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Journal Cover Archives of Budo
  [SJR: 0.346]   [H-I: 7]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1643-8698
   Published by International Scientific Literature Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA271-276 "Segmental kick velocity is correlated with
           kick specific and nonspecific strength performance in a proximodistal
           sequence"

    • Authors: Pedro Vieira Sarmet Moreira; Leandro Vinhas de Paula, Antonio Prieto Veloso
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]Fast unloaded movements are typically associated with explosive strength and vertical jump performance, but their relationship with the martial kick velocity has not been studied. The purpose of this study was answer to question if kick velocity is correlated with kick specific and nonspecific strength performance, in a proximodistal sequence. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] Six male black-belt taekwondo athletes (20.5 ± 4.3 years, 67.1 ± 4.8 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, 21.378 ± 1.9) were tested for various strength indicators isometrically, through a adapted Leg Press machine, and dynamically, through Counter Movement Jump (CMJ) over a force platform, in ground reaction force (GRF), in linear peak velocities (PV) and time to reach PV of lower body segments, during kick, through 3D kinematic analyze at 200 samples/second. [b]Results:[/b] There were significant differences of timings and velocities between segments, significant correlations between horizontal GRF and nonspecific strength indicators with velocities, especially for CMJ. [b]Conclusion:[/b] The results indicated that, segmental kick velocity is associated with isometric and stretch shortening cycle performance, but modulated by ground reaction force production in a proximodistal sequence.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Nov 2015 19:7 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA361-366 "Motivational dimensions of taekwondo
           practitioners"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] Young people of different ages in both sexes, competitors or not in taekwondo, seeking competition teams for different reasons. This study aimed is knowledge about key motivational factors that contribute to the entry and stay of young taekwondo practitioners of this sport. [b]Material and Methods[/b]: The choice of the sample was for convenience during the selection process for the formation of a mining team taekwondo promoted by the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Brazil). The study included 230 practitioners, aged between 13 and 22 years who responded to IMPRAFE-54 in a single collection for analysis of six motivational dimensions Ec; Sa; so; Co; Es and Pr. [b]Results:[/b] The results showed that the main motivations for young taekwondo practitioners interested in being part of a competition team are the search for pleasure and health, followed by competitiveness. [b]Conclusions:[/b] In this study it was observed that the main reasons were for pleasure and health. There are no significant differences in the responses of the subjects when controlling the variable sex. With regard to age, the results showed at least one significant difference between the general levels of motivation of the subjects when the age variable is controlled.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA347-352 "Nutritional strategies to reach the weight
           category in judo and karate athletes"

    • Authors: Alejandro Martinez-Rodriguez; Nestor Vicente-Salar, Carlos Montero-Carretero, Eduardo Cervello, Enrique Roche
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] Judo and karate are combat sports disciplines in which individuals compete in weight categories. Usually, the athletes are at the maximum weight permitted in their category. This is ideally reached by increasing muscle mass. The objective of this work is recommendation how to reach the adequate weight in the corresponding category by using a novel nutritional strategy. [b]Material and Methods: [/b]The study performed with judo athletes (n = 11, male 6; female 5) consisted in the follow up of the same group of individuals during 2 consecutive periods of time. For the first 4 months, the volunteers followed a free diet, while during the following 2-month period the same participants underwent a supervised diet program. The study performed with karate athletes (n = 14) consisted in comparing 2 groups (each 7 athletes): one following a free diet and the other following a diet under supervision by our laboratory. Three important aspects of the dietary intervention were considered: meal distribution during the day, diet composition in macronutrients and moment for application of calorie restriction for weight loss. [b]Results[/b]: When diet was controlled, individuals significantly decreased their body weight. This decrease was mainly due to a decrease in body fat mass. On the other hand, body muscle mass and ectomorphia increased significantly. [b]Conclusion: [/b]The recommended diet intervention performed in judo and karate athletes allow a weight reduction by decreasing the fat component and increasing muscle mass.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA333-338 "Physiological responses the organism of
           karate athletes specialists of kata and kumite during simulated
           competition"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]Kata and kumite have distinguished competition requirements, and cardio-metabolic and thermoregulatory responses to different competitive concurrence in karate remain unknown. The main aim of this study was to answer the question: whether are differences between several selected physiological indicators used to compare of karate athletes (specialists of kata and kumite) during simulated competition? [b]Materials and Methods: [/b]Twenty-four elite male senior karate athletes (kata n = 9; kumite n = 15) participated in this study. The participants were 21.56 ± 3.57 years old, with mean body mass of 71.02 ±6.23 kg and mean height 177 ±7.24 cm. All participants underwent simulated competition consisting of three repeated maximal duration rounds with 10 minutes break between them in order to assess their HR responses during rounds and in first minute of recovery period, blood lactates, thermal responses and rates of perceived exertion to simulated competition. [b]Results[/b]: No major differences were found between groups for baseline values. No differences were found between kata and kumite for HR responses, blood lactate, Tcore and rates of perceived exertion to simulated competition observed separately and within cumulative effects (time vs. group), respectively. [b]Conclusions: [/b]Kata and kumite differ in competitive demands, yet these two karate specializations seem to have no fundamental reflections on individual functional variables.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA327-332 "Influence of two years study in Special
           Education of Security Sections on the body posture"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim.[/b] The role of body posture is often underestimated in a sport performance. The sport training often focuses only on achieving the highest level of performance. On the other hand, this type of condition can be connected with serious health problems which can be one of the reasons of career-ending injury. One of them, which can often occur during the athletes training are low and upper back pain. Back pain syndromes are often completely preventable. The highest level of postural control and postural stability is required in sport when the athletes have to maintain the position in static or dynamic position during single-leg stance. The main aim of the study was the answer to question: whether is a significance difference between value of cervical lordosis and lumbar lordosis value during 2 years of study in Special Education of Security Sections (in pre-test and post-test)? The question is how the trainer can integrate the training with corrective exercises? [b]Material and Methods.[/b] Nineteen healthy students participated in this study (mean age = 20.2 ±1.32 years; mean height = 1.80 ±0.05 m; mean mass = 76.93 ±7.90 kg). The participants practiced combat sports in average 5.8 ±2.52 years. Before study, participants responded questions about personal information (age, sex, combat sport, length of sport practice and regeneration in their sport practise). DTP-3 diagnostic system was used for measuring body posture. The examination includes palpating and marking chosen points (the skin projection of the left and right lateral parts of the acromion, bilateral posterior superior iliac spine and 22 processus spinosi C3–L5. The chosen points were measured by touching the stylus of the sensor and then transmitted into the computer. The participant´s free standing position was measured 3 times in pre-test and post-test. [b]Results.[/b] The results showed that field of study Special Education of Security Sections had positive impact of value cervical and lumbar lordosis in a group of students (cervical lordosis: pre-test 3.57 ±0.99; post-test 2.84 ±0.89 and lumbar lordosis: pre-test 4.82 ±0.73; post-test 3.89 ±0.89). The paired samples t-test was used for cervical lordosis value and lumbar lordosis value (p = 0.000001; p = 0.000065; the significance level 95%). [b]Conclusions.[/b] According to the results, the field of study Special Education of Security Sections at Faculty of Sports Study improved the value of cervical lordosis and lumbar lordosis and it was also observed a shift from asymmetry between shoulders position. The design of the field of study includes also corrective exercises and theoretical lectures about importance of body posture and postural stability.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA319-325 "Weight distribution in karate stances: a
           comparison between experimental and postulated values"

    • Authors: Vinicius Aguiar de Souza; Fernanda Todeschini Viero, Andre M. Marques, Noe Gomes Borges Jr.
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] Karate is a highly popular Japanese martial art that uses a variety of stances during its practice. These stances play a significant role in the effectiveness of the karate techniques. In this context, the objective of this study is to verify whether the weight distribution in these stances corroborates with the postulated values presented in the literature. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] The weight distribution on the lower limbs of three shotokan karate stances: back (kokutsu-dachi), front (zenkutsu-dachi), and horseman stance (kiba-dachi), were acquired by force plate for nine male black belts (age: mean 46.78 ±9.7 years; mass: 85.88 ±6.31 kg; height: 1.76 ±0.03 m; experience: 31.56 ±8.5 years). The weight distributions were statistically compared to the values presented in the literature by the bootstrap-t confidence interval method to test whether the experimental values differs from postulated values. [b]The results:[/b] The weight distributions for the three stances did not present a significant difference between the population mean and the postulated values in the weight distributions, at 0.05 of probability. [b]Conclusions:[/b] These results indicate that the experimental values for the weight distribution corroborate with empirical values postulated in the specialized literature.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:283-290 "Motor safety of a man during a fall"

    • Authors: Andrzej Mroczkowski
      Abstract: The purpose of the present work is to review the key research methods as well as the existing knowledge of biomechanics on human motor safety when during a fall. The second goal of the paper is a biomechanical analysis of falls performed in a rotational motion on the ground, by reference of the movement of a man to a car wheel rolling. The analysis leads to the conclusion that during such a fall the energy of the body deformation per volume unit of the body parts touching the ground can be reduced by minimizing the time of the body contact with the surface and by increasing the area of body parts in contact with the surface. Decreasing the time of the body contact with the surface can be achieved by increasing, to some extent, the velocity of the body rolling. A factor increasing the contact surfaces can be extending a radius of the circle on which the fall continues. This can also decrease the rolling resistance strength, which is responsible for non-elastic body deformation. The knowledge of biomechanics contained in this paper proves the correctness of the statement, that “suffering an injury” does not necessarily mean to be an unavoidable consequence of a fall. Body injuries can be weakened through a proper technique of falling, applied in particular physical conditions generating a fall. In the majority of cases the contemporary educational systems do not see properly the necessity of teaching safe falls. Taking adequate preference actions in this area would reduce significantly fatal accidents and serious injuries to a body caused by falls, especially of elderly people and professionals who are frequently exposed to falls.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA291-297 "Content validation of training means for
           taekwondo"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] The validation of training means can efficiently direct the selection and prescription of training means for taekwondo beyond consolidated knowledge about this sport. The objective of the present study was the list of exercises employed during taekwondo training, categorize these exercises in training means and perform the content validation of these means. [b]Material and Methods: [/b]Seven coaches from the Taekwondo Brazilian Selection Team participated in the first phase of this study by listing the exercises. In the second phase, five experts in sports training with expertise in taekwondo modality collaborated in the study by judging the exercises. The content validation was tested using the content validity coefficient on three indicators: clarity of language, practical relevance and theoretical relevance. The categorization of the exercises was checked by Kappa Cohen’s coefficient. The intra- and inter-judge variability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the average Kappa Cohen’s coefficient. [b]Results:[/b] The content validity coefficients were 0.82, 0.86, and 0.83 for clarity of language, practical pertinence and theoretical relevance, respectively. Kappa Cohen’s coefficients for the categorization of theoretical dimensions confirmed a moderate level of agreement among the judges for the three dimensions used: general, special and specific training means. The results of the intraclass correlation coefficient and the average test/re-test kappa values were considered good and substantial, respectively. [b]Conclusion:[/b] The results of this study indicate that is possible to elaborate and validate a catalogue of training means for taekwondo. Thus, a tool was produced that can be used as a theoretical framework in the organization of planning, registration and analysis of sports training loads.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:277-282 "The most commonly used arrest and self-defence
           actions arsenal by different officers of internal services"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]Different officers of internal services have to use psychological and/or physical force, special means and even weapons. Throughout the year, officers have a limited number of hours given for specific professional competence development. We are making assumption that our research will provide information about the real situations of coercion and violence usage by different officers. The aim of this study is a recommendation, to use this knowledge to create optimal conditions for participants officer qualification courses, provide additional experience for them, and help to improve the quality of their work, and increasing public confidence [b]Material and Methods:[/b] The study involves all Lithuanian Departments of Internal Affairs officers: Police at lowest level (males) 186 persons and the State Border Guard Service (SBGS) 120 persons. The research was conducted in three directions: the offenders behaviour that officers encounter during the detention, the distribution of actions performed by the officers in fights with the offenders, self-defence training themes requested by the officers. [b]Results:[/b] Police officers carry out offenders detentions approximately two times more often than SBGS officers do. Police officers more often face with the passively resisting offenders, whereas SBGS officers more often meet an aggressive resistance. Both police and SBGS officers perform approximately 1/3 of defend and 2/3 of attack actions while arresting the offender. Police officers tend to use less arrest and wrestling actions. Police officers wish to devote more time to defend actions in the training, whereas SBGS officers – to attack actions. [b]Conclusions:[/b] A more frequent participation in the detention of offenders is accompanied by the need of officers to develop their defensive combat skills. Different officers have different needs of practical combat training, therefore, the different practical training programs should be prepared for them.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA265-270 "Attention and acute judo-specific effort in
           athletes preparing for Olympic competition"

    • Authors: Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycien; Jan Blecharz, Stanislaw Sterkowicz, Aleksandra Luszczynska
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]The study investigated the changes in attention concentration corresponding to body activation in judoists of different competitive levels. The changes in attention processes were tested in the context of judo-specific effort. [b]Material and Methods: [/b]The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) was administrated to 23 elite judoists during their preparation for the Olympic Games, London 2012. The attention processes were measured with d2 test before the fitness test and repeated immediately after the SJFT. [b]Results:[/b] Compared to pretest, the results obtained after the SJFT indicated that the processing speed and the concentration performance increased and the percentage of errors dropped. Participants ranked higher on the International Judo Federation ranking obtained better results than judoists of the national level. The percentage of errors in the d2 test was unsatisfactory in the both international and national groups: the high speed of processing was accompanied by a low quality of performance. [b]Conclusions:[/b] High processing speed was associated with performance of low quality, which might be improved in the course of psychological and tactical training. Coaches may use attention tests to monitor athletes' psychophysiolgoical states and facilitate performance.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:221-227 "Does conventional body weight reduction
           decrease anaerobic capacity of boxers in the competition period'"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]Body weight reduction (BWR) is a serious problem in combat sports. Athletes frequently reduce their body weight in an inappropriate manner, which may have a negative effect on their exercise capacity and health. In view of the above and taking into consideration the limited number of studies conducted on trained boxers, the aim of this study was the knowledge about effect of conventional body weight reduction, used in this sports discipline, on body composition and anaerobic adaptation in athletes. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] The study involved 20 trained male boxers. The energy balance was determined based on the 4-day ongoing recording of food and liquids consumption, as well as 24-h energy expenditure estimated using heart rate monitoring. Body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance. The Wingate test was performed in order to determine the effect of BWR on anaerobic capacity. [b]Results: [/b]Boxers reduced their body weight on average by 5.4% within 7.8 ± 3.2 days. The energy value of their diet during BWR was by 51.5% lower (p<0.001) comparing to the training (preparation) period. It was observed that conventional BWR results in the reduction (p<0.05) not only of fat mass (BWRPRE: 11.7 ± 3.6 kg vs. BWRPOST: 10.7 ± 3.9 kg), but to a considerable extent (p<0.01) also fat free mass (BWRPRE: 61.1 ± 9.5 kg vs. BWRPOST: 59.2 ± 9.3 kg) and body water (BWRPRE: 44.8 ± 6.7 l vs. BWRPOST: 43.8 ± 6.4 l). A deterioration was also recorded (p<0.001) in peak power (–9.3%), average power (–4.7%) and time at peak power (+55%), as well as (p<0.001) minimum power (–3.9%). [b]Conclusion:[/b] Conventional BWR adopted by boxers, connected with dietary limitations, is rapid and has an adverse effect on body composition and anaerobic capacity. This is seems necessary to implement an adequate education program in this respect, making it possible for athletes and coaches to plan a rational body weight reduction strategy in the pre-competition period.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:215-220 "Trunk and lower limb muscle activation in
           linear, circular and spin back kicks"

    • Authors: Isaac Estevan; Coral Falco, Jose L. L. Elvira, Francisco J. Vera-Garcia
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim. [/b]As any martial art, taekwondo can be classified as a specialty that requires high technical skills, such as a fine motor control both in static and dynamic conditions. Practitioners predominantly use kicks with high amplitude in both combat and technique (poomse) modalities. The aim of this study was the knowledge about trunk and lower limb muscle activation according to the type of kick (circular, linear and spin back kick) in the taekwondo technique modality. [b]Material and Methods.[/b] Twelve healthy and elite male taekwondo athletes voluntarily participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) during maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) and execution of the kicks was bilaterally recorded from rectus abdominis (RA), external and internal oblique (EO and IO), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), in the static phase of the three kicks. [b]Results[/b]. The results of this study (in terms of MVC percentages) showed a main effect of the type of kick (p < 0.05); that is, during the static phase of the kick muscle activity changed based on the type of kick. In the kicking leg, trunk and hip flexor and knee extensor muscle activation (mainly RF, IO and RA) was higher in linear kicks than in circular and spin back kicks. GL and RF activation levels were higher in circular kicks than in spin back kicks. In addition, the higher levels of ES activation were found in the spin back kicks. Regarding the supporting leg, no differences between kicks were found for TA and GL, which were possibly activated to ensure ankle stability during the single-leg stance. [b]Conclusion. [/b]These findings may allow researchers and taekwondo coaches to design training programs appropriately.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:201-207 "Interests in mobile activity forms of persons
           practicing judo"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]One of the most important and conscious human activities taken up in order to satisfy needs to play or compete is a sport. It is expressed by, inter alia, exercises and games carried out according to certain rules. For persons who practice specific sports not only competition itself is significant. In martial arts, particularly in judo we can observe profound humanistic concepts and a way of perfecting one’s personality by constant studies, which results from training obligations. Taking into consideration the increasing trends of interests in martial arts during the recent years, we decided to diagnose these interests in a group of persons practicing judo. A practical aim was the usage of the research results in planning and organising judo classes. We verified the hypothesis that interests in mobile activity forms of persons practicing judo depend upon their sex and age. [b]Material and methods:[/b] Subjects of our research were persons practicing judo (from juniors to seniors). We diagnosed interests in mobile activity forms of 72 persons (15 women and 57 men). The basic research method was a diagnostic opinion poll and the technique was a survey. For the purpose of determining interests in mobile activity forms we used a standardized survey questionnaire: ‘Interests in the scope of physical mobile activity’. [b]Results:[/b] Women were mostly interested in martial arts and aerobic. Men preferred martial arts in the first place. There were other forms that enjoyed popularity such as athletics, tourism as well as other forms of mobile activity. [b]Conclusions:[/b] If physical education classes satisfy the students’ interests in mobile activity, it seems that it is highly probable that some positive attitudes towards physical culture and sport shall be formed in students in the course of the process.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA195-200 "Gender differences in preferences of martial
           arts in Polish adolescents"

    • Abstract: [b]Background & Study Aim:[/b] The prevalence of physical activity (PA) depends greatly on the options of executing preferable and favorite PA. Objective information about individual preferences in types of PA can support successful integration of adolescents into regular participation in PA. Defining the role of martial arts in regard to girls’ and boys’ sport preferences is a permanent problem that requires objective and continuous diagnostics. The aim of the study is the relationship among girls’ and boys’ preferences in martial arts and further among these preferences and PA participation. [b]Material & Methods:[/b] Online research was conducted in Katowice region and 518 boys and 559 girls at the age from 15 to 17 years participated. All high schools in the region were called for participation, but only schools that allowed the research examination participated. Sport preferences survey that participants completed online via INDARES system was used to diagnose preferences in individual and team sports. The results were analyzed using basic statistical procedures, nonparametric correlational analysis, and Mann-Whitney test. [b]Results[/b]: The structure of martial arts preferences is stable without any radical changes throughout the time. Among the first top five activities in girls are: karate, box, judo, kick-box and aikido; in boys: box, kick-box, karate, judo, and wrestling. Top five martial arts correlate with the nature of masculine and feminine sense of life. There is a strong positive correlation among the preferences of martial arts regarding gender across all age groups: 15 years old (rs = .850; p < .001 ), 16 years old (rs = .833; p < .001) and relatively strong correlation also among 17 years old (rs = .733; p < .001). [b]Conclusions:[/b] Polish version of the online system INDARES is a suitable diagnostic tool for the examination of sport preferences sphere in adolescents. Understanding gender differences in sport preferences of adolescents can increase their participation in organized PA.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:185-193 "Differences in the morphological and
           physiological characteristics of senior and junior elite Czech judo
           athletes"

    • Authors: Lucia Mala; Tomas Maly, Frantisek Zahalka, Jan Heller, Pavel Hrasky, Pavel Vodicka
      Abstract: [b]Background & Study Aim: [/b]The judo is combat sport in which the division into weight categories and age groups are applicable. Thus, both of these criteria even at the same period of training are determining the diversity of athletes especially in terms of the build. The aim of the study was the differences between the morphological and physiological characteristics of individual junior and senior judo athletes. [b]Material & Methods[/b]: Nineteen judo athletes (10 from the junior and 9 from the senior categories, participated in the study. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The multi-sensorial platform was used for posturographic examination. Cardio-respiratory and functional indicators were set using the Cortex Metalyzer 3B device, a laboratory test consisting of a submaximal and maximal component. Anaerobic variables were detected using the Wingate test-Monark 824E mechanical ergometer. [b]Results:[/b] The morphological variables between the groups showed significant differences in body height, body mass and fat free mass. Statistically insignificant changes were found in the indicators of aerobic load up to vita maximum. However, the effect size indicated a large difference between the groups (W170, V, HRmax, and %VO2max). The greatest significant differences, as well as effect sizes, were detected in the anaerobic indicators. Moreover, significant differences were detected in postural stability in favour of the seniors. Decreases in blood lactate after an anaerobic load showed a significant effect of time and an insignificant effect of age. [b]Conclusions:[/b] In all of the monitored areas, we revealed better predispositions for performance in senior athletes. In further research, it will be necessary to eliminate the limits of the study (the small sample, objectification of recovery processes after anaerobic load, and greater specificity in relation to judo performance).
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:177-184 "Evaluation of the effects of musculofascial
           therapy on the degree values for physiological spine curvatures, altered
           due to long-term kick-boxing training"

    • Abstract: [b]Background & Study Aim:[/b] Changes of spinal curvatures caused by training effect of different sport disciplines have been discussed by many researchers. However, there is a distinct lack of records on the effect training kick-boxing has on the functional parameters of the spine. The aim of this paper was the knowledge about the degree values of spine curvatures among subjects training kick-boxing and the effect of myofascial therapy on these spine parameters. [b]Material & Methods[/b]: The study group comprised of 15 males (18-25 years of age), who have been training kick-boxing. The control group comprised of 15 males in the same age range, who did not train any sports. The degree values for spine curvatures were determined with a tensometric electrogoniometer by Penny & Giles, modified by Boocock. Subjects training kick-boxing underwent 2-week soft tissue therapy based on the methodology of Anatomy Trains by T. Myers. [b]Results:[/b] The study group and the controls differed significantly in terms of all the analyzed degree values for spine curvatures. Kick-boxers presented with deeper spine curvatures, when compared to both respective reference limits and the controls. The therapy exerted beneficial effect, decreasing deepened spine curvatures (significant at p≤0.001). However, the result was not maintained, as shown by the measurements taken three months after completing the therapy. Nevertheless, the curvatures did not return to the pretreatment values. [b]Conclusion[/b]: Training kick-boxing can lead to an increase in degree values of spine curvatures. Myofascial techniques should be an integral part of kick-boxers’ biological regeneration program.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:169-175 "Dependence of work capacity recovery after
           strenuous training sessions upon individual predisposition of skilled
           wrestlers to work under different energy modes"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] It is known that a fatigue and recovery response underlies the efficient of elite athletes’ training. Individualities of recovery response in skilled wrestlers training may relate to differ in capacities of anaerobic alactate, lactate and aerobic systems and in some important characteristics of special work capacity of athletes. On this basis relation between energy capacities and rate of special work capacity recovery after heavy training sessions of wrestler has been suggested. The aim of the study was the dependence of the recovery rate of special work capacity characteristics (6 hours after strenuous training sessions of different type) upon predisposition of skilled wrestlers to work in different energy regimes. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] A total of 31 free-style male wres¬tlers, aged 19-26 (mean 22.9), weighing 63–89 kg, of a national and in¬ternational levels, with 5-13 years of competitive wrestling experience participated in the study. The recovery of special work capacity 6 hours after three common types of strenuous training sessions differing in preferential realization of anaerobic alactate, glycolytic (lactate) and aerobic energy sources were studied. The speed-strength and special endurance capacities wrestling tests were used. The specific speed-strength characteristics were evaluated by speed of some elements of technical actions (TA) during video registration and dynamic force assessment. [b]Results:[/b] A subjectively perceived (immediately after the session) heaviness of training load was extremely high and did not differ significantly for sessions of different training direction. Six hours after the training sessions, most of analyzed indices of special work capacity and TA were decreased relative to initial values. The decrease was related to the type of the session differing by preferential usage of power regimes of anaerobic alactate, anaerobic glycolytic (lactate) and aerobic character (energy mode). There existed connection between domination in wrestler of these or those aspects of energy capacities and degree of special work capacity and TA recovery after heavy training loads in sessions of different types. [b]Conclusions:[/b] The recovery of special work capacity characteristics six hours after the session turned to be the highest, when individual energy predisposition matched preferential orientation of training session. Practical significance of the study may consist in the advance of additional criteria for regimes of training load repetition with account for individual predisposition of wrestlers.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA159-167 "Biomechanics research on martial arts
           – the importance of defensive study"

    • Authors: Ghazirah Mustapha; Jamaluddin Mahmud, Muzammer Zakaria, Wan Ruzaini Wan Sulaiman
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] Martial art is a self-defence. Nevertheless, most martial art biomechanics studies have concentrated more on the offensive rather than on the defensive aspect of it. An in-depth study of defensive techniques is equally important since the real application of self-defence requires an individual to defend first and counter-attack second. The disproportionate trend of current studies needs to be validated to support future research. The purpose of this paper are trend of research and publications pertaining to defensive techniques in martial arts biomechanics. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] A systematic survey of research publications was conducted in the field of martial art biomechanics. Advanced search was opted to retrieve and filter scientific articles published in four databases which include SportDiscuss, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and ProQuest. An analysis was conducted on the aforementioned publications in order to categorize them based on the martial arts’ classifications for offensive and defensive techniques. [b]Results: [/b]The results show that 89.1 percent of the publications in Martial Arts Biomechanics studies had focused on offensive techniques, compared to only 11 percent on defensive techniques. [b]Conclusions:[/b] Research in martial arts biomechanics is expanding, nevertheless it portrays a similar trend that tends to focus on offensive techniques. Supposedly, defensive techniques are of equal importance in martial arts. Therefore, more biomechanics investigations pertaining to defensive techniques in martial arts should be carried out. In addition, the data presented in this review could provide significant knowledge to support future research in martial arts biomechanics.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:153-158 "Profile of an ITF Taekwondo Female Champion
           Team in Terms of Somatotype and Body Composition"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim[/b]: The ITF is working on creating “champion model” that determine high performance in taekwon-do. A number of sources state that sport potential and chances of success can be determined based on an athlete’s body build and somatic type. The aim of this study was to characterise body build and body composition of an ITF taekwondo female champion team and to determine common somatic traits in female taekwondo fighters with highest performance in the discipline. [b]Material and Methods[/b]: Study participants comprised the Polish National ITF Women’s Taekwondo Team (7 juniors: 16-18 years, 11 seniors: 19-30 years). The Heath-Carter typological classification was used to assess participants’ somatotypes. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Obtained data were statistically analysed using the Statistica 10 software package. [b]Results[/b]: High homogeneity in terms of body build and body composition was observed among participants, most had the desired somatotype for martial artists- with a dominance of the mesomorphy component (juniors’ somatotype: 3.50‑4.44‑3.07; seniors’ somatotype: 3.50-4.44-3.18) and average body height and body mass (169.31[u]+[/u]4.14 cm; 60.23[u]+[/u]6.12 kg). Each body build component was related to sports performance- positive correlation was found for the following parameters: arm length (r = 0.66), pelvis width (r = 0.60), hip width (r = 0.51), and hand width (r = 0.59). [b]Conclusions[/b]: Female taekwondo champions are characterised by average body height, body mass, and body fat. Their body build and body composition are symmetrical. Top-level sports performance is frequently determined by pelvis width, hand width, and arm length.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:85-108 "Kōdōkan Jūdō’s
           Three Orphaned Forms of Counter Techniques – Part 1: The
           Gonosen-no-kata ― “Forms of Post-Attack Initiative Counter
           Throws”"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comprehen-sive study of gonosen-no-kata [“Forms of Post-Attack Initiative Counter Throws”], a non-officially accepted kata of Kōdōkan jūdō made popular in Western Europe by Kawaishi Mikinosuke (1899-1969). [b]Material and Methods: [/b]To achieve this we apply historical methods and source criticism to offer a careful critical analysis of the origin, history and background of this kata. [b]Results[/b]: The first verifiable appearance of gonosen-no-kata is in 1926 at the occasion of the London Budōkwai’s 9th Annual Display, where it was publicly demonstrated by Ishiguro Keishichi (1897-1974), previously at Waseda University and since 1924 living in Paris. The kata builds on intellectual material conceived by Takahashi Kazuyoshi. A 1932 program bro-chure of an Oxford University Judo Club event is the oldest known source to link Kawaishi and gonosen-no-kata. Kawaishi considered gonosen-no-kata as the third randori-no-kata. Kawaishi’s major role in spreading jūdō in France and continental Europe between 1935 and 1965, and the publication of his seminal jūdō kata book in 1956, connected his name to this kata forever. [b]Conclusions[/b]: In the absence of any Kōdōkan standard the evolution of the kata over the past 75 years has led to substantial variations in the mechanics and approach specific to each coun-try and jūdō federation that endorse its practice. It remains questionable whether gonosen-no-kata historically has ever been practiced in Japan anywhere, and whether this ‘kata’ is any-thing more than a merely opportunistic name given to a one-time unstructured exercise firstly demonstrated in London during the 1920s.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA67-72 "The level of physical activity of the working
           inhabitants of Warsaw practising martial arts and combat sports"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim.[/b] Martial arts and combat sports are a worldwide popular form of exercise. They are trained professionally as well as recreationally. They lead to self-improvement and supporting physical fitness. The aim of the study was relationships between professional and amateur inhabitants of Warsaw practicing martial arts and combat sports training and the level of physical activity. [b]Material and Methods.[/b] There were 157 persons practicing martial arts and combat sports who partook in the research. They were selected from the group of inhabitants of Warsaw aged 15-69 years (n=6547) working in public institutes or learning/studying in Varsovian schools/colleges (academies, schools, theatres, offices, councils, town halls, hypermarkets, shops, hospitals, clinics and scientific departments). The investigative tools were two questionnaires: IPAQ and author′s one (by means of which biometrical data and the information on the subject of places and the character of practiced martial art and sport was collected). For the statistical elaboration the Chi-square test and Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) tests were used. [b]Results.[/b] The studied persons most often (p<0.05) were characterized with the moderate (56.1%) level of physical activity. The highest fraction of persons with high level of physical activity was noted among those training professionally (24.6%), though there was no essential difference in this regard among those exercising recreationally. It was inverse in the case of the low level which relatively more often (p<0.05) referred to those undertaking martial arts and combat sports during their free time (35.0%). The entire weekly energy input of persons practicing martial arts and combat sports recreationally (1700.6±2728.3 MET-min/week) indeed differed (p<0.05) from the energy-expense of persons training professionally (2825.9±2569.1 MET-min/week). [b]Conclusions. [/b]The level of physical activity of Varsovians practicing martial arts and combat sports is in the vast majority sufficient for maintaining health. The character of trainings is a factor which conditions the lack of fulfilment of WHO norms.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA61-66 "Kinematics of the turning kick –
           measurements obtained in testing well-trained taekwon-do athletes"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] The aim of the paper is the influence of selected kinematic factors on the turning kick technique. This issue is practically relevant in the traditional version of taekwon-do, where an effectively performed strike may divulge the winner. [b]Material and Method: [/b]Using 3D motion capture technology, six International Taekwon-do Federation athletes were tested. Biomechanical parameters related to range of motion, kick power and kick time were applied in the analyses. The athletes executed the turning kick three times in a way typically applied in a board breaking kick. The quantification focused on the speed changes related to kicking leg extension, the maximum knee and foot velocities in the Cartesian coordinate system and the total time of kick execution. The descriptive statistics (i.e. average values and the standard deviations) and correlation analysis were applied in data analysis. [b]Results:[/b] The results have shown that the effect of the kick is mainly represented by component of kick foot velocity in frontal- and lateral-directions. The correlation analyses unveil that the maximal knee speeds reached in frontal- and lateral-directions as well as foot take-off velocity in frontal- and vertical-directions are highly correlated to kick foot effectiveness (r = 0.60 to 0.87). The analysis of velocity development in relation to kick leg extension divulges that the maximal velocity occurs around 80% of a full leg extension. [b]Conclusion[/b]: For increasing kick effectiveness, athletes should work on the foot take-off velocity, the dynamics of the knee motion and consider the optimum kick length for kicking power maximization.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:33-39 "Swiss ball training versus stable surface
           training for the treatment of low back pain in male judo athletes"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]Between 60% and 80% of the population suffers from low back pain at some point in their lives. This disease is commonly observed in judo, with a prevalence of around 35%. Therefore, any instrument, program or training method for the treatment of this disease is very important. Apparently, unstable surface training can be effective in reducing low back pain. However, there are not many studies that have been conducted in this regard, and the few existing ones have not opted for any particular training method. The purpose in this study is knowledge about the effect on low back pain of two different training programs, one using Swiss ball and the other with stable surface. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] Thirty-six active volunteers, all of them judo athletes, participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either the training group (exercising on a Swiss ball) or the control group (training on stable surface). Pain intensity was measured at the beginning and at the end of the 8 weeks in both groups by the Spanish version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). [b]Results: [/b]The results of paired t test showed a significant decrease in RMDQ after treatment in both groups compared with before treatment (p<0.001), while the ANCOVA revealed no significant differences among groups on the post measurement score of RMDQ, with pre-treatment scores as the covariate. [b]Conclusions:[/b] The training on unstable surfaces does not provide any significant improvement versus training on stable surfaces and might be at least as good as training on a Swiss ball in the reduction of low back pain for judo athletes.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA1-7 "Effect of preferred body stance side on the
           performance of Special Judo Fitness Test in Japanese judo athletes"

    • Authors: Akitoshi Sogabe; Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycien, Kiyoshi Maehara, Taketo Sasaki, Stanislaw Sterkowicz
      Abstract: [b]Background & Study Aim. [/b]This study aimed to further knowledge of: 1) body stance side preferred in performing tachi-waza (fighting in standing position); 2) level of fitness preparation of males and females; 3) effect of the dominant body side on the quality of performance in SJFT and the effort perceived. [b]Material & Methods[/b]. Paired selection helped obtain the consistency of the characteristics of 9 male and 9 female subjects in terms of age (Males 18.0 2.3 vs. Females 17.2 2.3 years), training experience (9.9 1.7 vs. 10.7 2.9 years), sports skill level (1-2 dan) and another weight category. A dominant fighting stance (right or left) was determined. In another two days, the randomly selected subjects performed SJFT with the dominant and non-dominant body side. The data grouped according to the body side formed the condition factor. The analysis used non-parametric statistical tests. The differences were tested at the significance level set at p<0.05. [b]Results[/b]. Distribution of the group sizes for left- and right-sided subjects in groups of males and females did not differ (p=0.667). Performing the throws in series A of SJFT with the dominant vs. non-dominant body side showed significantly better results in males (p=0.030), but not in females (p=0.424). Evaluation of the similarity of performing SJFT with the non-dominant body side in a judo bout during competition was significantly higher in males compared to females (p=0.015). [b]Conclusions.[/b] The throws used during SJFT are most frequently performed using the dominant compared with the non-dominant body side, but the females are characterized by a specific pattern of performing consecutive series of SJFT compared to men. Women feel higher fatigue when performing the test using the non-dominant body side.
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Jan 2015 0:0 EST
       
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    • Authors: Kiyoshi Ito; Nobuyoshi Hirose, Naoya Maekawa, Masahiro Tamura, Mitsuru Nakamura
       
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    • Authors: Dariusz Gierczuk; Jerzy Sadowski
       
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    • Authors: Barbara Bergier
       
  • Arch Budo 2015; 11:OA7-12 "Elaboration and evaluation of judo training
           means"

    • Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim.[/b] At the moment to select training means for composing the training program, many coaches are guided by the empirical evidence of training means specificity. A practical and scientific instrument containing relevant judo training means may contribute to coaches to achieve better results. The purpose of this study was to elaborate a catalogue of judo training means and classify it according to specificity: general, special or specific. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. Five Brazilian judo coaches answered what exercises are used for training the judo demand. The exercises were combined to a physical training method generating training means and it were submitted to 9 experts who evaluated the practical relevance and the specificity of each training mean to form the catalogue. The Coefficient of Validity Content and the Coefficient of Kappa were used as a statistical tool to measure the practical relevance of the catalogue and the classification of specificity, respectively. [b]Results. [/b]Seventy six exercises were listed and suitable to training means. Coefficient of Kappa value was = 0.533. Twenty two training means were classified as general, sixteen as special and thirty eight as specific of judo. The Coefficient of Validity Content for the catalogue was = 0.821. Analyzing this coefficient by specificity, the group of specific training means achieved the higher rate and the general group had the lower rate. [b]Conclusion.[/b] A catalogue of training means for judo were elaborated and classified by specificity. The high rate found for practical relevance confirm the representatively of this catalogue.
       
 
 
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