Journal Cover Military Pharmacy And Medicine
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   ISSN (Print) 1898-6498
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  • 2012; 5(4):1-16 "Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): a critical
           appraisal of diet and dietary supplements as therapeutic modalities"

    • Authors: Jerzy Z. Nowak
      Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a vision-threatening ocular disease, affecting the central region of the retina — the macula — and manifesting in the elderly. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, molecularly complex and only poorly recognized. AMD is a degenerative disease, and the degeneration affects primarily the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and secondarily the photoreceptors, which leads to disturbances or partial loss of central vision and legal blindness. Principal processes contributing to the development of the disease include: oxidative stress, lipofuscinogenesis, drusogenesis and local inflammation (so-called para-inflammation). A severe complication of clinically recognized dry form AMD (geographic atrophy) is the aggressive neovascularization originating from choriocapillary system (CNV; wet form AMD). At present, there are no therapeutic agents capable of slowing or inhibiting degeneration process in the photoreceptors- RPE complex, therefore preventive rather than therapeutic modalities are under consideration; they include properly adjusted everyday diet and intake of dietary supplements, both rich in antioxidants of which macu¬lar pigments (lutein, zeaxanthin, meso-zeaxanthin) are of particular importance. Long-chain unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFA-ω3) are also recommended to people with already progressing AMD and at an increased risk of the disease development. Despite wide commercial offer of “ophthalmic” antioxidative and PUFA-ω3-rich preparations, no convincing evidence is available to date to support their protective activ¬ity in AMD patients. AREDS-2 clinical trials that actually approach completion may likely provide more conclusive answer whether macular pigments (lutein, zeaxanthin) and PUFA-ω3 (EPA, DHA) can really be useful for AMD patients. The aim of this article is twofold: 1. it presents molecular mechanisms underlying the early stages of AMD pathogenesis, which form a platform for the disease development, and 2. it provides a critical appraisal of the prophylactic/therapeutic value of properly profiled diet and the intake of “ophthal¬mic” dietary supplements rich in macular pigments and omega-3 PUFAs. 
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):17-20 "Assessment of the energy expenditure of soldiers of
           the Representative Battalion of the Polish Army during three days of
           drill training as part of preparations for the celebration of
           the National Independence Day of November 11th"

    • Authors: Jerzy Bertrandt ; Anna Kłos, Roman Łakomy
      Abstract: Introduction: The main mission of the Representative Battalion of the Polish Army consists of stately representation of the Polish Army during state celebrations, various state and military holidays or patri¬otic and religious events, as well as performing representative tasks at the Presidential Residence or dur¬ing official visits hosted by the Prime Minister. Aim of the work: The objective of this study was to assess the energy expenditure of soldiers during a three-day grill training as part of preparations for the celebration of the National Independence Day of November 11th. Methods: The measurements were made on the basis of systolic heart rate as recorded by Polar Sport Tester 810 pulse meters. The energy expenditure was calculated from the relationship between the sys¬tolic heart rate and oxygen consumption. Result: The mean energy expenditure of tested soldiers was 4.93±1.59 kcal/min. Conclusion: Energy expenditure of soldiers during 7 hours of effective drill training as part of prepara¬tions for the celebration of the National Independence Day of November 11th was different and allowed the workload to be classified as light to very heavy.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):21-26 "Assessment of microbial quality of drinks not
           included in the hospital diet as consumed by patients during
           hospitalization and the assessment of microbial contamination of hospital

    • Authors: Jaśmina Żwirska; Wanda Jabłońska, Paweł Jagielski, Stanisław Stępniewski, Małgorzata Schlegel Zawadzka
      Abstract: Introduction: According to epidemiological data from different countries, the incidence of nutrition-related poisonings and infections is constant, and even growing in some regions. Currently, there are no standards defining acceptable levels of airborne microorganisms in indoor air (hospital facilities) in Poland Material and methods: 100 juice samples collected from previously opened packagings between March 2007 and December 2009 in the Voivodship Specialist Hospital in Krakow were subjected to microbial examination. Open juice packagings were kept for 48 hours at room temperature in patient rooms at the hospital wards. Ninety-one air quality measurements were also conducted at different locations in the hospital to monitor microbial infections. The control group consisted of 50 juice samples stored in home conditions. Conclusions: Significant transgression of the acceptable air contamination limits in hospital rooms, together with the transgressed limits of microbial contamination in juices suggest that the juices might be a potential source of nosocomial infections. Opened juices should not be stored at room temperature for periods longer than 24 h.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):27-32 "Cholesterol oxyethyleneation products as modifiers
           of the absorption base in anti-inflammatory ointments"

    • Authors: Justyna Kołodziejska; Marian Mikołaj Zgoda, Katarzyna Ejzenchart, Magdalena Piechota-Urbańska
      Abstract: Introduction: The assumption behind the study was to attempt modification of pharmacopoeial anhydrous absorption base, i.e. hydrophilic vaseline, by the addition of novel cholesterol oxyethyleneation products. Novel base with variant compositions was proposed as a carrier for ketoprofen – a medicinal substance with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. Material and methods: 5 model ointments were prepared with the absorption base consisting of hydro¬philic vaseline modified with cholesterol oxyethyleneation products. Extensometric method was used to test spreadness of the preparations, gravimetric method to determine the rate of volatile components loss, while viscosity parameters were determined with cone-plate digital rheometer. The test for keto¬profen pharmaceutical availability was performed with spectrophotometric method. Results: Modification of the absorption base (hydrophilic vaseline) by introduction of novel cholesterol oxyethyleneation products increased the extensibility parameters of all prepared ointments. Viscosity tests showed that all hydrophilic vaseline-based ointments with variant compositions were tixothropic and rheologically unstable. Introduction of cholesterol derivatives into the formulae of hydrophilic vaseline-based ointments reduces their structural viscosity values. Comparison of the areas under the curves of the release of ketoprofen lysinate showed that the active substance was best released from oint¬ments with cholesterol oxyethylenates with the lowest n umber of segments (nTE), regardless of the type of the catalyst used to produce these oxyethylenates (M-Ch-10 Na and M-Ch-10 Ca). Conclusions: As shown by the conducted studies, the use of novel oxyethylate-containing products affects optimization of the rheological parameters of the ointments and the efficacy of the release of ketoprofen lysinate into a model recipient fluid.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):33-50 "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in
           ophthalmology: pharmacological and clinical characteristics"

    • Authors: Jerzy Z. Nowak
      Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in the treatment of inflammation and pain of different origins. Although NSAIDs differ in their structures, their mechanism of action is simi¬lar. The therapeutic target of NSAIDs is cyclooxygenase (COX), occurring as two isoenzymes: COX-1 (a constitutive enzyme) and COX-2 (an inducible enzyme, expressed in the course of the inflamma¬tory process). Being a component of prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS), COX catalyzes the first step of transformations of arachidonic acids into prostaglandins (of the D, E and F series), prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxanes — all products characterized by diverse biological activities; some of them having pro-inflammatory action, some being involved in pain mediation. The registered NSAIDs are a numer¬ous family of drugs, with vast majority available as products for systemic use (per os, per rectum, intra¬muscular or intravenous injections) and external use (ointments); only a few products are intended for intraconjunctival administration (ophthalmic products). Active substances used in ophthalmic NSAIDs include indomethacin (the active substance in the first ophthalmic drug), suprofen (currently not used), flurbiprofen, pranoprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, bromfenac and nepafenac. Ophthalmic NSAIDs cur¬rently available in Poland include: Indocollyre (indomethacin; at present rarely used drug), Dicloabak, Difadol 0,1% and Naclof (all containing diclofenac), Yellox (bromfenac) and Nevanac (nepafenac); the two latter compounds have only recently become available in Poland. Therapeutic indications may differ slightly between individual drugs, but generally they include prevention and treatment of cystoid macu¬lar edema after cataract surgery, inhibition of intra-operative miosis during cataract surgery, reduction of pain and photophobia after refractive surgery, and, in addition, treatment of allergic conjunctivitis (mainly ketorolac-containing products). This article provides a critical review of NSAIDs used in medi¬cal therapy with particular focus on ophthalmic preparations.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):51-56 "The role of paramedics in British emergency aid

    • Authors: Dorota Kołodziej; Radosław Ziemba
      Abstract: The article presents the role of paramedics in the United Kingdom’s emergency aid system, including differences in the British programs of training of technicians and paramedics with particular focus on paramedic qualification degrees. In addition, the article presents the United Kingdom’s pre-hospital care system in cases of serious disorders and injuries
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):57-60 "Energy expenditure as the basis for determination
           of nutritional demand in soldiers"

    • Authors: Jerzy Bertrandt ; Anna Kłos, Bartosz Bertrandt
      Abstract: The study summarizes the history of studies to determine the nutritional demand in soldiers of different armies, both in Poland and worldwide. Standard energy values of food rations as used for planning and providing nutrition to soldiers over the last century were presented.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):61-66 "Sodium and potassium content of daily food rations
           of students of the Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw"

    • Authors: Anna Kłos; Maryla Długaszek, Jerzy Bertrandt, Wiesława Szymańska
      Abstract: Introduction:Besides carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, human body contains about 60 other ele¬ments, most of which are classified as minerals. They account for ca. 3% of body weight in neonates and about 4% of body weight in adults. Since human body is unable to synthesize minerals, they have to be supplied with food in appropriate amounts and ratios. Among macroelements, i.e. elements with human body content of more than 0.01% and safe or recommended intake of more than 100 mg, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) play a particular physiological role. Material and methods: The goal of the study was to assess the content of potassium and sodium in daily food rations (DFRs) dispensed for consumption and actually consumed by the students of the Main School of Fire Service (MSFS) in Warsaw. The study material consisted of daily food rations dispensed for consumption to MSFS students. Sodium and potassium content in analyzed samples was deter¬mined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Results: Mean sodium content of the analyzed DFRs was 7,039.4 ± 1,097.6 mg, compared to 6,271.1 ± 996.2 mg in actually consumed meals. Mean potassium content of the analyzed DFRs was 3,477.7 ± 637.2 mg Actually consumed rations included 3,099.1 ± 550.6 mg of potassium. Sodium and potassium supply was different in individual months of the study. Conclusions: The sodium content of daily food rations both dispensed for consumption and actually consumed was several times higher than the recommended standards. The potassium content of daily food rations was lower than the standard value. Rations dispensed for consumption covered 99.4%, while rations actually consumed covered 88.9% of the standard demand. Attempts should be made to reduce the sodium intake by raising consumers' awareness of the detrimental health effects of excess salt and by appropriately selecting the products included in the diet.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):67-76 "Cardiac arrest under special circumstances. Part
           II: poisoning, …, anaphylactic reaction, …,traumatic injuries"

    • Authors: Radosław Ziemba
      Abstract: In this publication, we discuss several issues related to cardiac arrest occurring under special circumstances such as: hypothermia, near drowning, poisoning, pregnancy, electric shock, anaphylactic reaction, episode of acute, severe asthma, traumatic injuries.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):77-80 "Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in emergency
           medicine practice"

    • Authors: Łukasz Szarpak; Dariusz Timler
      Abstract: Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is a condition of heterogeneous etiology and diverse clinical picture. It is a challenge for the system of Emergency Services. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to analyze selected epidemiological data of patients with atrial fibrillation treated at the Emergency Department of the M. Kopernik Provincial Specialist Hospi¬tal in Lodz between 01.2010 and 12.2010. Material and methods: Study included 422 patients with atrial fibrillation (237 women and 185 men) aged 25 to 96 years (mean age — 73.51 years). Results: Atrial fibrillation was more common in women than in men (56% vs. 44%). Mean age was higher in the female than the male population (76.5 vs. 69.3 years). The majority of medical interventions concerned patients aged 80-89 years. Conclusions: In our material, atrial fibrillation involved mainly patients older than 70 years. Atrial fibrillation is more common in women than in men. Atrial fibrillation occurs most often during winter sea¬son, between 10 and 12 o’clock.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):81-86 "Autopsy marks on anthropological material
           contributing to research on history of anatomy in Poland"

    • Authors: Magdalena Cybulska; Agnieszka Adamczyk, Agnieszka Młudzik, Czesław Jeśman
      Abstract: In this publication on the development of anatomical studies in Poland we used anthropological (from archeological excavation sites in Poland) as well as written sources. Bone material found in our region bears signs of removal (sawing off) of the cranial vault. It is difficult to determine whether these autop¬sies were judicial or anatomopathological. Few of such skulls were examined, but there is data indicat¬ing that post-mortem examinations were commenced in the late middle Ages. They were probably not public, as such autopsies have been conducted in Poland since the 17th century. Doctors and barbers were undoubtedly curious what the human body holds. Anatomical textbooks from the middle Ages showed how to conduct an autopsy. Most skeletons with traces of post-mortem examination are dated to modern times, period of greatest development of surgery and anatomopathology itself. The need for anatomical studies for scientific as well as didactic purposes has been noted since renaissance.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):87-90 "Infusion solutions supply in critical circumstances
           and disasters"

    • Authors: Katrzyna Parzuchowska; Radosław Ziemba, Jan Hołyński, Adam Ziemba, Jarosław Hołyński, Ewa Ziemba
      Abstract: Proper supply of infusion fluids to appropriate destinations during critical situations and catastro-phes depends on meeting the requirements of distribution and logistics. The need for central storage of fluid reserves and subsequent decentralization of medical supplies for immediate casualty manage¬ment under extreme circumstances is directly related to appropriate quantitative and qualitative supply. Effectiveness of emergency rescue services and appropriate medical services depends on gathered fluid reserves, particularly blood products, which should be immediately delivered to the victims of catastro¬phe according to their needs. Created norms for the use of infusion fluids during mass events as well as their distribution should fulfill international standards and criteria developed for the rescue services.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):91-96 "Scope of knowledge regarding administration
           ofoxygen therapy among firefighter rescue teams from Volunteer Fire
           Departments (OSP)"

    • Authors: Łukasz Szarpak
      Abstract: Introduction. A fire brigade is often the first rescue service at the scene of an accident. Until arrival of emergency medical services securing casualties, including oxygen supplementation to those who require it, remains the responsibility of firefighters. Aim of the study. To evaluate the knowledge regarding administration of oxygen therapy to accident victims among firefighter rescue teams. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2011 and included 100 firefighters working in Vol¬unteer Fire Departments in the area of mazovian and lodzkie provinces. We used questionnaires and statistical methods. Results. Almost 60% of respondents knew when to use the oropharyngeal tube. As much as 61% were able to indicate that a passive oxygen therapy set is included in a PSP R1 kit. Knowledge on the follow¬ing issues was inadequate: time designated to assessment of patient’s respiratory rate (43%), definition of saturation (30%), causes of unreliable pulse oximetry results (25%), proper adult ventilation volume using a self-inflating ambu bag (15). Conclusions. Due to the specific nature of firefighter rescue teams’ work, evaluation of knowledge on principles of oxygen therapy is justified, as it may influence patient survival. Knowledge of firefighter rescue teams on patient oxygen supplementation is inadequate.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):97-104 "Sustainable development in light of
           international cooperation"

    • Authors: Radosław Ziemba
      Abstract: Numerous developed countries as well as those entering this path have established strategies of sustainable development. Areas of activity presented in this work illustrate the wide scope of parameters and challenges for maintaining sustainable development, both on a local as well as global scale.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):105-112 "Anthropological and archeological sources in
           medical historian’s studies"

    • Authors: Magdalena Cybulska; Agnieszka Adamczyk, Agnieszka Młudzik, Czesław Jeśman
      Abstract: Medical historians most often refer to written sources in their studies on the matters of health and sickness over the centuries, but also take advantage of the materials acquired through excavations – in other words anthropological and archeological sources. Skeletal material may exhibit signs of sickness, traumatic injuries, therapeutic procedures such as trepanations or amputations, as well as procedures emphasizing one’s social status in a society (e.g. skull deformities). Various items for use in medical procedures may be found during excavations. Archeobotanical material contains remnants of medical plants. Immovable sources: remnants of medieval hospitals or baths also point to the means of treat¬ment utilized by given populations. Anthropological and archeological sources are often difficult to interpret. The description of medicine on Polish territories made on their basis is certainly fragmentary. Despite that, anthropological and archeological data are important sources of knowledge for a medical historian, as they allow investigation into human past all the way to the times when written sources were not available.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):113-118 "Selected aspects of communication between
           emergency services and the mass media in crisis situations"

    • Authors: Łukasz Szarpak; Marcin Madziała
      Abstract: We live in times where information is the supreme value. The mass media seek sensation and often misinterpret the situation, which usually occurs in the case of limited access to information. Due to their mediagenic nature, crisis situations as well as emergency actions taken to eliminate their conse¬quences are undoubtedly a treat for journalists. Correctly performed rescue operations are essential during events that make people suffer or feel endangered. Nonetheless, appropriate conveying informa¬tion about performed actions to the media, and then to the society, is a crucial element of rescue opera¬tions and influences both perception of emergency services and prevention from spreading speculation and panic in the society.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):119-122 "Bioterrorism — nature of the

    • Authors: Radosław Ziemba
      Abstract: In the 20h century, terrorism became a threat to international safety. Over the past 100 years, terrorism became transformed and became a factor to a large extent determining the sphere of political, economi¬cal and social relations on local, regional and international levels. Advancing globalization and accom¬panying progress in the field of IT and telecommunication technologies facilitated emergence of new forms of this phenomenon and widening of its spatial scope
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):123-126 "Anti-drown ring – a patented drowning
           protection device (patent no. 197623)"

    • Authors: Jerzy Mierzejewski
      Abstract: The anti-drown ring is a device that does not restrict the user’s movements and, when activated, brings the critical drowning hazard situation under control and allows the user to safely remain in water. The anti-drown ring, being an inexpensive drowning protection device, should be universally available for water lifeguards, swimming schools, aquatic sports or open-air recreation centers, fishery and other aquatic industries, as well as for military personnel training or operating in areas that require crossing water barriers
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
  • 2012; 5(4):127-132 "Speech made by Commandant of the Military Centre
           for Pharmacy and Medical Technology in Celestynów, Colonel
           DMSc Radosław Ziemba"

    • Authors: Radosław Ziemba
      Abstract: Ladies and gentlemen! We have an honourable opportunity to attend the ceremony of Mr Colonel Krzysztof KONDRACKI....
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2012 13:36 EST
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Heriot-Watt University
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