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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2304-6775
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [140 journals]
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 219-231: The Challenges of Journal Startup in
           the Digital Era

    • Authors: Andrew Kirby
      Pages: 219 - 231
      Abstract: This paper aims to contribute to the evolving literature on the new landscape of scholarly journals. It builds on a series of experiences as a journal editor which span the print and digital eras, and focuses on two current activities with new journals. One was designed as a synoptic journal in a broad multidisciplinary field, supported by a commercial publisher; the other a non-revenue journal which aims to showcase the work of undergraduates in the author’s institution. Despite the uniqueness of goals and delivery, some of the experiences—and challenges—have proved remarkably similar.
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3040219
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 232-236: Editors and Journal Startup in the
           Digital Era

    • Authors: Andrew Kirby
      Pages: 232 - 236
      Abstract: More has changed in journal publishing in the past twenty years than the previous four centuries. Digital technologies have transformed the submission, review, production and distribution of scholarly materials, with the result that there has been exponential growth in the number of papers published in an expanding roster of journals—some are mainstream, some highly specialized, some are produced by publishers who have existed since printing began and others are produced by small groups with niche interests. [...]
      PubDate: 2015-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3040232
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 237-247: Do Adolescents Prefer Electronic
           Books to Paper Books?

    • Authors: Margaret Merga
      Pages: 237 - 247
      Abstract: While electronic books offer a range of benefits and may be supposed to be more appealing to young people than paper books, this assumption is often treated as fact by educational researchers. Understanding adolescents’ true current preferences is essential, as incorrect assumptions can lead to decisions which restrict adolescent access to their preferred book mode. The belief that adolescents prefer electronic books to paper books has already led to some school libraries being expunged of paper books. As adolescents show a higher level of aliteracy than younger children, and regular reading offers a broad range of benefits for young people, it is imperative that school’s decisions around providing access to books are responsive to adolescent students’ genuine preferences. This paper analyses the current and relevant academic research around adolescent preferences for book modes, finding that, at present, the contention that adolescents prefer electronic books is not supported by the available research. In addition, there are a number of issues identified that make analyzing the findings in this area problematic. Future studies in this area are needed before an adolescent preference for electronic books can be unequivocally substantiated.
      PubDate: 2015-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3040237
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 248-262: Considering Non-Open Access
           Publication Charges in the “Total Cost of Publication”

    • Authors: Andrew Gray
      Pages: 248 - 262
      Abstract: Recent research has tried to calculate the “total cost of publication” in the British academic sector, bringing together the costs of journal subscriptions, the article processing charges (APCs) paid to publish open-access content, and the indirect costs of handling open-access mandates. This study adds an estimate for the other publication charges (predominantly page and colour charges) currently paid by research institutions, a significant element which has been neglected by recent studies. When these charges are included in the calculation, the total cost to institutions as of 2013/14 is around 18.5% over and above the cost of journal subscriptions—11% from APCs, 5.5% from indirect costs, and 2% from other publication charges. For the British academic sector as a whole, this represents a total cost of publication around £213 million against a conservatively estimated journal spend of £180 million, with non-APC publication charges representing around £3.6 million. A case study is presented to show that these costs may be unexpectedly high for individual institutions, depending on disciplinary focus. The feasibility of collecting this data on a widespread basis is discussed, along with the possibility of using it to inform future subscription negotiations with publishers.
      PubDate: 2015-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3040248
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 150-154: Reclaiming Society Publishing

    • Authors: Philip Steinberg
      Pages: 150 - 154
      Abstract: Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.
      PubDate: 2015-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3030150
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 155-167: Fee Waivers for Open Access Journals

    • Authors: Stuart Lawson
      Pages: 155 - 167
      Abstract: Open access journals which charge article processing charges (APCs) sometimes offer fee waivers to authors who cannot afford to pay them. This article measures the extent of this practice among the largest toll access and open access publishers by gathering stated fee waiver policies from publishers’ websites. A majority (68.8%) were found to offer fee waivers and sometimes they are only available to authors from low- and middle-income countries. This has implications for the ability of authors without funding to publish in journals from these publishers.
      PubDate: 2015-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3030155
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 168-173: It’s not Just the Author: The
           Reader and the Editor Are Dead, Too

    • Authors: Ali Modarres
      Pages: 168 - 173
      Abstract: The world of academic publishing has changed significantly. In this short essay, I attempt to offer a few observations as the editor of an international journal, suggesting that we may need to have a more in-depth theoretical engagement with current publishing practices. This includes the diminishing role of editors, the nature of authorship and the related review process, and the ways in which the publishing industry responds to, and shapes, our academic publishing practices.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3030168
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 174-189: Themed Volumes: A Blessing or a

    • Authors: Mary Brooks, Stephen Ison
      Pages: 174 - 189
      Abstract: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM) was launched in 2009 with the first volume appearing in August 2011. The format of the journal is somewhat different to that of conventional journals in that each volume is themed focusing on a particular aspect of transportation from a business and management perspective. This paper focuses on the format of the journal and the decisions taken at the time of launch, eventually drawing conclusions about the chosen format and whether it has been an effective format for the competitive space into which the journal was launched. With four years of production data available, the authors conclude that the format has offered both positive and negative aspects, but that overall the launch format chosen was right for the competitive environment faced.
      PubDate: 2015-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3030174
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 190-210: Barriers to Open Access Publishing:
           Views from the Library Literature

    • Authors: Amy Forrester
      Pages: 190 - 210
      Abstract: The library and information science (LIS) community has an active role in supporting access to information and, therefore, is an important stakeholder in the open access conversation. One major discussion involves the barriers that have hindered the complete transition to open access in scientific publications. Building upon a longitudinal study by Bo-Christer Björk that looked at barriers to the open access publishing of scholarly articles, this study evaluates the discussion of those barriers in the LIS literature over the ten year period 2004–2014, and compares this to Björk’s conclusions about gold open access publishing. Content analysis and bibliometrics are used to confirm the growth of the discussion of open access in the past ten years and gain insight into the most prevalent issues hindering the development of open access.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3030190
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 211-218: Cultural Editing for Linking City,
           Culture and Society

    • Authors: Hiroshi Okano
      Pages: 211 - 218
      Abstract: City, Culture and Society (Elsevier) aims to stimulate a new interdisciplinary paradigm that embraces multiple perspectives and applies this paradigm to the urban imperative that defines the century. The journal is looking at an academic audience, but is also seeking new readers, such as those working in the public sector, those employed in the private sector, those who contribute to international organizations, and so on. The paper considers one methodological viewpoint for promoting interdisciplinary studies by using the concept—cultural editing—and shows some new horizons for urban studies.
      PubDate: 2015-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3030211
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 43-64: English Writing for International
           Publication in the Age of Globalization: Practices and Perceptions of
           Mainland Chinese Academics in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    • Authors: Meng Ge
      Pages: 43 - 64
      Abstract: Much scholarly attention has been given to the English writing and publishing practices of the academics in non-Anglophone countries, but studies on such practices in the humanities and social sciences (HSS) have in general been limited. The case of Mainland Chinese HSS academics is potentially interesting. On the one hand, international publications in these disciplines have been on the increase, which are also encouraged by the national research policy of “going-out”. On the other hand, unlike those in science and technology (S&T), such practices in the HSS are still much less institutionalized at the local level. In the study reported in this article, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine academics in economics, sociology and archaeology from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), and all nine participants had prior experience in international publishing. With a focus on participants’ experiences and perceptions, findings from this study demonstrated the relatively passive role participants played in their international publications, the importance of various resources in bringing forth these publications, and the relations between participants’ alignments with the local or international community and their voluntary investment in participating in their practices. Implications of the study were also discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3020043
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 65-88: Landscapes of Research: Perceptions of
           Open Access (OA) Publishing in the Arts and Humanities

    • Authors: Julia Gross, John Ryan
      Pages: 65 - 88
      Abstract: It is widely known now that scholarly communication is in crisis, resting on an academic publishing model that is unsustainable. One response to this crisis has been the emergence of Open Access (OA) publishing, bringing scholarly literature out from behind a paywall and making it freely available to anyone online. Many research and academic libraries are facilitating the change to OA by establishing institutional repositories, supporting OA policies, and hosting OA journals. In addition, research funding bodies, such as the Australian Research Council (ARC), are mandating that all published grant research outputs be made available in OA, unless legal and contractual obligations prevent this. Despite these broader changes, not all scholars are aware of the new publishing environment. In particular, the rate of adoption of OA models in the Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) has historically been lower than Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) disciplines. Nevertheless, some local and international OA exemplars exist in HSS. At Edith Cowan University in Perth, Western Australia, the faculty-administered environmental humanities journal, Landscapes, was migrated to the institutional open access repository in 2013. Subsequently, researchers in the Faculty of Education and Arts were surveyed regarding their knowledge, understandings, and perceptions of OA publishing. The survey was also designed to elicit the barriers to OA publishing perceived or experienced by HSS researchers. This article will present the findings of our small faculty-based OA survey, with particular attention to HSS academics (and within this subject group, particular attention to the arts and humanities), their perceptions of OA, and the impediments they encounter. We argue that OA publishing will continue to transform scholarship within the arts and humanities, especially through the role of institutional repositories. The “library-as-publisher” role offers the potential to transform academic and university-specific publishing activities. However, the ongoing training of university researchers and personnel is required to bring into balance their understandings of OA publisher and the demands of the broader Australian and international research environment.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3020065
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 89-103: Two Chinese Medical Master’s
           Students Aspiring to Publish Internationally: A Longitudinal Study of
           Legitimate Peripheral Participation in Their Communities of Practice

    • Authors: Na Luo
      Pages: 89 - 103
      Abstract: This paper explores how two Chinese medical Master’s students’ international publication success/failure and their academic English learning outcomes were related to their agency and the social context in which they were embedded by using the notions of legitimate peripheral participation (LPP) and community of practice (CoP). While both students were highly motivated and similarly limited in English proficiency, their publication and academic English literacy learning outcomes vastly differed. Analysis via the lenses of LPP and CoP reveals that their differences in scholarly achievement in terms of international publication success and academic English learning outcomes can be convincingly explained by variation in the structure of the CoPs to which they belonged. Their respective CoPs determine their amount and quality of co-participation or mutual engagement with old-timers, particularly the master, which ultimately led to markedly different publication and academic English learning outcomes. Accordingly, I argue that institutions must consider the amount of mutual engagement senior researchers can afford to their research students when allocating advising responsibilities to professors.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3020089
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 104-119: Novices’ Struggles with
           Conceptual and Theoretical Framing in Writing Dissertations and Papers for

    • Authors: Christine Casanave, Yongyan Li
      Pages: 104 - 119
      Abstract: In this conceptual paper, we address the problem that novice scholars in social sciences sometimes have in constructing conceptual or theoretical frameworks for their dissertations and papers for publication. In the first part of the paper, we discuss why the topic is important in the high pressure environment that novice scholars face, in which finishing a doctoral degree and getting published can make a difference in career success or failure, and explain our understanding of theoretical/conceptual framing, including provisionally defining some key terms. We then elucidate ten problems that novice scholars have with theoretical/conceptual framing, using our own experiences as manuscript reviewers and writers as examples. The paper concludes with ways that novice scholars can address the task of framing their scholarly work conceptually and theoretically, on the understanding that the struggles continue over the lifetime of a scholarly career.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3020104
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 120-130: Setting up the Journal of Transport
           and Health, a New Cross-Disciplinary Journal

    • Authors: Jennifer Mindell
      Pages: 120 - 130
      Abstract: The Journal of Transport and Health is a new journal, bringing together the impacts of transport on health and inequalities and the ways changes to transport policy and/or infrastructure affect these. It aims to: promote dialogue between the two research communities it serves; improve the quality of data and its appropriate use; and encourage transfer of research into practice. The first volume of four issues was published in 2014; it is already abstracted and indexed in SafetyLit, ERIH PLUS, TRID, the TRIS and ITRD Databases. A substantial achievement is that the Social Sciences Citation Index added the journal within the first year, from the first issue onwards, which is rare. Before the end of 2014, the journal had exceeded its target by 2015 for: numbers of manuscripts submitted; editorial decisions made; articles accepted for publication; and articles downloaded. Challenges have included recruiting sufficient reviewers; setting standards for acceptance of manuscripts; and editors’ time commitments. In 2014, articles were downloaded in 77 countries, and we received submissions from 27 countries. Despite the plethora of scientific journals, Journal of Transport and Health has obviously filled a gap in interdisciplinary research “whose time has come”, in a timely and attractive manner.
      PubDate: 2015-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3020120
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 131-149: Accessing Fellow Academics as
           Research Participants: Constraints, Collegiality, and “Academic

    • Authors: Yongyan Li
      Pages: 131 - 149
      Abstract: In this paper I discuss some constraints and implications in accessing fellow academics as research participants, a topic that has rarely been addressed thus far in the literature. I will point out that a lack of cooperation from fellow academics may defeat our research purposes, and will survey some studies involving U.S., European, and Chinese academics as research participants to illustrate education researchers’ efforts to work with fellow academics against the odds. By referencing my personal experience of engaging with Chinese academics, I will then discuss the role of personal contacts in research and reflect upon various constraints in accessing fellow academics as research participants. I will suggest that, when we do participate in a fellow researcher’s project, the incentive is a desire to support our peers in the spirit of “academic citizenship.”
      PubDate: 2015-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3020131
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 1-16: Open Access Article Processing Charges:
           DOAJ Survey May 2014

    • Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: As of May 2014, the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) listed close to ten thousand fully open access, peer reviewed, scholarly journals. Most of these journals do not charge article processing charges (APCs). This article reports the results of a survey of the 2567 journals, or 26% of journals listed in DOAJ, that do have APCs based on a sample of 1432 of these journals. Results indicate a volatile sector that would make future APCs difficult to predict for budgeting purposes. DOAJ and publisher title lists often did not closely match. A number of journals were found on examination not to have APCs. A wide range of publication costs was found for every publisher type. The average (mean) APC of $964 contrasts with a mode of $0. At least 61% of publishers using APCs are commercial in nature, while many publishers are of unknown types. The vast majority of journals charging APCs (80%) were found to offer one or more variations on pricing, such as discounts for authors from mid to low income countries, differential pricing based on article type, institutional or society membership, and/or optional charges for extras such as English language editing services or fast track of articles. The complexity and volatility of this publishing landscape is discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 17-26: Persistent Citation of the Only
           Published Randomised Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Supplementation in
           Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Six Years after Its Retraction

    • Authors: Ashley Fulton, Alison Coates, Marie Williams, Peter Howe, Alison Hill
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Scientific articles are retracted infrequently, yet have the potential to influence the scientific literature for years. The only randomised controlled trial to explore the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was retracted in 2008 due to falsified data. The objective of this research was to determine the frequency and nature of citations of this retracted paper. Web of Science and Google Scholar were used to determine the number of times the retracted article was cited. Citations were classified as either “retraction acknowledged” or “retraction not acknowledged”. The search was conducted on 6 August 2013 and updated on 25 March 2014. Results: The search resulted in 76 citations, of which 24 occurred prior to the retraction of the article. Of the 52 citations occurring after the retraction, only two acknowledged the retraction. Of the citations not acknowledging the retraction, 20 referred to specific data and 30 cited the reference in passing. This retracted article continues to be cited by authors, suggesting that information about the retraction was unsuccessfully communicated to the scientific community. Continual citation of retracted literature has the potential to bias a field of research and potentially misinform end-users.
      PubDate: 2015-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3010017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 3, Pages 27-42: Apprenticeship in Scholarly Publishing:
           A Student Perspective on Doctoral Supervisors’ Roles

    • Authors: Jun Lei, Guangwei Hu
      Pages: 27 - 42
      Abstract: Although a large body of literature has suggested that doctoral supervisors play an important role in their students’ attempts at scholarly publishing, few studies have focused specifically on what roles they play. This study sought to address this gap by zooming in on the various roles a group of Chinese doctoral students found their supervisors playing in their scholarly publishing endeavors. Our analysis revealed four important roles played by the supervisors: ‘prey’ searchers, managers, manuscript correctors and masters. The results showed that the supervisors not only facilitated the doctoral students’ publishing output, but also fostered their apprenticeship in scholarly publishing and the academic community. However, the results also unveiled a general unavailability of sorely-needed detailed and specific guidance on students’ early publishing attempts and some supervisors’ limited ability to correct students’ English manuscripts. These findings underscore the important contributions doctoral supervisors can make to their students’ academic socialization. They also suggest a need for external editorial assistance with doctoral students’ English manuscripts and ample opportunities for their scaffolded initiation into the tacit conventions and practices of scholarly publishing.
      PubDate: 2015-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/publications3010027
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Publications, Vol. 2, Pages 83-99: A Model for Institutional
           Infrastructure to Support Digital Scholarship

    • Authors: Malcolm Wolski, Joanna Richardson
      Pages: 83 - 99
      Abstract: There is a driving imperative for new knowledge, approaches and technologies to empower scholarship, especially in emerging areas of inquiry. Sources of information now extend beyond the written word to include a wide range of born-digital objects. This paper examines the changing landscape in which digital scholars find, collaborate, create and process information and, as a result, scholarship is being transformed. It discusses the key elements required to build an institutional infrastructure, which will not only support new practices but also integrate scholarly literature into emerging and evolving models that generate true digital scholarship. The paper outlines some of the major impediments in implementing such a model, as well as suggestions on how to overcome these barriers.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/publications2040083
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Publications, Vol. 2, Pages 61-70: Measuring Scientific
           Misconduct—Lessons from Criminology

    • Authors: Felicitas Hesselmann, Verena Wienefoet, Martin Reinhart
      Pages: 61 - 70
      Abstract: This article draws on research traditions and insights from Criminology to elaborate on the problems associated with current practices of measuring scientific misconduct. Analyses of the number of retracted articles are shown to suffer from the fact that the distinct processes of misconduct, detection, punishment, and publication of a retraction notice, all contribute to the number of retractions and, hence, will result in biased estimates. Self-report measures, as well as analyses of retractions, are additionally affected by the absence of a consistent definition of misconduct. This problem of definition is addressed further as stemming from a lack of generally valid definitions both on the level of measuring misconduct and on the level of scientific practice itself. Because science is an innovative and ever-changing endeavor, the meaning of misbehavior is permanently shifting and frequently readdressed and renegotiated within the scientific community. Quantitative approaches (i.e., statistics) alone, thus, are hardly able to accurately portray this dynamic phenomenon. It is argued that more research on the different processes and definitions associated with misconduct and its detection and sanctions is needed. The existing quantitative approaches need to be supported by qualitative research better suited to address and uncover processes of negotiation and definition.
      PubDate: 2014-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/publications2030061
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Publications, Vol. 2, Pages 71-82: Failure to Replicate: A Sign of
           Scientific Misconduct?

    • Authors: Helene Hill, Joel Pitt
      Pages: 71 - 82
      Abstract: Repeated failures to replicate reported experimental results could indicate scientific misconduct or simply result from unintended error. Experiments performed by one individual involving tritiated thymidine, published in two papers in Radiation Research, showed exponential killing of V79 Chinese hamster cells. Two other members of the same laboratory were unable to replicate the published results in 15 subsequent attempts to do so, finding, instead, at least 100-fold less killing and biphasic survival curves. These replication failures (which could have been anticipated based on earlier radiobiological literature) raise questions regarding the reliability of the two reports. Two unusual numerical patterns appear in the questioned individual’s data, but do not appear in control data sets from the two other laboratory members, even though the two key protocols followed by all three were identical or nearly so. This report emphasizes the importance of: (1) access to raw data that form the background of reports and grant applications; (2) knowledge of the literature in the field; and (3) the application of statistical methods to detect anomalous numerical behaviors in raw data. Furthermore, journals and granting agencies should require that authors report failures to reproduce their published results.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/publications2030071
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Publications, Vol. 2, Pages 44-50: The Demographics of Deception: What
           Motivates Authors Who Engage in Misconduct'

    • Authors: R. Steen
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: We hypothesized that scientific misconduct (data fabrication or falsification) is goal-directed behavior. This hypothesis predicts that papers retracted for misconduct: are targeted to journals with a high impact factor (IF); are written by authors with additional papers withdrawn for misconduct; diffuse responsibility across many (perhaps innocent) co-authors; and are retracted slower than papers retracted for other infractions. These hypotheses were initially tested and confirmed in a database of 788 papers; here we reevaluate these hypotheses in a larger database of 2,047 English-language papers. Journal IF was higher for papers retracted for misconduct (p < 0.0001). Roughly 57% of papers retracted for misconduct were written by a first author with other retracted papers; 21% of erroneous papers were written by authors with >1 retraction (p < 0.0001). Papers flawed by misconduct diffuse responsibility across more authors (p < 0.0001) and are withdrawn more slowly (p < 0.0001) than papers retracted for other reasons. Papers retracted for unknown reasons are unlike papers retracted for misconduct: they are generally published in journals with low IF; by authors with no other retractions; have fewer authors listed; and are retracted quickly. Papers retracted for unknown reasons appear not to represent a deliberate effort to deceive.
      PubDate: 2014-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/publications2020044
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Publications, Vol. 2, Pages 51-60: Editorial Misconduct—Definition,
           Cases, and Causes

    • Authors: Matan Shelomi
      Pages: 51 - 60
      Abstract: Though scientific misconduct perpetrated by authors has received much press, little attention has been given to the role of journal editors. This article discusses cases and types of “editorial misconduct”, in which the action or inaction of editorial agents ended in publication of fraudulent work and/or poor or failed retractions of such works, all of which ultimately harm scientific integrity and the integrity of the journals involved. Rare but existent, editorial misconduct ranges in severity and includes deliberate omission or ignorance of peer review, insufficient guidelines for authors, weak or disingenuous retraction notices, and refusal to retract. The factors responsible for editorial misconduct and the options to address these are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/publications2020051
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Publications, Vol. 2, Pages 14-26: A Novel Rubric for Rating the Quality
           of Retraction Notices

    • Pages: 14 - 26
      Abstract: When a scientific article is found to be either fraudulent or erroneous, one course of action available to both the authors and the publisher is to retract said article. Unfortunately, not all retraction notices properly inform the reader of the problems with a retracted article. This study developed a novel rubric for rating and standardizing the quality of retraction notices, and used it to assess the retraction notices of 171 retracted articles from 15 journals. Results suggest the rubric to be a robust, if preliminary, tool. Analysis of the retraction notices suggest that their quality has not improved over the last 50 years, that it varies both between and within journals, and that it is dependent on the field of science, the author of the retraction notice, and the reason for retraction. These results indicate a lack of uniformity in the retraction policies of individual journals and throughout the scientific literature. The rubric presented in this study could be adopted by journals to help standardize the writing of retraction notices.
      PubDate: 2014-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/publications2010014
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Publications, Vol. 2, Pages 27-37: A Case-Control Comparison of Retracted
           and Non-Retracted Clinical Trials: Can Retraction Be Predicted'

    • Authors: R. Steen, Robert Hamer
      Pages: 27 - 37
      Abstract: Does scientific misconduct severe enough to result in retraction disclose itself with warning signs' We test a hypothesis that variables in the results section of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are associated with retraction, even without access to raw data. We evaluated all English-language RCTs retracted from the PubMed database prior to 2011. Two controls were selected for each case, matching publication journal, volume, issue, and page as closely as possible. Number of authors, subjects enrolled, patients at risk, and patients treated were tallied in cases and controls. Among case RCTs, 17.5% had ≤2 authors, while 6.3% of control RCTs had ≤2 authors. Logistic regression shows that having few authors is associated with retraction (p < 0.03), although the number of subjects enrolled, patients at risk, or treated patients is not. However, none of the variables singly, nor all of the variables combined, can reliably predict retraction, perhaps because retraction is such a rare event. Exploratory analysis suggests that retraction rate varies by medical field (p < 0.001). Although retraction cannot be predicted on the basis of the variables evaluated, concern is warranted when there are few authors, enrolled subjects, patients at risk, or treated patients. Ironically, these features urge caution in evaluating any RCT, since they identify studies that are statistically weaker.
      PubDate: 2014-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/publications2010027
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Publications, Vol. 2, Pages 38-43: The Means of (Re-)Production:
           Expertise, Open Tools, Standards and Communication

    • Authors: Martin Eve
      Pages: 38 - 43
      Abstract: This article examines the current difficulties faced in penetrating the world of scholarly communication technology. While there have been large strides forward in the disintermediation of digital publishing expertise—most notably by the Public Knowledge Project—a substantial number of barriers remain. This paper examines a case study in terms of scholarly typesetting and the Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS) standard before moving to suggest three potential solutions: (1) The formation of open, non-commercial and inclusive (but structured) organizations dedicated to the group exploration and standardisation of scholarly publishing technology; (2) The collective authoring of as much technological and process documentation on scholarly publishing as is possible; (3) The modularisation of platforms and agreement on standards of interoperability. Only through such measures is it possible for researchers to reclaim the means of (re)production, for the remaining barriers are not difficult to understand, merely hard to discover.
      PubDate: 2014-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/publications2010038
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Publications, Vol. 2, Pages 1-13: Chinese Doctors Connecting to the
           English Publishing World: Literature Access, Editorial Services, and
           Training in Publication Skills

    • Authors: Yongyan Li
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: In the literature on academic publishing, little attention has been paid to the needs and concerns of non-English-speaking researchers in professional contexts. This paper addresses the gap in that literature by providing insights into the situation with medical doctors in China. Following an overview of the broad picture, I will report a case study, which was conducted at a major hospital in East China and which aimed at exploring how a group of orthopedic surgeons access the English medical literature and to what extent they seek the support of editorial services and training in academic writing/publication skills. The results of the study show that the participant doctors tend to rely on their students or overseas personal connections for access to full-text medical literature, and they have generally had limited experience with language editorial services and academic writing/publication skills seminars. The paper ends by discussing some challenges while proposing recommendations for enhancing Chinese doctors’ access to the full-text medical literature, as well as their understanding of the kind of support that can be provided by editorial services and training in publication skills.
      PubDate: 2013-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/publications2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 87-98: Research Misconduct—Definitions,
           Manifestations and Extent

    • Authors: Lutz Bornmann
      Pages: 87 - 98
      Abstract: In recent years, the international scientific community has been rocked by a number of serious cases of research misconduct. In one of these, Woo Suk Hwang, a Korean stem cell researcher published two articles on research with ground-breaking results in Science in 2004 and 2005. Both articles were later revealed to be fakes. This paper provides an overview of what research misconduct is generally understood to be, its manifestations and the extent to which they are thought to exist.
      PubDate: 2013-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1030087
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 99-112: Mandates and the Contributions of Open
           Genomic Data

    • Authors: Jingfeng Xia
      Pages: 99 - 112
      Abstract: This research attempts to seek changing patterns of raw data availability and their correlations with implementations of open mandate policies. With a list of 13,785 journal articles whose authors archived datasets in a popular biomedical data repository after these articles were published in journals, this research uses regression analysis to test the correlations between data contributions and mandate implementations. It finds that both funder-based and publisher-based mandates have a strong impact on scholars’ likelihood to contribute to open data repositories. Evidence also suggests that like policies have changed the habit of authors in selecting publishing venues: open access journals have been apparently preferred by those authors whose projects are sponsored by the federal government agencies, and these journals are also highly ranked in the biomedical fields. Various stakeholders, particularly institutional administrators and open access professionals, may find the findings of this research helpful for adjusting data management policies to increase the number of quality free datasets and enhance data usability. The data-sharing example in biomedical studies provides a good case to show the importance of policy-making in the reshaping of scholarly communication.
      PubDate: 2013-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1030099
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 113-139: The Open Access Divide

    • Authors: Jingfeng Xia
      Pages: 113 - 139
      Abstract: This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.
      PubDate: 2013-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1030113
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 140-145: Combating Fraud in Medical Research:
           Research Validation Standards Utilized by the Journal of Surgical

    • Authors: Bhavin Patel, Anahita Dua, Tom Koenigsberger, Sapan Desai
      Pages: 140 - 145
      Abstract: Fraud in medical publishing has risen to the national spotlight as manufactured and suspect data have led to retractions of papers in prominent journals. Moral turpitude in medical research has led to the loss of National Institute of Health (NIH) grants, directly affected patient care, and has led to severe legal ramifications for some authors. While there are multiple checks and balances in medical research to prevent fraud, the final enforcement lies with journal editors and publishers. There is an ethical and legal obligation to make careful and critical examinations of the medical research published in their journals. Failure to follow the highest standards in medical publishing can lead to legal liability and destroy a journal’s integrity. More significant, however, is the protection of the medical profession’s trust with their colleagues and the public they serve. This article discusses various techniques and tools available to editors and publishers that can help curtail fraud in medical publishing.
      PubDate: 2013-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1030140
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 49-55: The Importance of Free and Open Source
           Software and Open Standards in Modern Scientific Publishing

    • Authors: Michael Wilson, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili
      Pages: 49 - 55
      Abstract: In this paper we outline the reasons why we believe a reliance on the use of proprietary computer software and proprietary file formats in scientific publication have negative implications for the conduct and reporting of science. There is increasing awareness and interest in the scientific community about the benefits offered by free and open source software. We discuss the present state of scientific publishing and the merits of advocating for a wider adoption of open standards in science, particularly where it concerns the publishing process.
      PubDate: 2013-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1020049
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 56-77: Open Access and the Changing Landscape
           of Research Impact Indicators: New Roles for Repositories

    • Authors: Isabel Bernal
      Pages: 56 - 77
      Abstract: The debate about the need to revise metrics that evaluate research excellence has been ongoing for years, and a number of studies have identified important issues that have yet to be addressed. Internet and other technological developments have enabled the collection of richer data and new approaches to research assessment exercises. Open access strongly advocates for maximizing research impact by enhancing seamless accessibility. In addition, new tools and strategies have been used by open access journals and repositories to showcase how science can benefit from free online dissemination. Latest players in the debate include initiatives based on alt-metrics, which enrich the landscape with promising indicators. To start with, the article gives a brief overview of the debate and the role of open access in advancing a new frame to assess science. Next, the work focuses on the strategy that the Spanish National Research Council’s repository DIGITAL.CSIC is implementing to collect a rich set of statistics and other metrics that are useful for repository administrators, researchers and the institution alike. A preliminary analysis of data hints at correlations between free dissemination of research through DIGITAL.CSIC and enhanced impact, reusability and sharing of CSIC science on the web.
      PubDate: 2013-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1020056
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 78-86: The Normalization of Citation Counts
           Based on Classification Systems

    • Authors: Lutz Bornmann, Werner Marx, Andreas Barth
      Pages: 78 - 86
      Abstract: If we want to assess whether the paper in question has had a particularly high or low citation impact compared to other papers, the standard practice in bibliometrics is to normalize citations in respect of the subject category and publication year. A number of proposals for an improved procedure in the normalization of citation impact have been put forward in recent years. Against the background of these proposals, this study describes an ideal solution for the normalization of citation impact: in a first step, the reference set for the publication in question is collated by means of a classification scheme, where every publication is associated with a single principal research field or subfield entry (e.g., via Chemical Abstracts sections) and a publication year. In a second step, percentiles of citation counts are calculated for this set and used to assign the normalized citation impact score to the publications (and also to the publication in question).
      PubDate: 2013-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1020078
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 5-15: Open Access—Are the Barriers to
           Change Receding?

    • Pages: 5 - 15
      Abstract: The move from subscription only publishing of scholarly articles to open access has been much slower than previously anticipated by many Open Access (OA) advocates. Despite the many advantages that OA offers, this particular branch of E-commerce imposes several formidable barriers to change. A framework conceptualizing these barriers that was developed over a decade ago was revisited to see if the significance of these barriers has changed. Nowadays, building the IT infrastructure, support from indexing services and finding a sustainable business model are no longer important barriers. For gold OA publishing the academic reward system is still a major obstacle, whereas more marketing and critical mass is needed for both gold OA and green OA. Green OA self-archiving is still also strongly affected by what subscription publishers allow. In the overall balance the situation has nevertheless improved significantly.
      PubDate: 2013-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1010005
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 16-26: Types of Open Access Publishers in

    • Authors: David Solomon
      Pages: 16 - 26
      Abstract: This study assessed characteristics of publishers who published 2010 open access (OA) journals indexed in Scopus. Publishers were categorized into six types; professional, society, university, scholar/researcher, government, and other organizations. Type of publisher was broken down by number of journals/articles published in 2010, funding model, location, discipline and whether the journal was born or converted to OA. Universities and societies accounted for 50% of the journals and 43% of the articles published. Professional publisher accounted for a third of the journals and 42% of the articles. With the exception of professional and scholar/researcher publishers, most journals were originally subscription journals that made at least their digital version freely available. Arts, humanities and social science journals are largely published by societies and universities outside the major publishing countries. Professional OA publishing is most common in biomedicine, mathematics, the sciences and engineering. Approximately a quarter of the journals are hosted on national/international platforms, in Latin America, Eastern Europe and Asia largely published by universities and societies without the need for publishing fees. This type of collaboration between governments, universities and/or societies may be an effective means of expanding open access publications.
      PubDate: 2013-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1010016
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 27-29: Open Access: Key Strategic, Technical
           and Economic Aspects. By Neil Jacobs, Chandos Publishing, 2006; 264 Pages.
           Price £42.50 / US $70.00 / €50.00, ISBN 978-1-84334-203-8

    • Authors: Shu-Kun Lin
      Pages: 27 - 29
      Abstract: The following paragraphs are reproduced from the website of the publisher [1]. This book brings together many of the world’s leading open access experts to provide an analysis of the key strategic, technical and economic aspects on the topic of open access. Open access to research papers is perhaps a defining debate for publishers, librarians, university managers and many researchers within the international academic community. Starting with a description of the current situation and its shortcomings, this book then defines the varieties of open access and addresses some of the many misunderstandings to which the term sometimes gives rise. There are chapters on the technologies involved, researchers, perspectives, and the business models of key players. These issues are then illustrated in a series of case studies from around the world, including the USA, UK, Netherlands, Australia and India. Open access is a far-reaching shift in scholarly communication, and the book concludes by going beyond today’s debate and looking at the kind of research world that would be possible with open access to research outputs.
      PubDate: 2013-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/publications1010027
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • Publications, Vol. 1, Pages 1-4: Publications: A Journal Marking a
           Changing Time

    • Authors: John Regazzi
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publishing, and by extension publication, is in a state of rapid flux. This has become evident in recent years, and some have now even characterized the domain as unstable, with the traditional forms of publication no longer being sustainable.[...]
      PubDate: 2012-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/pub1010001
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
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