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Journal Cover Canadian Journal of Disability Studies
  [17 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1929-9192
   Published by U of Waterloo Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Framing Deaf Children’s Right to Sign Language in the Canadian
           Charter of Rights and Freedoms

    • Authors: Jennifer J. Paul, Kristin Snoddon
      Pages: 1 - 27
      Abstract: Sign language rights for deaf children bring a unique perspective to bear in the fields of both disability rights and language planning. This is due to the lack of recognition in existing case law of the right to language in and of itself. Deaf children are frequently deprived of early exposure to a fully accessible language, and as a consequence may develop incomplete knowledge of any language. Thus, in the case of deaf children the concept of sign language rights encompasses rights that are ordinarily viewed as more fundamental to human equality. This paper will take as a starting point the historical treatment of the enumerated disability ground in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms’ section 15(1) guarantee of equality rights. We argue that in order to meet deaf children’s specific biological and linguistic needs, these children’s right to sign language also needs to be recognized as an analogous ground for protection from discrimination. Sign language rights are framed in terms of an immutable characteristic of all children, namely the biolingual process for language acquisition. The biolingual process is the experiential and innate ability to acquire language. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • In the Nick of Time: A Pan-Canadian Examination of Extended Testing Time
           Accommodation in Post-secondary Schools

    • Authors: Laura Sokal, Alina Wilson
      Pages: 28 - 62
      Abstract: Extended testing time accommodation (ETTA) is the most common accommodation assigned to post-secondary students with disabilities. We examined data on the processes of providing and monitoring the use of ETTA at 48 Canadian post-secondary institutions who provided accommodations to over 43,000 students with disabilities in every province in Canada. Findings indicated that students with learning disabilities were the most likely to be allocated ETTA. The most common duration of ETTA by far was 150% of the standard testing time provided to other students, and was typically assigned in over 70% of cases-- despite there being no valid empirical evidence to support this practice. In almost half of the institutions following this practice, this duration of ETTA was typically awarded upon intake based on guidelines, policies, or the belief that research exists to support this procedure, and in over 40% of these institutions there were no procedures in place for monitoring and modifying ETTA allowances once assigned. There was evidence of some exemplary practices in terms of the decision-making processes that went into determining and monitoring individual student’s ETTA durations. However, concerns were raised in some cases by the rationales for providing specific durations of ETTA, and by the lack of monitoring that together comprised ‘blanket’ accommodations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • "The World is Wide Enough for Us Both”: The Manitoba School for the Deaf
           at the Onset of the Oralist Age, 1889-1920

    • Authors: Sandy Barron
      Pages: 63 - 84
      Abstract: Historical research on the oralist era in North American deaf education has typically been undertaken through a national lens. This study asserts that a more localized and regional view of the communication methods practiced at deaf schools will aid in the creation of a more complex picture of how oralism spread in Canadian and North American deaf schools. Based on an analysis of the papers of the Manitoba Ministry of Public Works; the archives of Silent Echo, the Manitoba School’s newspaper; and published works by the school’s principals, this paper contends that strict oralism faced fierce resistance in Manitoba from both Deaf citizens and teachers, as well as the school’s hearing principal, before 1920. Principal Duncan McDermid and deaf teacher J.R. Cook published and republished arguments in the Echo against oralism and in favour of moderation in the sign debate. In consideration of all three characteristics of strictly oralist schools in the early twentieth century – a ban on sign language, separation of deaf students from Deaf communities, and the expulsion of deaf teaching staff – the Manitoba School for the Deaf emerges as an exception to the trend of encroaching oralism in Canadian deaf schools during the early twentieth-century. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Eyeing the Pedagogy of Trouble: The Cultural Documentation of the

    • Authors: Devon Healey
      Pages: 85 - 104
      Abstract: Blindness lives in a world, one both organized and defined by the eye that sees itself as sighted. Seeing is believing, and this belief, eyes believe, is learning. But, what if the eyes that are “seeing” are “blind”? Do we believe these eyes as we do those that see? Do we learn from blind eyes as we do from sighted ones?This paper seeks to question not only what sighted eyes see, but also what they imagine - what do they imagine they are seeing when they look? And, when sighted eyes look at blind eyes, what do they imagine they are seeing? Certainly, not sight. But what? If sight believes not only what it sees, but that it sees, then seeing blindness must be imagined as seeing “no sight”. Thus, blind eyes see nothing and cannot be believed, let alone learned from.This paper will explore this conventional view of the blind/sight dichotomy and will do so through autobiography. This exploration is one that serves to provoke sighted imagination to go beyond what its conventional version of itself is - to go beyond what sight imagines blindness to be. Blindness can disrupt sight and such disruption often leads to discomfort, and this marks a critical site for re-imagining what we ordinarily see when we look at blindness. In this sense, blindness is teacher; but, like anything else, we must let blindness teach us. Thus, this paper seeks to develop a pedagogy that embraces the disruptive power of blindness. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Measuring Integration of Disabled Persons: Evidence from Canada’s
           Time Use Databases

    • Authors: Clarke Wilson, Mary Ann McColl, Fang Zhang, Paige McKinnon
      Pages: 105 - 127
      Abstract: Disability is defined in terms of activity limitation. We propose using daily time use data as a macro indicator of the degree of integration of people with disabilities into the wider society. If activity patterns of disabled persons are becoming more similar to those of the general population, this indicates a reduction in activity limitation and suggests opportunity and social integration are increasing. Decreasing similarity of activity patterns would indicate a failure of policies promoting integration. Data on daily activities were drawn from Statistics Canada General Social Survey files for the cycles focusing on time use for 1992 and 2010. Canada-wide there has been a convergence of the activities of disabled and non-disabled persons of about 13 percent over the period examined. Convergence has been slightly greater for disabled women than men. The major source of convergence for disabled women has been a very large increase in paid work time as compared with disabled men. Our results are consistent with the proposition that public policy on disability is succeeding, but the attribution of activity convergence to policy and program interventions would require a great deal of additional research. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Review of DeShazer, Mammographies: The Cultural Discourses of Breast

    • Authors: Kristen A. Hardy
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: Women’s breasts hold a complex place in contemporary Western culture—as objects of fascination, sexualisation, fetishisation, adornment, nourishment, consternation, and regulation. For women themselves, they often serve as sites of anxiety and fear related to appearance, function, or health. For an unfortunate percentage, they also become the locus of cellular changes that will ultimately prove life-altering or even fatal.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Review of Rioux, Pinto & Parekh, Rights Monitoring, and Social Change:
           Building Power out of Evidence

    • Authors: Grace M. Lockhart
      Pages: 135 - 138
      Abstract: Disability, Rights Monitoring, and Social Change is an innovative and informative anthology that examines attitudes toward disability as they relate to disability rights, and the monitoring of disability rights in order to create social change.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Review of Dunn, Disabling Characters: Representations of Disability in
           Young Adult Literature

    • Authors: Danielle Lorenz
      Pages: 139 - 144
      Abstract: Designed as a book for educators that challenges how dis/abilities are portrayed in novels and short stories, Patricia A. Dunn’s Disabling Characters: Representations of Disability in Young Adult Literature offers an assessment of 14 stories for youth, some of which have been incorporated into middle and high school English curricula for over the past 30 years. Though this book is particularly useful for teachers, it also provides an accessible entry into the academic discipline of Disability Studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Review of Esmail, Reading Victorian Deafness: Signs and Sounds in
           Victorian Literature and Culture

    • Authors: Joanna Rankin
      Pages: 145 - 150
      Abstract: In Reading Victorian Deafness: Signs and Sounds in Victorian Literature and Culture, Jennifer Esmail explores the cultural role of deafness in Victorian England and North America. Looking to cultural products as a reflection of wider societal beliefs, Esmail provides an in-depth history of the contrasting proponents of signed languages and oralism during this historical period.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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