxidative stress or siRNA knockdown of Cyp2e1 prevents the increase in CLOCK or PER2 proteins and prevents alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. With our collaborators we have also shown that Cyp2e1 knockout mice are resistant to alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver inflammation. Taken together our data support a novel Cyp2e1-circadian clock protein mechanism for alcohol-induced gut leakiness that could provide new avenues for therapy of ALD.


      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • CYP2E1 autoantibodies in liver diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 3
      Author(s): Salvatore Sutti , Cristina Rigamonti , Matteo Vidali , Emanuele Albano
      Autoimmune reactions involving cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) are a feature of idiosyncratic liver injury induced by halogenated hydrocarbons and isoniazid, but are also detectable in about one third of the patients with advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In these latter the presence of anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies is an independent predictor of extensive necro-inflammation and fibrosis and worsens the recurrence of hepatitis following liver transplantation, indicating that CYP2E1-directed autoimmunity can contribute to hepatic injury. The molecular characterization of the antigens recognized by anti-CYP2E1 auto-antibodies in ALD and CHC has shown that the targeted conformational epitopes are located in close proximity on the molecular surface. Furthermore, these epitopes can be recognized on CYP2E1 expressed on hepatocyte plasma membranes where they can trigger antibody-mediated cytotoxicity. This does not exclude that T cell-mediated responses against CYP2E1 might also be involved in causing hepatocyte damage. CYP2E1 structural modifications by reactive metabolites and molecular mimicry represent important factors in the breaking of self-tolerance against CYP2E1 in, respectively, ALD and CHC. However, genetic or acquired interferences with the mechanisms controlling the homeostasis of the immune system are also likely to contribute. More studies are needed to better characterize the impact of anti-CYP2E1 autoimmunity in liver diseases particularly in relation to the fact that common metabolic alterations such as obesity and diabetes stimulates hepatic CYP2E1 expression.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Cholesterol: A modulator of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity - A
           cell-free study

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 3
      Author(s): Rawand Masoud , Tania Bizouarn , Chantal Houée-Levin
      The NADPH oxidase Nox2, a multi-subunit enzyme complex comprising membrane and cytosolic proteins, catalyzes a very intense production of superoxide ions O2 •−, which are transformed into other reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, it has to be activated by addition of amphiphiles like arachidonic acid (AA). It has been shown that the membrane part of phagocyte NADPH oxidase is present in lipid rafts rich in cholesterol. Cholesterol plays a significant role in the development of cardio-vascular diseases that are always accompanied by oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate the influence of cholesterol on the activation process of NADPH oxidase. Our results clearly show that, in a cell-free system, cholesterol is not an efficient activator of NADPH oxidase like arachidonic acid (AA), however it triggers a basal low superoxide production at concentrations similar to what found in neutrophile. A higher concentration, if present during the assembly process of the enzyme, has an inhibitory role on the production of O2 •−. Added cholesterol acts on both cytosolic and membrane components, leading to imperfect assembly and decreasing the affinity of cytosolic subunits to the membrane ones. Added to the cytosolic proteins, it retains their conformations but still allows some conformational change induced by AA addition, indispensable to activation of NADPH oxidase.


      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Natural thermal adaptation increases heat shock protein levels and
           decreases oxidative stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 3
      Author(s): Niku K.J. Oksala , F. Güler Ekmekçi , Ergi Özsoy , Şerife Kirankaya , Tarja Kokkola , Güzin Emecen , Jani Lappalainen , Kai Kaarniranta , Mustafa Atalay
      Heat shock proteins (HSPs), originally identified as heat-inducible gene products, are a family of highly conserved proteins that respond to a wide variety of stress including oxidative stress. Although both acute and chronic oxidative stress have been well demonstrated to induce HSP responses, little evidence is available whether increased HSP levels provide enhanced protection against oxidative stress under elevated yet sublethal temperatures. We studied relationships between oxidative stress and HSPs in a physiological model by using Garra rufa (doctor fish), a fish species naturally acclimatized to different thermal conditions. We compared fish naturally living in a hot spring with relatively high water temperature (34.4±0.6°C) to those living in normal river water temperature (25.4±4.7°C), and found that levels of all the studied HSPs (HSP70, HSP60, HSP90, HSC70 and GRP75) were higher in fish living in elevated water temperature compared with normal river water temperature. In contrast, indicators of oxidative stress, including protein carbonyls and lipid hydroperoxides, were decreased in fish living in the elevated temperature, indicating that HSP levels are inversely associated with oxidative stress. The present results provide evidence that physiologically increased HSP levels provide protection against oxidative stress and enhance cytoprotection.


      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Role of H2O2 in the oxidative effects of zinc exposure in human airway
           epithelial cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 3
      Author(s): Phillip A. Wages , Robert Silbajoris , Adam Speen , Luisa Brighton , Andres Henriquez , Haiyan Tong , Philip A. Bromberg , Steven O. Simmons , James M. Samet
      Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a global environmental health concern. Zinc (Zn2+) is a ubiquitous respiratory toxicant that has been associated with PM health effects. However, the molecular mechanism of Zn2+ toxicity is not fully understood. H2O2 and Zn2+ have been shown to mediate signaling leading to adverse cellular responses in the lung and we have previously demonstrated Zn2+ to cause cellular H2O2 production. To determine the role of Zn2+-induced H2O2 production in the human airway epithelial cell response to Zn2+ exposure. BEAS-2B cells expressing the redox-sensitive fluorogenic sensors HyPer (H2O2) or roGFP2 (E GSH) in the cytosol or mitochondria were exposed to 50µM Zn2+ for 5min in the presence of 1µM of the zinc ionophore pyrithione. Intracellular H2O2 levels were modulated using catalase expression either targeted to the cytosol or ectopically to the mitochondria. HO-1 mRNA expression was measured as a downstream marker of response to oxidative stress induced by Zn2+ exposure. Both cytosolic catalase overexpression and ectopic catalase expression in mitochondria were effective in ablating Zn2+-induced elevations in H2O2. Compartment-directed catalase expression blunted Zn2+-induced elevations in cytosolic E GSH and the increased expression of HO-1 mRNA levels. Zn2+ leads to multiple oxidative effects that are exerted through H2O2-dependent and independent mechanisms.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Peroxiredoxin 3 levels regulate a mitochondrial redox setpoint in
           malignant mesothelioma cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 3
      Author(s): Brian Cunniff , Alexandra N. Wozniak , Patrick Sweeney , Kendra DeCosta , Nicholas H. Heintz
      Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3), a typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin located exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix, is the principal peroxidase responsible for metabolizing mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide, a byproduct of cellular respiration originating from the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Mitochondrial oxidants are produced in excess in cancer cells due to oncogenic transformation and metabolic reorganization, and signals through FOXM1 and other redox-responsive factors to support a hyper-proliferative state. Over-expression of PRX3 in cancer cells has been shown to counteract oncogene-induced senescence and support tumor cell growth and survival making PRX3 a credible therapeutic target. Using malignant mesothelioma (MM) cells stably expressing shRNAs to PRX3 we show that decreased expression of PRX3 alters mitochondrial structure, function and cell cycle kinetics. As compared to control cells, knockdown of PRX3 expression increased mitochondrial membrane potential, basal ATP production, oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates. shPRX3 MM cells failed to progress through the cell cycle compared to wild type controls, with increased numbers of cells in G2/M phase. Diminished PRX3 expression also induced mitochondrial hyperfusion similar to the DRP1 inhibitor mdivi-1. Cell cycle progression and changes in mitochondrial networking were rescued by transient expression of either catalase or mitochondrial-targeted catalase, indicating high levels of hydrogen peroxide contribute to perturbations in mitochondrial structure and function in shPRX3 MM cells. Our results indicate that PRX3 levels establish a redox set point that permits MM cells to thrive in response to increased levels of mROS, and that perturbing the redox status governed by PRX3 impairs proliferation by altering cell cycle-dependent dynamics between mitochondrial networking and energy metabolism.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Estradiol improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2
           on vascular wall

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 3
      Author(s): Zhaoyu Liu , Yulan Gou , Hongyu Zhang , Houjuan Zuo , Haimou Zhang , Zhengxiang Liu , Dachun Yao
      Epidemiological studies have shown that estrogens have protective effects in cardiovascular diseases, even though the results from human clinical trials remain controversial, while most of the animal experiments confirmed this effect, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that estradiol (E2) treatment significantly increases the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in mice and in vitro in human aorta endothelial cells. Further investigation shows that E2 up-regulates SOD2 through tethering of estrogen receptor (ER) to Sp1 and the increased binding of Sp1 to GC-box on the SOD2 promoter, where ERα responses E2-mediated gene activation, and ERβ maintains basal gene expression level. The E2/ER-mediated SOD2 up-regulation results in minimized ROS generation, which highly favors healthy cardiovascular function. Gene therapy through lentivirus-carried endothelium-specific delivery to the vascular wall in high-fat diet (HFT) mice shows that the SOD2 expression in endothelial cells normalizes E2 deficiency-induced ROS generation with ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular damage, while SOD2 knockdown worsens the problem despite the presence of E2, indicating that E2-induced SOD2 expression plays an important vasculoprotective role. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the mechanism by which E2 improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2 in endothelial cells. In turn, this suggests a novel gene therapy through lentivirus-carried gene delivery to vascular wall for E2 deficiency-induced cardiovascular damage in postmenopausal women.


      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue injury by alcohol, high fat,
           nonalcoholic substances and pathological conditions through
           post-translational protein modifications

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 3
      Author(s): Byoung-Joon Song , Mohammed Akbar , Mohamed A. Abdelmegeed , Kyunghee Byun , Bonghee Lee , Seung Kew Yoon , James P. Hardwick
      Mitochondria are critically important in providing cellular energy ATP as well as their involvement in anti-oxidant defense, fat oxidation, intermediary metabolism and cell death processes. It is well-established that mitochondrial functions are suppressed when living cells or organisms are exposed to potentially toxic agents including alcohol, high fat diets, smoking and certain drugs or in many pathophysiological states through increased levels of oxidative/nitrative stress. Under elevated nitroxidative stress, cellular macromolecules proteins, DNA, and lipids can undergo different oxidative modifications, leading to disruption of their normal, sometimes critical, physiological functions. Recent reports also indicated that many mitochondrial proteins are modified via various post-translation modifications (PTMs) and primarily inactivated. Because of the recently-emerging information, in this review, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and roles of five major PTMs (namely oxidation, nitration, phosphorylation, acetylation, and adduct formation with lipid-peroxides, reactive metabolites, or advanced glycation end products) in experimental models of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as well as acute hepatic injury caused by toxic compounds. We also highlight the role of the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) in some of these PTM changes. Finally, we discuss translational research opportunities with natural and/or synthetic anti-oxidants, which can prevent or delay the onset of mitochondrial dysfunction, fat accumulation and tissue injury.
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      PubDate: 2014-12-14T09:04:46Z
       
  • Mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation in alcoholic liver disease: Role of
           ASMase and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Montserrat Marí , Albert Morales , Anna Colell , Carmen García-Ruiz , Jose C. Fernández-Checa
      Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and a growing health concern in the world. While the pathogenesis of ALD is poorly characterized key players identified in experimental models and patients, such as perturbations in mitochondrial structure and function, selective loss of antioxidant defense and susceptibility to inflammatory cytokines, contribute to ALD progression. Both oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction compromise essential cellular functions and energy generation and hence are important pathogenic mechanisms of ALD. An important process mediating the mitochondrial disruption induced by alcohol intake is the trafficking of cholesterol to mitochondria, mediated by acid sphingomyelinase-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, which contributes to increased cholesterol synthesis and StARD1 upregulation. Mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation not only sensitizes to oxidative stress but it can contribute to the metabolic reprogramming in ALD, manifested by activation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor 1 and stimulation of glycolysis and lactate secretion. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol-mediated mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress may lead to the identification of novel treatments for ALD. The present review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to alcohol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cholesterol accumulation and provides insights for potential therapeutic targets in ALD.
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      PubDate: 2014-10-02T05:29:02Z
       
  • Regulation of the Effects of CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress by JNK
           signaling

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Jörn M. Schattenberg , Mark J. Czaja
      The generation of excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to cellular oxidative stress that underlies a variety of forms of hepatocyte injury and death including that from alcohol. Although ROS can induce cell damage through direct effects on cellular macromolecules, the injurious effects of ROS are mediated largely through changes in signal transduction pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In response to alcohol, hepatocytes have increased levels of the enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) which generates an oxidant stress that promotes the development of alcoholic steatosis and liver injury. These effects are mediated in large part through overactivation of JNK that alters cell death pathways. Targeting the JNK pathway or its downstream effectors may be a useful therapeutic approach to the oxidative stress generated by CYP2E1 in alcoholic liver disease.
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      PubDate: 2014-09-26T04:32:18Z
       
  • Differential localization and potency of manganese porphyrin superoxide
           dismutase-mimicking compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Alice Ma Li , Jake Martins , Artak Tovmasyan , Joan S. Valentine , Ines Batinic-Haberle , Ivan Spasojevic , Edith B. Gralla
      Cationic Mn(III) porphyrin complexes based on MnTM-2-PyP are among the most promising superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimicking compounds being considered as potential anti-inflammatory drugs. We studied four of these active compounds in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MnTM-2-PyP, MnTE-2-PyP, MnTnHex-2-PyP, and MnTnBu-2-PyP, each of which differs only in the length of its alkyl substituents. Each was active in improving the aerobic growth of yeast lacking SOD (sod1∆) in complete medium, and the efficacy of each mimic was correlated with its characteristic catalytic activity. We also studied the partitioning of these compounds between mitochondria and cytosol and found that the more hydrophobic members of the series accumulated in the mitochondria. Moreover, the degree to which a mimic mitigated the sod1Δ auxotrophic phenotype for lysine relative to its auxotrophic phenotype for methionine depended upon its level of lipophilicity-dependent accumulation inside the mitochondria. We conclude that localization within the cell is an important factor in biological efficacy in addition to the degree of catalytic activity, and we discuss possible explanations for this effect.
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      PubDate: 2014-09-22T04:07:47Z
       
  • An ex vivo model for evaluating bioenergetics in aortic rings

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Kyle P. Feeley , David G. Westbrook , Alexander W. Bray , Scott W. Ballinger
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and it exhibits a greatly increasing incidence proportional to aging. Atherosclerosis is a chronic condition of arterial hardening resulting in restriction of oxygen delivery and blood flow to the heart. Relationships between mitochondrial DNA damage, oxidant production, and early atherogenesis have been recently established and it is likely that aspects of atherosclerotic risk are metabolic in nature. Here we present a novel method through which mitochondrial bioenergetics can be assessed from whole aorta tissue. This method does not require mitochondrial isolation or cell culture and it allows for multiple technical replicates and expedient measurement. This procedure facilitates quantitative bioenergetic analysis and can provide great utility in better understanding the link between mitochondria, metabolism, and atherogenesis.
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      PubDate: 2014-09-07T01:56:03Z
       
  • The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytochrome P-450 2E1 in the
           generation of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Kirsten Linhart , Helmut Bartsch , Helmut K. Seitz
      Exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic and are formed by the reaction of lipidperoxidation (LPO) products such as 4-hydoxynonenal or malondialdehyde with DNA bases. LPO products are generated either via inflammation driven oxidative stress or via the induction of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1). In the liver CYP2E1 is induced by various compounds including free fatty acids, acetone and ethanol. Increased levels of CYP2E1 and thus, oxidative stress are observed in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well as in the chronic alcoholic. In addition, chronic ethanol ingestion also increases CYP2E1 in the mucosa of the oesophagus and colon. In all these tissues CYP2E1 correlates significantly with the levels of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts. In contrast, in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) hepatic etheno-DNA adducts do not correlate with CYP2E1 indicating that in NASH etheno-DNA adducts formation is predominately driven by inflammation rather than by CYP2E1 induction. Since etheno-DNA adducts are strong mutagens producing various types of base pair substitution mutations as well as other types of genetic damage, it is strongly believed that they are involved in ethanol mediated carcinogenesis primarily driven by the induction of CYP2E1.
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      PubDate: 2014-09-07T01:56:03Z
       
  • Inputs and outputs of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation: Relevance to oxidative
           stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 2
      Author(s): Csaba Hegedűs , László Virág
      Oxidative stress can cause DNA breaks which induce activation of the DNA nick sensor enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), part of the 17 member PARP enzyme family. PARP-1 modifies target proteins by attaching to them several NAD-derived ADP-ribose units forming poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers. PARylation controls many cellular processes while intense PARylation may also lead to cell death by various mechanisms. Here we summarize the modes of activation, inhibitors and modulators of PARP-1 and review the cellular functions regulated by the enzyme.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T01:13:48Z
       
  • Innate immunity and cell death in alcoholic liver disease: Role of
           cytochrome P4502E1

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Mark A. Barnes , Sanjoy Roychowdhury , Laura E. Nagy
      Ethanol-induced liver injury is a complex process dependent upon the interaction of multiple cell types in the liver, as well as activation of the innate immune response. Increased expression of CYP2E1 in response to high concentrations of ethanol leads to greater production of cytotoxic ethanol metabolites, which in turn contribute to production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and ultimately, cell death. Necroptotic hepatocyte cell death in response to ethanol is mediated via a CYP2E1-dependent expression of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3), a key component of the necroptosome. In response to alarmins released during ethanol-induced necroptosis, the innate immune response is activated. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory multikine involved in many disease processes, is an essential component to this response to injury. MIF expression is increased during ethanol exposure via a CYP2E1-dependent pathway, likely contributing to an exacerbated innate immune response and chronic inflammation after chronic ethanol. This review will discuss the complex interactions between CYP2E1-dependent expression of RIP3 and MIF in the pathophysiology of chronic ethanol-induced liver injury.
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      PubDate: 2014-08-03T22:31:24Z
       
  • Defective mitophagy driven by dysregulation of rheb and KIF5B contributes
           to mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) -induced nod-like receptor
           3 (NLRP3) dependent proinflammatory response and aggravates lipotoxicity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Sijun Yang , Chunxiang Xia , Shali Li , Leilei Du , Lu Zhang , Ronbin Zhou
      High-fat diet (HFD) and inflammation are key contributors to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previous study shows fatty acid-induced accumulation of damaged, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating mitochondria, and this in turn activates the NLRP3 inflammasome interference with insulin signaling. Our previous research shows NLRP3 inflammasome activation signal originates from defects in autophagy. Yet how the fatty acid related to mitophagy alteration leads to the activation of NLRP3-ASC inflammasome has not been considered. Here we demonstrated that palmitate (PA) induced mitophagy deficiency, leading to damaged mitochondrion as characterized by mito-ROS production and loss of membrane potential. Antioxidant APDC or Ca2+ signaling inhibitor Nifedipine blocked PA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Further, we provided evidences that PA reduced expression of Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) and disrupted Rheb recruitment to the mitochondrial outer membrane. In addition, sustained PA caused disassociation of kinesin family member 5B (KIF5B) from binding with mitochondria via Ca2+-dependent effects. Disruption of Rheb and KIF5B interaction with mitochondria blocked mitochondrial degradation along with IL-1β dependent insulin resistance, which was majorly attenuated by Rheb/KIF5B overexpression. In a consequence, defective mitophagy led to the accumulation of damaged-ROS-generating mitochondria, down pathway of NLRP3-ASC-Caspase 1 activation, and subsequently, insulin resistance. These findings provide insights into the association of inflammation, mitophagy and T2D.
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      PubDate: 2014-04-16T21:25:03Z
       
  • Hydrogen peroxide signaling in vascular endothelial cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Rosa Bretón-Romero , Santiago Lamas
      Redox signaling is implicated in different physiological and pathological events in the vasculature. Among the different reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very good candidate to perform functions as an intracellular messenger in the regulation of several biological events. In this review, we summarize the main physiological sources of H2O2 in the endothelium and the molecular mechanisms by which it is able to act as a signaling mediator in the vasculature.
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      PubDate: 2014-03-06T17:28:26Z
       
  • Redox Biology celebrates its first anniversary with over 100 articles and
           100,000 downloads and over 160 citations!

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Victor Darley-Usmar , Tilman Grune , Santiago Lamas , Tak Yee Aw



      PubDate: 2014-03-06T17:28:26Z
       
  • Regulatory metabolites of vitamin E and their putative relevance for
           atherogenesis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Maria Wallert , Lisa Schmölz , Francesco Galli , Marc Birringer , Stefan Lorkowski
      Vitamin E is likely the most important antioxidant in the human diet and α-tocopherol is the most active isomer. α-Tocopherol exhibits anti-oxidative capacity in vitro, and inhibits oxidation of LDL. Beside this, α-tocopherol shows anti-inflammatory activity and modulates expression of proteins involved in uptake, transport and degradation of tocopherols, as well as the uptake, storage and export of lipids such as cholesterol. Despite promising anti-atherogenic features in vitro, vitamin E failed to be atheroprotective in clinical trials in humans. Recent studies highlight the importance of long-chain metabolites of α-tocopherol, which are formed as catabolic intermediate products in the liver and occur in human plasma. These metabolites modulate inflammatory processes and macrophage foam cell formation via mechanisms different than that of their metabolic precursor α-tocopherol and at lower concentrations. Here we summarize the controversial role of vitamin E as a preventive agent against atherosclerosis and point the attention to recent findings that highlight a role of these long-chain metabolites of vitamin E as a proposed new class of regulatory metabolites. We speculate that the metabolites contribute to physiological as well as pathophysiological processes.


      PubDate: 2014-02-24T15:42:16Z
       
  • Molecular chaperones and proteostasis regulation during redox imbalance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Katerina Niforou , Christina Cheimonidou , Ioannis P. Trougakos
      Free radicals originate from both exogenous environmental sources and as by-products of the respiratory chain and cellular oxygen metabolism. Sustained accumulation of free radicals, beyond a physiological level, induces oxidative stress that is harmful for the cellular homeodynamics as it promotes the oxidative damage and stochastic modification of all cellular biomolecules including proteins. In relation to proteome stability and maintenance, the increased concentration of oxidants disrupts the functionality of cellular protein machines resulting eventually in proteotoxic stress and the deregulation of the proteostasis (homeostasis of the proteome) network (PN). PN curates the proteome in the various cellular compartments and the extracellular milieu by modulating protein synthesis and protein machines assembly, protein recycling and stress responses, as well as refolding or degradation of damaged proteins. Molecular chaperones are key players of the PN since they facilitate folding of nascent polypeptides, as well as holding, folding, and/or degradation of unfolded, misfolded, or non-native proteins. Therefore, the expression and the activity of the molecular chaperones are tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and post-translational level at organismal states of increased oxidative and, consequently, proteotoxic stress, including ageing and various age-related diseases (e.g. degenerative diseases and cancer). In the current review we present a synopsis of the various classes of intra- and extracellular chaperones, the effects of oxidants on cellular homeodynamics and diseases and the redox regulation of chaperones.
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      PubDate: 2014-02-04T10:21:55Z
       
  • Optogenetic control of ROS production

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Andrew P. Wojtovich , Thomas H. Foster
      Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are known to cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. In addition, recent evidence suggests that ROS can also initiate signaling cascades that respond to stress and modify specific redox-sensitive moieties as a regulatory mechanism. This suggests that ROS are physiologically-relevant signaling molecules. However, these sensor / effector molecules are not uniformly distributed throughout the cell. Moreover, localized ROS damage may elicit site-specific compensatory measures. Thus, the impact of ROS can be likened to that of calcium, a ubiquitous second messenger, leading to the prediction that their effects are exquisitely dependent upon their location, quantity and even the timing of generation. Despite this prediction, ROS signaling is most commonly intuited through the global administration of chemicals that produce ROS or by ROS quenching through global application of antioxidants. Optogenetics, which uses light to control the activity of genetically-encoded effector proteins, provides a means of circumventing this limitation. Photo-inducible genetically-encoded ROS-generating proteins (RGPs) were originally employed for their phototoxic effects and cell ablation. However, reducing irradiance and/or fluence can achieve sub-lethal levels of ROS that may mediate subtle signaling effects. Hence, transgenic expression of RGPs as fusions to native proteins gives researchers a new tool to exert spatial and temporal control over ROS production. This review will focus on the new frontier defined by the experimental use of RGPs to study ROS signaling.
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      PubDate: 2014-02-04T10:21:55Z
       
  • Thiol-based H2O2 signalling in microbial systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Susanna Boronat , Alba Domènech , Esther Paulo , Isabel A. Calvo , Sarela García-Santamarina , Patricia García , Javier Encinar del Dedo , Anna Barcons , Erica Serrano , Mercè Carmona , Elena Hidalgo
      Cysteine residues, and in particular their thiolate groups, react not only with reactive oxygen species but also with electrophiles and with reactive nitrogen species. Thus, cysteine oxidation has often been linked to the toxic effects of some of these reactive molecules. However, thiol-based switches are common in protein sensors of antioxidant cascades, in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. We will describe here three redox sensors, the transcription factors OxyR, Yap1 and Pap1, which respond by disulfide bond formation to hydrogen peroxide stress, focusing specially on the differences among the three peroxide-sensing mechanisms.
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      PubDate: 2014-02-04T10:21:55Z
       
  • Reactive metabolites and antioxidant gene polymorphisms in Type 2 diabetes
           mellitus

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 2
      Author(s): Monisha Banerjee , Pushpank Vats
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by definition is a heterogeneous, multifactorial, polygenic syndrome which results from insulin receptor dysfunction. It is an outcome of oxidative stress caused by interactions of reactive metabolites (RMs) interactions with lipids, proteins and other mechanisms of human body. Production of RMs mainly superoxide ( O 2 − ) has been found in a variety of predominating cellular enzyme systems including NAD(P)H oxidase, xanthine oxidase (XO), cyclooxygenase (COX), uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The four main RM related molecular mechanisms are: increased polyol pathway flux; increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation; activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and increased hexosamine pathway flux which have been implicated in glucose-mediated vascular damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) are antioxidant enzymes involved in scavenging RMs in normal individuals. Functional polymorphisms of these antioxidant enzymes have been reported to be involved in pathogenesis of T2DM individuals. The low levels of antioxidant enzymes or their non-functionality results in excessive RMs which initiate stress related pathways thereby leading to insulin resistance and T2DM. An attempt has been made to review the role of RMs and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative stress resulting in T2DM.
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      PubDate: 2014-01-25T01:01:15Z
       
  • Oxidative stress and Nerve Damage: Role in Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral
           Neuropathy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Aparna Areti , Veera Ganesh Yerra , VGM Naidu , Ashutosh Kumar
      Peripheral neuropathy is a severe dose limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy. Ever since it was identified, the clear pathological mechanisms underlying chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) remain sparse and considerable involvement of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation has been realized recently. Despite of the empirical use of antioxidants in the therapy of CIPN, the oxidative stress mediated neuronal damage in peripheral neuropathy is still debatable. The current review focuses at nerve damage due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction as key pathogenic mechanisms involved in CIPN. Oxidative stress as a central mediator of apoptosis, neuroinflammation, metabolic disturbances and bioenergetic failure in neurons has been highlighted in this review along with a summary of research on dietary antioxidants and other nutraceuticals which have undergone prospective controlled clinical trials in patients undergoing chemotherapy.
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      PubDate: 2014-01-21T12:25:57Z
       
  • Redox Regulation of Protein Damage in Plasma

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Helen R. Griffiths , Irundika H.K. Dias , Rachel S. Willetts , Andrew Devitt
      The presence and concentrations of modified proteins circulating in plasma depend on rates of protein synthesis, modification and clearance. In early studies, the proteins most frequently analysed for damage were those which were more abundant in plasma (e.g. albumin and immunoglobulins) which exist at 10 orders of magnitude higher concentrations than other plasma proteins e.g. cytokines. However, advances in analytical techniques using mass spectrometry and immuno-affinity purification methods, have facilitated analysis of less abundant, modified proteins and the nature of modifications at specific sites is now being characterised. The damaging reactive species that cause protein modifications in plasma principally arise from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases (NOX), nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and oxygenase activities; reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from myeloperoxidase (MPO) and NOS activities; and hypochlorous acid from MPO. Secondary damage to proteins may be caused by oxidized lipids and glucose autooxidation. In this review, we focus on redox regulatory control of those enzymes which control protein maturation during synthesis, produce reactive species, repair and remove damaged plasma proteins. We have highlighted the potential for alterations in the extracellular redox compartment to regulate intracellular redox state and, conversely, for intracellular oxidative stress to alter the cellular secretome and composition of extracellular vesicles. Through secreted, redox-active regulatory molecules, changes in redox state may be transmitted to distant sites.


      PubDate: 2014-01-21T12:25:57Z
       
  • The Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Caenorhabditis elegans and its
           regulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Nikoletta Papaevgeniou , Niki Chondrogianni
      Protein degradation constitutes a major cellular function that is responsible for maintenance of the normal cellular physiology either through the degradation of normal proteins or through the elimination of damaged proteins. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS)1 is one of the main proteolytic systems that orchestrate protein degradation. Given that up- and down- regulation of the UPS system has been shown to occur in various normal (such as ageing) and pathological (such as neurodegenerative diseases) processes, the exogenous modulation of the UPS function and activity holds promise of (a) developing new therapeutic interventions against various diseases and (b) establishing strategies to maintain cellular homeostasis. Since the proteasome genes are evolutionarily conserved, their role can be dissected in simple model organisms, such as the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we survey findings on the redox regulation of the UPS in C. elegans showing that the nematode is an instrumental tool in the identification of major players in the UPS pathway. Moreover, we specifically discuss UPS-related genes that have been modulated in the nematode and in human cells and have resulted in similar effects thus further exhibiting the value of this model in the study of the UPS.
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      PubDate: 2014-01-21T12:25:57Z
       
  • NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signaling in TGF-β-mediated fibrotic
           responses

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Fan Jiang , Guei-Sheung Liu , Gregory J. Dusting , Elsa C. Chan
      Uncontrolled fibrosis in organs like heart, kidney, liver and lung is detrimental and may lead to end-stage organ failure. Currently there is no effective treatment for fibrotic disorders. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has a fundamental role in orchestrating the process of fibrogenesis; however, interventions directly targeting TGF-β would have undesired systemic side effects due to the multiple physiological functions of TGF-β. Further characterization of the downstream signaling pathway(s) involved in TGF-β-mediated fibrosis may lead to discovery of novel treatment strategies for fibrotic disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that Nox4 NADPH oxidase may be an important downstream effector in mediating TGF-β-induced fibrosis, while NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signaling may in turn regulate TGF-β/Smad signaling in a feed-forward manner. It is proposed that pharmacological inhibition of the Nox4 function may represent a novel approach in treatment of fibrotic disorders.


      PubDate: 2014-01-21T12:25:57Z
       
  • The proteasome and the degradation of oxidized proteins: Part III –
           Redox regulation of the proteasomal system

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Tobias Jung Annika Höhn , Tilman Grune
      Here, we review shortly the current knowledge on the regulation of the proteasomal system during and after oxidative stress. After addressing the components of the proteasomal system and the degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins in part I and II of this series, we address here which changes in activity undergo the proteasome and the ubiquitin-proteasomal system itself under oxidative conditions. While several components of the proteasomal system undergo direct oxidative modification, a number of redox-regulated events are modulating the proteasomal activity in a way it can address the major tasks in an oxidative stress situation: the removal of oxidized proteins and the adaptation of the cellular metabolism to the stress situation.


      PubDate: 2014-01-17T07:30:26Z
       
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in red blood cells: Key to a new
           erythrocrine function'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Miriam M. Cortese-Krott , Malte Kelm
      Red blood cells (RBC) have been considered almost exclusively as a transporter of metabolic gases and nutrients for the tissues. It is an accepted dogma that RBCs take up and inactivate endothelium-derived NO via rapid reaction with oxyhemoglobin to form methemoglobin and nitrate, thereby limiting NO available for vasodilatation. Yet it has also been shown that RBCs not only act as “NO sinks”, but exert an erythrocrine function - i.e an endocrine function of RBC - by synthesizing, transporting and releasing NO metabolic products and ATP, thereby potentially controlling systemic NO bioavailability and vascular tone. Recent work from our and others laboratory demonstrated that human RBCs carry an active type 3, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), constitutively producing NO under normoxic conditions, the activity of which is compromised in patients with coronary artery disease. In this review we aim to discuss the potential role of red cell eNOS in RBC signaling and function, and to critically revise evidence to this date showing a role of non-endothelial circulating eNOS in cardiovascular pathophysiology.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:01:14Z
       
  • Role of Advanced Glycation End Products in Cellular Signaling

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Christiane Ott , Kathleen Jacobs , Elisa Haucke , Anne Navarrete Santos , Tilman Grune , Andreas Simm
      Improvements in health care and lifestyle have led to an elevated lifespan and increased focus on age-associated diseases, such as neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, frailty and arteriosclerosis. In all these chronic diseases protein, lipid or nucleic acid modifications are involved, including cross-linked and non-degradable aggregates, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Formation of endogenous or uptake of dietary AGEs can lead to further protein modifications and activation of several inflammatory signaling pathways. This review will give an overview of the most prominent AGE-mediated signaling cascades, AGE receptor interactions, prevention of AGE formation and the impact of AGEs during pathophysiological processes.


      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:01:14Z
       
  • Dietary Restriction in Cerebral Bioenergetics and Redox State

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2014
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Ignacio Amigo , Alicia J. Kowaltowski
      The brain has a central role in the regulation of energy stability of the organism. It is the organ with the highest energetic demands, the most susceptible to energy deficits, and is responsible for coordinating behavioral and physiological responses related to food foraging and intake. Dietary interventions have been shown to be a very effective means to extend lifespan and delay the appearance of age-related pathological conditions, notably those associated with brain functional decline. The present review focuses on the effects of these interventions on brain metabolism and cerebral redox state, and summarizes the current literature dealing with dietary interventions on brain pathology.


      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:01:14Z
       
  • Autophagy as an essential cellular antioxidant pathway in
           neurodegenerative disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 December 2013
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Samantha Giordano , Victor Darley-Usmar , Jianhua Zhang
      Oxidative stress including DNA damage, increased lipid and protein oxidation, are important features of aging and neurodegeneration suggesting that endogenous antioxidant protective pathways are inadequate or overwhelmed. Importantly, oxidative protein damage contributes to age-dependent accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria or protein aggregates. In addition, environmental toxins such as rotenone and paraquat, which are risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, also promote protein oxidation. The obvious approach of supplementing the primary antioxidant systems designed to suppress the initiation of oxidative stress has been tested in animal models and positive results were obtained. However, these findings have not been effectively translated to treating human patients, and clinical trials for antioxidant therapies using radical scavenging molecules such as α-tocopherol, ascorbate and coenzyme Q have met with limited success, highlighting several limitations to this approach. These could include: 1) radical scavenging antioxidants cannot reverse established damage to proteins and organelles; 2) radical scavenging antioxidants are oxidant specific, and can only be effective if the specific mechanism for neurodegeneration involves the reactive species to which they are targeted and 3) since reactive species play an important role in physiological signaling, suppression of endogenous oxidants maybe deleterious. Therefore, alternative approaches that can circumvent these limitations are needed. While not previously considered an antioxidant system we propose that the autophagy-lysosomal activities, may serve this essential function in neurodegenerative diseases by removing damaged or dysfunctional proteins and organelles.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-12-28T16:50:42Z
       
  • Redox regulation of mitochondrial function with emphasis on cysteine
           oxidation reactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2013
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Ryan J. Mailloux , Xiaolei Jin , William G. Willmore
      Mitochondria have a myriad of essential functions including metabolism and apoptosis. These chief functions are reliant on electron transfer reactions and the production of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production of ATP and ROS are intimately linked to the electron transport chain (ETC). Electrons from nutrients are passed through the ETC via a series of acceptor and donor molecules to the terminal electron acceptor molecular oxygen (O2) which ultimately drives the synthesis of ATP. Electron transfer through the respiratory chain and nutrient oxidation also produces ROS. At high enough concentrations ROS can activate mitochondrial apoptotic machinery which ultimately leads to cell death. However, if maintained at low enough concentrations ROS can serve as important signaling molecules. Various regulatory mechanisms converge upon mitochondria to modulate ATP synthesis and ROS production. Given that mitochondrial function depends on redox reactions, it is important to consider how redox signals modulate mitochondrial processes. Here, we provide the first comprehensive review on how redox signals mediated through cysteine oxidation, namely S-oxidation (sulfenylation, sulfinylation), S-glutathionylation, and S-nitrosylation, regulate key mitochondrial functions including nutrient oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, ROS production, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), apoptosis, and mitochondrial fission and fusion. We also consider the chemistry behind these reactions and how they are modulated in mitochondria. In addition, we also discuss emerging knowledge on disorders and disease states that are associated with deregulated redox signaling in mitochondria and how mitochondria-targeted medicines can be utilized to restore mitochondrial redox signaling.


      PubDate: 2013-12-20T05:56:16Z
       
  • The Proteasome and the Degradation of Oxidized Proteins: part I - Protein
           oxidation and proteasomal degradation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2013
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Tobias Jung Annika Höhn , Tilman Grune
      Here, we review the role of oxidative protein modification as a signal for recognition and degradation of proteins. It was clearly demonstrated that the ATP- and ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome is playing a key role in the selective removal of oxidized proteins. Furthermore, the current knowledge of the substrate susceptibility on the degradation of oxidized proteins and the role of the immunoproteasome will be highlighted.


      PubDate: 2013-12-20T05:56:16Z
       
  • REDOX REGULATION OF THE PROTEASOME VIA S-GLUTATHIONYLATION

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2013
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Marilene Demasi , Luis E.S. Netto , Gustavo M. Silva , Adrian Hand , Cristiano L.P. de Oliveira , Renata N. Bicev , Fabio Gozzo , Mario H. Barros , Janaina M.M. Leme , Erina Ohara
      The proteasome is a multimeric and multicatalytic intracellular protease responsible for the degradation of proteins involved in cell cycle control, various signaling processes, antigen presentation, and control of protein synthesis. The central catalytic complex of the proteasome is called the 20S core particle. The majority of these are flanked on one or both sides by regulatory units. Most common among these units is the 19S regulatory unit. When coupled to the 19S unit, the complex is termed the asymmetric or symmetric 26S proteasome depending on whether one or both sides are coupled to the 19S unit, respectively. The 26S proteasome recognizes poly-ubiquitinylated substrates targeted for proteolysis. Targeted proteins interact with the 19S unit where they are deubiquitinylated, unfolded, and translocated to the 20S catalytic chamber for degradation. The 26S proteasome is responsible for the degradation of major proteins involved in the regulation of the cellular cycle, antigen presentation and control of protein synthesis. Alternatively, the proteasome is also active when dissociated from regulatory units. This free pool of 20S proteasome is described in yeast to mammalian cells. The free 20S proteasome degrades proteins by a process independent of poly-ubiquitinylation and ATP consumption. Oxidatively modified proteins and other substrates are degraded in this manner. The 20S proteasome comprises two central heptamers (β-rings) where the catalytic sites are located and two external heptamers (α-rings) that are responsible for proteasomal gating. Because the 20S proteasome lacks regulatory units, it is unclear what mechanisms regulate the gating of α-rings between open and closed forms. In the present review, we discuss 20S proteasomal gating modulation through a redox mechanism, namely, S-glutathionylation of cysteine residues located in the α-rings, and the consequence of this post-translational modification on 20S proteasomal function.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-12-15T15:10:52Z
       
 
 
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