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Journal Cover Journal of Drug Issues
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0022-0426 - ISSN (Online) 1945-1369
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [753 journals]   [SJR: 0.372]   [H-I: 35]
  • Using a Group-Based Trajectory Approach to Assess Risk and Protective
           Factors of Marijuana Use
    • Authors: Eassey, J. M; Gibson, C. L, Krohn, M. D.
      Pages: 4 - 21
      Abstract: Marijuana is the most widely used illegal substance in the world, and persistent and frequent use during adolescence has been associated with precocious transitions and deleterious consequences in adulthood. This study used a group-based trajectory approach to analyze panel data collected from 1,725 youth participating in the National Youth Study to describe pathways of marijuana use and to explore protective factors that may reduce the continuation of use. A trajectory approach allowed us to operationalize risk based on prior within-person patterns of self-reported marijuana use. Three trajectory groups of marijuana users were identified: chronic users (17%), rising users (40%), and abstainers (43%). Our results show that some protective factors are significantly associated with decreases in marijuana use for each trajectory group (e.g., parent disapproval and non-using peer associations), but others are significantly associated with decreases in marijuana for a particular trajectory group and not others (e.g., school attachment for chronic marijuana users). The implications of our findings are discussed for the risk and protective factor framework, as well as their importance in a society where opinions of marijuana are currently changing.
      PubDate: 2014-11-30T21:18:58-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042614542508|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042614542508
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2014)
  • Smoking Trajectories Among Monoracial and Biracial Black Adolescents and
           Young Adults
    • Authors: Clark, T. T; Nguyen, A. B, Coman, E.
      Pages: 22 - 37
      Abstract: Cigarette-smoking trajectories were assessed among monorace Blacks, Black–American Indians, Black–Asians, Black–Hispanics, and Black–Whites. We used a subsample of nationally representative data obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample consisted of adolescents who were in Grades 7 to 12 in 1994, and followed across four waves of data collection into adulthood. Wave 4 data were collected in 2007-2008 when most respondents were between 24 and 32 years old. Respondents could report more than one race/ethnicity. Poisson’s regression was used to analyze the data. We found distinct smoking trajectories among monorace and biracial/ethnic Blacks, with all groups eventually equaling or surpassing trajectories of Whites. The age of cross-over varied by gender for some subgroups, with Black–American Indian males catching up earlier than Black–American Indian females. Black–White females smoked on more days than monorace Black females until age 26 and also smoked more than Black–White males between ages 11 and 29 years. Black–Hispanic males smoked on more days than Black–Hispanic females from ages 11 to 14. The results of the interaction tests also indicated different smoking trajectories across socioeconomic status (SES) levels among White, Black, and Black–White respondents. Significant heterogeneity was observed regarding smoking trajectories between monorace and biracial/ethnic Blacks. Knowledge of cigarette-smoking patterns among monorace and biracial/ethnic Black youth and young adults extends our understanding of the etiology of tobacco use and may inform interventions.
      PubDate: 2014-11-30T21:18:58-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042614542511|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042614542511
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2014)
  • Different Patterns of Drug Use and Barriers to Continuous HIV Care
    • Authors: Swan; H.
      Pages: 38 - 52
      Abstract: Individuals with a drug use history often experience drug use relapse when they are released from incarceration. This article explores the processes by which a sample of adults experienced relapse post-incarceration and consequently experienced HIV treatment interruption. Data are from in-depth interviews with 25 formerly incarcerated HIV-positive adults who have a self-reported history of drug use. Findings reveal that each participant relapsed post-incarceration. Some participants relapsed immediately after release; others remained drug free until something "triggered" a relapse. Once a participant relapsed, factors that contributed to HIV treatment interruption included re-incarceration, a lack of concern for HIV care, and the overlap of symptoms between addiction and HIV infection. The relationship between drug use and HIV treatment interruption was exacerbated when the participant reported also having a mental health disorder. Cessation of drug use facilitated HIV treatment engagement for participants. The implications of these findings for policy and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-30T21:18:58-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042614542512|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042614542512
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2014)
  • Evaluating Alternative Aftercare Models for Ex-Offenders
    • Authors: Jason, L. A; Olson, B. D, Harvey, R.
      Pages: 53 - 68
      Abstract: This study examined the role played by aftercare following (mainly) inpatient community-based treatment in the outcomes of criminal ex-offenders with substance use disorders. Two hundred seventy individuals who had been released from the criminal justice system were randomly assigned to either a therapeutic community (TC), recovery homes called Oxford Houses (OHs), or usual care settings (UA). The OHs and TCs are residential settings that emphasized socialization and abstinence from drugs and alcohol, but OHs do not include the formal therapeutic change interventions common to TCs, nor do they include any on-site access to drug abuse or health care professionals. UA involved what occurred naturally after completing treatment, which included staying with friends or family members, their own house or apartment, homeless shelters, or other settings. Longer lengths of stay in either the TCs or OHs were associated with increased employment, and reduced alcohol and drug use. Those assigned to the OH condition received more money from employment, worked more days, achieved higher continuous alcohol sobriety rates, and had more favorable cost–benefit ratios.
      PubDate: 2014-11-30T21:18:58-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042614552019|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042614552019
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2014)
  • Relationship Between Low-Income Patient Census and Substance Use Disorder
           Treatment Programs' Availability of Tobacco Cessation Services
    • Authors: Muilenburg, J. L; Laschober, T. C, Eby, L. T.
      Pages: 69 - 79
      Abstract: Low-income adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) have a high prevalence of tobacco use and often limited access to tobacco cessation treatment. This study examines the relationship between low-income SUD patient census (i.e., percentage of patients whose treatment costs are covered by Medicaid and Federal block grants) and SUD programs’ availability of three evidence-based tobacco cessation services (TCS): behavioral treatments, system-level support, and pharmacotherapy. Data were collected from a random sample of 1,006 program administrators in 2010. Mixed-effects models results show that the percentage of low-income patients is significantly positively associated with the availability of behavioral treatments and system-level support but not pharmacotherapy. Thus, low-income patients may have similar access to tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy but greater access to behavioral treatments and system-level support. However, the availability of TCS is not widespread overall, which may hamper access to extensive services to address low-income SUD patients’ high smoking rates.
      PubDate: 2014-11-30T21:18:58-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042614552020|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042614552020
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2014)
  • How General Is the General Theory of Crime? Using Self-Control to
           Predict Substance Use Between Sexual Orientation Groups
    • Authors: Koeppel; M. D. H.
      Pages: 80 - 94
      Abstract: This research tests the strength and generalizability of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s theory by comparing the ability of self-control to predict substance use for heterosexual and non-heterosexual groups. Self-reported data from college students were gathered and key variables included sexual orientation, self-control (as measured by the Grasmick scale), alcohol use, marijuana use, and drug use. Linear and logistic regression models were used for the analysis. Results from the multivariate models found that self-control was a stronger predictor for the heterosexual sample. Self-control was a statistically significant predictor for two models for the heterosexual sample (alcohol consumption and marijuana use), while it was never statistically significant for the non-heterosexual sample. Despite having similar levels, self-control was a stronger predictor for substance use for heterosexuals. Heterosexuals and non-heterosexuals have different experiences as a result of their sexual orientation, which lead to varying relationships between self-control and substance use.
      PubDate: 2014-11-30T21:18:58-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042614552021|hwp:master-id:spjod;0022042614552021
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 1 (2014)
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