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Journal Cover   Journal of Drug Issues
  [SJR: 0.399]   [H-I: 38]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0426 - ISSN (Online) 1945-1369
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [827 journals]
  • Adolescent Alcohol Use Patterns From 25 European Countries
    • Authors: Braker, A.-B; Gobel, K, Scheithauer, H, Soellner, R.
      Pages: 336 - 350
      Abstract: This study’s purpose is to describe European adolescents’ alcohol use patterns by grouping adolescents regarding their current alcohol use by cluster analysis (CA). Discriminant and latent profile analyses (LPA) evaluate and validate the solution that will be described further by ANOVAs. From 25 European countries, 57,771 students (49.4% male, 13.87 years) are grouped using hierarchical and k-means clustering. Alcohol use is measured by frequency of drinking occasions during the previous month and number of beverages consumed on the last drinking occasion. CA suggests four drinking patterns: mild (73.6%), episodic (20.0%), frequent (3.8%), and heavy episodic use (2.5%). Discriminant analysis attests a classification reliability of 94%, and confirmatory LPA replicates the cluster solution with a satisfying model fit. Three of the found patterns fulfill criteria for heavy drinking and underline the importance of individualized indicated prevention by promoting responsible use.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T23:16:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042615589404
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 4 (2015)
  • Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adulthood: An Empirical Examination of
           Competing Explanations
    • Authors: Holtfreter, K; Reisig, M. D, O'Neal, E. N.
      Pages: 351 - 367
      Abstract: Prescription drug misuse is a public health problem, and older adults are at high risk. The underlying factors associated with this problem in late adulthood are not well understood. Using cross-sectional data from telephone interviews with individuals aged 60 years and older in Arizona and Florida (N = 2,000), this study tests whether hypotheses derived from general strain and low self-control theories are supported while investigating misusing prescription medication. Results from the regression analyses reveal that the association between poor health (conceptualized as a strain) and misusing prescription drugs (conceptualized as criminal coping) is partially explained by depressive symptoms (conceptualized as negative emotionality). The link between problem drinking and prescription drug misuse is fully attenuated when low self-control is included in the model. The results confirm that both theories provide insight into this public health problem and that treatment strategies should target the underlying mechanisms that lead to misuse.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T23:16:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042615589405
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 4 (2015)
  • Recovery Residences and Providing Safe and Supportive Housing for
           Individuals Overcoming Addiction
    • Authors: Mericle, A. A; Miles, J, Way, F.
      Pages: 368 - 384
      Abstract: Recovery residences provide safe and supportive housing to help individuals initiate and sustain recovery from substance abuse. They are a potentially important yet understudied component of the substance abuse continuum of care. Unlike other substance abuse treatment and service delivery options, recovery residences are largely privately owned and funded by the residents themselves, and we know little about how these residences open and the factors that influence their ability to stay open. Using qualitative data from interviews with recovery home operators (N = 21) in Philadelphia, this article explores what recovery home operators want to accomplish with their homes, how they try to do this, the obstacles they encounter in trying to run their homes, and why they keep at it. Themes highlight the potential of recovery residences as well as the challenges faced by those who operate them.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T23:16:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042615602924
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 4 (2015)
  • Routes Into Opioid Analgesic Misuse: Emergent Typologies of Initiation
    • Authors: Harocopos, A; Allen, B.
      Pages: 385 - 395
      Abstract: Non-medical use of opioid analgesics (OAs) has increased in the United States over the past decade, yet there has been little in-depth exploration into the circumstances of initiation of OA misuse. This study is based on qualitative data from five focus groups conducted with individuals who misused OAs in New York City. Participants (n = 19) were aged between 20 and 47 years. The majority were male (n = 14) and non-Hispanic White (n = 12). Three initiate groups were identified: recreational initiates, who typically began misusing OAs in their teens through non-medical sources; medical initiates, who initiated OA use through medical treatment; and experienced opioid users, who initiated OA use through both recreational and medical channels but whose entry into misuse followed a history of heroin use. Findings show heterogeneous patterns of initiation, indicating the need for prevention and intervention strategies to be tailored to particular groups.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T23:16:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042615604345
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 4 (2015)
  • Cigarette Use by Turkish Adolescents and Its Links to Strain, Depression,
           and Anger
    • Authors: Yilmaz, M; Lo, C. C, Solakoglu, O.
      Pages: 396 - 408
      Abstract: In this study of Turkish adolescents and cigarette smoking, we applied general strain theory, conceptualizing smoking as a coping strategy for various types of strain and negative emotions associated with strain. Our secondary data were collected via a survey prepared (in English, by the Icelandic Center for Social Research and Analysis, later translated into Turkish) for the Youth in Europe Project fighting drug use by urban European students. The present data came from students in the populous Bagcilar district of Istanbul, Turkey, where in 2008, 10th-grade students completed the questionnaire. Our final sample included 1,949 students. Logistic regression showed cigarette smoking (both lifetime and 30-day) to be associated with strain arising from school, from negative life events, and from violent victimization. Smoking also appeared linked to negative affect, specifically anger and depression. Gender was observed to moderate a link between lifetime cigarette smoking and anger.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T23:16:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042615603201
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 4 (2015)
  • Classifying the Variety of Drug Trafficking Organizations
    • Authors: Natarajan, M; Zanella, M, Yu, C.
      Pages: 409 - 430
      Abstract: A standard typology of drug trafficking organizations would assist in interpreting the results of studies made of these organizations. Several such typologies have been proposed, and this study examines a widely cited typology that was developed in the 1990s using New York City court data. The typology has two dimensions, organizational tasks and structure. It satisfactorily encompassed the trafficking organizations identified in two new samples: 39 organizations prosecuted in New York City in 1997-2007 and 50 organizations prosecuted during the same period by the Drug Enforcement Administration. The findings supported the generalizability of the typology. They also suggest that drug trafficking organizations adopt a structure congruent with their external environment, including the market for drugs, the type of drugs, ethnicity of those involved in distribution, use of technology in communication and distribution, and levels of law enforcement. Implications of fuller knowledge about the structure and functioning of drug trafficking organizations for research and policy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T23:16:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042615603391
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 4 (2015)
  • The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Driving While Intoxicated
    • Authors: Quinn, T. P; Quinn, E. L.
      Pages: 431 - 446
      Abstract: This longitudinal study examined differences in driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism among defendants with multiple DWI offenses after receiving a 16-week cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program compared with those who received standard services. Defendants on probation supervision with histories of repeated DWI offenses (N = 286; male = 240, female = 46) were referred to CBT. There was a significant difference in DWI recidivism 3 years after CBT among participants (11%) and the New York State (25%) and national (30%) rates; the comparison group reoffended at the rate of 25%. Level of Service Inventory–Revised (LSI-R) scores of the CBT group also decreased significantly compared with the comparison group, and CBT participants showed significant improvement in overall functioning measured by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). CBT offered in this innovative manner was more effective with recalcitrant, hard to treat, DWI offenders. It may also benefit precontemplative offenders by helping them recognize that their drinking is negatively impacting their lives and may warrant more traditional alcohol treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T23:16:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042615603390
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 4 (2015)
  • Change in Adolescents' Alcohol-Use Patterns, From Non-Drinking to
           Non-Heavy Drinking or Heavy Drinking
    • Authors: Cheng, T. C; Lo, C. C.
      Pages: 447 - 459
      Abstract: This study examined risk and protective factors at work when adolescents change from a non-drinking alcohol-use pattern to either non-heavy drinking or heavy drinking. Using a sample of 1,725 non-drinkers extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we conducted multinomial logistic regression and found that likelihood of change from non-drinking to non-heavy drinking was associated positively with safe neighborhood, female, peers’ drinking, emotional maltreatment, and delinquent behaviors. We found a negative association between such likelihood and being African American. We found that likelihood of change from non-drinking to heavy drinking was associated positively with peers’ drinking, depressive feelings, drug use, and repeating a grade(s) at school. We found a negative association between such likelihood and having a married mother, being African American or some other non-Hispanic minority ethnicity, and maternal supervision. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-09-15T23:16:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042615604013
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 4 (2015)
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