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Journal of Drug Issues    [3 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0022-0426 - ISSN (Online) 1945-1369
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [718 journals]   [SJR: 0.372]   [H-I: 35]
  • Detoxification History and 2-Year Outcomes of Substance Use Disorder
           Treatment and Mutual-Help Group Participation
    • Authors: Timko, C; Bonn-Miller, M. O, McKellar, J, Ilgen, M.
      Pages: 4 - 21
      Abstract: Little is known about detoxification (detox) history as a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes among dually diagnosed (substance use and other mental health disorders) patients. We compared patients with a detox history with those who had never received detox on baseline characteristics, subsequent treatment and mutual-help group participation, and substance use and related outcomes at 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-ups. Having a detox history was associated with poorer status at treatment intake, but detoxed patients were functioning as well as never-detoxed patients on alcohol and drug use severity 2 years later. However, having a detox history at baseline was associated with poorer psychological and legal functioning at follow-ups. Assessing detox history in mental health programs would be feasible to implement routinely. Targeting more comprehensive mental health, case management, and 12-step facilitation services to dually diagnosed patients with a history of detox may improve mental health and criminal involvement status.
      PubDate: 2013-11-27T12:27:02-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042613491102|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042613491102
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2013)
  • Therapeutic Engagement and Posttreatment Substance Use in Adolescent TC
           Clients: Direct and Indirect Effects
    • Authors: Gunter, W. D; Abdel-Salam, S.
      Pages: 22 - 36
      Abstract: The problem of adolescent drug use places a huge toll on society and a heavy burden on the criminal justice system. Despite the ability of therapeutic communities (TCs) to lower drug relapse, a great deal remains unknown in terms of how the process of treatment actually works for adolescents. Using data collected as part of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Studies–Adolescents, this study examines the direct and indirect relationship between therapeutic engagement and posttreatment substance use. Though there are few direct effects of therapeutic engagement on substance use, findings suggest that those more engaged in treatment are more likely to complete treatment and, therefore, less likely to use substances. This suggests that instruments that evaluate therapeutic engagement are important in assessing involvement in treatment, and that programming designed to engage the adolescents in TC treatment should be utilized to reduce the risk of posttreatment relapse.
      PubDate: 2013-11-27T12:27:02-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042613491103|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042613491103
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2013)
  • Precursors and Prices: Structuring the Quebec Synthetic Drug Market
    • Authors: Ouellet, M; Morselli, C.
      Pages: 37 - 55
      Abstract: Few analyses of basic elements of the synthetic drug market have been conducted, particularly in regard to its structural features. Synthetic drug’s relatively recent classification as an illicit substance, coupled with its distinct clandestine characteristics, has hindered the development of reliable assessments of the market’s structural features. Using information derived from 365 seized synthetic drugs, this study aims to reliably examine the structural attributes of Quebec’s synthetic drug market by merging two approaches: drug composition and economic analysis. Findings for the drug composition analysis indicate that the market is composed of a high number of small structures, indicating a competitive and decentralized market. Providing complementary information, the economic analysis revealed that differential production costs and relations between traffickers influence price variations, depending on the region. These results emphasize the need to design policies that account for regional differences as well as reflect the competitive nature of the market.
      PubDate: 2013-11-27T12:27:02-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042613491104|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042613491104
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2013)
  • Buying and Selling Crack: Transactions at the Retail Level and the Role of
    • Authors: Oteo Perez, A; Benschop, A, Korf, D. J.
      Pages: 56 - 68
      Abstract: To assess key characteristics of the retail crack market and the role of users as buyers and sellers, data from a survey inside and outside institutional setting among 1,039 crack users in the three largest Dutch cities were analyzed to explore their role in the crack market as buyers and sellers. Of the total number of users, 42.3% bought crack in public places, 39.6% through home delivery, and 13.9% at dealer’s addresses. Near one-third reported participating in selling drugs, defining themselves as "go-betweens" (21.4%) or "dealers" (9.2%). User-sellers and nonselling users did not differ with regard to gender and ethnicity. Cluster analysis resulted in three distinct types of user-sellers (freelancers, assistants, and amateurs), each characterized by time spent selling drugs, type of drugs sold, and earnings. Amateurs seem quite similar to what scholars have labeled "social dealers" in recreational drugs markets. This study suggests the need for a more differentiated law enforcement policy toward drug-selling users.
      PubDate: 2013-11-27T12:27:02-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042613491105|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042613491105
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2013)
  • Treatment Outcomes of African American Buprenorphine Patients by Parole
           and Probation Status
    • Authors: Mitchell, S. G; Gryczynski, J, Kelly, S. M, O'Grady, K. E, Jaffe, J. H, Olsen, Y. K, Schwartz, R. P.
      Pages: 69 - 82
      Abstract: This secondary analysis compared outcomes in African American adults newly admitted to buprenorphine treatment and who were on parole and probation with outcomes in patients who were not under criminal justice (CJ) supervision. Buprenorphine patients (N = 300) were randomly assigned to receive either intensive outpatient (IOP) treatment or standard outpatient (OP) treatment and were assessed at baseline, and 3 and 6 months. There were no differences between groups in treatment retention. Among probationers/parolees, IOP treatment was associated with lower 3-month treatment retention compared with OP treatment, but among participants not on probation/parole, the relationship was reversed (p = .004). Both conditions showed significant declines in heroin and cocaine use, illegal activity, and in meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for opioid and cocaine dependence. Probationers/parolees reported a lower frequency of illegal activities at 3 months compared with nonprobationers/nonparolees (p = .007). Buprenorphine treatment should be made more widely available to individuals on parole/probation as they respond as well to treatment as patients not supervised by the CJ system.
      PubDate: 2013-11-27T12:27:02-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042613491106|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042613491106
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2013)
  • Participation in Team Sports and Alcohol and Marijuana Use Initiation
    • Authors: Lisha, N. E; Crano, W. D, Delucchi, K. L.
      Pages: 83 - 93
      Abstract: A parallel-process latent growth curve model was used to model alcohol and marijuana use (vs. nonuse). Participation in team sports and gender were considered to be time-invariant covariates. The sample consisted of 8,179 youth from the National Survey of Parents and Youth. Data were collected over four yearly rounds. Analysis revealed that being part of a competitive sports team was related to a lower probability of marijuana initiation, but to increased rates of alcohol use over time. Males had significantly higher levels of marijuana initiation and decreases in rates of alcohol use over time; females had significantly greater rate of increase in alcohol use over time. Analysis suggests that youth involved in sports are less likely to use marijuana over time. This information may help to uncover other predictors of use over time and to inform policy making as well design as effective prevention.
      PubDate: 2013-11-27T12:27:02-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042613491107|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042613491107
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2013)
  • The Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of Cutting Down and Stopping
           Cocaine Use: A Qualitative Exploration Among African Americans in the
    • Authors: Cheney, A. M; Curran, G. M, Booth, B. M, Sullivan, S. D, Stewart, K. E, Borders, T. F.
      Pages: 94 - 113
      Abstract: This study qualitatively examines the religious and spiritual dimensions of cutting down and stopping cocaine use among African Americans in rural and urban areas of Arkansas. The analyses compare and contrast the narrative data of 28 current cocaine users living in communities where the Black church plays a fundamental role in the social and cultural lives of many African Americans, highlighting the ways that participants used religious symbols, idiomatic expression, and Biblical scriptures to interpret and make sense of their substance-use experiences. Participants drew on diverse religious and spiritual beliefs and practices, including participation in organized religion, reliance on a personal relationship with God, and God’s will to cut down and stop cocaine use. Our findings suggest that culturally sensitive interventions addressing the influence of religion and spirituality in substance use are needed to reduce cocaine use and promote recovery in this at-risk, minority population.
      PubDate: 2013-11-27T12:27:02-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042613491108|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042613491108
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2013)
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