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Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences     [SJR: 0.104]   [H-I: 2]
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1023-9510 - ISSN (Online) 2008-2843
   Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]
  • A Survey of Nurses' Perceptions of the Causes of Medication Errors
           and Barriers to Reporting in Hospitals Affiliated to Neyshabur University
           of Medical Sciences, Iran

    • Authors: Bahram Hesari, Hasan Ghodsi, Mohammad Hoseinabadi, Hasan Chenarani, Alireza Ghodsi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Administration of medications is an important part of treatment. Reporting of medication errors by nurses maintains patient safety and the lack of appropriate reporting can cause serious problems in health systems. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of medication errors and the barriers of error reporting from the viewpoints of nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 248 nurses in hospitals affiliated to Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Participants were selected by simple random sampling. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software. Results: The most important reasons of medication errors were nursing staff shortage (4.3 ± 1.2), fatigue due to overwork (4.1 ± 1.05), and high workload (4.1 ± 2.8). The main reasons for not reporting medication errors were authorities' focusing on the person who has made the error regardless of other factors involved (3.86 ± 1.06), fear of legal issues (3.79 ± 1.07), and lack of clarity of the definition of medication error (3.34 ± 1.13). There was a significant difference between the factors affecting medication errors from the view of nurses, and fixed and rotating work shifts (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Due to the importance of patient safety, establishing a system for reporting and recording errors along with the positive reaction of managers to errors by personnel is essential.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • Is Alopecia a Clinical Symptom in Kawasaki Disease'

    • Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Bagheri, Ali Hosseini nasab, Mohammad Hossein Torabi nejad kermani, Maryam Shams pour
      Abstract: A 20-months-old infant was admitted with prolonged fever, bilateral non-purulent conjunctivitis, strawberry tongue, lip cracking and maculopapular rash. Left branch coronary aneurysm formation was detected in Color-Doppler echocardiography. The diagnosis was Kawasaki disease. After 6 weeks, he had alopecia totalis. Although, alopecia areata has been seen in Kawasaki disease, but alopecia totalis is very rare with unknown etiology.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • Mapping and Review of Leishmaniasis, its Vectors and Main Reservoirs in

    • Authors: Abdolreza Salahi-Moghaddam, Alireza Khoshdel, Aahmad-Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad-Mahdi Sedaghat
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Despite improvements in public health in Iran, cutaneous leishmaniasis has become a growing health issue. About 90% of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur in 8 countries including Iran. Kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis, as an important parasitic disease, is endemic in some areas of Iran. Mapping the distribution of parasitic diseases and determining their relations to geographic factors are increasing in importance for experts. This study was carried out to provide distribution maps of the geographical pathology of leishmaniasis in Iran with no emphasis on medical entomology or parasitology. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed and the data and/or metadata were used for evaluation of findings. Data of leishmaniasis were obtained from the Iran Center for Diseases Control, in the Ministry of Health in 2002 and 2009. Incidence or prevalence of the diseases and also scientific names of vectors and reservoirs with collection details were arranged as a shapefile in ArcGIS software and were mapped. Results: Distribution maps of the diseases, host reservoirs, and vectors are provided as a systematic review. Conclusion: It seems that zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis is mostly observed in desert and semi-desert habitats far from Alborz and Zagros mountainous areas. Visceral leishmaniasis in dogs may be related to precipitation, temperature, and elevation in Ardebil Province, Iran. There are some gaps in distribution maps which represent future study opportunities for scholars as this lack of data does not signify the lack of prevalence of the disease but the lack of studies in these areas.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • The Effect of Diet and Exercise on Improvement of Quality of Life in
           Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    • Authors: Hossein Nikroo, Maryam Mohammadian, Mohsen Nematy, Hamid Reza Sima, Seyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is part of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). No special medical treatment is known for this disease, and lifestyle modification is the best known method of treatment. We aimed to compare the effect of diet and aerobic exercise with that of diet alone on the quality of life of patients with NASH. Methods: In the present study, 25 patients within the age of range of 18-55 years were randomly divided into two groups of diet along with aerobic exercise (n = 12) and diet alone (n = 13). The low-calorie diet in both groups included 500 kilocalories of energy less than the estimated daily energy requirement. In addition to diet, the first group participated in aerobic exercise for a period of 12 weeks, 3 days a week with 55–60% heart rate reserve. Quality of life score was measured by the short form-36 (SF-36) and ultrasonography at the beginning and the end of the study. Results: In assessment of quality of life in diet along with aerobic exercise group, physical function, performance limitations due to illness, physical component score, general health, and vitality showed significant changes. In the diet alone group, general health and vitality improved after the intervention. Moreover, a significant reduction was observed in ultrasonographic features of fatty liver of those who also had aerobic exercise. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that addition of aerobic exercise to low-calorie diet was more effective in the improvement of quality of life and ultrasonographic features of patients with NASH.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • Body Mass Index Status in Secondary School Students in Kerman, Iran, in

    • Authors: Behnaz Aflatoonian, Mohammad-Reza Aflatoonian, Mohammad Baniasadi, Zahra Mirzayi-Susefidi, Reza Abasi-Rayeni
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Assessment of physical growth is one of the most important methods of determining nutrition and health status. Body mass index (BMI) is a suitable index for growth monitoring and helps in the identification of growth disorders and malnutrition in teenagers. The aim of this study was to determine BMI status in secondary school students in Kerman, Iran, in 2012. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study in which data were collected cross-sectionally and compared with the results of the study in 1997. After gaining permission from the Department of Education of Kerman, the samples were selected randomly from the secondary schools in Kerman. Height and weight were measured by standard tools. Data were analyzed through SPSS software and using Students'independent t-test. Results: Mean BMI of the students (n = 424) was 19 ± 4.2 and 44.8% of students had normal BMI. Mean BMI of boys was significantly lower than girls. In total, 6% of the students were excessively thin and they were mainly from public schools in the suburb of the city. Over 50% of students had weight problems; underweight was the main problem in the studied population and only 9.2% of our subjects were overweight. Conclusion: Since the pubertal height and weight growth spurt occurs earlier in girls (10-13 years) than boys, the absolute comparison of BMI based on sex is not wise; if necessary it should to be performed after this period. Malnutrition or lack of access to food, or cultural factors and body shape care could explain our findings in regard to the distribution of BMI in the student population of Kerman.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • The Effect of Endurance Training on MiR-155 Expression, STAT3 Gene
           Expression, and Interleukin 6 Protein in Mice with Breast Cancer

    • Authors: Abdolreza Kazemi, Hamid Agha-Alinejad, Shaban Alizadeh, Shirin Shahbazi, Sadegh Amani-Shalamzari
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Endurance training has an important role in the prevention and adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of endurance training on miR-155 expression, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) gene expression, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) protein in breast cancer tumor in mice. Methods: In this study, 16 female Balb/C mice were randomly divided into exercise-tumor (ET) and rest-tumor (RT) groups. The mice were oriented in the environment and one million estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells (MC4L2) were injected into each mouse. Subsequently, the ET group performed endurance exercise, 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Tumor volume was measured by a digital caliper weekly. Finally, the mice were sacrificed and tumor tissue was removed and kept in -70°C. Then, RNA was extracted by the Trizol protocol and complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized according to guidelines of the Kit Company. Consequently, the real-time PCR method was performed and data was collected. Results: Significant differences were observed between the ET and RT groups in the STAT3 gene expression, miR-155 expression, and IL-6 protein (P < 0.05). These results were consistent with tumor growth rate. Conclusion: Exercise can reduce miR-155 expression, STAT3 gene expression, and IL-6 protein in tumor tissue. Due to the reduction in miR-155 expression, STAT3 gene expression, and IL-6 protein in the ET group, it can be claimed that endurance training can be used as adjuvant therapy by decreasing of oncogenic and inflammation factors.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • Comparison of Knee Osteoarthritis in Retired Professional Zurkhaneh
           Athletes and Non-Athletic Individuals

    • Authors: Shahram Ahanjan, Amin Shafipour, Hossein Mehrabian, Seyed Sadredin Shojaedin
      Abstract: Background & Aims: The advantages of physical activities have recently been suggested in preventing such chronic diseases as osteoarthritis. However, the effects severe physical activity may have on the musculoskeletal system of athletes are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare knee pain, existing symptoms, physical functions in daily activities, sports and recreation, and the quality of life of retired professional zurkhaneh athletes with that of non-athletes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 15 retired professional zurkhaneh athletes and 15 non-athletic individuals were purposefully selected. Clinical diagnosis and radiological findings were confirmed by an orthopedic surgeon and the translated version of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire was also used. Statistical analysis of data was performed via Students' independent t-test at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The mean scores of knee pain (P = 0.001) and physical function issues in sport and recreation activities (P < 0.001) was significantly lower in the athletes compared to the non-athletes. This shows that osteoarthritis was much more severe in the zurkhaneh athletes. Conclusion: There is a higher risk of knee osteoarthritis in former professional zurkhaneh athletes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • Cognitive Self-Awareness and Episodic Memory in Patients with Obsessive
           Compulsive Disorder and Healthy Individuals

    • Authors: Razieh Etesamipour, Fatemeh Golestan-Jahromi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Recent studies have indicated memory dysfunction in individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive self-awareness and episodic memory performance in patients with OCD and healthy individuals. Methods: In the present study, 30 patients with OCD and 30 normal individuals in the Shiraz Professional Center of Psychiatry, Shiraz, Iran, were randomly selected. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), clinical interview, Wells' Metacognitions Questionnaire, and verbal, function, and mental imagination encoding were used. In order to compare groups in terms of episodic memory and cognitive self–awareness and investigate the relationship between variables, MANOVA and the mediation analysis were, respectively, used. Results: Findings showed lower episodic memory performance in participants with OCD, but indicated higher cognitive self-awareness in these individuals as compared with normal subjects. Moreover, episodic memory performance played a mediator role between cognitive self-awareness and OCD. Conclusion: High self-awareness in individuals with OCD explains both obsessional pathology and decreasing of episodic memory performance. Metacognition treatments can decrease self-awareness and increase thought control.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • Prevalence of GNB3 C825T Gene Polymorphism in Children with Vesicoureteral
           Reflux in Kerman

    • Authors: Mohammadreza Bazrafshani, Saeedeh Parvaresh, Najmeh NezamabadiPour, Fatemeh Hosseini
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) is a congenital defect of the urinary tract which has been reported in approximately 1% of children. Several immunological and genetic factors are listed as major causes of this problem. The C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene is among the genetic factors that may be involved in the development or progression of the disease. Participatory role of this polymorphism has been reported in several diseases, but its role in the development or progression of this disease is still not set correctly. Methods: This study, based on a Case-Control analysis, was carried out in Kerman province. A total of 80 children with VUR and 80 healthy children were selected and frequency of C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene was examined by using PCR-RLFP. Results: The overall prevalence of heterozygous CT genotype of GNB3 gene in patients with VUR was significantly higher compared to the control group (P = 0.012, OR = 1.92). Conclusion: These results suggest that the C825T polymorphism may be involved in establishing the initial VUR. However, further studies to determine the role of this gene as a marker for predicting the likelihood of VUR is required.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • Evaluation of the Correlation between S and M Region Genotypes of
           Vacuolating Cytotoxin A Gene of Helicobacter Pylori Infection with
           Different Gastroduodenal Lesions in East Azerbaijan, Iran

    • Authors: Reza Safaralizadeh, Zeynab Basiri, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour-Feizi, Mortaza Jabarpour-Boniadi, Batol Motaghi, Masoumeh Nemati
      Abstract: Background & Aims: With the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection proven as a class I human carcinogen, gastric adenocarcinoma has been considered an infection since 1994. H. pylori uses many virulence factors to overcome its host defense mechanisms. One of these independent factors that plays an important role in determining H. pylori pathogenesis is vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of m and s alleles (1m, 2m, 1s, and 2s) in isolates of patients with gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric adenocarcinoma, and their association with disease clinical manifestation in infected patients. Methods: Antral gastric biopsy samples were collected from 88 patients with different gastroduodenal diseases. After isolation of H. pylori, the vacA alleles were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results: Of the 64 H. pylori positive patients, 38 were classified as gastritis, 11 as peptic ulcer, and 15 as gastric adenocarcinoma. The frequency of alleles in patients, respectively, were 20 (22.7%) s1/m2 (with relatively equal frequency in all groups), 12 (13.6%) s1m1 (with the highest frequency in gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer), 7 (7.9%) s2m2 (with the highest frequency in gastritis), and 3 (3.4%) s2m1 (with the highest frequency in peptic ulcer). Conclusion: In the present study, no significant relationship was observed between the different genotypes of vacA and clinical outcome. Moreover, gastric adenocarcinoma showed a signification association with age and gender.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
  • Neuroprotective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii on Motor
           Neuron Destruction of Spinal Cord Ventral Horn after Sciatic Nerve
           Compression in Male Adult Rats

    • Authors: Ali Shahraki, Mehdi Ghasemi, Azizorahman Rezazehi, Mahtab Mollashahi
      Abstract: Background & Aims: Peripheral nerve injuries affect both sensory and motor function, resulting in retrograde reaction to neuronal cell bodies in the ventral horn of spinal cord ventral and their destruction. Achillea wilhelmsii is one of the popular medicinal herbs which grow in dry and semitropical areas worldwide. There are several reports indicating the anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antibacterial, and antioxidant effects of Achillea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extract of Achillea wilhelmsii, on alpha neuronal density after sciatic nerve compression in rats. Methods: This experimental study was carried out on 30 male Wistar rats which were divided randomly into 5 groups; group A (control), group B (compression), group C (compression, and treatment with 25 mg/kg aqueous extract), group D (compression and treatment with 50 mg/kg aqueous extract), and group E (compression and treatment with 75 mg/kg aqueous extract). Rats were anesthetized, the thigh muscle of right legs removed, and the sciatic nerve was compressed using a surgical forceps for 60 seconds, and then, thigh muscle and skin were sutured. Intraperitoneal injection of the various doses was performed once every week for 3 weeks.  The samples were dissected from lumbar spinal cord by perfusion method and histological slides were prepared serially 28 days after compression. Slides were stained by toluidine blue and erythrosine. Neuronal density of alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord anterior horn was calculated by dissector method. Statistical analysis was performed by Students' t-test and one way ANOVA using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that neuronal density in the compression group decreased significantly compared to the control group (943 ± 59 vs. 1620 ± 51.1, P < 0.001). Neuronal density in group C (1032 ± 40.8), group D (1207 ± 131.3), and group E (1527 ± 46.4) increased significantly in comparison to compression group. The highest neuroprotection was observed in the group which received 75 mg/kg dose of aqueous extract. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results indicate that aqueous extract of Achillea wilhelmsii could protect the sciatic nerve against pathological alterations such as compression.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2015)
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