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Archives of Budo
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1643-8698
     Published by International Scientific Literature Homepage  [3 journals]   [SJR: 0.23]   [H-I: 5]
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA195-200 "Energy balance in taekwondo athletes during
           pre-competition"

    • Authors: Marcos D M Drummond; Bruno P Couto, Ralph J S Eufrásio, Reginaldo Gonçalves, Leszek A Szmuchrowski
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]Taekwondo athletes often rigorously limit food intake for long periods prior to competitions, rapidly reducing their total body mass to fit specific weight categories. This strategy can lead to reduced performance during training and competition and impair the health of the athletes. This study aimed is the knowledge about the energy balance and micronutrient intake in taekwondo athletes during the competition period. [b]Materials and Methods:[/b] The study sample comprised eight taekwondo athletes (17.8 ± 2.2 years, 60.9 ± 12.7 kg, and 1.8 ± 0.1 m) of both sexes with competition experience at the national and international levels. The energy balance was determined by comparing the total caloric value (TCV) and the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), which was calculated on the basis of the metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Both measurements were performed on two non-consecutive days within 2 to 3 weeks before a target competition. TCV and TDEE were compared using the paired t test (p<0.05). [b]Results: [/b]The results of this study indicated that the mean TCV was significantly lower than the mean TDEE (p<0.001), leading to a mean energy deficit of ¬-1246.2 ± 399.5 Kcal. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins accounted for 56.4 ± 3.5%, 24.12 ± 2.9%, and 19.5 ± 2.7% of the energy intake, respectively, and met the energy requirements of the athletes. [b]Conclusions:[/b] These results indicated that taekwondo athletes had a negative caloric balance during the pre-competition period.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA185-191 "Biomechanics of the judo backward breakfall:
           comparison between experienced and novice judokas"

    • Authors: Sentaro koshida; Takanori Ishii, Tadamitsu Matsuda, Toshihiko Hashimoto
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] Head injuries sustained during the sport of judo have gained significant public attention because of the incidence of severe cases among novice judokas in Japan. The judo backward breakfall skill may play an important role in decreasing the number of head injuries. Therefore, more effective ways to acquire appropriate judo backward breakfall skills are needed, and this requires a greater understanding of the breakfall movement. The aim of the study was to investigate the kinematics and muscle activation patterns during a judo backward breakfall in experienced and novice judokas. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] Eleven experienced judokas and 13 novice judo judokas volunteered for the study. Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected while participants performed five sets of backward breakfalls. We documented head-, neck-, trunk-, hip and knee-angle time profiles and electromyographic activities of the sternocleidmastoid, external oblique and rectus abdominis muscles during breakfalls. [b]Results:[/b] We found significant difference in the knee joint motion during the judo backward breakfall between the experienced and novice judokas. However, there were no significant differences in the activation patterns of any muscles between the experienced and novice judokas. In addition, the timing of hand impact appeared to coincide with the timing of peak head linear acceleration. [b]Conclusion:[/b] The knee joint movement and the hand impact skill may be important components of the judo backward breakfall motion.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA179-183 "Competence of people conducting yoga classes
           in Poland – analysis based of websites information"

    • Authors: Leslaw Kulmatycki; Krystyna Boron-Krupinska
      Abstract: [b]Background and Aim of the Study:[/b] It is assessed that in Poland about 40-50 thousand people do yoga regularly and over one thousand yoga instructors are needed to satisfy the demand. The aim of this study was the knowledge about competence of yoga teachers in Poland providing open yoga classes. The specific goal is the answer to the questions: Who are the teachers of yoga' What are their education, experience and qualifications to carry out such activities' [b]Material & Methods:[/b] Our analysis was based of websites information included175centreswho specialize in yoga classes. The number of yoga teachers and instructors analysed in the study was 463, women (n=323) and men (n=140). Their age range was between 20 and 60 years. [b]Results: [/b]Compared to 2005, the number of schools increased from56 to175Mostcentreswere in the big cities, such as Warsaw, Krakow and Wroclaw and majority of the yoga instructors were women. Majority of leaders were from sport sciences field mostly physiotherapists and recreation instructors. Professional competencies of people conducting yoga classes in Poland is given more frequently than in the study carried out in 2005. In this study (2012) 50% of people conducting yoga classes write about specialized qualifications. It is progress to compare with only 40% seven years ago. [b]Conclusions:[/b] By comparing data from two studies suggest that yoga in Poland is growing fast. Also the people running yoga classes are more competent and better prepared to conduct classes.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA147-152 "The value of non-sport-specific
           characteristics for talent orientation in young male judo, karate and
           taekwondo athletes"

    • Authors: Johan Pion; Job Fransen, Matthieu Lenoir, Veerle Segers
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] The present study aims to discriminate young male taekwondo, judo, and karate athletes from two age groups. It is hypothesized that a generic test battery (i.e. consisting of non-sport specific items) can allocate athletes in their respective sports. It is also expected that due to training and experience, differences between sports would be larger in the oldest age group. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] Fifty-six highly trained taekwondo, judo, and karate athletes U13 (11.596 ± 0.578 years; n = 30) and U18 (16.097 ± 0.844 years; n = 26) completed five anthropometrical, six physical performance and three motor coordination tests. Discriminant analyses were used to investigate relevant performance measures while MANOVAs were conducted to elucidate the differences between taekwondo, judo and karate. [b]Results:[/b] The classification results for both discriminant analyses U13 and U18 showed a perfect classification (100%) of the athletes in their respective sports. U18 showed higher multivariate differences between the three martial arts i.e. for anthropometrical measures (F2.148, P =0.044, ES =0.36), physical performance characteristics (F2.216, P =0.033, ES =0.43) and motor coordination (F6.697, P <0.001, ES =0.49) when compared to their younger counterparts. Judo athletes had the highest scores for sit and reach, handgrip, counter movement jump and balance beam. While taekwondo athletes had the highest scores for sit-ups, sprint 5m and 30m and jumping sideways. [b]Conclusions: [/b]Generic talent characteristics allow for a successful discrimination between judo, taekwondo and karate athletes, while the differences between the martial arts profiles are more pronounced in older athletes.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA141-146 "Differences in gripping configurations
           during the execution of throwing techniques between male and female cadets
           at the European Judo Championship"

    • Authors: Husnija Kajmovic; Izet Rađo, Amel Mekic, Branislav Crnogorac, Ekrem Colakhodzic
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] Gripping (kumi kata) constitutes a very important segment of judo fights and fist contact in said fights, based on which the opponent is controlled and dominated during the fight. The goal of this research is the knowledge about differences in gripping configurations between male and female cadets during the execution of throws at a competition. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] The analysis included 470 gripping configurations of male cadets and 350 gripping configurations of female cadets at the 2008 European Judo Championship, held in Sarajevo. For the purpose of establishing differences in frequencies, a Chi-square test with a statistical significance of p≤0.05 was used. [b]Results:[/b] By analyzing the application of different gripping configurations during the execution of throws among male and female cadets, statistically important differences were identified (p<0.05). Male cadets dominate in the same grip and sleeve end grip, whereas female cadets dominate in the opposite gripping configuration. Sukui nage is the most frequent technique in the case of male cadets, from the same, 11,3% and opposite grip, 6,0%, and in the case of female cadets, from the same grip, 6,0%. The ippon seoi nage throw technique is a technique that was mostly used by both groups (6,4% – 5,4%) in the case of the sleeve end grip, whereas the o uchi gari technique 6,3% was mostly used by female cadets in the opposite grip. [b]Conclusions: [/b]A well-developed effort to establish a grip may be one of the key factors in the final results of the fight. By learning the different configurations of grips and techniques that can be applied, the contestants have better possibilities of succeeding in competitions.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA159-164 "Changes in body composition, anthropometric
           indicators and maximal strength due to weight reduction in judo"

    • Authors: Klára Coufalová; Darryl James Cochrane, Tomáš Malý, Jan Heller
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] The pre-competitive weight reduction is very common in combat sports and it can have negative impact not only on performance but also on health. The purpose of this study was the knowledge about the impact weight reduction pre-competitive judo on indicators of body composition, anthropometric variables and maximum isometric strength. The purpose of this study was to know about the effects of weight reduction pre-competitive judo on indicators of body composition, anthropometric variables and maximum isometric strength. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] Nine national level Czech judoists (mean age 22.3 ± 2.4 years) from five weight categories (except category -100 and +100) took part in this study. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometrical indicators from skinfold thickness and body circumferences. Maximal isometric strength was assessed in upper and lower extremities, trunk and handgrip. All participants were assessed before reduction and then in the last day of body weight reduction. These two occasions were 5 days apart. [b]Results:[/b] A reduction of body weight of 4.6% (an average 3.4 kg) was observed with the greatest changes were detected in the fat free mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW). No significant change in body fat was detected. Weight reduction was also reflected in changes of skinfold thickness and body circumferences. A significant decrease in maximal trunk strength was observed, but the weight reduction did not affect the maximal isometric strength of upper or lower extremities. [b]Conclusions[/b]: Ideally, athletes should reduce body fat without decreasing skeletal musculature. Although we didn’t find any significant decrease of maximal isometric strength, we suppose that strength endurance can be greatly influenced.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA169-174 "Physiological and psychological performance
           of Taekwondo Athletes is more affected by rapid than by gradual weight
           reduction"

    • Authors: Woo-Hwi Yang; Marijke Grau, Pilsang Kim, Anke Schmitz, Oliver Heine, Wilhelm Bloch, Joachim Mester
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]The results of previous studies regarding the impact of different forms of weight reduction on performance capacity are not consistent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was the knowledge about the effects of RWR and GWR in Taekwondo athletes on physiological and psychological changes and performance with the sport specific investigation. [b]Materials and Methods:[/b] After baseline measurements, participants reduced weight by 5% within four days (RWR) followed by subsequent measurements. Additional measurements were performed one day post RWR followed by another two baseline measurements in the following weeks before the participants had to reduce 5% of their weight within four weeks (GWR). A final measurement was conducted one day post GWR. Anthropometry, vertical jumps, kick-frequencies and lactate production rate were assessed. Blood glucose, creatine kinase, creatinine, urea and electrolytes were analysed reflecting physiological changes after weight reduction. The psychological analyses comprised an adjective list of Perceived Physical State (PEPS). [b]Results:[/b] Body weight and water were significantly decreased after RWR and GWR (p<0.01) but body fat was only significantly decreased after GWR (p<0.01). Vertical jumps were significantly higher after RWR and kick-frequencies were higher after GWR (p<0.01). The impairments of blood indicators and scale values of PEPS were more predominant in RWR (p<0.05, p<0.01). [b]Conclusions:[/b] Overall, better results regarding physiological and psychological performances were achieved after GWR. Trainers and athletes should schedule GWR to achieve the desired weight prior to a competition so that a potential decline in performance can be avoided.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA107-112 "Three-dimensional assessment of the judo
           throwing techniques frequently used in competition"

    • Authors: Luis Santos; Javier Fernández-Río, María Luisa Ruiz, Miguel Del Valle, Mike Callan, Bob Challis, Stanislaw Sterkowicz
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] Although the judo throwing techniques are not considered as injurious to the attacker, repetition of these techniques might cause repetitive strain type injuries. The goal of the study was knowledge about the degrees of flexion and extension and abduction and adduction of the main locomotive joints, performing the most employed throwing techniques in high-level competition. [b]Material and Methods: [/b]Two world-class judoists, under the supervision of an elite Japanese expert, performed [i]seoi-nage, uchi-mata, osoto-gari, ouchi-gari [/i]and[i] kouchi-gari.[/i] They were analysed using three-dimensional technology. [b]Results: [/b]Data of performance throws obtained from expert 1 and 2 respectively were very similar. Results indicate that systematic repetition of [i]seoi-nage, uchi-mata[/i] and [i]o-soto-gari[/i] can produce shoulder tendon pathologies. Long-term [i]seoi-nage[/i] and [i]uchi-mata [/i]practice might generate epicondylitis. [i]Judokas [/i]who have suffered anterior cruciate ligament injuries must be careful when executing techniques that demand explosive knee extension (i.e. [i]seoi-nage[/i]) against a great resistance. [i]Judokas[/i] are not exposed to overuse injuries when they perform [i]ouchi-gari[/i] and [i]kouchi-gari [/i]throws. [b]Conclusions:[/b] Systematic practice of the most employed judo throwing techniques in high-level judo can cause injuries by overuse in the upper-body joints (shoulder, elbow). Nevertheless, the lower-body joints (knee, ankle) do not seem to be at risk of injury by overuse.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:3787-92 "Technical and Tactical Characteristic of
           Japanese High Level Women Kendo Players: a Comparative Analysis"

    • Authors: Mitsuru Nakamura; Yukiko Takami, Masaki Nakano, Kiyoshi Ito, Naoya Maekawa, Masahiro Tamura
      Abstract: [b]Background & Study Aim: [/b]Female kendo practitioners’ technical and tactical abilities have steadily improved since the 10th World Kendo Championship held in 1997, when a dedicated women’s competition class was created. However, exercise methodologies and injury prevention techniques have not evolved in tandem. The current study is meant to provide kendo practitioners, coaches, and managers with information essential to tailoring their exercise and injury prevention programs to female kendo practitioners. The aim of the study is to assess whether women differ from men in terms of technical and tactical aspects of competition outcomes. [b]Material & Methods:[/b] Sixty matches from the 50th All Japan Women’s Kendo Championship and 60 men’s matches from the 45th All Japan Men’s Kendo Championship were analyzed using DVDs. Specifically, the following aspects were analyzed: technique categories, spatial distance, counter attack, datotsu-bui (target points), body and shinai (bamboo sword) movement, and ratio of points awarded based on the total number of attacks. These data were analyzed by three kendo experts who hold 7th ,5th ,4th dan. [b]Results: [/b]Point scoring attacks were comparatively fewer in women’s competitions than in men’s. Female competitors also attacked in closer spatial distance relative to their male counterparts. Finally, women attacked primarily by stepping forward in a defensive stance while waving the shinai side to side in close proximity to the opponent’s body. [b]Conclusions:[/b] Women’s tactics differed markedly from that of men’s. It is recommended that female kendo practitioners employ an exercise regimen that accounts for the fundamental differences between the male and female physique.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA67-73 "Does the reaction time to visual stimuli
           contribute to performance in judo'"

    • Authors: Adrian Cojocariu; Beatrice Abalasei
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]Previous studies suggest the choice reaction time to visual stimuli is very important in practice of judo and can be improved by training. The aim of this study is the contribution to the performance in judo of simple and choice reaction time to visual stimuli, to the upper limbs and also to identify the differences between the populations, because we consider that acoustic, vestibular, tactile and kinaesthetic stimuli could also be involved in making quick decisions during the judo fights. [b]Material and methods: [/b]We used a total of 28 male subjects, aged 18-25, taken from two groups respectively. The first group (control) was composed of 20 students in physical education and sport (group 1), the second group was composed of 8 athletes practicing judo with great experience (group 2). The method used allows indirect measurement of reaction time. [b]Results[/b]: The simple reaction time has similar values to all the research groups (238.79±6.8 ms to group 1 and 233.6±5.0 ms to group 2). Also, the choice reaction time to group 2 (404.19±11.0 ms at the dominant hand and 409.0±13.6 ms at the non-dominant hand) is not significantly lower (p>0.05) as compared to group 1 (421.34±9.5 ms and 425.9±10.2 ms). We also have not found significant differences between the dominant and non-dominant hands (p>0.05). [b]Conclusions[/b]: The results of the study are probably due to the specific training and competition within judo, where the visual receptors probably have not an essential contribution to performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA47-55 "Exercise domain profile through pulmonary gas
           exchange response during Kendo practice by men"

    • Authors: Andrei Sancassani; Dalton Muller Pessoa Filho
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim[/b]: The metabolic rate demanded during the practice of Kendo techniques has not been reported, despite of it importance to physical training program. This study aimed to characterize exercise intensity during Kendo practice based on pulmonary gas exchange profiles. [b]Material and Methods[/b]: Nine skilled male athletes (29.7&plusmn;7.7 years, 174.9&plusmn;9.1cm, 82.1&plusmn;14.9kg body weight) underwent the following protocols: (1) body composition via DXA, (2) progressive treadmill test to assess VO[sub]2[/sub]max, gas exchange threshold (GET) and respiratory compensation point (RCP), and (3) Kendo techniques (11 for warm-ups and 31 for Waza). The techniques were performed twice, with a 24h break in between. The VO[sub]2[/sub] value was obtained using K4b2 (COSMED[sup]®[/sup]) technology, and heart rate (HR) was recorded by 420sd (Polar[sup]®[/sup]) frequencimeter. [b]Results[/b]: The VO[sub]2[/sub] profile reached 84.7&plusmn;13.5% VO[sub]2[/sub]max and 85.3&plusmn;17.2% VO[sub]2[/sub]max at the end of Warm-up and Waza protocols, respectively. VCO[sub]2[/sub] showed the same profile: 83.5&plusmn;9.40% and 81.1&plusmn;13.7% VCO[sub]2[/sub]max for Warm-up and Waza. However, HR (97.8&plusmn;3.3% and 103.4&plusmn;3.6% HRmax) and V[sub]E[/sub] (90.1&plusmn;15.6 and 107.8&plusmn;13.2% V[sub]E[/sub]max) elicited values that were trunked to maximum rates at the end of Warm-up and Waza. The RER values at the end of Warm-up (1.19&plusmn;0.15) and Waza (1.16&plusmn;0.05) were greater than 1.1. All variables did not differ from their respective maximum rate values at the end of Warm-up and Waza (r£0.05, ANOVA with Tukey as post-hoc). [b]Conclusions[/b]: Thus, VO[sub]2[/sub] and VCO[sub]2[/sub] profiles classified the Kendo practice as a heavy domain exercise, while HR, V[sub]E[/sub] and RER classified it as a heavy-to-severe domain exercise.
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2014 0:0 EST
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10: ""

    • Authors: Andrzej Knapik; Edward Saulicz, Michał Kuszewski, Jerzy Rottermund, Mirosław Kokosz, Mariola Saulicz
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10: ""

    • Authors: Robert Michnik; Jacek Jurkojć, Piotr Wodarski, Marek Gzik, Andrzej Bieniek
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA127-132 "Weight categories do not prevent athletes
           from Relative Age Effect: an analysis of Olympic Games wrestlers"

    • Authors: Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque; Varley Teoldo da Costa, Larissa Oliveira Faria, Mariana Calábria Lopes, Guilherme Menezes Lage, Dariusz Sledziewski, Leszek Antoni Szmuchrowski, Emerson Franchini
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] Relative Age Effects (RAE) refer to the effects of age differences among individuals who have been grouped together. This study aimed is knowledge about RAE in Olympic Games wrestlers to analyse its effects on all athletes, styles, and medallists, considering males and females separately. [b]Material and Methods: [/b]The names and birthdates of the Olympic wrestlers were collected from open-access websites. In this study, we analysed male and female competitors separately. [b]Results:[/b] The main results of this investigation were the presence of RAE in all styles, freestyle medallists, and freestyle main medalling countries, only in male athletes. [b]Conclusions:[/b] Thus, in a selected group of wrestlers who had participated at the highest competitive level, RAE were in all styles, only in male athletes. In addition, our data suggest that RAE cannot be eliminate only by weight categories.
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10: ""

    • Authors: Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień; Tadeusz Ambroży, Marian Jasiński, Andrzej Kędra
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10: ""

    • Authors: Bartłomiej J Barczyński
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10: ""

    • Authors: Dariusz Boguszewski
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA57-65 "Effects of a 90-minute wrestling training on
           the selected features of the shape of spine and pelvis under load"

    • Authors: Alicja Kaiser; Marek Sokołowski, Mirosław Mrozkowiak
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] The ability to transfer vertical load is conditioned, among others, by the symmetry of the spine in the frontal plane and by the optimal values of angles of physiological curvatures in the sagittal plane. The repeatability and intensity of exercise in modern competitive sports require a great deal of “resilience” of the skeletal system, each discipline having a substantial, specific impact on the load-bearing functions of the skeleton. Sports training can result in the development of disorders associated with excessive load, especially concerning young organisms. The aim of the present study is the impact of the 90-minute wrestling workout on some selected features of the shape of the spine and pelvis under the conditions of increased load for reasons of health of young female wrestlers. [b]Material and methods:[/b] The examinations were carried out in February 2012 among 30 female wrestlers from the Polish National Wrestling Team (mean ± SD, age: 16,8±1,21 years; body height: 163±5,77 cm; body mass: 54,1±9,28 kg). The method was based on assessing angle values and lengths of the spine in three planes, and on evaluating the pelvis in the frontal and transverse planes. The examination was carried out before and after a specialist training. Evaluation of the selected spinal features was carried out using a test stand for computer analysis of body posture (Posturometer M). [b]Results:[/b] High and medium statistically significant changes occurred among the examined population of female wrestlers as an effect of axial load on the sagittal plane. Insignificant changes were found in the frontal and transverse planes. Very significant changes were observed in the inclination angle in the lumbosacral region (Alpha), the total of partial angles (Delta), the total length of the spine (DCK), the length (DKP), height (RKP) and depth (GKP) of thoracic kyphosis as well as the angle (KLL) and height (RLL) of lumbar lordosis. [b]Conclusions: [/b]Training regimes in base training for female wrestlers should incorporate correction of deficits in ranges of motion in hip and shoulder joints, strength endurance of hip extensor muscles and the muscles of upper thoracic part of body trunk. Wrestling training for female wrestlers should focus more on preventing back pain and stimulating a general endurance of the body.
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA37-46 "The diversity of body composition, body
           proportions and strength abilities of female judokas in different weight
           categories"

    • Authors: Aleksandra Stachoń; Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Anna Burdukiewicz, Justyna Andrzejewska
      Abstract: [b]Background & Study Aim: [/b]Athletes who belong to the same weight category do not have to possess the identical body build and body composition, since body mass consists of a number of different components. The aim of the study was to find out weather female judokas in different weight categories varied regard to the contributions of particular body components, relative size characterizing musculature and skeletal massiveness and also strength abilities. [b]Material & Methods:[/b] The study material consisted of results of anthropological and body composition measurements of 50 female judo competitors, aged 16-20 years, included in the three weight divisions adopted in judo (lightweight, middleweight, heavyweight). The different anthropometric indices were calculated and the somatotypes according to Sheldon’s typology as modified by Heath and Carter were determined. The body composition was also examined with the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis. The athletes’ handgrip strength was also measured. Results: The examined female judokas in the lightweight, middleweight and heavyweight categories differed from each other not only in terms of their body mass but also in a number of somatic features. The BIA showed that the heavyweight competitors had higher body fat mass and more massive body build than their counterparts from the two other weight categories. Also the SANOVA revealed significant differences between the somatotypes of judokas in various weight categories. The middleweight judokas had the greatest absolute handgrip strength despite the fact that they had medium content of muscle mass. [b]Conclusions:[/b] The analyzed weight categories of female judokas differed in body massiveness, fatness and musculature. It can be stated that the division of competitors into weight categories is fully justified in martial arts such as judo. The increase in body mass occurs mainly through the increase in fat mass, while muscle mass and skeletal robustness have little impact on excessive body mass. The handgrip strength in female judokas is not strictly depend on the contribution of muscle mass.
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA29-34 "Factors influencing the effectiveness of axe
           kick in taekwon-do"

    • Authors: Jacek Wąsik; Gongbing Shan
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim: [/b]Taekwon-do is famous for its powerful kicking techniques and the axe kick is the challenging one, aiming at kicking high section of an opponent. The relevance of the skill in the traditional version of taekwon-do is that a single strike might happen to reveal the winner. The main aims of the study were 1) the kinematic characteristics of the axe kick using motion capture technology and 2) the kinematics conditions leading to maximization of kick effectiveness. [b]Material and Methods[/b]: Six International Taekwon-do Federation (ITF) practitioners participated in the study and each of them performed the axe kick (neryo chagi) three times. Using a 3D motion capture technology, selected parameters such as maximum kick foot velocity, durations of take-off, the upswing, the downswing as well as the whole kick and the kick leg angle at maximum velocity were quantitatively determined. The basic descriptive statistics (means & standard deviations) and correlation analyses were performed for revealing the dominant factors related to the kick. [b]Results: [/b]The results indicate that the maximum kick power appears around 45º of the kick leg to vertical direction or 85-89% of one’s body height (i.e. the optimal offence/attack height) during the downswing. The variation of the optimal offense height depends on one’s body height, gender and race. And the keys for increasing the kick effectiveness are balanced weight transfer, large hip ROM for pre-lengthening hip extensors and follows an explosive foot downswing for maximizing kick-foot power. [b]Conclusions:[/b] The following conclusions have been made on the ba¬sis of the above observations: the maximal kick power occurs around 45° of the kick-leg to the vertical direction during the downswing; shortening the downswing phase could increase the axe kick quality further.
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA23-28 "Postural patterns and adaptations in judo
           athletes"

    • Authors: Wagner Castropil; Carla Arnoni
      Abstract: [b]Background and Study Aim:[/b] Regular practice results in physiological and postural adaptations that may correlate with a higher incidence of injuries in some sports. The postural adaptations in judo are not well understood. The aim of this study was the common posture patterns and misalignments of high-level judo athletes. [b]Material and Methods:[/b] The postures of 50 judo athletes (23 men and 27 women) were evaluated using a posture grid and plumb line. Full analysis was performed on 37 subjects (19 women and 18 men). This posture analysis method was chosen because it is accessible and can be easily applied by health professionals supporting athletes in the field. [b]Results:[/b] Only one athlete did not have any misalignment. The most common postural patterns observed were flat foot (80%), shoulder lateral asymmetry (70%), winged scapula (54%), and forward head posture (58%), all of which are likely to be related to the repetitive movements and sustained positions that are specific to judo. [b]Conclusions[/b]: This study provides the first complete description of postural patterns in judo athletes. Understanding the unique postural patterns and adaptations in judo will help improve training protocols to enhance performance while preventing injuries.
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA17-22 "Coping strategies used by professional combat
           sports fighters vs. untrained subjects"

    • Authors: Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień; Ewa Grygiel
      Abstract: [b]Background and study aim:[/b] Strenuous training regimes and participation in combat sports competitions might lead to experiencing repeated stress and use of individual coping strategies to alleviate stress. Hence the goal of the present study was to address the question of whether gender and many-year practicing combat sports are correlated with coping strategies. [b]Material and methods:[/b] The investigations covered Kyokushin karate national team (15 men and 7 women, and 7 women from judo team). The control group consisted of 28 men and 14 women who studied physical education but did not practice the sport at a competitive level. They were subjected to Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) developed by Norman S. Endler and James D.A. Parker. A two-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc test (least significant differences) were used for intergroup comparison of the obtained scores. Additionally, the distribution of the number of high assessments in individual coping strategies in men and women compared to the standards (stens) using Chi2 test with Yates correction was analysed. Significance level was set at 5%. [b]Results:[/b] A dominant coping strategy was task-oriented strategy. The intergroup differences were found for emotion-oriented strategy (men=42.3 vs. women=47.9, F=8.54, p<0.01) and avoidance-oriented strategy, between the persons who train at a competitive level and the untrained controls (46.3 vs. 52.9 points, F=8.54, p<0.01) and the subscale of this strategy, i.e. distraction strategies (21.1 vs. 23.9, F=5.25, p<0.05). Intensification of the task-oriented coping strategy did not correlate to other coping strategies. Chi2 -test confirmed characteristic differences between the groups of men and women. [b]Conclusions:[/b] Independently of gender or professional practicing of combat sports, a personality trait which allows a contestant to reduce the effect of stress is to focus on the performed task. The women who practice the sport tend to focus on their emotions more often. Men cope with stress by choosing the behaviours characteristic of different strategies more frequently than women.
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA11-16 "The meaning of taijiquan from the Chen family
           in physical activity of Poles"

    • Authors: Józef Bergier; Robert Panasiuk, Michał Bergier
      Abstract: [b]Background & Study Aim: [/b]The wushu martial arts have a long history, and the effect of this long tradition is a number of new schools and styles. The main aim of the paper is to extend the knowledge on the meaning of taijiquan from the Chen family, for the people in Poland who prefer this kind of physical activity. [b]Material & methods: [/b]The study was conducted on 110 persons aged 20-90 (the average age amounted to 45.2 years), including 72 males and 38 females who practise taijiquan in various centres in Poland. The authors used their own straw poll, composed of 12 questions (6 open-ended questions and 6 closed-ended ones), and the specification. [b]Results:[/b] The main motive of taking up taijiquan by Poles is health improvement and fitness, as well as the interest in Oriental martial arts. For most practitioners it is, first of all, “internal martial art”, a form of Far Eastern meditation, the philosophy of life in today’s urbanized civilization. It is a form of physical activity available in Poland regardless of the age and occupation, becoming an integral part of their lifestyle and the only preferred form of physical activity. [b]Conclusions: [/b]The findings lead to the conclusion that taijiquan is such an attractive martial art in terms of health benefits that its further popularization may become the only or one of the main “life sports” not only for Poles.
       
  • Arch Budo 2014; 10:OA1-7 "Judo Kumi-te Pattern and Technique Effectiveness
           Shifts after the 2013 International Judo Federation Rule Revision"

    • Authors: Kiyoshi Ito; Nobuyoshi Hirose, Mitsuru Nakamura, Naoya Maekawa, Masahiro Tamura
      Abstract: [b]Background & Study Aim:[/b] Breaking the opponent’s grasp using both hands, failure to engage the opponent promptly at the outset of the match, and delaying the progression of the competition through evading the opponent’s attempts at kumi-te all became prohibited under a 2013 rule revision. Violations of these rules result in a shido penalty. This rule revision will affect both the application frequency of kumi-te and competitors’ technique selection and attack patterns. Previous studies have not explored the relationship between kumi-te and the effectiveness of throwing techniques in full. This study aim is a knowledge about the effects of kumi-te, with an emphasis on application frequency, on scored techniques through a comparative analysis of matches before and after the 2013 rule revision. [b]Material & Methods:[/b] Three hundred eighty six men’s contests from the 2012 Grand Slam Tokyo and 2013 Grand Slam Paris were examined using All Japan Judo Federation DVDs. Data used in the analysis was taken only from techniques that were scored. The attack efficiency index formula introduced by Adam and a t-test were used in combination to conduct a comparative analysis of the contests. [b]Results:[/b] Techniques performed after three applications of kumi-te resulted in significantly higher attack efficiency indexes for 2013 competitions compared to those in 2012 (P<0.01). Specifically, the attack efficiency index results were significantly higher in regards to combination, counter, and yoko-sutemi-waza tactics (P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). [b]Conclusions:[/b] Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that judo practitioners and their trainers develop new strategies that incorporate three applications of kumi-te. Furthermore, technique selection and tactical planning to counter anticipated changes in opponent’s techniques after rule revisions are crucial to scoring in and winning contests.
       
 
 
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