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  Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences
  [SJR: 0.116]   [H-I: 3]   Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1023-9510 - ISSN (Online) 2008-2843
   Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]
  • The Efficacy of Co-administration of Topical Niosomal Dapsone Gel and
           Intralesional Injection of Glucantime in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in
           Comparison with Cryotherapy Plus Intralesional Injection of Glucantime

    • Authors: Alireza Fekri, Zahra Rahnama, Maryam Khalili, Abbas Pardakhti Dookhani, Payam Khazaeli, Kambiz Bahaadin Beigi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Leishmaniasis exists in more than half of Iran provinces and more than 20,000 cases are reported annually. In the recent years, several therapeutic approaches such as topical and physical treatments have been investigated. In the present study, the efficacy of co-administration of topical Niosomal Dapsone gel and Glucantime intralesional injection has been evaluated.
      Method: This randomized clinical trial was performed on patients with leishmaniasis admitted in Afzalipour hospital affiliated to Kerman University of Medical Sciences and Dadbin Health Center, Kerman/Iran. After taking informed consent, patients were divided into the two groups. The first group was treated with weekly intralesional injection of Glucantime plus cryotherapy every two weeks and the second group was treated with weekly intralesional injection of Glucantime plus niosomal Dapsone gel twice a day. The patients were treated for at most 16 weeks and monitored in the 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th weeks of treatment. Data were analyzed using Random effects mixed model, Man Whitney, t-test and Chi-square test.
      Results: A total of 68 patients (33 males and 35 females) with mean age of 30.63± 18.10 years were participated in this study. From all lesions, 86.3% were in upper extremities and the rest were in lower extremities and 60.3% of lesions were ulcerative. After 16 weeks, 82.9% of Dapsone-received group showed complete response. There was no significant difference between the two groups in regard to the rate and duration of response to the treatment.
      Conclusion: Niosomal topical Dapsone gel, due to its fewer side effects, can be used efficiently as an alternative treatment for cryotherapy in cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially in parts covering cartilages or finger tips and in patients with dark skin.
      Keywords: Leishmaniasis, Dapsone, Niosomal
      Issue No: Vol. 22
       
  • Serological Classification and Comparison of Cell Surface Hydrophobicity
           and Biofilm and Proteases Formation between the Clinical and Environmental
           Isolates of Pseudomonas Aeruoginosa

    • Authors: Hadi Lotfi, Shahla Mansouri
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Pseudomonas aeruoginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and an important cause of nosocomial infections. Different factors are involved in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. This study was performed to compare some factors associated with the virulence of clinical and environmental isolates of P. aeruoginosa.
      Methods: The present study was performed on 25 environmental isolates (soil, water) and 100 clinical isolates (blood, urine, wound, burn wound, and body fluids). Serotyping was performed with monovalent and polyvalent antisera. Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) was tested through bacterial attachment to hydrocarbons, and biofilm formation was detected through crystal violet staining method. LasA protease and LasB elastase were determined using Gongo red or boiled Staphylococcus aureus suspension as the substrates, respectively. LasR gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
      Results: The most common serotype among the isolates was serotype B (23.52% in clinical and 12% in environmental isolates). Serotype B was more prevalent in clinical isolates, and serotype J was found with a higher frequency in environmental samples. This serotype was not found in clinical samples. Mean production of CSH, biofilm formation, and LasA protease and LasB elastase was higher in the clinical isolates than environmental isolates. The difference between clinical and environmental isolates was significant in the case of LasA protease (P = 0.010). The LasR genes was detected in all clinical and environmental isolates
      Conclusion: Differences in serotype prevalence and the higher prevalence of LasA in the clinical isolates is an important issue. Owing to the lack of significant differences between clinical and environmental samples in respect to other virulence factors, it seems that the expression of virulence factors could be effected by environmental conditions. Further studies with higher number of isolates and evaluation of virulence gene expression is needed to confirm these results
      Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Virulence factors, Clinical samples, Environmental samples
      Issue No: Vol. 22
       
  • The Role of Hypocretin/Orexin in Stress-Induced Analgesia

    • Authors: Hassan Azhdari-Zarmehri, Mohammad Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad Shabani
      Abstract: Orexin is produced exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus, where it is known to be involved in pain modulation through brain stem. Due to the important role of this peptide in functions such as eating, sleeping and awaking, addiction, it attracted the attention of researchers in medical sciences specially neuroscientists. These hypothalamic peptides play a critical role in arousal in stressful situations and in pain modulation. Moreover, orexin receptors (OXRs) have been found in many brain structures involved in pain processing. In the present study, the role of orexin in stress-induced analgesia is reviewed. Although, intracerebroventricular or spinal injection of orexin-A have been shown to elicit analgesic responses; however, the locations of central sites that may mediate these effects have not been clearly elucidated. On the other hand, it is unclear in which stressful situations the nociceptive information is altered. It seems that in stressful situations, orexin expression increases which increases arousal, and thus, leads to elevation of animal performance and nociceptive signals blockage, which improve performance in stressful situations. It is well-established that the acute and chronic forms of stress can affect the orexin system and might be responsible for changes in both pain threshold and nociceptive behaviors. It is suggested that OXR1 might be involved in antinociception behaviors induced by stress. This review highlights the significant role of OXR1 as a novel target for treatment of stress-related disorders.
      Keywords: Orexin (hypocretin), Pain, Stress
      Issue No: Vol. 22
       
  • Evaluation of Radiology and Pathology Subsystems of Hospital Information
           Systems

    • Authors: Mahdieh Montazeri, Reza Khajouei, Farveh Sabermahani
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Compliance with standards of designing information systems leads to efficient utilization and ease of use for consumers. In this study, the compliance of the radiology and pathology subsystems of a hospital information system with ISO 9241 section 12 was assessed in selected hospitals affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
      Methods: This applied research is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. In this study, the radiology and pathology subsystems of hospital information systems were evaluated in 8 hospitals based on ISO 9241 section 12. Data was collected by researchers, during winter 2012, using ISO 9241/12 checklist, and then, it was assessed by hospital information technology administrators. Data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive statistics.
      Results: The analysis of data showed that the compliance of the software with information organization was 74.6%, with graphic tools 100%, and with coding techniques 47.2%. The total compliance of the software with the ISO 9241/12 was 73.9%.
      Conclusion: According to this study, the design of widely used hospital information systems has fairly good compliance with standards, but still suffers from some issues. Considering the role of accurate, valid, and timely information in decision making, policymaking, and management of hospitals, it is necessary that software developers follow standards when designing information systems.
      Keywords: ISO 9241/12 standard, Radiology and pathology subsystem, Hospital information system, Evaluation
      Issue No: Vol. 22
       
  • The Measurement of Aflatoxin B1 in Chilli and Black Peppers of Qaemshahr,
           Iran

    • Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffarinejad, Archana Giri
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Aflatoxins are a group of toxic compounds found in most plant products such as pistachio, corn, spices, wheat, and rice. This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in samples of spices collected from Qaemshahr in Mazandaran province, Iran.
      Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on the presence of AFB1 in 18 samples of spices including chilli (red) powder (n = 6), black pepper powder (n = 6), and whole black pepper (n = 6) collected from Qaemshahr. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to analyze the samples.
      Results: Aflatoxin B1 was found in all samples, and the concentration of aflatoxin ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg. The mean AFB1 concentration in chilli (red) powder was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than whole and powdered black pepper. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum prescribed limit of 5 μg/kg recommended by the European Union regulations for aflatoxin B1.
      Conclusion: Although the concentration of AFB1 in the study samples was less than the maximum limit approved by the EU, the 100% Aflatoxin contamination of the samples could be a potential hazard for public health.
      Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, Chilli pepper, Black pepper, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
      Issue No: Vol. 22
       
  • Investigations of Antimicrobial Activity of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis
           Extracts against Six Pathogenic Bacteria in Planktonic Form and Biofilm

    • Authors: Zeynab Mohsenipour, Mehdi Hassanshahian, Mohammad Moradi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Microorganisms are protected from antimicrobial agents when placed in biofilm structure. Biofilm-producing microorganisms are responsible for many problems in industry and medicine; therefore, it is essential to find new techniques for removing and inhibiting biofilms. This study aimed to examine the antimicrobial effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis alcoholic extracts against planktonic form and biofilm of six bacteria including Staphylococcusaureus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
      Methods: Antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against the planktonic form of bacteria were evaluated using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined using a macrobroth dilution technique. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed using microtiter plate method.
      Results: The results of this study confirmed the strong ability of E. camaldulensis extracts against the biofilm of tested bacteria and their free-living forms. Ethanolic extracts were more effective in inhibiting planktonic bacterial growth than methanolic extracts. Anti-biofilm effects of plant extracts were associated with the solvent and extract concentration. Eucalyptus camaldulensis methanol extract of 20 mg/ml concentration was the most efficient in the inhibition of biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus (84.42%). These extracts had the ability to remove more than 50% of stabilized biofilms. In Klebsiella pneumonia, however, only a 29.20% eradication of biofilms was observed. The highest decrease in methabolic activity was observed in Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms (82.13%) treated with 20 mg/ml ethanolic extract.
      Conclusion: In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis extracts against the selected microorganisms was demonstrated. Thus, these extracts are recommended as a suitable option against the selected isolates.
      Keywords: Biofilm, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Drug resistant, Antimicrobial effect
      Issue No: Vol. 22
       
  • A Study on The Effect of Temperature on Human Prion Protein Structure
           through Molecular Dynamic Simulation

    • Authors: Fatemeh Khajavi, Mohamad Reza Dayer
      Abstract: Background & Aims: The normal form of the prion protein is called PrPC and its infectious form is called PrPSc. This protein functions like a crystallized core for the transformation of PrPc into an abnormal PrPSc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of temperature on human prion protein structure through molecular dynamic simulation.
      Methods: In this research, the GROMACS software was used in Linux operating system for simulation. After performing molecular dynamic simulation, the parameters were extracted from the trajectory and data analysis was performed. The results were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and figures and tables were designed in this software.
      Results: In this study, the effect of temperature and density of sodium chloride on human prion protein stability was studied by molecular dynamics simulation during 10 nanoseconds. The results of this study show that, with 0.1 molar sodium chloride (natural density in tissues), a change in the temperature of environment from 37 ℃ (natural temperature of the body) to 27 ℃ or 47 ℃ leads to structural changes. This can be studied using root mean squared deviation (RMSD) of protein root and structure, radius of gyration of hydrophobic accessible surface, and distances between ionic groups of protein.
      Conclusion: The results of this study show that in 0.1 molar sodium chloride and 37 ℃, protein regains its natural structure and an increase or decrease in temperature causes protein to change to an abnormal structure. This can be the cause of the abnormal structure of this protein observed in some illness like mad cow diseases. It is noteworthy that an increase in temperature is more effective in causing this anomaly than a decrease.
      Keywords: Prion protein, Molecular dynamic, GROMACS, RMSD
      Issue No: Vol. 22
       
  • Comparison of Intraocular Pressure of Both Eyes in Patients with
           Unilateral Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    • Authors: Ali Sharifi, Hamid Sharifi, Ghodsieh Sharif
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) is a complex disorder which causes an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). This study was conducted in order to compare IOP of both eyes of patients with unilateral PXS.
      Methods: In a cross-sectional study from January 2011 to June 2012, 79 patients with unilateral PXS were studied. The patients were examined first with constricted, and then, dilated pupils (after instillation of tropicamide 1%) using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Patients with exfoliative material (XFM) on pupil margin or anterior lens surface of only one eye were included in the study. Age, sex, and intraocular pressures, measured in both involved and noninvolved eyes using Goldman tonometry, were evaluated.
      Results: IOP of involved eyes was 8-68 (18.78 ± 11.25) mmHg and noninvolved eyes 4-32 (13.67 ± 4.5) mmHg. IOP of noninvolved eyes increased with the increasing of IOP of involved eyes. With increasing age, the amount of IOP of involved eyes increased. However, this relationship was not observed in noninvolved eyes.
      Conclusion: PXS is a major risk factor for increasing IOP. Since PXS seems to be a systemic disorder, clinically noninvolved eyes may actually be involved or may be at risk to becoming involved. Nevertheless, involved eyes are more susceptible to increased IOP and glaucoma.
      Keywords: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS), Intraocular pressure (IOP), Unilateral involvement
      Issue No: Vol. 22
       
  • The Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Learning and Spatial Memory Deficit in
           Diabetic Rats

    • Authors: Jamshid Narenjkar, Mehrdad Roghani, Aida Imani, Iman Ansari
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that in the long-term is accompanied with deficits in learning, memory, and cognitive skills. Due to the existing evidence regarding the anti-diabetic potential of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), the effect of its long-term administration on learning and spatial memory deficits was investigated in diabetic rats.
      Methods: In this experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, ALC-treated control, diabetic, and ALC-treated diabetic. ALC was injected IP at a dose of 50 mg/kg for 5 weeks after 7th day and for induction of diabetes streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally (IP) at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL) and step-through latency (STL) were determined at the end of the study using the passive avoidance test. Moreover, alternation behavior percentage, as an index of spatial memory, was obtained using Y-maze. In addition, brain malondialdehyde (MDA) level, as a marker of oxidative stress, was evaluated.
      Results: At the end of the study, a significant decrease was observed in STL in diabetic groups. Moreover, STL was significantly higher in the ALC-treated diabetic group than the diabetic group. Furthermore, alternation behavior percentage in both diabetic groups was lower than the control group. This parameter showed a significant increase in the ALC-treated diabetic group in comparison with the diabetic group. Administration of ALC to animals did not produce any significant changes in memory and learning in the treated control group. In addition, brain malondialdehyde level was significantly lower in the ALC-treated diabetic group than the diabetic group.
      Conclusion: Long-term administration of ALC at a dose of 50 mg/kg increases the ability to save information in the memory reservoir and remember in passive avoidance test, and enhances short-term spatial recognition memory in diabetic animals. This is in part due to the attenuation of brain oxidative stress.
      Keywords: Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), Diabetes mellitus, Learning, Memory, Streptozotocin
      Issue No: Vol. 22
       
 
 
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