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Journal Cover Redox Biology
  [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2213-2317
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • The pulmonary inflammatory response to multiwalled carbon nanotubes is
           influenced by gender and glutathione synthesis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Megan M. Cartwright, Stefanie C. Schmuck, Charlie Corredor, Bingbing Wang, David K. Scoville, Claire R. Chisholm, Hui-Wen Wilkerson, Zahra Afsharinejad, Theodor K. Bammler, Jonathan D. Posner, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Donald R. Baer, Somenath Mitra, William Altemeier, Terrance J. Kavanagh
      Inhalation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during their manufacture or incorporation into various commercial products may cause lung inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress in exposed workers. Some workers may be more susceptible to these effects because of differences in their ability to synthesize the major antioxidant and immune system modulator glutathione (GSH). Accordingly, in this study we examined the influence of GSH synthesis and gender on MWCNT-induced lung inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. GSH synthesis was impaired through genetic manipulation of Gclm, the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis. Twenty-four hours after aspirating 25µg of MWCNTs, all male mice developed neutrophilia in their lungs, regardless of Gclm genotype. However, female mice with moderate (Gclm heterozygous) and severe (Gclm null) GSH deficiencies developed significantly less neutrophilia. We found no indications of MWCNT-induced oxidative stress as reflected in the GSH content of lung tissue and epithelial lining fluid, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, or altered mRNA or protein expression of several redox-responsive enzymes. Our results indicate that GSH-deficient female mice are rendered uniquely susceptible to an attenuated neutrophil response. If the same effects occur in humans, GSH-deficient women manufacturing MWCNTs may be at greater risk for impaired neutrophil-dependent clearance of MWCNTs from the lung. In contrast, men may have effective neutrophil-dependent clearance, but may be at risk for lung neutrophilia regardless of their GSH levels.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-25T21:18:02Z
       
  • CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of p22phox leads to loss of Nox1 and Nox4,
           but not Nox5 activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Kim-Kristin Prior, Matthias S. Leisegang, Ivana Josipovic, Oliver Löwe, Ajay M. Shah, Norbert Weissmann, Katrin Schröder, Ralf P. Brandes
      The NADPH oxidases are important transmembrane proteins producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Within the Nox family, different modes of activation can be discriminated. Nox1-3 are dependent on different cytosolic subunits, Nox4 seems to be constitutively active and Nox5 is directly activated by calcium. With the exception of Nox5, all Nox family members are thought to depend on the small transmembrane protein p22phox. With the discovery of the CRISPR/Cas9-system, a tool to alter genomic DNA sequences has become available. So far, this method has not been widely used in the redox community. On such basis, we decided to study the requirement of p22phox in the Nox complex using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout. Knockout of the gene of p22phox, CYBA, led to an ablation of activity of Nox4 and Nox1 but not of Nox5. Production of hydrogen peroxide or superoxide after knockout could be rescued with either human or rat p22phox, but not with the DUOX-maturation factors DUOXA1/A2. Furthermore, different mutations of p22phox were studied regarding the influence on Nox4-dependent H2O2 production. P22phox Q130⁎ and Y121H affected maturation and activity of Nox4. Hence, Nox5-dependent O•- production is independent of p22phox, but native p22phox is needed for maturation of Nox4 and production of H2O2.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-25T21:18:02Z
       
  • The Anthocyanin Cyanidin-3-O-β-Glucoside Modulates Murine Glutathione
           Homeostasis in a Manner Dependent on Genetic Background

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Katie M. Norris, Whitney Okie, Claire L. Yakaitis, Robert Pazdro
      Anthocyanins are a class of phytochemicals that have generated considerable interest due to their reported health benefits. It has been proposed that commonly consumed anthocyanins, such as cyandin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G), confer cellular protection by stimulating biosynthesis of glutathione (GSH), an endogenous antioxidant. Currently, it is unknown whether the health effects of dietary anthocyanins are genetically determined. We therefore tested the hypothesis that anthocyanin-induced alterations in GSH homeostasis vary by genetic background. Mice representing five genetically diverse inbred strains (A/J, 129S1/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, C57BL/6J, and NOD/ShiLtJ) were assigned to a control or 100mg/kg C3G diet (n=5/diet/strain) for six weeks. GSH and GSSG levels were quantified in liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and brain samples using HPLC. The C3G diet promoted an increase in renal GSH concentrations, hepatic GSH/GSSG, and cardiac GSH/GSSG in CAST/EiJ mice. C3G treatment also induced an increase in pancreatic GSH/GSSG in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, C3G did not affect GSH homeostasis in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Surprisingly, the C3G-diet caused a decrease in hepatic GSH/GSSG in A/J and 129S1/SvImJ mice compared to controls; C3G-treated 129S1/SvImJ mice also exhibited lower total glutathione in the heart. Overall, we discovered that C3G modulates the GSH system in a strain- and tissue-specific manner. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that the redox effects of anthocyanins are determined by genetic background.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-25T21:18:02Z
       
  • Lipid mediators involved in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence
           of human lung cancer cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Agnieszka Gęgotek, Jacek Nikliński, Neven Žarković, Kamelija Žarković, Georg Waeg, Wojciech Łuczaj, Radosław Charkiewicz, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
      Background The oxidative modifications of bioactive macromolecules have important roles in carcinogenesis. Of particular interest are lipid peroxidation products, which are involved in the activation of Nrf2 and endocannabinoids that affect cancer progression. Methods In lung cancer tissues (squamous cell lung carcinoma - SCC and adenocarcinoma - AC), the glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity and glutathione level, together with the expression of Nrf2 and its activators/inhibitors were estimated. The oxidative modifications of DNA (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and N7-methylguanine), endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2- arachidonylglyceriol), their receptors (CB1/2, TRV1, GPR55), phospholipid fatty acids (arachidonic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic), and reactive aldehydes (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-oxononenal and malondialdehyde) were determined. Results Tumour tissues showed lower antioxidant capacity than healthy tissues, which was accompanied by lower levels of fatty acids and higher levels of reactive aldehydes. Disturbances in antioxidant capacity and enhanced DNA oxidative modifications were observed in 88% of AC patients and 81% of SCC patients. The 4-hydroxynonenal-Histidine adducts were detected in the necrotic and stromal cells in all tumours. These findings were associated with the enhanced Nrf2 activity, especially in AC. The strong difference between the cancer subtypes was evident in the levels of endocannabinoids, with an increase in 89% of SCC and a decrease in 85% of AC patients being observed. Additionally, the increase in the expression of CB1/2 receptors was observed only in 82% of AC, while the expression of VR1 and GPR55 was enhanced in 79% of SCC and 82% of AC patients. Conclusions This study shows significant differences in the redox status, Nrf2 pathway and endocannabinoid system between SCC and AC tissues. Understanding the relation between the various lipid mediators and antioxidants in different lung cancer subtypes may be beginning for further research on the effective anticancer therapy.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-25T21:18:02Z
       
  • Connexin43 hemichannels contributes to the disassembly of cell junctions
           through modulation of intracellular oxidative status

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Yuan Chi, Xiling Zhang, Zhen zhang, Takahiko Mitsui, Manabu Kamiyama, Masayuki Takeda, Jian Yao
      Connexin (Cx) hemichannels regulate many cellular processes with little information available regarding their mechanisms. Given that many pathological factors that activate hemichannels also disrupts the integrity of cellular junctions, we speculated a potential participation of hemichannels in the regulation of cell junctions. Here we tested this hypothesis. Exposure of renal tubular epithelial cells to Ca2+-free medium led to disassembly of tight and adherens junctions, as indicated by the reduced level of ZO-1 and cadherin, disorganization of F-actin, and severe drop in transepithelial electric resistance. These changes were preceded by an activation of Cx43 hemichannels, as revealed by extracellular efflux of ATP and intracellular influx of Lucifer Yellow. Inhibition of hemichannels with chemical inhibitors or Cx43 siRNA greatly attenuated the disassembly of cell junctions. Further analysis using fetal fibroblasts derived from Cx43 wide-type (Cx43+/+), heterozygous (Cx43+/-) and knockout (Cx43-/-) littermates showed that Cx43-positive cells (Cx43+/+) exhibited more dramatic changes in cell shape, F-actin, and cadherin in response to Ca2+ depletion, as compared to Cx43-null cells (Cx43-/-). Consistently, these cells had higher level of protein carbonyl modification and phosphorylation, and much stronger activation of P38 and JNK. Hemichannel opening led to extracellular loss of the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Supplement of cells with exogenous GSH or inhibition of oxidative sensitive kinases largely prevented the above-mentioned changes. Taken together, our study indicates that Cx43 hemichannels promote the disassembly of cell junctions through regulation of intracellular oxidative status.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-25T21:18:02Z
       
  • Quercetin affects glutathione levels and redox ratio in human aortic
           endothelial cells not through oxidation but formation and cellular export
           of quercetin-glutathione conjugates and upregulation of glutamate-cysteine
           ligase

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Chuan Li, Wei-Jian Zhang, Jaewoo Choi, Balz Frei
      Endothelial dysfunction due to vascular inflammation and oxidative stress critically contributes to the etiology of atherosclerosis. The intracellular redox environment plays a key role in regulating endothelial cell function and is intimately linked to cellular thiol status, including and foremost glutathione (GSH). In the present study we investigated whether and how the dietary flavonoid, quercetin, affects GSH status of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and their response to oxidative stress. We found that treating cells with buthionine sulfoximine to deplete cellular GSH levels significantly reduced the capacity of quercetin to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidant production. Furthermore, incubation of HAEC with quercetin caused a transient decrease and then full recovery of cellular GSH concentrations. The initial decline in GSH was not accompanied by a corresponding increase in glutathione disulfide (GSSG). To the contrary, GSSG levels, which were less than 0.5% of GSH levels at baseline (0.26 ± 0.01 vs. 64.7 ± 1.9 nmol/mg protein, respectively), decreased by about 25% during incubation with quercetin. As a result, the GSH:GSSG ratio increased by about 70%, from 253 ± 7 to 372 ± 23. These quercetin-induced changes in GSH and GSSG levels were not affected by treating HAEC with 500µM ascorbic acid phosphate for 24h to increase intracellular ascorbate levels. Incubation of HAEC with quercetin also led to the appearance of extracellular quercetin-glutathione conjugates, which was paralleled by upregulation of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1). Furthermore, quercetin slightly but significantly increased mRNA and protein levels of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits. Taken together, our results suggest that quercetin causes loss of GSH in HAEC, not because of oxidation but due to formation and cellular export of quercetin-glutathione conjugates. Induction by quercetin of GCL subsequently restores GSH levels, thereby suppressing LPS-induced oxidant production.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-25T21:18:02Z
       
  • The Methyl Donor S-Adenosylmethionine Prevents Liver Hypoxia and
           Dysregulation of Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Function in a Rat Model of
           Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver Disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Adrienne L. Kinga, Sudheer K. Mantena, Kelly K. Andringa, Telisha Millender-Swain, Kimberly J. Dunham-Snary, Claudia R. Oliva, Corinne E. Griguer, Shannon M. Bailey
      Background Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic stress play an important role in the etiology of alcoholic liver disease. Previous studies from our laboratory show that the primary methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) minimizes alcohol-induced disruptions in several mitochondrial functions in the liver. Herein, we expand on these earlier observations to determine whether the beneficial actions of SAM against alcohol toxicity extend to changes in the responsiveness of mitochondrial respiration to inhibition by nitric oxide (NO), induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, and the hypoxic state of the liver. Methods For this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed control and alcohol-containing liquid diets with and without SAM for 5 weeks and liver hypoxia, mitochondrial respiration, MPT pore induction, and NO−dependent control of respiration were examined. Results Chronic alcohol feeding significantly enhanced liver hypoxia, whereas SAM supplementation attenuated hypoxia in livers of alcohol-fed rats. SAM supplementation prevented alcohol-mediated decreases in mitochondrial state 3 respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity. Mitochondria isolated from livers of alcohol-fed rats were more sensitive to calcium-mediated MPT pore induction (i.e., mitochondrial swelling) than mitochondria from pair-fed controls, whereas SAM treatment normalized sensitivity for calcium-induced swelling in mitochondria from alcohol-fed rats. Liver mitochondria from alcohol-fed rats showed increased sensitivity to NO−dependent inhibition of respiration compared with pair-fed controls. In contrast, mitochondria isolated from the livers of SAM treated alcohol-fed rats showed no change in the sensitivity to NO-mediated inhibition of respiration. Conclusion Collectively, these findings indicate that the hepato-protective effects of SAM against alcohol toxicity are mediated, in part, through a mitochondrial mechanism involving preservation of key mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters and the attenuation of hypoxic stress.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-19T20:08:17Z
       
  • Uncouplingprotein 2 modulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in astrocytes and
           its implications in depression

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Ren-Hong Du, Fang-Fang Wu, Ming Lu, Xiao-dong Shu, Jian-Hua Ding, Guangyu Wu, Gang Hu
      Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) has been well characterized to control the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and astrocytes are the major cells responsible for the ROS production and the inflammatory responses in the brain. However, the function of UCP2 in astrocytes and the contribution of astrocytic UCP2 to depression remain undefined. Herein, we demonstrated that UCP2 knockout (KO) mice displayed aggravated depressive-like behaviors, impaired neurogenesis, and enhanced loss of astrocytes in the chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced anhedonia model of depression. We further found that UCP2 ablation significantly enhanced the activation of the nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the hippocampus and in astrocytes. Furthermore, UCP2 deficiency promoted the injury of mitochondria, the generation of ROS and the physical association between thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and NLRP3 in astrocytes. Moreover, transiently expressing exogenous UCP2 partially rescued the deleterious effects of UCP2 ablation on the astrocytes. These data indicate that UCP2 negatively regulates the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and inhibited the ROS-TXNIP-NLRP3 pathway in astrocytes. Collectively, our findings reveal that UCP2 regulates inflammation responses in astrocytes and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression and that UCP2 may be a promising therapeutic target for depression.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-19T20:08:17Z
       
  • Absorbance and redox based approaches for measuring free heme and free
           hemoglobin in biological matrices

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Joo-Yeun Oh, Jennifer Hamm, Xin Xu, Kristopher Genschmer, Ming Zhong, Jeffrey Lebensburger, Marisa B. Marques, Jeffrey D. Kerby, Jean-Francois Pittet, Amit Gaggar, Rakesh P. Patel
      Cell-free heme (CFH) and hemoglobin (Hb) have emerged as distinct mediators of acute injury characterized by inflammation and microcirculatory dysfunction in hemolytic conditions and critical illness. Several reports have shown changes in Hb and CFH in specific pathophysiological settings. Using PBS, plasma from patients with sickle cell disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and supernatants from red cells units, we found that commonly used assays and commercially available kits do not distinguish between CFH and Hb. Furthermore, they suffer from a variety of false-positive interferences and limitations (including from bilirubin) that lead to either over- or underestimation of CFH and/ or Hb. Moreover, commonly used protocols to separate CFH and Hb based on molecular weight (MWt) are inefficient due to CFH hydrophobicity. In this study, we developed and validated a new approach based on absorbance spectrum deconvolution with least square fitting analyses that overcomes these limitations and simultaneously measures CFH and Hb in simple aqueous buffers, plasma or when associated with red cell derived microvesicles. We show how incorporating other plasma factors that absorb light over the visible wavelength range (specifically bilirubin), coupled with truncating the wavelength range analyzed, or addition of mild detergent significantly improves fits allowing measurement of oxyHb, CFH and metHb with >90% accuracy. When this approach was applied to samples from SCD patients, we observed that CFH levels are higher than previously reported and of similar magnitude to Hb.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:35:18Z
       
  • The Impact of High and Low Dose Ionising Radiation on the Central Nervous
           System

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Calina Betlazar, Ryan J. Middleton, Richard B. Banati, Guo-Jun Liu
      Responses of the central nervous system (CNS) to stressors and injuries, such as ionising radiation, are modulated by the concomitant responses of the brains innate immune effector cells, microglia. Exposure to high doses of ionising radiation in brain tissue leads to the expression and release of biochemical mediators of ‘neuroinflammation’, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to tissue destruction. Contrastingly, low dose ionising radiation may reduce vulnerability to subsequent exposure of ionising radiation, largely through the stimulation of adaptive responses, such as antioxidant defences. These disparate responses may be reflective of non-linear differential microglial activation at low and high doses, manifesting as an anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory functional state. Biomarkers of pathology in the brain, such as the mitochondrial Translocator Protein 18kDa (TSPO), have facilitated in vivo characterisation of microglial activation and ‘neuroinflammation’ in many pathological states of the CNS, though the exact function of TSPO in these responses remains elusive. Based on the known responsiveness of TSPO expression to a wide range of noxious stimuli, we discuss TSPO as a potential biomarker of radiation-induced effects.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:35:18Z
       
  • Hydrogen sulfide metabolism regulates endothelial solute barrier function

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Shuai Yuan, Sibile Pardue, Xinggui Shen, J. Steven Alexander, A. Wayne Orr, Christopher G. Kevil
      Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. In addition to free H2S, H2S can be oxidized to polysulfide which can be biologically active. Since the impact of H2S on endothelial solute barrier function is not known, we sought to determine whether H2S and its various metabolites affect endothelial permeability. In vitro permeability was evaluated using albumin flux and transendothelial electrical resistance. Different H2S donors were used to examine the effects of exogenous H2S. To evaluate the role of endogenous H2S, mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) were isolated from wild type mice and mice lacking cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), a predominant source of H2S in endothelial cells. In vivo permeability was evaluated using the Miles assay. We observed that polysulfide donors induced rapid albumin flux across endothelium. Comparatively, free sulfide donors increased permeability only with higher concentrations and at later time points. Increased solute permeability was associated with disruption of endothelial junction proteins claudin 5 and VE-cadherin, along with enhanced actin stress fiber formation. Importantly, sulfide donors that increase permeability elicited a preferential increase in polysulfide levels within endothelium. Similarly, CSE deficient MAECs showed enhanced solute barrier function along with reduced endogenous bound sulfane sulfur. CSE siRNA knockdown also enhanced endothelial junction structures with increased claudin 5 protein expression. In vivo, CSE genetic deficiency significantly blunted VEGF induced hyperpermeability revealing an important role of the enzyme for barrier function. In summary, endothelial solute permeability is critically regulated via exogenous and endogenous sulfide bioavailability with a prominent role of polysulfides.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:35:18Z
       
  • Omeprazole impairs vascular redox biology and causes xanthine
           oxidoreductase-mediated endothelial dysfunction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Lucas C. Pinheiro, Gustavo Oliveira-Paula, Rafael L. Portella, Daniele A. Guimarães, Celio D. de Angelis, Jose E. Tanus-Santos
      Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used drugs that may increase the cardiovascular risk by mechanisms not entirely known. While PPIs increase asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and inhibit nitric oxide production, it is unknown whether impaired vascular redox biology resulting of increased xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity mediates PPIs-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED). We examined whether increased XOR activity impairs vascular redox biology and causes ED in rats treated with omeprazole. We also examined whether omeprazole aggravates the ED found in hypertension. Treatment with omeprazole reduced endothelium-dependent aortic responses to acetylcholine without causing hypertension. However, omeprazole did not aggravate two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertension, nor hypertension-induced ED. Omeprazole and 2K1C increased vascular oxidative stress as assessed with dihydroethidium (DHE), which reacts with superoxide, and by the lucigenin chemiluminescence assay. The selective XOR inhibitor febuxostat blunted both effects induced by omeprazole. Treatment with omeprazole increased plasma ADMA concentrations, XOR activity and systemic markers of oxidative stress. Incubation of aortic rings with ADMA increased XOR activity, DHE fluorescence and lucigenin chemiluminescence signals, and febuxostat blunted these effects. Providing functional evidence that omeprazole causes ED by XOR-mediated mechanisms, we found that febuxostat blunted the ED caused by omeprazole treatment. This study shows that treatment with omeprazole impairs the vascular redox biology by XOR-mediated mechanisms leading to ED. While omeprazole did not further impair hypertension-induced ED, further studies in less severe animal models are warranted. Our findings may have major relevance, particularly to patients with cardiovascular diseases taking PPIs.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-09T18:59:02Z
       
  • Distinctive adaptive response to repeated exposure to hydrogen peroxide
           associated with upregulation of DNA repair genes and cell cycle arrest

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Gloria A. Santa-Gonzalez, Andrea Gomez-Molina, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, Joel N. Meyer, Mauricio Camargo
      Many environmental and physiological stresses are chronic. Thus, cells are constantly exposed to diverse types of genotoxic insults that challenge genome stability, including those that induce oxidative DNA damage. However, most in vitro studies that model cellular response to oxidative stressors employ short exposures and/or acute stress models. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic and repeated exposure to a micromolar concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could activate DNA damage responses, resulting in cellular adaptations. For this purpose, we developed an in vitro model in which we incubated mouse myoblast cells with a steady concentration of ~50μM H2O2 for one hour daily for seven days, followed by a final challenge of a 10 or 20X higher dose of H2O2 (0.5 or 1mM). We report that intermittent long-term exposure to this oxidative stimulus nearly eliminated cell toxicity and significantly decreased genotoxicity (in particular, a >5-fold decreased in double-strand breaks) resulting from subsequent acute exposure to oxidative stress. This protection was associated with cell cycle arrest in G2/M and induction of expression of nine DNA repair genes. Together, this evidence supports an adaptive response to chronic, low-level oxidative stress that results in genomic protection and up-regulated maintenance of cellular homeostasis.
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      PubDate: 2016-07-30T16:58:21Z
       
  • Dual NRF2 paralogs in Coho salmon and their antioxidant response element
           targets

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Richard Ramsden, Evan P. Gallagher
      The transcription factor NFE2L2 (Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2-Like 2, or NRF2) plays a key role in maintaining the redox state within cells. Characterization of this pathway has extended to fish, most notably zebrafish (Danio rerio), in which two paralogs of the transcription factor exist: Nrf2a, an activator, and Nrf2b, a negative regulator during embryogenesis. Only one ARE target has been thoroughly delineated in zebrafish, and this deviated from the canonical sequence derived from studies in mammals. In general, the mechanistic pathway has not been characterized in non-model aquatic organisms that are commonly exposed to environmental pollutants. The current study compares the zebrafish paralogs to those found in a non-model teleost, the ecologically important salmonid, Oncorhnychus kisutch (coho salmon). Two salmon paralogs, Nrf2A and -2B, described here were found to possess only slightly greater identity between one another (84% of amino acids) than to the singleton ortholog of the esocid Esox lucius (80–82%), the nearest non-salmonid outgroup. Unlike one of the zebrafish forms, each is a strong activating factor based on sequence homology and in vitro testing. To uncover functional target AREs in coho, promoter flanking sequences were isolated for five genes that protect cells against oxidative stress: heme oxygenase 1, peroxiredoxin 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase, and the glutathione S-transferases pi and rho (hmox1, prdx1, gclc, gstp, and gstr). All except gstr had functional elements and all fit the standard mammalian-derived canonical sequence, unlike the motif found in zebrafish gstp. Expression studies demonstrate the presence of both Nrf2 paralogs in multiple organs, although in differing ratios. Collectively, our findings extend the conservation of Nrf2 and the ARE to salmonids, and should help inform future work in teleosts on mechanisms of redox control, as well as responsiveness of this pathway and its downstream antioxidant gene targets to chemical exposures in the environment.
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      PubDate: 2016-07-30T16:58:21Z
       
  • Quercetin inhibits LPS-induced adhesion molecule expression and oxidant
           production in human aortic endothelial cells by p38-mediated Nrf2
           activation and antioxidant enzyme induction

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Chuan Li, Wei-Jian Zhang, Balz Frei
      Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of ischemic heart disease and stroke, is an inflammatory disease of arteries in a hyperlipidemic milieu. Endothelial expression of cellular adhesion molecules, such as endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The dietary flavonoid, quercetin, has been reported to inhibit expression of cellular adhesion molecules, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that quercetin dose-dependently (5–20µM) inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA and protein expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Incubation of HAEC with quercetin also significantly reduced LPS-induced oxidant production, but did not inhibit activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Furthermore, quercetin induced activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and subsequent mRNA and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1, and glutamate-cysteine ligase. The induction of Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes was partly inhibited by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) inhibitor, SB203580. Our results suggest that quercetin suppresses LPS-induced oxidant production and adhesion molecule expression by inducing Nrf2 activation and antioxidant enzyme expression, which is partially mediated by p38; and the inhibitory effect of quercetin on adhesion molecule expression is not due to inhibition of NF-κB activation, but instead due to antioxidant-independent effects of HO-1.
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      PubDate: 2016-07-25T16:54:31Z
       
  • Diabetes-induced oxidative stress in the vitreous humor

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Zsuzsanna Géhl, Edina Bakondi, Miklós D. Resch, Csaba Hegedűs, Katalin Kovács, Petra Lakatos, Antal Szabó, Zoltán Nagy, László Virág
      Purpose Diabetes is accompanied by fundamental rearrangements in redox homeostasis. Hyperglycemia triggers the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which contributes to tissue damage in various target organs. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a common manifestation of diabetic complications but information on the possible role of reactive intermediates in this condition with special regard to the involvement of the vitreous in PDR-associated redox alterations is scarce. The aim of the study was to determine key parameters of redox homeostasis [advanced glycation endproducts (AGE); protein carbonyl and glutathione (GSH)] content in the vitreous in PDR patients. Methods The study population involved 10 diabetic patients undergoing surgery for complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 8 control (non-diabetic) patients who were undergoing surgery for epiretinal membranes. Vitreal fluids were assayed for the above biochemical parameters. Results We found elevated levels of AGE in the vitreous of PDR patients (812.10 vs 491.69ng AGE/mg protein). Extent of protein carbonylation was also higher in the samples of diabetic patients (2.08 vs 0.67A/100μg protein). The GSH content also increased in the vitreous of PDR patients as compared to the control group (4.54 vs 2.35μmol/μg protein), respectively. Conclusion The study demonstrates that diabetes-associated redox alterations also reach the vitreous with the most prominent changes being increased protein carbonylation and increased antioxidant levels.
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      PubDate: 2016-07-25T16:54:31Z
       
  • The hydroxypyridinone iron chelator CP94 increases
           methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic cell killing by increasing the
           generation of reactive oxygen species

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Yuktee Dogra, Daniel C.J. Ferguson, Nicholas J.F. Dodd, Gary R. Smerdon, Alison Curnow, Paul G. Winyard
      Methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is utilised clinically for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers and pre-cancers and the hydroxypyridinone iron chelator, CP94, has successfully been demonstrated to increase MAL-PDT efficacy in an initial clinical pilot study. However, the biochemical and photochemical processes leading to CP94-enhanced photodynamic cell death, beyond the well-documented increases in accumulation of the photosensitiser protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), have not yet been fully elucidated. This investigation demonstrated that MAL-based photodynamic cell killing of cultured human squamous carcinoma cells (A431) occurred in a predominantly necrotic manner following the generation of singlet oxygen and ROS. Augmenting MAL-based photodynamic cell killing with CP94 co-treatment resulted in increased PpIX accumulation, MitoSOX-detectable ROS generation (probably of mitochondrial origin) and necrotic cell death, but did not affect singlet oxygen generation. We also report (to our knowledge, for the first time) the detection of intracellular PpIX-generated singlet oxygen in whole cells via electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in conjunction with a spin trap.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T16:54:31Z
       
  • A biphasic effect of TNF-α in regulation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in
           cardiomyocytes

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Gobinath Shanmugam, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Ramasamy Sakthivel, Rajesh Kumar R, Christopher Davidson, Sethu Palaniappan, William W. Claycomb, John R. Hoidal, Victor M. Darley-Usmar, Namakkal Soorappan Rajasekaran
      Antagonizing TNF-α signaling attenuates chronic inflammatory disease, but is associated with adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Therefore the impact of TNF-α on basal control of redox signaling events needs to be understand in more depth. This is particularly important for the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in the heart and in the present study we hypothesized that inhibition of a low level of TNF-α signaling attenuates the TNF-α dependent activation of this cytoprotective pathway. HL-1 cardiomyocytes and TNF receptor1/2 (TNFR1/2) double knockout mice (DKO) were used as experimental models. TNF-α (2–5ng/ml, for 2h) evoked significant nuclear translocation of Nrf2 with increased DNA/promoter binding and transactivation of Nrf2 targets. Additionally, this was associated with a 1.5 fold increase in intracellular glutathione (GSH). Higher concentrations of TNF-α (>10–50ng/ml) were markedly suppressive of the Keap1/Nrf2 response and associated with cardiomyocyte death marked by an increase in cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. In vivo experiments with TNFR1/2-DKO demonstrates that the expression of Nrf2-regulated proteins (NQO1, HO-1, G6PD) were significantly downregulated in hearts of the DKO when compared to WT mice indicating a weakened antioxidant system under basal conditions. Overall, these results indicate that TNF-α exposure has a bimodal effect on the Keap1/Nrf2 system and while an intense inflammatory activation suppresses expression of antioxidant proteins a low level appears to be protective.
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      PubDate: 2016-07-19T16:24:15Z
       
  • Redox mechanisms in age-related lung fibrosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Ashish Kurundkar, Victor J. Thannickal
      Redox signaling and oxidative stress are associated with tissue fibrosis and aging. Aging is recognized as a major risk factor for fibrotic diseases involving multiple organ systems, including that of the lung. A number of oxidant generating enzymes are upregulated while antioxidant defenses are deficient with aging and cellular senescence, leading to redox imbalance and oxidative stress. However, the precise mechanisms by which redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis are not well understood. Tissue repair is a highly regulated process that involves the interactions of several cell types, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. Fibrosis may develop when these interactions are dysregulated with the acquisition of pro-fibrotic cellular phenotypes. In this review, we explore the roles of redox mechanisms that promote and perpetuate fibrosis in the context of cellular senescence and aging.
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      PubDate: 2016-07-09T14:19:36Z
       
  • Pleiotropic effects of 4-hydroxynonenal on oxidative burst and
           phagocytosis in neutrophils

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Balu K. Chacko, Stephanie B. Wall, Philip A. Kramer, Saranya Ravi, Tanecia Mitchell, Michelle S. Johnson, Landon Wilson, Stephen Barnes, Aimee Landar, Victor M. Darley-Usmar
      Metabolic control of cellular function is significant in the context of inflammation-induced metabolic dysregulation in immune cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are one of the critical events that modulate the immune response in neutrophils. When activated, neutrophil NADPH oxidases consume large quantities of oxygen to rapidly generate ROS, a process that is referred to as the oxidative burst. These ROS are required for the efficient removal of phagocytized cellular debris and pathogens. In chronic inflammatory diseases, neutrophils are exposed to increased levels of oxidants and pro-inflammatory cytokines that can further prime oxidative burst responses and generate lipid oxidation products such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). In this study we hypothesized that since 4-HNE can target glycolysis then this could modify the oxidative burst. To address this the oxidative burst was determined in freshly isolated healthy subject neutrophils using 13-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the extracellular flux analyzer. Neutrophils pretreated with 4-HNE exhibited a significant decrease in the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis. Mass spectrometric analysis of alkyne-HNE treated neutrophils followed by click chemistry detected modification of a number of cytoskeletal, metabolic, redox and signaling proteins that are critical for the NADPH oxidase mediated oxidative burst. These modifications were confirmed using a candidate immunoblot approach for critical proteins of the active NADPH oxidase enzyme complex (Nox2 gp91phox subunit and Rac1 of the NADPH oxidase) and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, a critical enzyme in the metabolic regulation of oxidative burst. Taken together, these data suggest that 4-HNE-induces a pleiotropic mechanism to inhibit neutrophil function. These mechanisms may contribute to the immune dysregulation associated with chronic pathological conditions where 4-HNE is generated.
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      PubDate: 2016-07-09T14:19:36Z
       
  • Artemisinin protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from hydrogen
           peroxide-induced oxidative damage through activation of ERK/CREB signaling
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Cheong-Meng Chong, Wenhua Zheng
      The pathological increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is implicated in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The discovery of drug candidates to effectively protect RPE cells from oxidative damage is required to resolve the pathological aspects and modify the process of AMD. In this study, a FDA-approved anti-malaria drug, Artemisinin was found to suppress hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in human RPE cell-D407 cells. Further study showed that Artemisinin significantly suppressed H2O2 − induced D407 cell death by restoring abnormal changes in nuclear morphology, intracellular ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic biomarkers. Western blotting analysis showed that Artemisinin was able to activate extracellular regulated ERK/CREB survival signaling. Furthermore, Artemisinin failed to suppress H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and the increase of caspase 3/7 activity in the presence of the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemisinin is a potential protectant with the pro-survival effects against H2O2 insult through activation of the ERK/CREB pathway.
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      PubDate: 2016-07-04T13:28:49Z
       
  • Plasma cysteine/cystine redox couple disruption in animal models of
           temporal lobe epilepsy

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Li-Ping Liang, Manisha Patel
      Currently the field of epilepsy lacks peripheral blood-based biomarkers that could predict the onset or progression of chronic seizures following an epileptogenic injury. Thiol/disulfide ratios have been shown to provide a sensitive means of assessing the systemic redox potential in tissue and plasma. In this study, we utilized a rapid, simple and reliable method for simultaneous determination of several thiol-containing amino acids in plasma using HPLC with electrochemical detection in kainic acid (KA) and pilocarpine rat models of epilepsy. In contrast to GSH and GSSG levels, the levels of cysteine (Cys) were decreased by 42% and 62% and cystine (Cyss) were increased by 46% and 23% in the plasma of KA- and pilocarpine-injected rats, respectively after 48h. In chronically epileptic rats, plasma cysteine was decreased by 40.4% and 37.7%, and plasma GSSG increased by 33.8% and 35.0% following KA and pilocarpine, respectively. Treatment of rats with a catalytic antioxidant, 60min after KA or pilocarpine significant attenuated the decrease of plasma Cys/Cyss ratios at the 48h time point in both models. These observations suggest that the decreased cysteine and ratio of Cys/Cyss in plasma could potentially serve as redox biomarkers in temporal lobe epilepsy.
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      PubDate: 2016-06-14T19:55:24Z
       
  • Imaging free radicals in organelles, cells, tissue, and in vivo with
           immuno-spin trapping

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 8
      Author(s): Ronald Paul Mason
      The accurate and sensitive detection of biological free radicals in a reliable manner is required to define the mechanistic roles of such species in biochemistry, medicine and toxicology. Most of the techniques currently available are either not appropriate to detect free radicals in cells and tissues due to sensitivity limitations (electron spin resonance, ESR) or subject to artifacts that make the validity of the results questionable (fluorescent probe-based analysis). The development of the immuno-spin trapping technique overcomes all these difficulties. This technique is based on the reaction of amino acid- and DNA base-derived radicals with the spin trap 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) to form protein- and DNA-DMPO nitroxide radical adducts, respectively. These adducts have limited stability and decay to produce the very stable macromolecule-DMPO-nitrone product. This stable product can be detected by mass spectrometry, NMR or immunochemistry by the use of anti-DMPO nitrone antibodies. The formation of macromolecule-DMPO-nitrone adducts is based on the selective reaction of free radical addition to the spin trap and is thus not subject to artifacts frequently encountered with other methods for free radical detection. The selectivity of spin trapping for free radicals in biological systems has been proven by ESR. Immuno-spin trapping is proving to be a potent, sensitive (a million times higher sensitivity than ESR), and easy (not quantum mechanical) method to detect low levels of macromolecule-derived radicals produced in vitro and in vivo. Anti-DMPO antibodies have been used to determine the distribution of free radicals in cells and tissues and even in living animals. In summary, the invention of the immuno-spin trapping technique has had a major impact on the ability to accurately and sensitively detect biological free radicals and, subsequently, on our understanding of the role of free radicals in biochemistry, medicine and toxicology.
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      PubDate: 2016-06-14T19:55:24Z
       
  • N-acetylcysteine inhibits lipid accumulation in mouse embryonic adipocytes

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): A. Pieralisi, C. Martini, D. Soto, M.C. Vila, J.C. Calvo, L.N. Guerra
      Oxidative stress plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis; some authors reported that fat accumulation correlates to systemic oxidative stress in human and mice, but cellular redox environment effect on lipid accumulation is still unclear. In our laboratory we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (undifferentiated cells: CC), which are capable of differentiating into mature adipocytes (differentiated cells: DC) and accumulate lipids, as obesity model. Here we analyzed the role of the well-known antioxidant and glutathione precursor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in cellular MAPK modulation and lipid accumulation. We evaluated the effect of NAC on the adipogenic differentiation pathway using different doses: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5mM; no toxic doses in these cells. A dose of 5mM NAC [DCN-5] provoked a significant decrease in triglyceride accumulation (72±10 [DCN-5] vs 169±15 [DC], p<0.01), as well in Oil Red O stained neutral lipid content (120±2 [DCN-5] vs 139±12 [DC], p<0.01). Molecular mechanisms responsible for adipogenic differentiation involve increase of the expression of phosphoERK½ and phosphoJNK, 5mM NAC treatment inhibited both pERK½ and pJNK protein levels. We also evaluated the mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) which takes place during adipogenesis and observed an increase in DC at a rate of 1.5 cells number compared to CC at day 2, whereas the highest doses of NAC significantly inhibited MCE. Our results suggest that NAC inhibits lipid accumulation and the MAPK phosphorylation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts during adipogenic differentiation and further contribute to probe the importance of cellular redox environment in adipogenesis.
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      PubDate: 2016-06-14T19:55:24Z
       
  • Simvastatin and oxidative stress in humans: A randomized, double-blinded,
           placebo-controlled clinical trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Sanne Tofte Rasmussen, Jon Trærup Andersen, Torben Kjær Nielsen, Vanja Cejvanovic, Kasper Meidahl Petersen, Trine Henriksen, Allan Weimann, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen
      Simvastatin reduces the blood concentration of cholesterol by inhibiting hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, and thereby reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, simvastatin treatment leads to a reduction in fluxes in mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and II and might thereby reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that simvastatin may reduce oxidative stress in humans in vivo. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in which subjects were treated with either 40mg of simvastatin or placebo for 14 days. The endpoints were six biomarkers for oxidative stress, which represent intracellular oxidative stress to nucleic acids, lipid peroxidation and plasma antioxidants, that were measured in urine and plasma samples. A total of 40 participants were included, of which 39 completed the trial. The observed differences between simvastatin and placebo groups in the primary outcomes, DNA and RNA oxidation, were small and nonsignificant (p=0.68), specifically, 3% in the simvastatin group compared to 7.1% in the placebo group for DNA oxidation and 7.3% in the simvastatin group compared to 3.4% in the placebo group. The differences in biomarkers related to plasma were not statistically significant between the treatments groups, with the exception of total vitamin E levels, which, as expected, were reduced in parallel with the reduction in plasma cholesterol. In healthy young male volunteers, short-term simvastatin treatment, which considerably reduces cholesterol, does not lead to a clinically relevant reduction in a panel of measures of oxidative stress. Whether simvastatin has effects on oxidative stress in diseased populations, such as diabetes or hemochromatosis, where oxidative stress is prominent, is unknown but seems unlikely.
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      PubDate: 2016-06-14T19:55:24Z
       
  • Direct measurement of actual levels of nitric oxide (NO) in cell culture
           conditions using soluble NO donors

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Weilue He, Megan C. Frost
      Applying soluble nitric oxide (NO) donors is the most widely used method to expose cells of interest to exogenous NO. Because of the complex equilibria that exist between components in culture media, the donor compound and NO itself, it is very challenging to predict the dose and duration of NO cells actually experience. To determine the actual level of NO experienced by cells exposed to soluble NO donors, we developed the CellNO Trap, a device that allows continuous, real-time monitoring of the level of NO adherent cells produce and/or experience in culture without the need to alter cell culturing procedures. Herein, we directly measured the level of NO that cells grown in the CellNO Trap experienced when soluble NO donors were added to solutions in culture wells and we characterized environmental conditions that effected the level of NO in in vitro culture conditions. Specifically, the dose and duration of NO generated by the soluble donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO) and the diazeniumdiolate diethyltriamine (DETA/NO) were investigated in both phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and cell culture media. Other factors that were studied that potentially affect the ultimate NO level achieved with these donors included pH, presence of transition metals (ion species), redox level, presence of free thiol and relative volume of media. Then murine smooth muscle cell (MOVAS) with different NO donors but with the same effective concentration of available NO were examined and it was demonstrated that the cell proliferation ratio observed does not correlate with the half-lives of NO donors characterized in PBS, but does correlate well with the real-time NO profiles measured under the actual culture conditions. This data demonstrates the dynamic characteristic of the NO and NO donor in different biological systems and clearly illustrates the importance of tracking individual NO profiles under the actual biological conditions.
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      PubDate: 2016-06-14T19:55:24Z
       
  • The impact of partial hepatectomy on oxidative state in the liver remnant
           – An in vivo swine model

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Åse Florholmen-Kjær, Rasmus Goll, Ole-Martin Fuskevåg, Ingvild Engdal Nygård, Ruth H. Paulssen, Arthur Revhaug, Kim Erlend Mortensen
      Background Previous studies on oxidative state after partial hepatectomy (PHx) report conflicting data on levels of glutathione (GSH) and are mainly presented in rodent models by methodology less sensitive than the present technologies. The current swine model presents GSH levels and the following genetic response post-PHx, utilizing an analytical platform more sensitive and precise than earlier available. Method Twelve pigs were randomized to a PHx- and a control group (n=6 in each). The PHx group had a 60% hepatectomy. Serial in vivo liver biopsies during 12h of anaesthesia post-PHx were analyzed for GSH by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Transcriptional alterations of genes (GS, GCLM, GCLC, GR, HGF, NFE2L2, TGFβ1) regulating GSH synthesis were measured by real-time PCR. Results No difference was detected between the GSH levels in the PHx- and the control group during the experiment (P=0.247). Still, decreased gene expression of GS (P=0.026) and NFE2L2 (P=0.014) the first nine hours, and a decrease of TGFβ1 (P=0.029) the first seven hours post-PHx was seen in the liver remnant. Conclusion The results show that the liver has an extended capacity to maintain GSH homeostasis during major stress and parenchymal loss, even at the early onset of such trauma. This observation was not explained by increased expression of key genes in GSH pathways. Consequently, the results indicate an inherent compensatory capacity to maintain GSH homeostasis in the reduced organ.
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      PubDate: 2016-06-14T19:55:24Z
       
  • Glutathione peroxidase 4 and vitamin E cooperatively prevent
           hepatocellular degeneration

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 9
      Author(s): Bradley A. Carlson, Ryuta Tobe, Elena Yefremova, Petra A. Tsuji, Victoria J. Hoffmann, Ulrich Schweizer, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Dolph L. Hatfield, Marcus Conrad
      The selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is an essential mammalian glutathione peroxidase, which protects cells against detrimental lipid peroxidation and governs a novel form of regulated necrotic cell death, called ferroptosis. To study the relevance of Gpx4 and of another vitally important selenoprotein, cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (Txnrd1), for liver function, mice with conditional deletion of Gpx4 in hepatocytes were studied, along with those lacking Txnrd1 and selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA (Trsp) in hepatocytes. Unlike Txnrd1- and Trsp-deficient mice, Gpx4 −/− mice died shortly after birth and presented extensive hepatocyte degeneration. Similar to Txnrd1-deficient livers, Gpx4 −/− livers manifested upregulation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived)-like 2 (Nrf2) response genes. Remarkably, Gpx4 −/− pups born from mothers fed a vitamin E-enriched diet survived, yet this protection was reversible as subsequent vitamin E deprivation caused death of Gpx4-deficient mice ~4 weeks thereafter. Abrogation of selenoprotein expression in Gpx4 −/− mice did not result in viable mice, indicating that the combined deficiency aggravated the loss of Gpx4 in liver. By contrast, combined Trsp/Txnrd1-deficient mice were born, but had significantly shorter lifespans than either single knockout, suggesting that Txnrd1 plays an important role in supporting liver function of mice lacking Trsp. In sum our study demonstrates that the ferroptosis regulator Gpx4 is critical for hepatocyte survival and proper liver function, and that vitamin E can compensate for its loss by protecting cells against deleterious lipid peroxidation.
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      PubDate: 2016-06-14T19:55:24Z
       
  • Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase
           (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked
           mole-rat

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Maja Dziegelewska, Susanne Holtze, Christiane Vole, Ulrich Wachter, Uwe Menzel, Michaela Morhart, Marco Groth, Karol Szafranski, Arne Sahm, Christoph Sponholz, Philip Dammann, Klaus Huse, Thomas Hildebrandt, Matthias Platzer
      Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration.
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      PubDate: 2016-01-18T19:54:04Z
       
  • Molecular regulatory mechanisms of osteoclastogenesis through
           cytoprotective enzymes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Hiroyuki Kanzaki, Fumiaki Shinohara, Itohiya-Kasuya Kanako, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Sari Fukaya, Yutaka Miyamoto, Satoshi Wada, Yoshiki Nakamura
      It has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, take part in osteoclast differentiation as intra-cellular signaling molecules. The current assumed signaling cascade from RANK to ROS production is RANK, TRAF6, Rac1, and then Nox. The target molecules of ROS in RANKL signaling remain unclear; however, several reports support the theory that NF-κB signaling could be the crucial downstream signaling molecule of RANKL-mediated ROS signaling. Furthermore, ROS exert cytotoxic effects such as peroxidation of lipids and phospholipids and oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. Therefore, cells have several protective mechanisms against oxidative stressors that mainly induce cytoprotective enzymes and ROS scavenging. Three well-known mechanisms regulate cytoprotective enzymes including Nrf2-, FOXO-, and sirtuin-dependent mechanisms. Several reports have indicated a crosslink between FOXO- and sirtuin-dependent regulatory mechanisms. The agonists against the regulatory mechanisms are reported to induce these cytoprotective enzymes successfully. Some of them inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone destruction via attenuation of intracellular ROS signaling. In this review article, we discuss the above topics and summarize the current information available on the relationship between cytoprotective enzymes and osteoclastogenesis.
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      PubDate: 2016-01-13T19:01:31Z
       
  • Prominent role of DPP III in the E2-mediated protection against hyperoxia
           in liver of female CBA/H mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Sandra Sobočanec, Vedrana Filić, Mihaela Matovina, Dragomira Majhen, Željka Mačak Šafranko, Marijana Popović Hadžija, Željka Krsnik, Andrea Gudan Kurilj, Ana Šarić, Marija Abramić, Tihomir Balog
      A number of age-related diseases have a low incidence in females, which is attributed to a protective effect of sex hormones. For instance, the female sex hormone estrogen (E2) has a well established cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which strongly contributes to ageing. However, the mechanism by which E2 exerts its protective activity remains elusive. In this study we address the question whether the E2-induced protective effect against hyperoxia is mediated by the Nrf-2/Keap-1 signaling pathway. In particular, we investigate the E2-induced expression and cellular distribution of DPP III monozinc exopeptidase, a member of the Nrf-2/Keap-1 pathway, upon hyperoxia treatment. We find that DPP III accumulates in the nucleus in response to hyperoxia. Further, we show that combined induction of hyperoxia and E2 administration have an additive effect on the nuclear accumulation of DPP III. The level of nuclear accumulation of DPP III is comparable to nuclear accumulation of Nrf-2 in healthy female mice exposed to hyperoxia. In ovariectomized females exposed to hyperoxia, supplementation of E2 induced upregulation of DPP III, Ho-1, Sirt-1 and downregulation of Ppar-γ. While other cytoprotective mechanisms cannot be excluded, these findings demonstrate a prominent role of DPP III, along with Sirt-1, in the E2-mediated protection against hyperoxia.
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      PubDate: 2016-01-13T19:01:31Z
       
  • Lipidomics and H218O labeling techniques reveal increased remodeling of
           DHA-containing membrane phospholipids associated with abnormal locomotor
           responses in α-tocopherol deficient zebrafish (danio rerio) embryos

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Melissa Q. McDougall, Jaewoo Choi, Jan F. Stevens, Lisa Truong, Robert L. Tanguay, Maret G. Traber
      We hypothesized that vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is required by the developing embryonic brain to prevent depletion of highly polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6), the loss of which we predicted would underlie abnormal morphological and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we fed adult 5D zebrafish (Danio rerio) defined diets without (E-) or with added α-tocopherol (E+, 500mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) for a minimum of 80 days, and then spawned them to obtain E- and E+ embryos. The E- compared with E+ embryos were 82% less responsive (p<0.01) to a light/dark stimulus at 96hours post-fertilization (hpf), demonstrating impaired locomotor behavior, even in the absence of gross morphological defects. Evaluation of phospholipid (PL) and lysophospholipid (lyso-PL) composition using untargeted lipidomics in E- compared with E+ embryos at 24, 48, 72, and 120 hpf showed that four PLs and three lyso-PLs containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC 22:6, required for transport of DHA into the brain, p<0.001), were at lower concentrations in E- at all time-points. Additionally, H2 18O labeling experiments revealed enhanced turnover of LPC 22:6 (p<0.001) and three other DHA-containing PLs in the E- compared with the E+ embryos, suggesting that increased membrane remodeling is a result of PL depletion. Together, these data indicate that α-tocopherol deficiency in the zebrafish embryo causes the specific depletion and increased turnover of DHA-containing PL and lyso-PLs, which may compromise DHA delivery to the brain and thereby contribute to the functional impairments observed in E- embryos.
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      PubDate: 2016-01-13T19:01:31Z
       
  • Cross-talk between two antioxidants, thioredoxin reductase and heme
           oxygenase-1, and therapeutic implications for multiple myeloma

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Prahlad V. Raninga, Giovanna Di Trapani, Slavica Vuckovic, Kathryn F. Tonissen
      Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by an accumulation of abnormal clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Despite recent advancements in anti-myeloma therapies, MM remains an incurable disease. Antioxidant molecules are upregulated in many cancers, correlating with tumor proliferation, survival, and chemoresistance and therefore, have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets. This study investigated the cross-talk between two antioxidant molecules, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and their therapeutic implications in MM. We found that although auranofin, a TrxR inhibitor, significantly inhibited TrxR activity by more than 50% at lower concentrations, myeloma cell proliferation was only inhibited at higher concentrations of auranofin. Inhibition of TrxR using lower auranofin concentrations induced HO-1 protein expression in myeloma cells. Using a sub-lethal concentration of auranofin to inhibit TrxR activity in conjunction with HO-1 inhibition significantly decreased myeloma cell growth and induced apoptosis. TrxR was shown to regulate HO-1 via the Nrf2 signaling pathway in a ROS-dependent manner. Increased HO-1 mRNA levels were observed in bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells compared to parent cells and HO-1 inhibition restored the sensitivity to bortezomib in bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells. These findings indicate that concurrent inhibition of HO-1 with either a TrxR inhibitor or with bortezomib would improve therapeutic outcomes in MM patients. Hence, our findings further support the need to target multiple antioxidant systems alone or in combination with other therapeutics to improve therapeutic outcomes in MM patients.
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      PubDate: 2016-01-13T19:01:31Z
       
  • Plasma lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite,
           lipoxygenase and peroxyl radicals and its inhibition by antioxidants as
           assessed by diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Mayuko Morita, Yuji Naito, Toshikazu Yoshikawa, Etsuo Niki
      Lipid oxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Lipids are oxidized in vivo by several different oxidants to give diverse products, in general lipid hydroperoxides as the major primary product. In the present study, the production of lipid hydroperoxides in the oxidation of mouse plasma induced by multiple oxidants was measured using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) as a probe. DPPP itself is not fluorescent, but it reacts with lipid hydroperoxides stochiometrically to give highly fluorescent DPPP oxide and lipid hydroxides. The production of lipid hydroperoxides could be followed continuously in the oxidation of plasma induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, 15-lipoxygenase, and peroxyl radicals with a microplate reader. A clear lag phase was observed in the plasma oxidation mediated by aqueous peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, but not in the oxidation induced by hypochlorite and lipoxygenase. The effects of several antioxidants against lipid oxidation induced by the above oxidants were assessed. The efficacy of antioxidants was dependent markedly on the type of oxidants. α-Tocopherol exerted potent antioxidant effects against peroxyl radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, but it did not inhibit lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, and 15-lipoxygenase efficiently, suggesting that multiple antioxidants with different selectivities are required for the inhibition of plasma lipid oxidation in vivo. This is a novel, simple and most high throughput method to follow plasma lipid oxidation induced by different oxidants and also to assess the antioxidant effects in biologically relevant settings.
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      PubDate: 2016-01-13T19:01:31Z
       
  • Mitochondrial thiol modification by a targeted electrophile inhibits
           metabolism in breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting enzyme activity
           and protein levels

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): M. Ryan Smith, Praveen K. Vayalil, Fen Zhou, Gloria A. Benavides, Reena R. Beggs, Hafez Golzarian, Bhavitavya Nijampatnam, Patsy G. Oliver, Robin A.J. Smith, Michael P. Murphy, Sadanandan E. Velu, Aimee Landar
      Many cancer cells follow an aberrant metabolic program to maintain energy for rapid cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming often involves the upregulation of glutaminolysis to generate reducing equivalents for the electron transport chain and amino acids for protein synthesis. Critical enzymes involved in metabolism possess a reactive thiolate group, which can be modified by certain oxidants. In the current study, we show that modification of mitochondrial protein thiols by a model compound, iodobutyl triphenylphosphonium (IBTP), decreased mitochondrial metabolism and ATP in MDA-MB 231 (MB231) breast adenocarcinoma cells up to 6 days after an initial 24h treatment. Mitochondrial thiol modification also depressed oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in a dose-dependent manner to a greater extent than a non-thiol modifying analog, suggesting that thiol reactivity is an important factor in the inhibition of cancer cell metabolism. In non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells, IBTP also decreased OCR; however the extracellular acidification rate was significantly increased at all but the highest concentration (10µM) of IBTP indicating that thiol modification can have significantly different effects on bioenergetics in tumorigenic versus non-tumorigenic cells. ATP and other adenonucleotide levels were also decreased by thiol modification up to 6 days post-treatment, indicating a decreased overall energetic state in MB231 cells. Cellular proliferation of MB231 cells was also inhibited up to 6 days post-treatment with little change to cell viability. Targeted metabolomic analyses revealed that thiol modification caused depletion of both Krebs cycle and glutaminolysis intermediates. Further experiments revealed that the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, aconitase, was attenuated in response to thiol modification. Additionally, the inhibition of glutaminolysis corresponded to decreased glutaminase C (GAC) protein levels, although other protein levels were unaffected. This study demonstrates for the first time that mitochondrial thiol modification inhibits metabolism via inhibition of both aconitase and GAC in a breast cancer cell model.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-08T18:24:37Z
       
  • Effects of the isoflavone prunetin on gut health and stress response in
           male drosophila melanogaster

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Stefanie Piegholdt, Gerald Rimbach, Anika Eva Wagner
      The traditional Asian diet is rich in fruits, vegetables and soy, the latter representing a significant source of dietary isoflavones. The isoflavone prunetin was recently identified to improve intestinal epithelial barrier function in vitro and to ameliorate general survival and overall health state in vivo in male Drosophila melanogaster. However, the prunetin-mediated health benefits in the fruit fly were ascertained under standard living conditions. As the loss of intestinal integrity is closely related to a reduction in Drosophila lifespan and barrier dysfunction increases with age, effects on prunetin-modulated gut health under oxidative or pathogenic stress provocation remain to be elucidated. In this study, male adult Drosophila melanogaster were administered either a prunetin or a control diet. Gut-derived junction protein expression and pathogen-induced antimicrobial peptide expressions as well as the stem cell proliferation in the gut were evaluated. Furthermore, survival following exposure to hydrogen peroxide was assessed. Prunetin ingestion did not attenuate bacterial infection and did not protect flies from oxidative stress. Intestinal mRNA expression levels of adherence and septate junction proteins as well as the stem cell proliferation were not altered by prunetin intake. Prunetin does not improve the resistance of flies against severe injuring, exogenous stress and therefore seems to function in a preventive rather than a therapeutic approach since the health-promoting benefits appear to be exclusively restricted to normal living circumstances.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-08T18:24:37Z
       
  • Cellular and subcellular oxidative stress parameters following severe
           spinal cord injury

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Nishant P. Visavadiya, Samir P. Patel, Jenna L. VanRooyen, Patrick G. Sullivan, Alexander G. Rabchevsky
      The present study undertook a comprehensive assessment of the acute biochemical oxidative stress parameters in both cellular and, notably, mitochondrial isolates following severe upper lumbar contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult female Sprague Dawley rats. At 24h post-injury, spinal cord tissue homogenate and mitochondrial fractions were isolated concurrently and assessed for glutathione (GSH) content and production of nitric oxide (NO•), in addition to the presence of oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Moreover, we assessed production of superoxide (O2 •¯) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in mitochondrial fractions. Quantitative biochemical analyses showed that compared to sham, SCI significantly lowered GSH content accompanied by increased NO• production in both cellular and mitochondrial fractions. SCI also resulted in increased O2 •¯ and H2O2 levels in mitochondrial fractions. Western blot analysis further showed that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) mediated PC and 3-NT production were significantly higher in both fractions after SCI. Conversely, neither 4-HNE levels nor LPO formation were increased at 24h after injury in either tissue homogenate or mitochondrial fractions. These results indicate that by 24h post-injury ROS-induced protein oxidation is more prominent compared to lipid oxidation, indicating a critical temporal distinction in secondary pathophysiology that is critical in designing therapeutic approaches to mitigate consequences of oxidative stress.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-03T17:47:57Z
       
  • Interplay between oxidant species and energy metabolism

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 8
      Author(s): Celia Quijano, Madia Trujillo, Laura Castro, Andrés Trostchansky
      It has long been recognized that energy metabolism is linked to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and critical enzymes allied to metabolic pathways can be affected by redox reactions. This interplay between energy metabolism and ROS becomes most apparent during the aging process and in the onset and progression of many age-related diseases (i.e. diabetes, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases). As such, the capacity to identify metabolic pathways involved in ROS formation, as well as specific targets and oxidative modifications is crucial to our understanding of the molecular basis of age-related diseases and for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Herein we review oxidant formation associated with the cell's energetic metabolism, key antioxidants involved in ROS detoxification, and the principal targets of oxidant species in metabolic routes and discuss their relevance in cell signaling and age-related diseases.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-03T17:47:57Z
       
  • Protein S-glutathionlyation links energy metabolism to redox signaling in
           mitochondria

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Ryan J. Mailloux, Jason R. Treberg
      At its core mitochondrial function relies on redox reactions. Electrons stripped from nutrients are used to form NADH and NADPH, electron carriers that are similar in structure but support different functions. NADH supports ATP production but also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide (O2 ●-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). NADH-driven ROS production is counterbalanced by NADPH which maintains antioxidants in an active state. Mitochondria rely on a redox buffering network composed of reduced glutathione (GSH) and peroxiredoxins (Prx) to quench ROS generated by nutrient metabolism. As H2O2 is quenched, NADPH is expended to reactivate antioxidant networks and reset the redox environment. Thus, the mitochondrial redox environment is in a constant state of flux reflecting changes in nutrient and ROS metabolism. Changes in redox environment can modulate protein function through oxidation of protein cysteine thiols. Typically cysteine oxidation is considered to be mediated by H2O2 which oxidizes protein thiols (SH) forming sulfenic acid (SOH). However, problems begin to emerge when one critically evaluates the regulatory function of SOH. Indeed SOH formation is slow, non-specific, and once formed SOH reacts rapidly with a variety of molecules. By contrast, protein S-glutathionylation (PGlu) reactions involve the conjugation and removal of glutathione moieties from modifiable cysteine residues. PGlu reactions are driven by fluctuations in the availability of GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thus should be exquisitely sensitive to changes ROS flux due to shifts in the glutathione pool in response to varying H2O2 availability. Here, we propose that energy metabolism-linked redox signals originating from mitochondria are mediated indirectly by H2O2 through the GSH redox buffering network in and outside mitochondria. This proposal is based on several observations that have shown that unlike other redox modifications PGlu reactions fulfill the requisite criteria to serve as an effective posttranslational modification that controls protein function.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-03T17:47:57Z
       
 
 
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