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Canadian Journal of Disability Studies
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1929-9192
     Published by University of Waterloo Homepage  [1 journal]
  • “A Place to Work Like Any Other'” Sheltered Workshops in
           Canada, 1970-1985

    • Authors: Dustin Galer
      Pages: 1 - 30
      Abstract: This article explores the emergence and evolution of sheltered employment in Canada during a period in which the discourse of disability and role of rehabilitation became increasingly contested. From the early 1970s to mid-1980s, sheltered workshops were an integral part of an evolving Canadian welfare state that provided employment to people who were unable to compete in an exclusive capitalist labour market due to physical impairments, intellectual disabilities, or mental health issues. As workplaces within a token economy, sheltered work did not reflect true employment relationships with workers earning “symbolic” rather than “real” wages. Though sheltered work was initially conceived as a strictly transitional part of the rehabilitation process, the workshop system was repurposed in the 1960s and 1970s to handle new pressures created by the deinstitutionalization movement. Workshops acquired new controversial meanings due to these changing workforce demographics, attracting increasingly vocal condemnation from disability rights groups. Eventually, critics launched campaigns to undermine public support for sheltered workshops which were painted as obstacles to the pursuit of full participation in society. Sheltered employment was thus situated at the vanguard of changes in the discourse of disability in Canada during this period and reflected emerging debates about the economic rights and opportunities available to people with disabilities in modern Canadian society.
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2
  • Factors Contributing to the Construction of Personhood of Individuals with
           Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in Kinshasa, Democratic
           Republic of the Congo

    • Authors: Heather Aldersey, Ann Turnbull, Rud Turnbull
      Pages: 31 - 61
      Abstract: For support for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to be relevant and effective, support providers and policy makers should consider the social and cultural construction of IDD when creating, providing, and funding support. In this article, we adopt the O’Conner et al. (2007) conceptual framework for understanding personhood (i.e., subjective experience, the interactional environment, and the socio-cultural context) to discuss key factors related to the construction of personhood of people with IDD in Kinshasa and the impact that this construction may have on creation of and/or access to support. We conclude by suggesting various future support interventions that may facilitate the achievement of full personhood for individuals with IDD in Kinshasa and arguably in similar contexts.
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2
  • Programs and Social Supports for Adults with a Learning Disability in
           Trinidad: Policy Review and Analysis

    • Authors: Keren J. Mack
      Pages: 62 - 94
      Abstract: Ten stakeholder groups were interviewed regarding programs and policies implemented by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago in light of its National Policy on Persons with Disabilities, and being a signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Collectively, the Policy and Convention symbolise a shift in how learning disabilities are dealt with within the public and private sectors in Trinidad and Tobago.     The result of the ten in-field interviews revealed that adults with a learning disability are not afforded equal opportunity in achieving educational and vocational goals as their non-disabled peers. As a result of this marginalisation, adults with a learning disability experience continuous exclusion in their economic, social and political lives.   This research shows that political will must further manifest into enacted legislation. Legislation that protects and advocates for the rights of persons with disabilities would empower community organizations, practitioners, caregivers/support workers of persons with disabilities, and more importantly adults with a learning disability. Legislation would provide a robust framework upon which public policy can underpin sustainable social programs. This would allow for social inclusion, special education accommodations, and ultimately effect positive outcomes in the lived experiences of adults with a learning disability. 
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2
  • Enabling the Voter Participation of Canadians with Disabilities: Reforming
           Canada’s Electoral Systems

    • Authors: Michael J. Prince
      Pages: 95 - 120
      Abstract: In this article, practices of Canadian electoral management bodies at federal provincial and territorial levels are examined, especially those methods designed to assist electors with disabilities with voting. Different models of disability co-exist within and around electoral rules, procedures, practices and overall systems. Electoral arrangements in Canada incorporate three distinct models of disability: an individualistic-biomedical approach to disability, a functional model of disability, and a social model of disability. These models have distinctive implications for addressing barriers and making access and inclusion real for voters with disabilities. Electoral reforms address different broad categories of impairments: electors with permanent disabilities, serious illness or infirmity; electors with physical mobility issues; electors with hearing challenges; electors with visual impairments; and, electors with any significant disability, whether chronic or episodic in nature, visible or invisible in appearance. Changes to election processes are shifting the mix of disability models embedded in electoral systems, away from individual and medical conceptions and toward functional and contextual notions of disability.  
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2
  • The Inclusion of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID): A Study of
           Two Community Based Group Home Service Providers in Saskatchewan

    • Authors: Jordan Varey
      Pages: 121 - 137
      Abstract: A survey was conducted with front line disability service workers in two community-based organizations providing supports to adults with ID in Saskatchewan. The survey consisted of questions regarding the staff member’s training, experience and education as well as their perceptions of the resident’s experiences in three major areas. The areas of focus are participation in the daily tasks of the home, physical participation in the community, and social inclusion. The results, albeit inconclusive, suggest that adults with ID in group homes participate in a subset of the daily tasks of their homes and enjoy a large degree of physical inclusion in their communities. Unfortunately, these same people are not being socially included in the community outside of the organizations where they receive services. The reasons for this exclusion are outside the scope of the present paper but the current results demand further examination of community supports to determine the social barriers that exist between people with ID and non-disabled peers in their communities. 
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2
  • Review of Allan, Kathryn (Ed.), Disability in Science Fiction:
           Representations of Technology as Cure

    • Authors: Sarah Sackville-McLauchlan
      Pages: 138 - 143
      Abstract: Kathryn Allan’s anthology Disability in Science Fiction: Representations of Technology as Cure is an excellent collection that explores the points of intersection between SF studies (the academic study of works of science fiction) and DS or disability studies. The essays collected cover a wide range of SF works, ranging from the well known to the more obscure, as well as a broad spectrum of dis/abilities. But all the essays collected explore the issue of the relationship between the body and technology, and how the particular ways in which this relationship is explored in SF can be used to both problematize dominant constructions of the normative body and re-imagine the body in less disabling ways.
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2
  • Review of Ellis, Katie & Mike Kent, Disability and New Media

    • Authors: Catherine Duchastel de Montrouge
      Pages: 144 - 150
      Abstract: Disability and New Media should be required reading for all critical disability scholars and researchers because at the centre of Ellis and Kent’s scholarship are disabled people themselves, who are participating in cyberspaces and are contributing to online cultures. Disability studies hasn’t yet fully understood how crucial access to new media and ICT is to disabled people’s struggles for social justice, agency, and greater self-determination, but disabled Internet users have, and Ellis and Kent give them voice and body in their book.
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2
  • Review of Gutiérrez y Muhs et. al. (Eds.), Presumed Incompetent: The
           Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia

    • Authors: F Cheuk
      Pages: 151 - 156
      Abstract: Presumed Incompetent: The Intersections of Race and Class for Women in Academia is crucial for addressing and exposing the exclusionary barriers experienced by women facing interconnected gendered and racial discrimination.
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2
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