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Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1023-9510 - ISSN (Online) 2008-2843
     Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]   [SJR: 0.104]   [H-I: 2]
  • A Survey on the Presence of Calcifying Nanoparticles in Renal Stones,
           Gallbladder Stones and Atherosclerosis Plaque

    • Authors: Amir Izadi, Elham Moslemi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Calcifying nanoparticles are different forms of calcium and phosphate in sediments. Recent evidence suggests that calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) are probably self-replicating. Several diseases are linked to nano-bacteria including kidney stones, gallbladder stone, cardiovascular plaques, oral–dental plaque, many cancers, and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of nano-bacteria in kidney stones, gallbladder stones, and atherosclerosis plaques and compare them with each other in terms of structural form. Methods: In this study, 18 samples of kidney stones, 15 gallbladder stones, and 11 samples of atherosclerosis plaque, taken by surgeons during surgery, were collected. After isolation of nano-bacteria (NB) from the sample and confirmation by scanning electron microscope (SEM), some of the samples were cultured in a solution of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) 10% and glutamate at 37 °C with 5% CO2 and 95% air for 8 weeks. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction protocol was performed in all samples. After that, they were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results: 17 cases out of 18 kidney stone samples were culture positive. Moreover, 14 cases out of 15 gallbladder stone samples and all 11 samples of atherosclerosis plaque were culture positive. Growth and the presence of CNPs were confirmed in all cases by SEM. PCR testing was performed for all samples; however, no DNA samples were detected with the primers used. Conclusion: According to the results, the presence of calcifying nanoparticles using culture methods, and observation using scanning electron microscope were confirmed. However, the existence of nucleic acid has not been confirmed in this study. Thus, more research using PCR must be performed to prove their existence. Therefore, we can say that one of the important factors in the development of kidney stones, gallbladder stones, and atherosclerosis plaques is the presence of microorganisms. Keywords: Calcifying nanoparticles, Culture, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • Determination of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 in Powdered Milk Using Modified
           Liquid Chromatography Method

    • Authors: Ali Amini, Dariush Afzali-Grooh, Mahmood Chamsaz
      Abstract: Background & Aims: In this study, using a liquid-liquid microextraction method for pre-concentration trace amounts of aflatoxins, the amount of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 in powdered milk was determined. Determination of aflatoxins was done by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detector. Method: Samples were extracted by immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up, and their eluents were used as dispersants of the subsequent DLLME, for further enrichment of aflatoxins. Various parameters (the type of elution solvent, the type and volume of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, extraction time and centrifugation time) that affect the efficiency of two steps were optimized. Results: Under the optimum conditions, the calibrations for B1 and B2 were found to be linear in the range of 0.03­­­-5.0 and 0.006-1.0 ng ml-1 with 0.98 and 0.99 coefficient of estimation (R2), respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with HPLC is a selective, simple, sensitive and effective analytical method for the pre-concentration and determination of ultra trace amounts of aflatoxins. The method is suggested for pre-concentration and determination of B1 and B2 aflatoxins in milk powder. Keywords: Aflatoxins, High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), Immunoaffinity cleanup, Powdered Milk, DLLME
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • Study of Antibacterial Effects of Different Fractions of Leaves Extract of
           Ajuga Chamaecistus Ging. Subsp. Scoparia (Bioss) Rech. f. and
           Bioautography of Effective Fraction

    • Authors: Mohammad Hasan Moshefi, Mitra Mehrabani, Mohammad Moeini, Fereshteh Saffari
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Today, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance against conventional antibiotics is increasing. Many researchers consider plants with antimicrobial properties as a good alternative. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. Subsp. Scoparia (Bioss) Rech. f. on 8 bacterial strains was investigated. Methods: The leaf extract was prepared by methanolic maceration. The concentrated, dried extract was fractionated by different solvents including petroleum ether, dichloro methane, and ethyl acetate. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude extract was performed using agar dilution method. Disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial assay of different fractions. Then, the chemical constituents of the most effective fraction were separated on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. Then, the prepared chromatograms were analyzed using immersion bioautography. Results: According to disk diffusion method, ethyl acetate fraction had stronger antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. Bioautography of this fraction showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in Rf = 0.9. However, all tested bacteria had inhibition spots in the site of fraction loading. Conclusion: Antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate fraction will appear if all components are used together. Keywords: Ajuga chamaecistus, Antibacterial activity, Immersion bioautography
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • The Relationship between Attachment Styles and Death Anxiety among
           Cardiovascular Patients

    • Authors: Ahmad Valikhani, Mosayeb Yarmohammadi-Vasel
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Attachment styles result from a child’s early relationships with their primary care provider. We should bear in mind that there is a significant correlation between these styles and emotional disorders (death anxiety) occurring throughout an individual’s life. If these connections are not formed correctly during early childhood, the individual will most likely suffer mental and physical illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, in the future. Therefore, the present research aims to investigate the relationship between attachment styles and death anxiety among cardiovascular patients. Methods: The research method used was descriptive-correlational. The research population includes all cardiovascular patients living in Shahriar city, Iran. Moreover, the statistical samples were 120 subjects selected with purposive sampling method from three private clinics (Marjan Jamshidi, Mahmoud Rekabi, and Salehi clinics). Research data were obtained using the Templer’s Death Anxiety Scale (1970), and Hazan and Shaver’s Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire. Results: Data analysis shows that among patients with cardiovascular disease the prevalence of severe death anxiety is 41.7%, average death anxiety 28.3%, and mild death anxiety 30%. In addition, there was a significant positive relation between insecure avoidant attachment style and insecure ambivalent attachment style, and death anxiety (P<0.01). In this study, the frequency of individuals with insecure attachments (avoidant and ambivalent) were higher than those with secure attachment. Conclusion: Therefore, research results show that there is a significant correlation between attachment styles and death anxiety among cardiovascular patients during adulthood. Keywords: Attachment styles, Death anxiety, Cardiovascular patients
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • Comparison of Bibliographic Databases in Retrieving Information on

    • Authors: Maryam Ahmadi, Roghghaieh Ershad-Sarabi, Roohangiz Jamshidiorak, Kambiz Bahaodini
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Some of the main questions which can be of importance for those researchers who intend to perform a systematic review in a field of science are: ‘What databases should I use for my review'’; ‘Do all these databases have the same value'’; and ‘Which sources retrieved the highest of relevant references'’. The main aim of this work was the identification of the best database for retrieving information on telemedicine by comparing the percentage of relevant references among the total literature available that can be retrieved from each database. Methods: Databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched on the topic of telemedicine and education, telemedicine and cost benefit, and also telemedicine and patient satisfaction. Results of analysis and accuracy coefficient, sensitivity, uniqueness, and the overlap of databases were calculated. Results: The number of studies retrieved from each database varied for each topic. PubMed with 50.7% in accuracy and 61.4% in sensitivity was the most effective database for retrieving information on the abovementioned topics. Databases with the highest proportion of unique records in retrieved relevant references varied between the 38% for PubMed to 3% for CINAHL. The largest overlap in the four databases was between PubMed and the Web of Science (18.6%). Few papers (0.7%) were indexed by all four databases. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that information scientists, librarians, and researchers who want to access the best references on telemedicine should start by searching PubMed. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, respectively, will provide about 90% of the relevant available literature. Keywords: Bibliographic databases, Telemedicine, Sensitivity, Precision, Information retrieval
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • Effects of Dietary Supplements of Pediasure and Carnitine on the
           Anthropometric Indices in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia under
           Chemotherapy, in Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran

    • Authors: Ali Naderi, Farideh Doustan, Ali Shahabi Nejad, Azam Dehghani, Mahla Abbasi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Malnutrition is a common complication of cancer and cancer treatment in children. This occurs in 50% of these patients. Dietary supplements may have a significant effect on the response to treatment, survival, recurrence, mortality, and complications induced by chemotherapy in these children. The effects of Pediasure and Carnitine intake on anthropometric indices in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have been investigated in this study. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in 34 new cases of childhood ALL under chemotherapy, in Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran. The patients were divided by randomized design into two groups; 17 cases and 17 controls with mean age of 5.79 ± 3.97 and 7.17 ± 3.66 years, respectively. 100-150 cc Pediasure every other day for one month and 50 mg/kg per day Carnitine were given to case group. Anthropometric indices including skin fold thickness (SFT), weight, height, and arm circumference were measured at the beginning of the study and 6 months later. Anthropometric indices were compared in these two periods. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. Results: Mean of SFT (mm), weight (Kg), height, and arm circumference (cm) at the beginning of the study in case group were 7.20 ± 3.29, 18.05 ± 9.67, 107.35 ± 24.47, and 15.88 ± 4.17 and in control group were 10.57 ± 6.23, 22.38 ± 11.1, 115.82 ± 22.29, and 16.05 ± 4.02, respectively. After 6 months of study these indices in case group were 7.29 ± 0.80, 18.35 ± 2.31, 108.11 ± 5.88, and 15.98 ± 1 and in control group were 10.61 ± 1.52, 22.88 ± 2.67, 116.34 ± 5.37, and 16.16 ± 0.97, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in the two time periods. Although the differences of SFT were not statistically significant, this finding was clinically important (P = 0.05). Conclusion: In spite of observed acute malnutrition in both groups, effects of dietary supplements on anthropometric indices did not show significant differences between groups. This may be related to many factors such as number of subjects under study, duration of intervention, and that the case group consumed only 100-150 Kcal/day energy more than the control group (we are not free in prescribing dietary supplement to these patients because of relapse risk and other unknown adverse effects of supplements). Therefore, further studies are recommended. Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Anthropometric indices, Pediasure, Carnitine
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • Inhibitory Effect of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum and Camellia Sinensis Extracts
           on the Hen Egg-White Lysozyme Fibrillation

    • Authors: Hasan Ramshini, Fatemeh Ayoubi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson and Huntington diseases are associated with the deposition proteinaceous aggregates known as amyloid fibrils. Currently, there is no approved therapeutic agent for inhibition of fibrillar assemblies. One important approach in the development of therapeutic agents is the use of herbal extracts. At the present comparative study, the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees and Camellia sinensis L, extracts on prevention of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) amyloidogenesis were studied. Methods: In this experimental study, acidic pH and high temperature were used to drive the protein towards amyloid formation. Lysozyme was dissolved at 2 mg/mL in 50mM glycine buffer (pH 2.5), and then incubated at 57 °C for a specified time while stirred gently by Teflon magnetic bars. Measurement of thioflavin T fluorescence intensity and AFM micrography were used to characterize the HEWL fibrillation processes. Data were analyzed through SPSS 16 using descriptive statistics as well as independent t-test. Results: In the absence of the extracts, soluble oligomers became evident after 24 h of incubation, followed by subsequent appearance of mature fibrils after 48h. Upon incubation with various concentrations of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Camellia  sinensis extracts in range of 0.1-1 mg/ml, formation of fibrillar assemblies were dose-dependently inhibited but the extract of Camellia was more efficient (P=0.025). Also, in contrast to Cinnamomum, Camellia extract can stabilize native protein and reverse partial unfolded form into native form and thus, can inhibit all of amyloid formation pathways. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that poly phenols of the extracts directly insert into amyloidogenic core of early aggregates and inhibit amyloid fibril formation but Camellia extract, due to its specific chemical structure, is probably more effective for aggregation inhibition. Keywords: Lysozyme, Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract, Camellia sinensis extract, Amyloid aggregation inhibition
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • The Efficacy of Carbon Dioxide Laser in the Treatment of Chronic and
           Lupoid Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kerman City: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Iraj Esfandiarpour, Azadeh Mohebbi, Shahriar Dabiri, Saieedeh Farajzadeh, Zahra Rahnama, Saman Mohammadi, Mohammad Bani Assadi, Elnaz Esfandiarpour, Elham Mohebbi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Lupoid (LL) and chronic leishmaniais (CCL) are variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) which are resistant to various treatments. The diseases are endemic in some developing countries such as Iran. A Variety of drugs with different effects have been suggested in recent decades. Carbon deoxide laser has been recently applied in the treatment of different dermatological diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of CO2 laser compared to systemic Glucantime plus Allopurionl in the treatment of LL and CCL. Methods: A total of 50 patients with 86 LL or CCL lesions were participated in this study. They were divided into the two groups; the first group was treated with CO2 laser for one session and the second group was treated with Glucantime (50 mg/kg IM for 21 days) plus Allopurionl (20mg/kg for 30 days). All patients were followed at weeks 4th, 8th, 48th and 72nd and the results were compared. Results: At week 4, the cure rate of complete improvement of two treatment groups was not statistically different (P=0.609). By week 8, the cure rate slightly decreased (P=0.417). The decreasing trend continued until weeks 48th and 72nd (P=0.289 and P=0.095, respectively). Finally, 16 patients of laser group and 22 patients of the other group were cured, but statistically no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P=0.095). Conclusions: Carbon deoxide laser therapy could be used in patients with hypersensitivity to pentavalent antimoniate or those with serious systemic diseases. Key words: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Carbon Deoxide laser, Meglumine antimoniate
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
  • The Effect of Noise Pollution Exposure during Pregnancy on Long Term
           Potentiation Induction in Pyramidal Neurons of Hippocampus CA1 area in
           Male Rat Offsprings

    • Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sajjadi, Seyed Alireza Talaei, Mahmood Salami, Gholam Ali Hamidi
      Abstract: Background: It is believed that cognitive processing is easily disturbed by incompatible environmental stimulations. Many studies have shown that prenatal stress affects fetal brain development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of noise pollution exposure during conception period on neural activity of hippocampus CA1 area in male rat offspring. Methods: Four groups of rats including a control group with natural pregnancy and without any stress and three groups of pregnant rats exposed to daily noise stress (intensity >95 dB, between 8 A.M - 2 P.M) with durations of 1, 2 and 4 hour (s) in the last week of pregnancy were included in the study. Then, in male offsprings of these groups, fEPSP resulted from Schaffer collateral neurons of CA1 were recorded and evaluated in baseline state and after LTP induction with tetanic stimulation. Results: Our results showed that prenatal exposure to traffic noise pollution at 3rd gestational week, reduces amplitude (P<0.0001) and slope of baseline synaptic activity in hippocampus CA1 area (P<0.0001) and furthermore interferes in hippocampal LTP in comparison with control group. The serum level of corticostrone in the two stressed groups (2 and 4 hours) of rats in comparison to the control showed significant increase. But, prenatal exposure to 1- hour noise pollution caused no significant difference in serum corticostrone level. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results, daily exposure to noise pollution in the third trimester of pregnancy for 1, 2 and 4 hour (s), attenuates fEPSP features of hippocampus CA1 area pyramidal neurons of offsprings. Keywords: Noise pollution, Pregnancy, Long-term potentiation, Hippocampus, Offspring, Rat
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2014)
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