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Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1023-9510 - ISSN (Online) 2008-2843
     Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]   [SJR: 0.104]   [H-I: 2]
  • The Effects of Separate and Combined Stress during Pregnancy on Motor
           Learning of Offspring of Rats

    • Authors: Mohammad Sofiabadi, Farzad Rajaei, Hasan Azhdari-Zarmehri, Elaheh Atashgar, Fatemeh Ghadimi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Today, due to the modern industrial life of human beings, stress has become prevalent among them and they will suffer from its complications. Exposure to stress during pregnancy can change many babies' normal physiological processes. The separate and combined effects of three common types of prenatal stress were investigated on motor learning of male offspring of rats. Methods: In the present study, pregnant NMRI rats were used. Except the control group, the other groups were stressed on the eighth day of gestation for 10 days. The motor learning of 40 male offspring rats were tested using the rotarod performance test 75 days after the experiment. The length of time that each rat could maintain its balance was recorded automatically. The study groups included control, electromagnetic field stress (intensity 1.2 mT, 50 Hz), immobility stress (for 0.5 hour - 2 times/day), social stress (6 rats kept in a small cage), and combined stress (all 3 of the above stresses). Data were analyzed by using multiple comparisons and Tukey’s tests. Results: The motor balance of the combined stress group was lower than the control, at first timing of the first test day (P < 0.05). In the next few days of the test, the effects of stress on learning of experimental groups were not similar. Combined stress reduced motor learning. Learning fluctuations were higher in electromagnetic field stress group compared to the other groups. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that prenatal combined stress can reduce motor learning of children.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • The Protective Effect of Voluntary Exercise on the Hippocampal Cerebral
           Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor Level against Intraventricular Injection of
           6-hydroxydopamine in Rats

    • Authors: Zia Fallah-Mohammadi, Jalil Aslani, Razieh Mohammadi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: The purpose of this research was to study the protective effect of pretreatment with a voluntary exercise on hippocampal level of cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) after damage induced by intraventricular injection of 6–hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of healthy control, healthy exercise, Parkinson control, and Parkinson training group (6 rats in each group). The rats in the training group were kept in special cages with running wheels for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, 6-OHDA was injected into the right ventricle of the brain and five days after intraventricular injection, sampling was performed and CDNF level of the hippocampus was measured by ELISA method. Data were analyzed and compared statistically by ANOVA test. Results: Findings showed that 6-OHDA has decreased CDNF protein content in the hippocampus of Parkinsonian rats compared with healthy controls (P = 0.011). CDNF level of the Parkinson training group was higher than the Parkinson control group (P = 0.050). Conclusion: The findings of the present study show that pretreatment with voluntary exercise can increase CDNF level in the hippocampus, and thus, increase neuronal resistance against oxidative destruction caused by 6-OHDA toxicity. Therefore, it can be said that it has protective effects against Parkinson disease.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • Development and Validation of a Metacognitive-Cognitive-Behavioral Model
           for Explaining Trichotillomania

    • Authors: Mehdi Rabiei, Masoud Nikfarjam, Nezamodin Ghasemi, Kazem Khorramdel
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Trichotillomania (TTM) is an unknown disorder and resistant to treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the new metacognitive-cognitive-behavioral model for trichotillomania. Methods: The present study was a description and correlation study. In this study, 635 participants (304 male and 331 female) were selected. The participants completed the Massachusetts general hospital hair pulling scale (MGH-HPS), dysfunctional attitude scale (DAS), cognitive distortion scale (CDS), automatic thought questionnaire (ATQ), metacognition questionnaire (MCQ), and the obsessive-compulsive behavior scale (OCBS). For reliability assessment of the factor structure of the metacognitive-cognitive-behavioral model, the structural equation modeling analysis was used by AMOS software. Results: The results of the structural equation modeling supported a metacognitive-cognitive-behavioral model for trichotillomania. Moreover, the results showed that the model had the best fit to the data and was closely related to the theoretical assumptions. Conclusion: The model presented in this study illustrates a multidimensional approach that focuses on the metacognitive, cognitive, and behavioral dimensions; hence, the model presented in this study is a new explanatory model. This model may prompt future research into trichotillomania and facilitate clinical treatment and case formulation.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • Prevalence of Atopic Eczema in Infants under Two Years Referring to the
           Vaccination Ward of the Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    • Authors: Mohammad Nabavi, Vida Sherafati
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic disease recognized as a threat to public health. Atopic dermatitis is often observed in people with individual or family history of allergic diseases. Due to the importance of this disease and its early diagnosis, and the very limited number of studies on this topic, the current study was performed on the prevalence of atopic dermatitis on infants under 2 years of age. Methods: This was an analytic cross-sectional study from January 2010 to February 2011. All infants referred to Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital (Tehran, Iran) for vaccination were enrolled in the study. Patients with atopic dermatitis, by permission of their parents, underwent Prick test for identification of the allergy type. Results: In the present study, 380 infants were enrolled with mean age of 9.9 ± 6.6 months (217 boys and 163 girls). Patients were classified into two groups based on atopic dermatitis (48 positive for eczema and 332 negative for it). Of the 48 subjects of the positive group, 31 agreed to take the Prick test. The results showed that 11 patients (35.5%) were allergic to cow milk, 6 patients (19.3%) to almond, 4 patients (12.9%) to rice and egg's yolk, 3 patients (9.7%) to egg white, 2 patients (6.5%) to fish, soybean, potato, and sesame, and 1 patient (3.2%) to wheat flour. Conclusion: It seems that the outbreak of atopic dermatitis in children is relatively high, and avoidable factors play a role in its occurrence. Hence, based on the examined Prick tests, It seems that the occurrence and exacerbation of the disease can be controlled and its progression into asthma prevented by decreasing or removing food allergens and factors involved in the patient's disease process.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • The Effect of Consumption of Unhealthy Snacks on Diet and the Risk of
           Metabolic Syndrome in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, Iran

    • Authors: Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Sahar Mirzaee, Hossein Delshad, Fereidoun Azizi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Unhealthy snacks contain high amounts of calories, simple sugars, fat, cholesterol, salt, additives, and conservatives. Increased consumption of these unhealthy snacks is one of the underlying factors for the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of unhealthy snacks on diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome after 3-years of follow-up in Tehranian adults. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on men and women in Tehran, Iran. Dietary intakes of participants were measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for confounding factors were used to estimate the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in each quartile of unhealthy snacks. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.8 ± 12.3 years, and the mean of body mass index was 26.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2. Moreover, 39% of the participants were male. Daily energy intake, dietary energy density, and total fat and sodium intake were higher in the fourth quartile of unhealthy snacks consumption. There was a significant decreasing trend in dietary intake of carbohydrate, calcium, zinc, selenium, and fiber parallel to increase in consumption of energy-dense snacks. Participants who were in the highest quartile of energy intake from unhealthy snacks consumed less whole grains, vegetables, and dairy products. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of metabolic syndrome had a significant positive association with salty snacks consumption, and a non-significant positive association with consumption of candies, chocolate, and soft drinks. Conclusion: Increased daily energy intake from unhealthy snacks could be a risk factor for the occurrence of metabolic syndrome.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • A Study of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 and CD31 Expression through
           Immunohistochemistry in Invasive Breast Cancer

    • Authors: Shahriar Dabiri, Nahid Monsefi, Gholamreza Narouii, Amin Talebi, Manzoumeh Shamsi-Meymandi, Bahram Pourseidi, Hamid Zainalinejad
      Abstract: Background & Aims: This study was performed to investigate possible relationships between the manifestation of stromal cells (fibroblasts and/or myofibroblasts) by focusing on expression of their matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and possible angiogenesis based on CD31 and CD34 antigen expression during the various steps of hyperplastic changes to precancerous state and invasive breast cancer. Methods: Our study included 50 females with invasive ductal carcinoma. Samples were obtained by mastectomy or biopsy and were immunohistochemically stained for the MMP9, CD31, and CD34 antibody. microvessel count (MVC) was also carried out on samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using ANOVA and Student's t-test (P < 0.05). Findings were compared with our "Breast Cancer Data Bank" for reevaluation of their clinical staging. Results: Positive significant correlations were observed between expression of MMP9 and invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and fibrocystic disease ± ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (FCD ± DIN) areas (P=0.001). MMP9 expression in invasive areas was more strongly positive than precancerous areas. Statistically significant correlations were observed between MMP9 expression and CD31 in grade II in invasive areas. MVC was evaluated by CD31 antibody. It was found to be inversely related to increased MVC from invasive areas, DCIS, DIN, and normal areas (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in MVC based on age, tumor size or steroid receptors in stroma of an invasive cancer, DCIS, and FCD ± DIN. Conclusion: MMP9 expression in invasive areas was more strongly positive than precancerous areas, and negative in normal areas. Angiogenesis can be observed before any significant changes in preinvasive breast lesions. The elevated content of microvessel count of the tumor may be an indicator for worse prognostic factor. The progression from epithelial hyperplasia toward DCIS, and then, invasive carcinoma seems too complex to be assumed a linear progression.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • Assessment of Oral Glycine and Lysine Therapy on Receptor for Advanced
           Glycation End Products and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Expression in
           the Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats in Comparison with
           Normal Rats

    • Authors: Somayeh Sadat Heidary, Sayedeh Zahra Bathaie, Fereshteh Bahmani, Gholamreza Moshtaghi Kashanian
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Today, diabetic nephropathy is considered to be one of the most common causes of end stage renal disease. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia, and consequently, production of advanced glycation end products activate pathways which play key roles in diabetic nephropathy. Among these pathways, high expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) are notable. In this study, in order to find compounds which can prevent the incidence or progression of diabetic nephropathy, we examined the effects of glycine and lysine amino acids on expression of RAGE and TGFβ in kidney tissue of diabetic rats. Methods: After rendering rats with diabetes with streptozotocin (STZ), they were divided into different groups and were treated with oral 1% glycine and 0.1% lysine in drinking water for 12 weeks. Blood glucose and serum AGEs were measured during this time. Changes in RAGE and TGFβ expression were assessed by semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results: Results show that both glycine and lysine administration for 12 weeks not only caused a significant reduction in blood glucose and AGEs in diabetic rats, but also led to a significant reduction in RAGE and TGFβ expression in comparison to non-treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: These results show that oral glycine and lysine, as chemical chaperones, have the ability to prevent diabetic nephropathy by decreasing RAGE and TGFβ expression. This may be due to the effect of these chemical chaperones in the reduction of hyperglycemia and serum AGEs in diabetic rats. Since the positive effects of these amino acids in diabetic nephropathy have been observed in previous studies, the determination of their dose in future studies seems necessary.  
      PubDate: 2014-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • Population Data on D7S2425 Marker in Five Ethnic Groups of the Iranian

    • Authors: Marjan Mojtabavi Naeini, Sadeq Vallian Boroujeni, Morteza Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori
      Abstract: Background & Aims: SLC26A4 gene mutations are the second identifiable genetic cause of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) after GJB2 mutations and are currently investigated in molecular diagnosis. In databases, several potential STR markers related to this region have been introduced. In this investigation, the characteristics and informativeness of D7S2425 CA repeat STR marker in SLC26A4 gene region was examined in five ethnic groups of the Iranian population. Methods: The locus was genotyped in 165 individuals of five different ethnic groups including Fars, Azari, Turkmen, Gilaki, and Arab using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and fluorescent capillary electrophoresis. In this study, the results were analyzed by GeneMarker HID, Human STR Identity software, GenePop program, and Microsatellite Tools. Results: Analysis of the allelic frequency revealed the presence of 8 alleles for D7S2425 marker in the Iranian population, of which the 246bp allele at the D7S2425 locus with 0.30% frequency was the most frequent. The 93.9% observed heterozygosity of the Gilak ethnic group was the highest among all ethnic groups. Analysis of deviations of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium demonstrated that all the ethnic groups were in equilibrium (P > 0.05) for D7S2425 locus. Finally, analysis of PIC value revealed that the D7S2425 marker could be considered as a highly informative marker in each ethnic group of the Iranian population (PIC value above 0.7). Conclusion: Our data suggested that D7S2425 could be introduced as a highly informative marker in molecular diagnosis of SLC26A4 based ARNSHL by Linkage analysis.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • The Effect of Pumpkin Seed Extract on the Spatial Learning and Memory of
           Adult Male Rats in Barnes maze

    • Authors: Zahra Tamadonfard, Leili Sepehrara, Habibalah Jouhary
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Memory and its role in learning have long been of interest to humans. Therefore, human beings have always sought ways to enhance their memory and reduce its deficit. In the present study, the effect of pumpkin seed extract on memory and learning in adult male rats were studied. Methods: The rats (weighing 180-220 g) were divided into 7 groups (n = 8); control, sham (control and sham groups had normal food and water, but a week before the test, the control group received distilled water through oral gavage), and experimental groups. The experimental groups received pumpkin seed extract in doses of 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg of body weight daily for 17 days. Training began 12 days after receiving seed extract. The extract was also administered during training. On day 18, probe trial was performed without the administration of the extract. Results: Results showed that, in the groups receiving the extract, spatial memory increased significantly
      (P < 0.05); this increase, compared to the control and sham groups, was dose dependent. Conclusion: The results indicate that administration of pumpkin seed extract, due to its content of omega fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid) and vitamins D and E, increases spatial memory and learning.
      PubDate: 2014-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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