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Journal Cover Ultrasonic Imaging
   [3 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0161-7346 - ISSN (Online) 1096-0910
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [743 journals]   [SJR: 0.651]   [H-I: 33]
  • Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging for Monitoring In Situ High-Intensity
           Focused Ultrasound Exposure
    • Authors: Ghoshal, G; Kemmerer, J. P, Karunakaran, C, Abuhabsah, R, Miller, R. J, Sarwate, S, Oelze, M. L.
      Pages: 239 - 255
      Abstract: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging is hypothesized to map temperature elevations induced in tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. To test this hypothesis, QUS techniques were examined to monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure of tissue. In situ experiments were conducted on mammary adenocarcinoma tumors grown in rats and lesions were formed using a HIFU system. A thermocouple was inserted into the tumor to provide estimates of temperature at one location. Backscattered time-domain waveforms from the tissue during exposure were recorded using a clinical ultrasonic imaging system. Backscatter coefficients were estimated using a reference phantom technique. Two parameters were estimated from the backscatter coefficient (effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and effective acoustic concentration (EAC). The changes in the average parameters in the regions corresponding to the HIFU focus over time were correlated to the temperature readings from the thermocouple. The changes in the EAC parameter were consistently correlated to temperature during both heating and cooling of the tumors. The changes in the ESD did not have a consistent trend with temperature. The mean ESD and EAC before exposure were 120 ± 16 μm and 32 ± 3 dB/cm3, respectively, and changed to 144 ± 9 μm and 51 ± 7 dB/cm3, respectively, just before the last HIFU pulse was delivered to the tissue. After the tissue cooled down to 37°C, the mean ESD and EAC were 126 ± 8 μm and 35 ± 4 dB/cm3, respectively. Peak temperature in the range of 50-60°C was recorded by a thermocouple placed just behind the tumor. These results suggest that QUS techniques have the potential to be used for non-invasive monitoring of HIFU exposure.
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T03:44:07-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0161734614524179|hwp:master-id:spuix;0161734614524179
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2014)
  • Semi-automatic Breast Ultrasound Image Segmentation Based on Mean Shift
           and Graph Cuts
    • Authors: Zhou, Z; Wu, W, Wu, S, Tsui, P.-H, Lin, C.-C, Zhang, L, Wang, T.
      Pages: 256 - 276
      Abstract: Computerized tumor segmentation on breast ultrasound (BUS) images remains a challenging task. In this paper, we proposed a new method for semi-automatic tumor segmentation on BUS images using Gaussian filtering, histogram equalization, mean shift, and graph cuts. The only interaction required was to select two diagonal points to determine a region of interest (ROI) on an input image. The ROI image was shrunken by a factor of 2 using bicubic interpolation to reduce computation time. The shrunken image was smoothed by a Gaussian filter and then contrast-enhanced by histogram equalization. Next, the enhanced image was filtered by pyramid mean shift to improve homogeneity. The object and background seeds for graph cuts were automatically generated on the filtered image. Using these seeds, the filtered image was then segmented by graph cuts into a binary image containing the object and background. Finally, the binary image was expanded by a factor of 2 using bicubic interpolation, and the expanded image was processed by morphological opening and closing to refine the tumor contour. The method was implemented with OpenCV 2.4.3 and Visual Studio 2010 and tested for 38 BUS images with benign tumors and 31 BUS images with malignant tumors from different ultrasound scanners. Experimental results showed that our method had a true positive rate (TP) of 91.7%, a false positive (FP) rate of 11.9%, and a similarity (SI) rate of 85.6%. The mean run time on Intel Core 2.66 GHz CPU and 4 GB RAM was 0.49 ± 0.36 s. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method may be useful in BUS image segmentation.
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T03:44:07-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0161734614524735|hwp:master-id:spuix;0161734614524735
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2014)
  • Shear Wave Speed and Dispersion Measurements Using Crawling Wave Chirps
    • Authors: Hah, Z; Partin, A, Parker, K. J.
      Pages: 277 - 290
      Abstract: This article demonstrates the measurement of shear wave speed and shear speed dispersion of biomaterials using a chirp signal that launches waves over a range of frequencies. A biomaterial is vibrated by two vibration sources that generate shear waves inside the medium, which is scanned by an ultrasound imaging system. Doppler processing of the acquired signal produces an image of the square of vibration amplitude that shows repetitive constructive and destructive interference patterns called "crawling waves." With a chirp vibration signal, successive Doppler frames are generated from different source frequencies. Collected frames generate a distinctive pattern which is used to calculate the shear speed and shear speed dispersion. A special reciprocal chirp is designed such that the equi-phase lines of a motion slice image are straight lines. Detailed analysis is provided to generate a closed-form solution for calculating the shear wave speed and the dispersion. Also several phantoms and an ex vivo human liver sample are scanned and the estimation results are presented.
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T03:44:07-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0161734614527581|hwp:master-id:spuix;0161734614527581
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2014)
  • Tissue-Mimicking Gel Phantoms for Thermal Therapy Studies
    • Authors: Dabbagh, A; Abdullah, B. J. J, Ramasindarum, C, Abu Kasim, N. H.
      Pages: 291 - 316
      Abstract: Tissue-mimicking phantoms that are currently available for routine biomedical applications may not be suitable for high-temperature experiments or calibration of thermal modalities. Therefore, design and fabrication of customized thermal phantoms with tailored properties are necessary for thermal therapy studies. A multitude of thermal phantoms have been developed in liquid, solid, and gel forms to simulate biological tissues in thermal therapy experiments. This article is an attempt to outline the various materials and techniques used to prepare thermal phantoms in the gel state. The relevant thermal, electrical, acoustic, and optical properties of these phantoms are presented in detail and the benefits and shortcomings of each type are discussed. This review could assist the researchers in the selection of appropriate phantom recipes for their in vitro study of thermal modalities and highlight the limitations of current phantom recipes that remain to be addressed in further studies.
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T03:44:07-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0161734614526372|hwp:master-id:spuix;0161734614526372
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2014)
  • Power MOSFET-Diode-Based Limiter for High-Frequency Ultrasound Systems
    • Authors: Choi, H; Kim, M. G, Cummins, T. M, Hwang, J. Y, Shung, K. K.
      Pages: 317 - 330
      Abstract: The purpose of the limiter circuits used in the ultrasound imaging systems is to pass low-voltage echo signals generated by ultrasonic transducers while preventing high-voltage short pulses transmitted by pulsers from damaging front-end circuits. Resistor–diode–based limiters (a 50 resistor with a single cross-coupled diode pair) have been widely used in pulse-echo measurement and imaging system applications due to their low cost and simple architecture. However, resistor–diode–based limiters may not be suited for high-frequency ultrasound transducer applications since they produce large signal conduction losses at higher frequencies. Therefore, we propose a new limiter architecture utilizing power MOSFETs, which we call a power MOSFET–diode–based limiter. The performance of a power MOSFET–diode–based limiter was evaluated with respect to insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD), and response time (RT). We compared these results with those of three other conventional limiter designs and showed that the power MOSFET–diode–based limiter offers the lowest IL (–1.33 dB) and fastest RT (0.10 µs) with the lowest suppressed output voltage (3.47 Vp-p) among all the limiters at 70 MHz. A pulse-echo test was performed to determine how the new limiter affected the sensitivity and bandwidth of the transducer. We found that the sensitivity and bandwidth of the transducer were 130% and 129% greater, respectively, when combined with the new power MOSFET–diode–based limiter versus the resistor–diode–based limiter. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the power MOSFET–diode–based limiter is capable of producing lower signal attenuation than the three conventional limiter designs at higher frequency operation.
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T03:44:07-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0161734614524180|hwp:master-id:spuix;0161734614524180
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2014)
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