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Journal Cover   Redox Biology
  [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2213-2317
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2800 journals]
  • Nitric oxide-mediated sensitization of resistant tumor cells to apoptosis
           by chemo-immunotherapeutics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Benjamin Bonavida, Hermes Garban
      The generation of NO by the various NO synthases in normal and malignant tissues is manifested by various biological effects that are involved in the regulation of cell survival, differentiation and cell death. The role of NO in the cytotoxic immune response was first revealed by demonstrating the induction of iNOS in target cells by immune cytokines (e.g. IFN-γ, IL-1, TNF-α, etc.) and resulting in the sensitization of resistant tumor cells to death ligands-induced apoptosis. Endogenous/exogenous NO mediated its immune sensitizing effect by inhibiting NF-κΒ activity and downstream, inactivating the repressor transcription factor YY1, which inhibited both Fas and DR5 expressions. In addition, NO-mediated inhibition of NF-κΒ activity and inhibition downstream of its anti-apoptotic gene targets sensitized the tumor cells to apoptosis by chemotherapeutic drugs. We have identified in tumor cells a dysregulated pro-survival/anti-apoptotic loop consisting of NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP/PTEN and its modification by NO was responsible, in large, for the reversal of chemo and immune resistance and sensitization to apoptotic mechanisms by cytotoxic agents. Moreover, tumor cells treated with exogenous NO donors resulted in the inhibition of NF-κΒ activity via S-nitrosylation of p50 and p65, inhibition of Snail (NF-κΒ target gene, inhibition of transcription repression by S-nitrosylation of YY1 and subsequent inhibition of epithelia-mesenchymal transition (EMT)), induction of RKIP (inhibition of the transcription repressor Snail), and induction of PTEN (inhibition of the repressors Snail and YY1). Further, each gene product modified by NO in the loop was involved in chemo-immunosensitization. These above findings demonstrated that NO donors interference in the regulatory circuitry result in chemo-immunosensitization and inhibition of EMT. Overall, these observations suggest the potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect of NO donors in combination with subtoxic chemo-immuno drugs. This combination acts on multiple facets including reversal of chemo-immune resistance, and inhibition of both EMT and metastasis.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-23T14:39:01Z
       
  • Positional isomerism markedly Affects the growth inhibition of colon
           Cancer Cells by NOSH-Aspirin: COX Inhibition and Modeling

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Federica Vannini, Mitali Chattopadhyay, Ravinder Kodela, Praveen P.N. Rao, Khosrow Kashfi
      We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e. ortho-NOSH-aspirin (o-NOSH-aspirin). In the present study, we compared the effects of the positional isomers of NOSH-ASA (o-NOSH-aspirin, m-NOSH-aspirin and p-NOSH-aspirin) to that of aspirin on growth of HT-29 and HCT 15 colon cancer cells, belonging to the same histological subtype, but with different expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes; HT-29 express both COX-1 and COX-2, whereas HCT 15 is COX-null. We also analyzed the effect of these compounds on proliferation and apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Since the parent compound aspirin, inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, we also evaluated the effects of these compounds on COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities and also performed modeling of the interactions between the positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin and COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. We observed that the three positional isomers of NOSH aspirin inhibited the growth of both colon cancer cell lines with IC50s in the nano-molar range. In particular in HT-29 cells the IC50s for growth inhibition were: o-NOSH-ASA, 0.04±0.011µM; m-NOSH-ASA, 0.24±0.11µM; p-NOSH-ASA, 0.46±0.17µM; and in HCT 15 cells the IC50s for o-NOSH-ASA, m-NOSH-ASA, and p-NOSH-ASA were 0.062 ±0.006µM, 0.092±0.004µM, and 0.37±0.04µM, respectively. The IC50 for aspirin in both cell lines was >5mM at 24h. The reduction of cell growth appeared to be mediated through inhibition of proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. All 3 positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin preferentially inhibited COX-1 over COX-2. These results suggest that the three positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin have the same biological actions, but that o-NOSH-ASA displayed the strongest anti-neoplastic potential.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-23T14:39:01Z
       
  • In vivo parameters influencing 2-Cys Prx oligomerization: the role of
           enzyme sulfinylation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Y Noichri, G Palais, V Ruby, B D’Autreaux, A Delaunay-Moisan, T Nyström, M Molin, M.B Toledano
      2-Cys Prxs are H2O2-specific antioxidants that become inactivated by enzyme hyperoxidation at elevated H2O2 levels. Although hyperoxidation restricts the antioxidant physiological role of these enzymes, it also allows the enzyme to become an efficient chaperone holdase. The critical molecular event allowing the peroxidase to chaperone switch is thought to be the enzyme assembly into high molecular weight (HMW) structures brought about by enzyme hyperoxidation. How hyperoxidation promotes HMW assembly is not well understood and Prx mutants allowing disentangling its peroxidase and chaperone functions are lacking. To begin addressing the link between enzyme hyperoxidation and HMW structures formation, we have evaluated the in vivo 2-Cys Prxs quaternary structure changes induced by H2O2 by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on crude lysates, using wild type (Wt) untagged and Myc-tagged S. cerevisiae 2-Cys Prx Tsa1 and derivative Tsa1 mutants or genetic conditions known to inactivate peroxidase or chaperone activity or altering the enzyme sensitivity to hyperoxidation. Our data confirm the strict causative link between H2O2-induced hyperoxidation and HMW formation/stabilization, also raising the question of whether CP hyperoxidation triggers the assembly of HMW structures by the stacking of decamers, which is the prevalent view of the literature, or rather, the stabilization of preassembled stacked decamers.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-23T14:39:01Z
       
  • NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) is a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen
           sulfide-releasing hybrid that is gastrointestinal safe and has potent
           anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer
           properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Khosrow Kashfi, Mitali Chattopadhyay, Ravinder Kodela
      Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer properties of sulindac and NOSH-sulindac administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, number/size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Anti-cancer: We examined the effects of NOSH-sulindac on the growth properties of twelve human cancer cell lines of six different tissue origins. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NOSH-sulindac did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas sulindac caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by sulindac was higher than that from NOSH-sulindac. SOD activity was significantly lowered by sulindac but increased by NOSH-sulindac. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Sulindac increased plasma TNFα whereas this rise was lower in the NOSH-sulindac-treated animals. NOSH-sulindac inhibited the growth of all cancer cell lines studied, with potencies of 1000- to 9000-fold greater than that of sulindac. NOSH-sulindac inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G2/M cell cycle block. These results demonstrate that NOSH-sulindac is gastrointestinal safe, and maintains the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and antiplatelet properties of its parent compound sulinsac, with anti-growth activity against a wide variety of human cancer cells.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-18T14:25:08Z
       
  • Outcome after BCG treatment for bladder Cancer May be influenced by
           polymorphisms in the NOS2 and NOS3 Genes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Charlotta Ryk, Lotta Renström Koskela, Tomas Thiel, N. Peter Wiklund, Gunnar Steineck, Martin C. Schumacher, Petra J. de Verdier
      Purpose Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-treatment is an established treatment for bladder cancer, but its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder-cancer (NMIBC)-patients failing to respond to BCG-treatment have worse prognosis than those undergoing immediate radical cystectomy and identification of patients at risk for BCG-failure is of high priority. Several studies indicate a role for nitric oxide (NO) in the cytotoxic effect that BCG exerts on bladder cancer cells. In this study we investigated whether NO-synthase (NOS)-gene polymorphisms, NOS2-promoter microsatellite (CCTTT)n, and the NOS3-polymorphisms-786T>C (rs2070744) and Glu298Asp (rs1799983), can serve as possible molecular markers for outcome after BCG-treatment for NMIBC. Materials and Methods All NMIBC-patients from a well-characterized population based cohort were analyzed (n=88). Polymorphism data were combined with information from 15-years of clinical follow-up. The effect of BCG-treatment on cancer-specific death (CSD), recurrence and progression in patients with varying NOS-genotypes were studied using Cox proportional hazard-models and log rank tests. Results BCG-treatment resulted in significantly better survival in patients without (Log rank:p=0.006;HR:0.12,p=0.048), but not in patients with a long version (CCTTT)n(>=13 repeats) of the NOS2-promoter microsatellite. The NOS3-rs2070744(TT) and rs1799983(GG)-genotypes showed decreased risk for CSD (Log rank(TT):p=0.001;Log rank(GG):p=0.010, HR(GG):0.16,p=0.030) and progression (Log rank(TT):p<0.001, HR(TT):0.05,p=0.005;Log rank(GG):p<0.001, HR(GG):0.10,p=0.003) after BCG-therapy compared to the other genotypes. There was also a reduction in recurrence in BCG-treated patients that was mostly genotype independent. Analysis of combined genotypes identified a subgroup of 30% of the BCG-treated patients that did not benefit from BCG-treatment. Conclusions Our results suggest that the investigated polymorphisms influence patient response to BCG-treatment and thus may serve as possible markers for identification of BCG-failures.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-12T04:03:22Z
       
  • Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Agnes Görlach, Katharina Bertram, Sona Hudecova, Olga Krizanova
      Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-12T04:03:22Z
       
  • Influence of myeloperoxidase on colon tumor occurrence in inflamed versus
           non-inflamed colons of ApcMin/+ mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Mazin Al-Salihi, Ethan Reichert, F.A. Fitzpatrick
      Control of colorectal cancer needs to be tailored to its etiology. Tumor promotion mechanisms in colitis-associated colon cancer differ somewhat from the mechanisms involved in hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancer. Unlike sporadic or inherited tumors, some experimental models show that colitis-associated colon tumors do not require cyclooxygenase (COX) expression for progression, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which prevent sporadic or inherited colon cancer do not prevent colitis-associated colon cancer. We report that myeloperoxidase (MPO), an ancestor of the COX isoenzymes, is a determinant of colitis-associated colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice. During experimentally induced colitis, inhibition of MPO by resorcinol dampened colon tumor development. Conversely, in the bowels of ApcMin/+ mice without colitis, resorcinol administration or ‘knockout’ of MPO gene coincided with a slight, but discernible increase in colon tumor incidence. Acrolein, a by-product of MPO catalysis, formed a covalent adduct with the phosphatase tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor and enhanced the activity of the Akt kinase proto-oncogene in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MPO may be an important determinant of diet and inflammation on colon cancer risk via its effect on endogenous exposure to oxidants and acrolein. We propose a hypothetical model to explain an apparent dichotomy between colon tumor occurrence and MPO inhibition in inflamed versus non-inflamed colons.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-12T04:03:22Z
       
  • SS-31 attenuates TNF-α induced cytokine release from C2C12 myotubes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Adam P. Lightfoot, Giorgos K. Sakellariou, Gareth A. Nye, Francis McArdle, Malcolm J. Jackson, Richard D. Griffiths, Anne McArdle
      TNF-α is a key inflammatory mediator and is proposed to induce transcriptional responses via the mitochondrial generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TNF-α on the production of myokines by skeletal muscle. Significant increases were seen in the release of IL-6, MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5 and KC/CXCL1 and this release was inhibited by treatment with Brefeldin A, suggesting a golgi-mediated release of cytokines by muscle cells. An increase was also seen in superoxide in response to treatment with TNF-α, which was localised to the mitochondria and this was also associated with activation of NF-κB. The changes in superoxide, activation of NF-kB and release of myokines were attenuated following pre-treatment with SS-31 peptide indicating that the ability of TNF-α to induce myokine release may be mediated through mitochondrial superoxide, which is, at least in part, associated with activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-kB.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-12T04:03:22Z
       
  • Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione (GSH) and a novel sublingual
           form of GSH on oxidative stress markers: A comparative crossover study.

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Bernard Schmitt, Morgane Vicenzi, Catherine Garrel, Frédéric M. Denis
      Glutathione (GSH) is critical to fight against oxidative stress. Its very low bioavailability limits the interest of a supplementation. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability, the effect on oxidative stress markers and the safety of a new sublingual form of GSH with two commonly used dietary supplements, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and oral GSH. The study was a three-week randomized crossover trial. 20 Volunteers with metabolic syndrome were enrolled. GSH levels and several oxidative stress markers were determined at different times during each 21-days period. Compared to oral GSH group, an increase of total and reduced GSH levels in plasma and a higher GSH/GSSG ratio (p=0.003) was observed in sublingual GSH group. After 3 weeks of administration, there was a significant increase of vitamin E level in plasma only in sublingual GSH group (0.83µmol/g; p=0.04). Our results demonstrate the superiority of a new sublingual form of GSH over the oral GSH form and NAC in terms of GSH supplementation.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:54:38Z
       
  • Differential alkylation-based redox proteomics – lessons learnt

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Katarzyna Wojdyla, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska
      Cysteine is one of the most reactive amino acids. This is due to the electronegativity of sulphur atom in the side chain of thiolate group. It results in cysteine being present in several distinct redox forms inside the cell. Amongst these, reversible oxidations, S-nitrosylation and S-sulfenylation are crucial mediators of intracellular redox signalling, with known associations to health and disease. Study of their functionalities has intensified thanks to the development of various analytical strategies, with particular contribution from differential alkylation-based proteomics methods. Presented here is a critical evaluation of differential alkylation-based strategies for the analysis of S-nitrosylation and S-sulfenylation. The aim is to assess the current status and to provide insights for future directions in the dynamically evolving field of redox proteomics. To achieve that we collected 35 original research articles published since 2010 and analysed them considering the following parameters, i. resolution of modification site, ii. quantitative information, including correction of modification levels by protein abundance changes and determination of modification site occupancy, iii throughput, including the amount of starting material required for analysis. The results of this meta-analysis are the core of this review, complemented by issues related to biological models and sample preparation in redox proteomics, including conditions for free thiol blocking and labelling of target cysteine oxoforms.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:54:38Z
       
  • The role of lipoxygenases in pathophysiology; new Insights and future
           Perspectives

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Ryuichi Mashima, Torayuki Okuyama
      Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are dioxygenases that catalyze the formation of corresponding hydroperoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. LOX enzymes are expressed in immune, epithelial, and tumor cells that display a variety of physiological functions, including inflammation, skin disorder, and tumorigenesis. In the humans and mice, six LOX isoforms have been known. 15-LOX, a prototypical enzyme originally found in reticulocytes shares the similarity of amino acid sequence as well as the biochemical property to plant LOX enzymes. 15-LOX-2, which is expressed in epithelial cells and leukocytes, has different substrate specificity in the humans and mice, therefore, the role of them in mammals has not been established. 12-LOX is an isoform expressed in epithelial cells and myeloid cells including platelets. Many mutations in this isoform are found in epithelial cancers, suggesting a potential link between 12-LOX and tumorigenesis. 12R-LOX can be found in the epithelial cells of the skin. Defects in this gene result in ichthyosis, a cutaneous disorder characterized by pathophysiologically dried skin due to abnormal loss of water from its epithelial cell layer. Similarly, eLOX-3, which is also expressed in the skin epithelial cells acting downstream 12R-LOX, is another causative factor for ichthyosis. 5-LOX is a distinct isoform playing an important role in asthma and inflammation. This isoform causes the constriction of bronchioles in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes such as LTC4, thus leading to asthma. It also induces neutrophilic inflammation by its recruitment in response to LTB4. Importantly, 5-LOX activity is strictly regulated by 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) though the distribution of 5-LOX in the nucleus. Currently, pharmacological drugs targeting FLAP are actively developing. This review summarized these functions of LOX enzymes under pathophysiological conditions in mammals.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:54:38Z
       
  • Quantitative combination of natural anti-oxidants prevents metabolic
           syndrome by reducing oxidative stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Mingjing Gao, Zhen Zhao, Pengyu Lv, YuFang Li, Juntao Gao, Michael Zhang, Baolu Zhao
      Insulin resistance and abdominal obesity are present in the majority of people with the metabolic syndrome. Antioxidant therapy might be a useful strategy for type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant states. The combination of vitamin C (Vc) and vitamin E has synthetic scavenging effect on free radicals and inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation. However, there are few studies about how to define the best combination of more than three anti-oxidants as it is difficult or impossible to test the anti-oxidant effect of the combination of every concentration of each ingredient experimentally. Here we present a math model, which is based on the classical Hill equation to determine the best combination, called Fixed Dose Combination (FDC), of several natural anti-oxidants, including Vc, green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract proanthocyanidin (GSEP). Then we investigated the effects of FDC on oxidative stress, blood glucose and serum lipid levels in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats which serve as obesity model, and KK-ay mice as diabetic model. The level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the treated rats was studied and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining or Oil red slices of liver and adipose tissue in the rats were examined as well. FDC shows excellent antioxidant and anti-glycation activity by attenuating lipid peroxidation. FDC determined in this investigation can become a potential solution to reduce obesity, to improve insulin sensitivity and be beneficial for the treatment of fat and diabetic patients. It is the first time to use the math model to determine the best ratio of three anti-oxidants, which can save much more time and chemical materials than traditional experimental method. This quantitative method represents a potentially new and useful strategy to screen all possible combinations of many natural anti-oxidants, therefore may help develop novel therapeutics with the potential to ameliorate the worldwide metabolic abnormalities.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:54:38Z
       
  • Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling
           by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): A. Rodríguez-Hernández, E. Navarro-Villarán, R. González, S. Pereira, L.B. Soriano-De Castro, A. Sarrias-Giménez, L. Barrera-Pulido, J.M. Álamo-Martínez, A. Serrablo-Requejo, G. Blanco-Fernández, A. Nogales-Muñoz, A. Gila-Bohórquez, D. Pacheco, M.A. Torres-Nieto, J. Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, G. Suárez-Artacho, C. Bernal-Bellido, L.M. Marín-Gómez, J.A. Barcena, M.A. Gómez-Bravo, C.A. Padilla, F.J. Padillo, J. Muntané
      Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:25:19Z
       
  • Reduced SIRT1 expression correlates with enhanced oxidative stress in
           compensated and decompensated heart failure

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Feridun Akkafa, Ibrahim Halil Altiparmak, Musluhittin Emre Erkus, Nurten Aksoy, Caner Kaya, Ahmet Ozer, Hatice Sezen, Serdar Oztuzcu, Ismail Koyuncu, Berrin Umurhan
      Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is a longevity factor in mammals initiating the cell survival mechanisms, and preventing ischemic injury in heart. In the etiopathogenesis of heart failure (HF), impairment in cardiomyocyte survival is a notable factor. Oxidative stress comprises a critical impact on cardiomyocyte lifespan in HF. The aim of the present study was to investigate SIRT1 expression in patients with compensated (cHF) and decompensated HF (dHF), and its correlation with oxidative stress. SIRT1 expression in peripheral leukocytes was examined using quantitative RT-PCR in 163 HF patients and 84 controls. Serum total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured via colorimetric assays, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Lipid parameters were also determined by routine laboratory methods. SIRT1 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated in HF with more robust decrease in dHF (p=0.002, control vs cHF; p<0.001, control vs dHF). Markedly increased oxidative stress defined as elevated TOS, OSI and low TAS levels were detected in HF patients comparing with the controls (TAS; p=0.010, control vs cHF, p=0.045 control vs dHF, TOS; p=0.004 control vs cHF; p<0.001 control vs dHF, OSI; p<0.001 for both comparisons, respectively). With SIRT1 expression levels, TAS, TOS, OSI, and high density lipoprotein levels in cHF and dHF were determined correlated. SIRT1 expression were significantly reduced in both HF subtypes, particularly in dHF. SIRT1 expression was correlated with the oxidant levels and antioxidant capacity. Data suggest that SIRT1 may have a significant contribution in regulation of oxidant/antioxidant balance in HF etiology and compensation status.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:25:19Z
       
  • Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Cristina Espinosa-Diez, Verónica Miguel, Daniela Mennerich, Thomas Kietzmann, Patricia Sánchez-Pérez, Susana Cadenas, Santiago Lamas
      Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases.
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      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:25:19Z
       
  • Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet
           oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular
           apoptosis-inducing signaling

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Michaela Riethmüller, Nils Burger, Georg Bauer
      Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2 .) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-29T21:01:24Z
       
  • Genetic disorders coupled to ROS deficiency

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Sharon O’Neill, Julie Brault, Marie-Jose Stasia, Ulla G. Knaus
      Maintaining the redox balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for health. Disturbances such as continuously elevated ROS levels will result in oxidative stress and development of disease, but likewise, insufficient ROS production will be detrimental to health. Reduced or even complete loss of ROS generation originates mainly from inactivating variants in genes encoding for NADPH oxidase complexes. In particular, deficiency in phagocyte Nox2 oxidase function due to genetic variants (CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, NCF4) has been recognized as a direct cause of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited immune disorder. More recently, additional diseases have been linked to functionally altered variants in genes encoding for other NADPH oxidases, such as for DUOX2/DUOXA2 in congenital hypothyroidism, or for the Nox2 complex, NOX1 and DUOX2 as risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. A comprehensive overview of novel developments in terms of Nox/Duox-deficiency disorders is presented, combined with insights gained from structure–function studies that will aid in predicting functional defects of clinical variants.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-29T21:01:24Z
       
  • Redox regulation of metabolic and signaling pathways by thioredoxin and
           glutaredoxin in NOS-3 overexpressing hepatoblastoma cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Raúl González, M. José López-Grueso, Jordi Muntané, J. Antonio Bárcena, C. Alicia Padilla
      Nitric oxide (NO) plays relevant roles in signal transduction in physiopathology and its effects are dependent on several environmental factors. NO has both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic functions but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these opposite effects are not fully understood. The action of NO occurs mainly through redox changes in target proteins, particularly by S-nitrosylation of reactive cysteine residues. Thioredoxin (Trx) and glutaredoxin (Grx) systems are the main cellular controllers of the thiolic redox state of proteins exerting controversial effects on apoptosis with consequences for the resistance to or the development of cancer. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether Trx and/or Grx systems mediate the antiproliferative effect of NO on hepatoblastoma cells by modulating the redox-state of key proteins. Proliferation decreased and apoptosis increased in HepG2 cells overexpressing Nitric Oxide Synthase-3 (NOS-3) as a result of multilevel cellular responses to the oxidative environment generated by NO. Enzyme levels and cysteine redox state at several metabolic checkpoints were consistent with prominence of the pentose phosphate pathway to direct the metabolic flux toward NADPH for antioxidant defense and lowering of nucleotide biosynthesis and hence proliferation. Proteins involved in cell survival pathways, proteins of the redoxin systems and phosphorylation of MAPK were all significantly increased accompanied by a shift of the thiolic redox state of Akt1, Trx1 and Grx1 to more oxidized. Silencing of Trx1 and Grx1 neutralized the increases in CD95, Akt1 and pAkt levels induced by NO and produced a marked increase in caspase-3 and -8 activities in both control and NOS-3 overexpressing cells concomitant with a decrease in the number of cells. These results demonstrate that the antiproliferative effect of NO is actually hampered by Trx1 and Grx1 and support the strategy of weakening the thiolic antioxidant defenses when designing new antitumoral therapies.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-24T22:47:36Z
       
  • Nitric oxide induces hypoxia ischemic injury in the neonatal brain via the
           disruption of neuronal iron metabolism

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Qing Lu, Valerie A. Harris, Ruslan Rafikov, Xutong Sun, Sanjiv Kumar, Stephen M. Black
      We have recently shown that increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation is involved in hypoxia–ischemia (HI)-mediated neonatal brain injury. H2O2 can react with free iron to form the hydroxyl radical, through Fenton Chemistry. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if there was a role for the hydroxyl radical in neonatal HI brain injury and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Our data demonstrate that HI increases the deposition of free iron and hydroxyl radical formation, in both P7 hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD), and the neonatal rat exposed to HI. Both these processes were found to be nitric oxide (NO) dependent. Further analysis demonstrated that the NO-dependent increase in iron deposition was mediated through increased transferrin receptor expression and a decrease in ferritin expression. This was correlated with a reduction in aconitase activity. Both NO inhibition and iron scavenging, using deferoxamine administration, reduced hydroxyl radical levels and neuronal cell death. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased NO generation leads to neuronal cell death during neonatal HI, at least in part, by altering iron homeostasis and hydroxyl radical generation.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-24T22:47:36Z
       
  • Hydrogen peroxide signals E. coli phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear
           cells; up-stream and down-stream pathway

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Michalis Petropoulos, Georgia Karamolegkou, Eleftheria Rosmaraki, Sotiris Tsakas
      Hydrogen peroxide (Η2Ο2) is produced during a variety of cellular procedures. In this paper, the regulatory role of Η2Ο2, in Escherichia coli phagocytosis by the human polymorphonuclears, was investigated. White blood cells were incubated with dihydrorhodamine (DHR) in order to study H2O2 synthesis and E. coli-FITC to study phagocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed increased synthesis of H2O2 in polymorphonuclears which incorporated E. coli-FITC. The blocking of H2O2 synthesis by specific inhibitors, N-ethylmaleimide (ΝΕΜ) for NADPH oxidase and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) for superoxide dismutase (SOD), decreased E. coli phagocytosis, as well. Immunoblot analysis of white blood cell protein extracts revealed that the blocking of NADPH oxidase and SOD decreased ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, while it had no effect on JNK and p38. Confocal microscopy showed that phosphorylation of MAPKs and phagocytosis solely occur in the polymorphonuclear and not in mononuclear cells. The use of specific MAPKs inhibitors showed that all of them are necessary for phagocytosis, but only phospho-p38 affects H2O2 synthesis. The blocking of JNK phosphorylation, in the presence of E. coli, evoked a further decrease of cytoplasmic p47 thus increasing its translocation onto the plasma membrane for the assembly of NADPH oxidase. It appears that newly synthesised H2O2 invigorates the phosphorylation and action of ERK-1/2 in E. coli phagocytosis, while phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 appear to regulate H2O2 production.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-24T22:47:36Z
       
  • Role of NADPH oxidases in the redox biology of liver fibrosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Eva Crosas-Molist, Isabel Fabregat
      Liver fibrosis is the pathological consequence of chronic liver diseases, where an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins occurs, concomitantly with the processes of repair and regeneration. It is characterized by increased production of matrix proteins, in particular collagens, and decreased matrix remodelling. The principal source of ECM accumulation is myofibroblasts (MFB). Most fibrogenic MFB are endogenous to the liver, coming from hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and portal fibroblasts. Dysregulated inflammatory responses have been associated with most (if not all) hepatotoxic insults and chronic oxidative stress play a role during the initial liver inflammatory phase and its progression to fibrosis. Redox-regulated processes are responsible for activation of HSC to MFB, as well as maintenance of the MFB function. Increased oxidative stress also induces hepatocyte apoptosis, which contributes to increase the liver injury and to transdifferentiate HSC to MFB, favouring the fibrogenic process. Mitochondria and other redox-active enzymes can generate superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as a by-product in liver cells. Moreover, accumulating evidence indicates that NADPH oxidases (NOXs), which play a critical role in the inflammatory response, may contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during liver fibrosis, being important players in HSC activation and hepatocyte apoptosis. Based on the knowledge of the pathogenic role of ROS, different strategies to prevent or reverse the oxidative damage have been developed to be used as therapeutic tools in liver fibrosis. This review will update all these concepts, highlighting the relevance of redox biology in chronic fibrogenic liver pathologies.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-24T22:47:36Z
       
  • Borane-protected phosphines are redox-active radioprotective agents for
           endothelial cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Megan E. Crowe, Christopher J. Lieven, Alex F. Thompson, Nader Sheibani, Leonard A. Levin
      Exposure to radiation can damage endothelial cells in the irradiated area via the production of reactive oxygen species. We synthesized phosphine–borane complexes that reduce disulfide bonds and had previously been shown to interfere with redox-mediated signaling of cell death. We hypothesized that this class of drugs could interfere with the downstream effects of oxidative stress after irradiation and rescue endothelial cells from radiation damage. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells were plated for clonogenic assay prior to exposure to varying doses of irradiation from a 137Cs irradiator and treated with various concentrations of bis(3-propionic acid methyl ester)phenylphosphine borane complex (PB1) at different time points. The clone-forming ability of the irradiated cells was assessed seven days after irradiation. We compared the radioprotective effects of PB1 with the aminothiol radioprotectant WR1065 and known superoxide scavengers. PB1 significantly protected bovine aortic endothelial cells from radiation damage, particularly when treated both before and after radiation. The radioprotection with 1µM PB1 corresponded to a dose-reduction factor of 1.24. Radioprotection by PB1 was comparable to the aminothiol WR1065, but was significantly less toxic and required much lower concentrations of drug (1µM vs. 4mM, respectively). Superoxide scavengers were not radioprotective in this paradigm, indicating the mechanisms for both loss of clonogenicity and PB1 radioprotection are independent of superoxide signaling. These data demonstrate that PB1 is an effective redox-active radioprotectant for endothelial cells in vitro, and is radioprotective at a concentration approximately 4 orders of magnitude lower than the aminothiol WR1065 with less toxicity.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-19T22:24:34Z
       
  • Isoniazid prevents Nrf2 translocation by inhibiting ERK1 phosphorylation
           and induces oxidative stress and apoptosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Ajeet Kumar Verma, Arti Yadav, Jayant Dewangan, Sarvendra Vikram Singh, Manisha Mishra, Pradhyumna Kumar Singh, Srikanta Kumar Rath
      Isoniazid is used either alone or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. It is also used for the prevention of tuberculosis. Chronic treatment of Isoniazid may cause severe liver damage leading to acute liver failure. The mechanism through which Isoniazid causes liver damage is investigated. Isoniazid treatment generates reactive oxygen species and induces apoptosis in Hep3B cells. It induces antioxidative and apoptotic genes leading to increase in mRNA expression and protein levels in Hep3B cells. Whole genome expression analysis of Hep3B cells treated with Isoniazid has resulted in differential expression of various genes playing prime role in regulation of apoptotic, antioxidative, DNA damage, cell signaling, cell proliferation and differentiation pathways. Isoniazid increased cytosolic Nrf2 protein level while decreased nuclear Nrf2 protein level. It also decreased ERK1 phosphorylation and treatment of Hep3B cells with ERK inhibitor followed by Isoniazid resulting in increased apoptosis in these cells. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis results have also shown differential expression of various protein species including heat shock proteins, proteins playing important role in oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Results suggest that Isoniazid induces apoptosis through oxidative stress and also prevents Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus by reducing ERK1 phosphorylation thus preventing cytoprotective effect.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-19T22:24:34Z
       
  • Glycation of bovine serum albumin by ascorbate in vitro: Possible
           contribution of the ascorbyl radical?

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz, Ireneusz Stefaniuk, Sabina Galiniak, Grzegorz Bartosz
      Ascorbic acid (AA) has been reported to be both pro-and antiglycating agent. In vitro, mainly proglycating effects of AA have been observed. We studied the glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by AA in vitro. BSA glycation was accompanied by oxidative modifications, in agreement with the idea of glycoxidation. Glycation was inhibited by antioxidants including polyphenols and accelerated by 2,​2′-​azobis-​2-​methyl-​propanimidamide and superoxide dismutase. Nitroxides, known to oxidize AA, did not inhibit BSA glycation. A good correlation was observed between the steady-state level of the ascorbyl radical in BSA samples incubated with AA and additives and the extent of glycation. On this basis we propose that ascorbyl radical, in addition to further products of AA oxidation, may initiate protein glycation.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-19T22:24:34Z
       
  • Redox-modulating agents target NOX2-dependent IKKε oncogenic kinase
           expression and proliferation in human breast cancer cell lines

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 6
      Author(s): Espérance Mukawera , Stefany Chartier , Virginie Williams , Patrick J. Pagano , Réjean Lapointe , Nathalie Grandvaux
      Oxidative stress is considered a causative factor in carcinogenesis, but also in the development of resistance to current chemotherapies. The appropriate usage of redox-modulating compounds is limited by the lack of knowledge of their impact on specific molecular pathways. Increased levels of the IKKε kinase, as a result of gene amplification or aberrant expression, are observed in a substantial number of breast carcinomas. IKKε not only plays a key role in cell transformation and invasiveness, but also in the development of resistance to tamoxifen. Here, we studied the effect of in vitro treatment with the redox-modulating triphenylmethane dyes, Gentian Violet and Brilliant Green, and nitroxide Tempol on IKKε expression and cell proliferation in the human breast cancer epithelial cell lines exhibiting amplification of IKKε, MCF-7 and ZR75.1. We show that Gentian Violet, Brilliant Green and Tempol significantly decrease intracellular superoxide anion levels and inhibit IKKε expression and cell viability. Treatment with Gentian Violet and Brilliant Green was associated with a reduced cyclin D1 expression and activation of caspase 3 and/or 7. Tempol decreased cyclin D1 expression in both cell lines, while activation of caspase 7 was only observed in MCF-7 cells. Silencing of the superoxide-generating NOX2 NADPH oxidase expressed in breast cancer cells resulted in the significant reduction of IKKε expression. Taken together, our results suggest that redox-modulating compounds targeting NOX2 could present a particular therapeutic interest in combination therapy against breast carcinomas exhibiting IKKε amplification.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-14T16:24:10Z
       
  • Chronic ethanol consumption Induces mitochondrial protein acetylation and
           oxidative stress in the kidney

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Peter S. Harris , Samantha R. Roy , Christina Coughlan , David J. Orlicky , Yongliang Liang , Colin T. Shearn , James R. Roede , Kristofer S. Fritz
      In this study, we present the novel findings that chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the kidney and correlates with significantly increased renal oxidative stress. A major proteomic footprint of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an increase in hepatic mitochondrial protein acetylation. Protein hyperacetylation has been shown to alter enzymatic function of numerous proteins and plays a role in regulating metabolic processes. Renal mitochondrial targets of hyperacetylation include numerous metabolic and antioxidant pathways, such as lipid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and amino acid metabolism, as well as glutathione and thioredoxin pathways. Disruption of protein lysine acetylation has the potential to impair renal function through metabolic dysregulation and decreased antioxidant capacity. Due to a significant elevation in ethanol-mediated renal oxidative stress, we highlight the acetylation of superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins, glutathione reductase, and glutathione transferase enzymes. Since oxidative stress is a known factor in ethanol-induced nephrotoxicity, we examined biochemical markers of protein hyperacetylation and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate increased protein acetylation concurrent with depleted glutathione, altered Cys redox potential, and the presence of 4-HNE protein modifications in our 6-week model of early-stage alcoholic nephrotoxicity. These findings support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism causes an influx of mitochondrial metabolic substrate, resulting in mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation with the potential to impact mitochondrial metabolic and antioxidant processes.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-09T15:27:52Z
       
  • S-nitrosoglutathione-mediated STAT3 regulation in efficacy of radiotherapy
           and cisplatin therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Kolanjiappan Kaliyaperumal , Anand K Sharma , Daniel G McDonald , Jasdeep S. Dhindsa , Caroline Yount , Avtar K Singh , Je-Seong Won , Inderjit Singh
      S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) carrier that plays a critical role in redox based NO signaling. Recent studies have reported that GSNO regulates the activities of STAT3 and NF-κB via S-nitrosylation dependent mechanisms. Since STAT3 and NF-κB are key transcription factors involved in tumor progression, chemoresistance, and metastasis of head and neck cancer, we investigated the effect of GSNO in cell culture and mouse xenograft models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). For the cell culture studies, three HNSCC cell lines were tested (SCC1, SCC14a and SCC22a). All three cell lines had constitutively activated (phosphorylated) STAT3 (Tyr705). GSNO treatment of these cell lines reversibly decreased the STAT3 phosphorylation in a concentration dependent manner. GSNO treatment also decreased the basal and cytokine-stimulated activation of NF-κB in SCC14a cells and reduced the basal low degree of nitrotyrosine by inhibition of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. The reduced STAT3/NF-κB activity by GSNO treatment was correlated with the decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of HNSCC cells. In HNSCC mouse xenograft model, the tumor growth was reduced by systemic treatment with GSNO and was further reduced when the treatment was combined with radiation and cisplatin. Accordingly, GSNO treatment also resulted in decreased levels of phosphorylated STAT3. In summary, these studies demonstrate that GSNO treatment blocks the NF-κB and STAT3 pathways which are responsible for cell survival, proliferation and that GSNO mediated mechanisms complement cispaltin and radiation therapy, and thus could potentiate the therapeutic effect in HNSCC.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-04T14:58:42Z
       
  • NO to cancer: the complex and multifaceted role of nitric oxide and the
           epigenetic nitric oxide donor, RRx-001

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Jan Scicinski , Bryan Oronsky , Shoucheng Ning , Susan Knox , Donna Peehl , Michelle M. Kim , Peter Langecker , Gary Fanger
      The endogenous mediator of vasodilation, nitric oxide (NO), has been shown to be a potent radiosensitizer. However, the underlying mode of action for its role as a radiosensitizer – while not entirely understood–is believed to arise from increased tumor blood flow, effects on cellular respiration, on cell signaling, and on the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), that can act as radiosensitizers in their own right. NO activity is surprisingly long-lived and more potent in comparison to oxygen. Reports of the effects of NO with radiation have often been contradictory leading to confusion about the true radiosensitizing nature of NO. Whether increasing or decreasing tumor blood flow, acting as radiosensitizer or radioprotector, the effects of NO have been controversial. Key to understanding the role of NO as a radiosensitizer is to recognize the importance of biological context. With a very short half-life and potent activity, the local effects of NO need to be carefully considered and understood when using NO as a radiosensitizer. The systemic effects of NO donors can cause extensive side effects, and also affect the local tumor microenvironment, both directly and indirectly. To minimize systemic effects and maximize effects on tumors, agents that deliver NO on demand selectively to tumors using hypoxia as a trigger may be of greater interest as radiosensitizers. Herein we discuss the multiple effects of NO and focus on the clinical molecule RRx-001, a hypoxia-activated NO donor currently being investigated as a radiosensitizer in the clinic.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-04T14:58:42Z
       
  • Redox implications in adipose tissue (dys)function-A new look at old
           acquaintances

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Aleksandra Jankovic , Aleksandra Korac , Biljana Buzadzic , Vesna Otasevic , Ana Stancic , Andreas Daiber , Bato Korac
      Obesity is an energy balance disorder associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes type 2, also summarized with the term metabolic syndrome or syndrome X. Increasing evidence points to “adipocyte dysfunction”, rather than fat mass accretion per se, as the key pathophysiological factor for metabolic complications in obesity. The dysfunctional fat tissue in obesity characterizes a failure to safely store metabolic substrates into existing hypertrophied adipocytes and/or into new preadipocytes recruited for differentiation. In this review we briefly summarize the potential of redox imbalance in fat tissue as an instigator of adipocyte dysfunction in obesity. We reveal the challenge of the adipose redox changes, insights in the regulation of healthy expansion of adipose tissue and its reduction, leading to glucose and lipids overflow.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-04T14:58:42Z
       
  • Redox Regulation of FoxO Transcription Factors

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Lars-Oliver Klotz , Cristina Sánchez-Ramos , Ignacio Prieto-Arroyo , Pavel Urbánek , Holger Steinbrenner , Maria Monsalve
      Transcription factors of the forkhead box, class O (FoxO) family are important regulators of the cellular stress response and promote the cellular antioxidant defense. On one hand, FoxOs stimulate the transcription of genes coding for antioxidant proteins located in different subcellular compartments, such as in mitochondria (i.e. superoxide dismutase-2, peroxiredoxins 3 and 5) and peroxisomes (catalase), as well as for antioxidant proteins found extracellularly in plasma (e.g., selenoprotein P and ceruloplasmin). On the other hand, reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as other stressful stimuli that elicit the formation of ROS, may modulate FoxO activity at multiple levels, including posttranslational modifications of FoxOs (such as phosphorylation and acetylation), interaction with coregulators, alterations in FoxO subcellular localization, protein synthesis and stability. Moreover, transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of the expression genes coding for FoxOs is sensitive to ROS. Here, we review these aspects of FoxO biology focusing on redox regulation of FoxO signaling, and with emphasis on the interplay between ROS and FoxOs under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Of particular interest are the dual role played by FoxOs in cancer development and their key role in whole body nutrient homeostasis, modulating metabolic adaptations and/or disturbances in response to low vs. high nutrient intake. Examples discussed here include calorie restriction and starvation as well as adipogenesis, obesity and type 2 diabetes.
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      PubDate: 2015-07-04T14:58:42Z
       
  • The redox biology network in cancer pathophysiology and therapeutics

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 5
      Author(s): Gina Manda , Gheorghita Isvoranu , Maria Victoria Comanescu , Adrian Manea , Bilge Debelec Butuner , Kemal Sami Korkmaz
      The review pinpoints operational concepts related to the redox biology network applied to the pathophysiology and therapeutics of solid tumors. A sophisticated network of intrinsic and extrinsic cues, integrated in the tumor niche, drives tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Critical mutations and distorted redox signaling pathways orchestrate pathologic events inside cancer cells, resulting in resistance to stress and death signals, aberrant proliferation and efficient repair mechanisms. Additionally, the complex inter-cellular crosstalk within the tumor niche, mediated by cytokines, redox-sensitive danger signals (HMGB1) and exosomes, under the pressure of multiple stresses (oxidative, inflammatory, metabolic), greatly contributes to the malignant phenotype. The tumor-associated inflammatory stress and its suppressive action on the anti-tumor immune response are highlighted. We further emphasize that ROS may act either as supporter or enemy of cancer cells, depending on the context. Oxidative stress-based therapies, such as radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy, take advantage of the cytotoxic face of ROS for killing tumor cells by a non-physiologically sudden, localized and intense oxidative burst. The type of tumor cell death elicited by these therapies is discussed. Therapy outcome depends on the differential sensitivity to oxidative stress of particular tumor cells, such as cancer stem cells, and therefore co-therapies that transiently down-regulate their intrinsic antioxidant system hold great promise. We draw attention on the consequences of the damage signals delivered by oxidative stress-injured cells to neighboring and distant cells, and emphasize the benefits of therapeutically triggered immunologic cell death in metastatic cancer. An integrative approach should be applied when designing therapeutic strategies in cancer, taking into consideration the mutational, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative status of tumor cells, cellular heterogeneity and the hypoxia map in the tumor niche, along with the adjoining and systemic effects of oxidative stress-based therapies.
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      PubDate: 2015-06-29T14:37:17Z
       
  • Regulation of NOx enzymes expression in vascular pathophysiology: Focusing
           on transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Simona-Adriana Manea , Alina Constantin , Gina Manda , Shlomo Sasson , Adrian Manea
      NADPH oxidases (Nox) represent a family of hetero-oligomeric enzymes whose exclusive biological function is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nox-derived ROS are essential modulators of signal transduction pathways that control key physiological activities such as cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis, immune responses, and biochemical pathways. Enhanced formation of Nox-derived ROS, which is generally associated with the up-regulation of different Nox subtypes, has been established in various pathologies, namely cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The detrimental effects of Nox-derived ROS are related to alterations in cell signalling and/or direct irreversible oxidative damage of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Thus, understanding of transcriptional regulation mechanisms of Nox enzymes have been extensively investigated in an attempt to find ways to counteract the excessive formation of Nox-derived ROS in various pathological states. Despite the numerous existing data, the molecular pathways responsible for Nox up-regulation are not completely understood. This review article summarizes some of the recent advances and concepts related to the regulation of Nox expression in the vascular pathophysiology. It highlights the role of transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms in this process. Identification of the signalling molecules involved in Nox up-regulation, which is associated with the onset and development of cardiovascular dysfunction may contribute to the development of novel strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
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      PubDate: 2015-06-29T14:37:17Z
       
  • Disruption of thioredoxin metabolism enhances the toxicity of transforming
           growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) inhibition in KRAS-mutated
           colon cancer cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 5
      Author(s): Jennifer E. Hrabe , Brianne R. O’Leary , Melissa A. Fath , Samuel N. Rodman , Anna M. Button , Frederick E. Domann , Douglas R. Spitz , James J. Mezhir
      Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is critical for survival of many KRAS mutated colorectal cancer cells, and TAK1 inhibition with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol has been associated with oxidative stress leading to tumor cell killing. When SW 620 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cells were treated with 5µM 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, cell viability, growth, and clonogenic survival were significantly decreased. Consistent with TAK1 inhibition being causally related to thiol-mediated oxidative stress, 10mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed the growth inhibitory effects of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol. In addition, 5Z-7-oxozeaenol also increased steady-state levels of H2DCFDA oxidation as well as increased levels of total glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Interestingly, depletion of GSH using buthionine sulfoximine did not significantly potentiate 5Z-7-oxozeaenol toxicity in either cell line. In contrast, pre-treatment of cells with auranofin (Au) to inhibit thioredoxin reductase activity significantly increased levels of oxidized thioredoxin as well as sensitized cells to 5Z-7-oxozeaenol-induced growth inhibition and clonogenic cell killing. These results were confirmed in SW 620 murine xenografts, where treatment with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol or with Au plus 5Z-7-oxozeaenol significantly inhibited growth, with Au plus 5Z-7-oxozeaenol trending toward greater growth inhibition compared to 5Z-7-oxozeaenol alone. These results support the hypothesis that thiol-mediated oxidative stress is causally related to TAK1-induced colon cancer cell killing. In addition, these results support the hypothesis that thioredoxin metabolism is a critical target for enhancing colon cancer cell killing via TAK1 inhibition and could represent an effective therapeutic strategy in patients with these highly resistant tumors.
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      PubDate: 2015-06-24T14:34:33Z
       
  • Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue
           homogenates, isolated proteins: focus on sample preparation and
           derivatization conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Daniela Weber , Michael J. Davies , Tilman Grune
      Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples.
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      PubDate: 2015-06-24T14:34:33Z
       
  • Redox regulation of genome stability by effects on gene expression,
           epigenetic pathways and DNA damage/repair

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Yuliya Mikhed , Agnes Görlach , Ulla Knaus , Andreas Daiber
      Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (e.g. H2O2, nitric oxide) confer redox regulation of essential cellular signaling pathways such as cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. In addition, classical regulation of gene expression or activity, including gene transcription to RNA followed by translation to the protein level, by transcription factors (e.g. NF-κB, HIF-1α) and mRNA binding proteins (e.g. GAPDH, HuR) is subject to redox regulation. This review will give an update of recent discoveries in this field, and specifically highlight the impact of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on DNA repair systems that contribute to genomic stability. Emphasis will be placed on the emerging role of redox mechanisms regulating epigenetic pathways (e.g. miRNA, DNA methylation and histone modifications). By providing clinical correlations we discuss how oxidative stress can impact on gene regulation/activity and vice versa, how epigenetic processes, other gene regulatory mechanisms and DNA repair can influence the cellular redox state and contribute or prevent development or progression of disease.
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      PubDate: 2015-06-07T14:03:51Z
       
  • Protein lipoxidation: detection strategies and challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Giancarlo Aldini , M. Rosário Domingues , Corinne M. Spickett , Pedro Domingues , Alessandra Altomare , Francisco J. Sánchez-Gómez , Clara L. Oeste , Dolores Pérez-Sala
      Enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid metabolism can give rise to reactive species that may covalently modify cellular or plasma proteins through a process known as lipoxidation. Under basal conditions, protein lipoxidation can contribute to normal cell homeostasis and participate in signaling or adaptive mechanisms, as exemplified by lipoxidation of Ras proteins or of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin, both of which behave as sensors of electrophilic species. Nevertheless, increased lipoxidation under pathological conditions may lead to deleterious effects on protein structure or aggregation. This can result in impaired degradation and accumulation of abnormally folded proteins contributing to pathophysiology, as may occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Identification of the protein targets of lipoxidation and its functional consequences under pathophysiological situations can unveil the modification patterns associated with the various outcomes, as well as preventive strategies or potential therapeutic targets. Given the wide structural variability of lipid moieties involved in lipoxidation, highly sensitive and specific methods for its detection are required. Derivatization of reactive carbonyl species is instrumental in the detection of adducts retaining carbonyl groups. In addition, use of tagged derivatives of electrophilic lipids enables enrichment of lipoxidized proteins or peptides. Ultimate confirmation of lipoxidation requires high resolution mass spectrometry approaches to unequivocally identify the adduct and the targeted residue. Moreover, rigorous validation of the targets identified and assessment of the functional consequences of these modifications are essential. Here we present an update on methods to approach the complex field of lipoxidation along with validation strategies and functional assays illustrated with well-studied lipoxidation targets.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-22T12:14:54Z
       
  • Thiol redox homeostasis in neurodegenerative disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 5
      Author(s): Gethin J. McBean , Mutay Aslan , Helen R. Griffiths , Rita C. Torrão
      This review provides an overview of the biochemistry of thiol redox couples and the significance of thiol redox homeostasis in neurodegenerative disease. The discussion is centred on cysteine/cystine redox balance, the significance of the xc − cystine–glutamate exchanger and the association between protein thiol redox balance and neurodegeneration, with particular reference to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and glaucoma. The role of thiol disulphide oxidoreductases in providing neuroprotection is also discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-17T11:42:38Z
       
  • Fetal–maternal interface impedance parallels local NADPH oxidase
           related superoxide production

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 5
      Author(s): L. Guedes-Martins , E. Silva , A.R. Gaio , J. Saraiva , A.I. Soares , J. Afonso , F. Macedo , H. Almeida
      Blood flow assessment employing Doppler techniques is a useful procedure in pregnancy evaluation, as it may predict pregnancy disorders coursing with increased uterine vascular impedance, as pre-eclampsia. While the local causes are unknown, emphasis has been put on reactive oxygen species (ROS) excessive production. As NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a ROS generator, it is hypothesized that combining Doppler assessment with NOX activity might provide useful knowledge on placental bed disorders underlying mechanisms. A prospective longitudinal study was performed in 19 normal course, singleton pregnancies. Fetal aortic isthmus (AoI) and maternal uterine arteries (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) were recorded at two time points: 20–22 and 40–41 weeks, just before elective Cesarean section. In addition, placenta and placental bed biopsies were performed immediately after fetal extraction. NOX activity was evaluated using a dihydroethidium-based fluorescence method and associations to PI values were studied with Spearman correlations. A clustering of pregnancies coursing with higher and lower PI values was shown, which correlated strongly with placental bed NOX activity, but less consistently with placental tissue. The study provides evidence favoring that placental bed NOX activity parallels UtA PI enhancement and suggests that an excess in oxidation underlies the development of pregnancy disorders coursing with enhanced UtA impedance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-17T11:42:38Z
       
  • Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative
           protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it
           important and why is it hard?

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 5
      Author(s): Olgica Nedić , Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska , Suresh I.S. Rattan
      Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM), which occur stochastically, depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can be damaging. It is often observed that inactive and abnormal proteins accumulate in old cells and tissues. The nature, site and extent of nePTM give rise to a population of that specific protein with alterations in structure and function ranging from being fully active to totally inactive molecules. Determination of the type and the amount (abundance) of nePTM is essential for establishing connection between specific protein structure and specific biological role. This article summarizes analytical demands for reliable quantification of nePTM, including requirements for the assay performance, standardization and quality control, and points to the difficulties, uncertainties and un-resolved issues.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-17T11:42:38Z
       
  • Neuron specific reduction in CuZnSOD is not sufficient to initiate a full
           sarcopenia phenotype

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 5
      Author(s): Kavithalakshmi Sataranatarajan , Rizwan Qaisar , Carol Davis , Giorgos K. Sakellariou , Aphrodite Vasilaki , Yiqiang Zhang , Yuhong Liu , Shylesh Bhaskaran , Anne McArdle , Malcolm Jackson , Susan V. Brooks , Arlan Richardson , Holly Van Remmen
      Our previous studies showed that adult (8 month) mice lacking CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, Sod1KO mice) have neuromuscular changes resulting in dramatic accelerated muscle atrophy and weakness that mimics age-related sarcopenia. We have further shown that loss of CuZnSOD targeted to skeletal muscle alone results in only mild weakness and no muscle atrophy. In this study, we targeted deletion of CuZnSOD specifically to neurons (nSod1KO mice) and determined the effect on muscle mass and weakness. The nSod1KO mice show a significant loss of CuZnSOD activity and protein level in brain and spinal cord but not in muscle tissue. The masses of the gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were not reduced in nSod1KO compared to wild type mice, even at 20 months of age, although the quadriceps and soleus muscles showed small but statistically significant reductions in mass in the nSod1KO mice. Maximum isometric specific force was reduced by 8–10% in the gastrocnemius and EDL muscle of nSod1KO mice, while soleus was not affected. Muscle mitochondrial ROS generation and oxidative stress measured by levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) regulatory enzymes, protein nitration and F2-isoprostane levels were not increased in muscle from the nSod1KO mice. Although we did not find evidence of denervation in the nSod1KO mice, neuromuscular junction morphology was altered and the expression of genes associated with denervation acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha (AChRα), the transcription factor, Runx1 and GADD45α) was increased, supporting a role for neuronal loss of CuZnSOD initiating alterations at the neuromuscular junction. These results and our previous studies support the concept that CuZnSOD deficits in either the motor neuron or muscle alone are not sufficient to initiate a full sarcopenic phenotype and that deficits in both tissues are required to recapitulate the loss of muscle observed in Sod1KO mice.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-17T11:42:38Z
       
  • Oxygen in human health from life to death – an approach to teaching
           redox biology and signaling to graduate and medical students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Margaret M. Briehl
      In the absence of oxygen human life is measured in minutes. In the presence of oxygen, normal metabolism generates reactive species (ROS) that have the potential to cause cell injury contributing to human aging and disease. Between these extremes, organisms have developed means for sensing oxygen and ROS and regulating their cellular processes in response. Redox signaling contributes to the control of cell proliferation and death. Aberrant redox signaling underlies many human diseases. The attributes acquired by altered redox homeostasis in cancer cells illustrate this particularly well. This teaching review and the accompanying illustrations provide an introduction to redox biology and signaling aimed at instructors of graduate and medical students.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T23:48:00Z
       
  • A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and
           antioxidants in human tissues

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Sarah A. Hibbert , Rachel E.B. Watson , Neil K. Gibbs , Patrick Costello , Clair Baldock , Anthony S. Weiss , Christopher E.M. Griffiths , Michael J. Sherratt
      Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds) reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (which contains UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths) here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr) content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm2) of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB). We show that: i) purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR)-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii) exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins) are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR exposure as a consequence of an evolutionary pressure to express sacrificial protein sunscreens which reduce UVR penetration and hence mitigate tissue damage.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T23:48:00Z
       
  • Redox theory of aging

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Redox Biology, Volume 5
      Author(s): Dean P. Jones
      Metazoan genomes encode exposure memory systems to enhance survival and reproductive potential by providing mechanisms for an individual to adjust during lifespan to environmental resources and challenges. These systems are inherently redox networks, arising during evolution of complex systems with O2 as a major determinant of bioenergetics, metabolic and structural organization, defense, and reproduction. The network structure decreases flexibility from conception onward due to differentiation and cumulative responses to environment (exposome). The redox theory of aging is that aging is a decline in plasticity of genome–exposome interaction that occurs as a consequence of execution of differentiation and exposure memory systems. This includes compromised mitochondrial and bioenergetic flexibility, impaired food utilization and metabolic homeostasis, decreased barrier and defense capabilities and loss of reproductive fidelity and fecundity. This theory accounts for hallmarks of aging, including failure to maintain oxidative or xenobiotic defenses, mitochondrial integrity, proteostasis, barrier structures, DNA repair, telomeres, immune function, metabolic regulation and regenerative capacity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-04-03T23:03:31Z
       
  • High glucose, glucose fluctuation and carbonyl stress enhance brain
           microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction: Implications for diabetic
           cerebral microvasculature

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Wei Li , Ronald E. Maloney , Tak Yee Aw
      We previously demonstrated that in normal glucose (5 mM), methylglyoxal (MG, a model of carbonyl stress) induced brain microvascular endothelial cell (IHEC) dysfunction that was associated with occludin glycation and prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Herein, we investigated the impact of high glucose and low GSH, conditions that mimicked the diabetic state, on MG-induced IHEC dysfunction. MG-induced loss of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) was potentiated in IHECs cultured for 7 or 12 days in 25 mM glucose (hyperglycemia); moreover, barrier function remained disrupted 6 h after cell transfer to normal glucose media (acute glycemic fluctuation). Notably, basal occludin glycation was elevated under these glycemic states. TEER loss was exaggerated by inhibition of glutathione (GSH) synthesis and abrogated by NAC, which corresponded to GSH decreases and increases, respectively. Significantly, glyoxalase II activity was attenuated in hyperglycemic cells. Moreover, hyperglycemia and GSH inhibition increased MG accumulation, consistent with a compromised capacity for MG elimination. α-oxoaldehydes (MG plus glyoxal) levels were elevated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat plasma. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prevalence of MG-positive, but fewer occludin-positive microvessels in the diabetic brain in vivo, and western analysis confirmed an increase in MG-occludin adducts. These results provide the first evidence that hyperglycemia and acute glucose fluctuation promote MG-occludin formation and exacerbate brain microvascular endothelial dysfunction. Low occludin expression and high glycated-occludin contents in diabetic brain in vivo are factors that would contribute to the dysfunction of the cerebral microvasculature during diabetes.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-04-03T23:03:31Z
       
  • Lyme: inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Brandon N. Peacock , Teshome B. Gherezghiher , Jennifer D. Hilario , Gottfried H. Kellermann
      Lyme borreliosis is transmitted through the bite of a tick that is infected by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinical manifestation of the disease can lead to heart conditions, neurological disorders, and inflammatory disorders. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of oxidative stress and intracellular communication in Lyme borreliosis patients. Mitochondrial superoxide and cytosolic ionized calcium was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Lyme borreliosis patients and healthy controls. Mitochondrial superoxide levels were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in Lyme borreliosis patients (n = 32) as compared to healthy controls (n = 30). Significantly low (p < 0.0001) levels of cytosolic ionized calcium were also observed in Lyme borreliosis patients (n = 11) when compared to healthy controls (n = 11). These results indicate that there is an imbalance of reactive oxygen species and cytosolic calcium in Lyme borreliosis patients. The results further suggest that oxidative stress and interrupted intracellular communication may ultimately contribute to a condition of mitochondrial dysfunction in the immune cells of Lyme borreliosis patients.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-03-18T21:42:16Z
       
  • Expression of xCT and activity of system xc− are regulated by NRF2
           in human breast cancer cells in response to oxidative stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Eric Habib , Katja Linher-Melville , Han-Xin Lin , Gurmit Singh
      Cancer cells adapt to high levels of oxidative stress in order to survive and proliferate by activating key transcription factors. One such master regulator, the redox sensitive transcription factor NF E2 Related Factor 2 (NRF2), controls the expression of cellular defense genes including those encoding intracellular redox-balancing proteins involved in glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Under basal conditions, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) targets NRF2 for ubiquitination. In response to oxidative stress, NRF2 dissociates from KEAP1, entering the nucleus and binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of its target genes. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may deplete GSH levels within cancer cells. System xc −, an antiporter that exports glutamate while importing cystine to be converted into cysteine for GSH synthesis, is upregulated in cancer cells in response to oxidative stress. Here, we provided evidence that the expression of xCT, the light chain subunit of system xc −, is regulated by NRF2 in representative human breast cancer cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment increased nuclear translocation of NRF2, also increasing levels of xCT mRNA and protein and extracellular glutamate release. Overexpression of NRF2 up-regulated the activity of the xCT promoter, which contains a proximal ARE. In contrast, overexpression of KEAP1 repressed promoter activity and decreased xCT protein levels, while siRNA knockdown of KEAP1 up-regulated xCT protein levels and transporter activity. These results demonstrate the importance of the KEAP1/NRF2 pathway in balancing oxidative stress in breast cancer cells through system xc −. We have previously shown that xCT is upregulated in various cancer cell lines under oxidative stress. In the current investigation, we focused on MCF-7 cells as a model for mechanistic studies.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-03-18T21:42:16Z
       
  • Persistent oxidative stress in human neural stem cells exposed to low
           fluences of charged particles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Janet E. Baulch , Brianna M. Craver , Katherine K. Tran , Liping Yu , Nicole Chmielewski , Barrett D. Allen , Charles L. Limoli
      Exposure to the space radiation environment poses risks for a range of deleterious health effects due to the unique types of radiation encountered. Galactic cosmic rays are comprised of a spectrum of highly energetic nuclei that deposit densely ionizing tracks of damage along the particle trajectory. These tracks are distinct from those generated by the more sparsely ionizing terrestrial radiations, and elicit complex cellular damage when charged particles traverse the tissues of the body. The exquisite radiosensitivity of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells found within the neurogenic regions of the brain predispose the central nervous system to elevated risks for radiation induced sequelae. Here we show that human neural stem cells (hNSC) exposed to different charged particles at space relevant fluences exhibit significant and persistent oxidative stress. Radiation induced oxidative stress was found to be most dependent on total dose rather than on the linear energy transfer of the incident particle. The use of redox sensitive fluorogenic dyes possessing relative specificity for hydroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and mitochondrial superoxide confirmed that most irradiation paradigms elevated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) in hNSC over a 1 week interval following exposure. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was not the major source of elevated nitric oxides, as the use of NOS inhibitors had little effect on NO dependent fluorescence. Our data provide extensive evidence for the capability of low doses of charged particles to elicit marked changes in the metabolic profile of irradiated hNSC. Radiation induced changes in redox state may render the brain more susceptible to the development of neurocognitive deficits that could affect an astronaut’s ability to perform complex tasks during extended missions in deep space.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-03-14T21:25:22Z
       
  • Advancing age increases sperm chromatin damage and impairs fertility in
           peroxiredoxin 6 null mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Burak Ozkosem , Sheldon I. Feinstein , Aron B. Fisher , Cristian O’Flaherty
      Due to socioeconomic factors, more couples are choosing to delay conception than ever. Increasing average maternal and paternal age in developed countries over the past 40 years has raised the question of how aging affects reproductive success of males and females. Since oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract increases with age, we investigated the impact of advanced paternal age on the integrity of sperm nucleus and reproductive success of males by using a Prdx6−/− mouse model. We compared sperm motility, cytoplasmic droplet retention sperm chromatin quality and reproductive outcomes of young (2-month-old), adult (8-month-old), and old (20-month-old) Prdx6−/− males with their age-matched wild type (WT) controls. Absence of PRDX6 caused age-dependent impairment of sperm motility and sperm maturation and increased sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation as well as decreased sperm DNA compaction and protamination. Litter size, total number of litters and total number of pups per male were significantly lower in Prdx6−/− males compared to WT controls. These abnormal reproductive outcomes were severely affected by age in Prdx6−/− males. In conclusion, the advanced paternal age affects sperm chromatin integrity and fertility more severely in the absence of PRDX6, suggesting a protective role of PRDX6 in age-associated decline in the sperm quality and fertility in mice.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-02-27T22:52:43Z
       
  • An educational overview of the chemistry, biochemistry and therapeutic
           aspects of Mn porphyrins – from superoxide dismutation to
           H2O2-driven pathways

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Ines Batinic-Haberle , Artak Tovmasyan , Ivan Spasojevic
      SOD mimics thus far developed belong to the classes of Mn-(MnPs) and Fe porphyrins(FePs), Mn(III) salens, Mn(II) cyclic polyamines and metal salts. Due to their remarkable stability we have predominantly explored Mn porphyrins, aiming initially at mimicking kinetics and thermodynamics of the catalysis of O2 . dismutation by SOD enzymes. Several MnPs are of potency similar to SOD enzymes. The in vivo bioavailability and toxicity of MnPs have been addressed also. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies indicate their impressive therapeutic efficacy. Increasing insight into complex cellular redox biology has been accompanied by increasing awareness of complex redox chemistry of MnPs. During O2 •− dismutation process, the most powerful Mn porphyrin-based SOD mimics reduce and oxidize O2 •− with close to identical rate constants. Therefore MnPs reduce and oxidize other reactive species also (none of them appear specific to MnPs), acting as reductants (antioxidant) and pro-oxidants. Distinction must be made between the type of reactions of MnPs and the favorable therapeutic effects, we observe, which may be of either anti- or pro-oxidative nature. H2O2/MnP mediated oxidation of protein thiols and its impact on cellular transcription seems to dominate redox biology of MnPs. It has been thus far demonstrated that the ability of MnPs to catalyze O2 •− dismutation parallels all other reactivities (such as ONOO−) and in turn their therapeutic efficacies. Assuming safely that all diseases have in common the perturbation of cellular redox environment, developing SOD mimics still seems to be the most appropriate strategy for the design of potent redox-active therapeutics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-02-23T05:01:51Z
       
  • Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:Redox Biology
      Author(s): Salvador Pérez , Javier Pereda , Luis Sabater , Juan Sastre
      Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling modulator in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF-VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.


      PubDate: 2015-01-29T15:32:56Z
       
 
 
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