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Journal Cover Journal of Drug Issues
  [SJR: 0.686]   [H-I: 42]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-0426 - ISSN (Online) 1945-1369
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [852 journals]
  • The "Deviant Good Mother": Motherhood Experiences of Substance-Using and
           Lawbreaking Women
    • Authors: Couvrette, A; Brochu, S, Plourde, C.
      Pages: 292 - 307
      Abstract: When drug-using and lawbreaking women are mothers, their competence as mothers is often questioned because good mothers are not supposed to do such things. Consequently, they are often labeled as unfit mothers. This qualitative study seeks to examine the experience of motherhood in substance-using and lawbreaking mothers. Interviews with 38 substance-using women who had broken the law were conducted. Women in our study embrace two models of motherhood: one is an idealized view of motherhood as worthwhile, gratifying, and true to social expectations, and the other a model of the "deviant good mother," which conforms more closely to their deviant lifestyle. Both of these models influence the way that these mothers perceive their substance use, their criminal behavior, and the possibility of being a good mother. The "deviant good mother" model also allowed them to build (or rebuild) a positive and fulfilling maternal identity.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616649003
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • Determinants of Public Support for Marijuana Legalization in Uruguay, the
           United States, and El Salvador
    • Authors: Cruz, J. M; Queirolo, R, Boidi, M. F.
      Pages: 308 - 325
      Abstract: What are the determinants of public support for marijuana legalization? In the last 3 years, Uruguay and the states of Colorado and Washington have legalized the production, sale, and consumption of recreational marijuana. Although Uruguay and the United States have followed different paths toward legalization, these cases provide an excellent opportunity to explore the relationship between drug policy implementation and public opinion in different political contexts. Using logistic regressions on data from the 2014 AmericasBarometer cross-national surveys conducted in Uruguay, the United States, and El Salvador, this article examines citizen views toward marijuana regulation and the individual determinants of support for legalization in a comparative fashion. Results underline the role of political socialization variables in those countries in which legalization is being debated. Across countries, some of the most important factors for predicting positive attitudes toward marijuana regulation are related to political tolerance, ideology, and the views toward the government.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616649005
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • More Than Friends and Family? Estimating the Direct and Indirect Effects
           of Religiosity on Substance Use in Emerging Adulthood
    • Authors: Thomson; R. A.
      Pages: 326 - 346
      Abstract: Religiosity tends to negatively influence substance use among emerging adults because religious communities can serve as pro-social reference groups and provide alternative resources for coping with stress and negative life events. The relationship may also be mediated, however, by differences in family attachments and drug- and alcohol-using peer associations. With data from a nationally representative panel study, I implemented longitudinal structural equation modeling to simultaneously assess both direct and indirect effects of religiosity on substance use. While a substantive portion of its effect is mediated by substance-using peers, it is mostly direct, and increasingly so as individuals transition from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. Furthermore, religion appears to be a particularly effective social institution, as religiosity decreases contemporary substance use but is not itself affected by prior substance use. Religiosity may thus be beneficial with regard to certain short- and long-term health outcomes related to substance use during emerging adulthood.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616659760
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • Assessing Drinking and Academic Performance Among a Nationally
           Representative Sample of College Students
    • Authors: Piazza-Gardner, A. K; Barry, A. E, Merianos, A. L.
      Pages: 347 - 353
      Abstract: This investigation assessed whether alcohol consumption was negatively related to grade point average (GPA) among a nationally representative sample of college students. Items from the American College Health Association’s National College Health Assessment (N = 22,424) were investigated. One-way ANOVAs and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results revealed that respondents with lower GPAs consumed a greater number of drinks compared with those with higher GPAs. Students with higher GPAs engaged in heavy episodic drinking less than students with lower GPAs. Number of drinks consumed was the strongest predictor of academic performance; the likelihood of being an A student decreased with each drink consumed. Similarly, binge drinking was the strongest predictor; the likelihood of being an A student decreased as binge drinking increased. The dynamic, interdependent relationship between alcohol and GPA documented herein confirms previous research, which delineates reduced academic performance as a function of alcohol consumption.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616659757
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • Institutional Dilemmas: The Difficulty of Making a Turning Point in
           Residential Drug Treatment
    • Authors: Lee; A. W.
      Pages: 354 - 372
      Abstract: Because high drop-out rates have long plagued drug treatment programs, researchers have spent considerable energy searching for risk factors to predict dropout, with only limited success. In this ethnographic study of a long-term residential treatment program, I argue that failure in residential treatment does not stem from high-risk individual-level characteristics, but from the inherent difficulties of making a turning point in drug treatment. Drug users enter treatment at unstable points in their life course, when they are least equipped to handle stressful experiences. Yet entrance into treatment introduces new stressors, particularly the adaptation to a new, demanding environment. I argue that the very characteristics of residential treatment that enable a drug addict to desist—surveillance, routine activities, rules, and confinement—also make her want to escape. This article elaborates on institutional dilemmas that make treatment difficult and unpredictable, presenting an alternative to the risk factors approach to dropout.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616659756
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • Explaining Adolescent Drug Use in Adjacent Generations: Testing the
           Generality of Theoretical Explanations
    • Authors: Krohn, M. D; Loughran, T. A, Thornberry, T. P, Jang, D. W, Freeman-Gallant, A, Castro, E. D.
      Pages: 373 - 395
      Abstract: We tested the assumption that theories of drug use are able to account for behavior across varying contexts and populations by examining whether control, learning, and elaborated theories provide similar explanations for adolescent drug use in adjacent generations. We used data from the Rochester Youth Development Study and Rochester Intergenerational Study which followed a sample of adolescents starting at age 14 and their oldest biological child. Cross-generational analysis between theoretical variables measured at age 14 and drug use measured at approximately ages 15 and 16 were used. Regression models testing for each theoretical framework found that in general, they appear to operate similarly in adjacent generations. We conducted 14 tests of equality for pairs of coefficients across the generations; no statistically significant differences were observed. Overall, these theories offer general explanations for adolescent drug use with respect to risk and protective factors for parents and their children. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616659758
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • Narcissistic Vulnerability and Addiction: Findings From a Study of People
           in Treatment
    • Authors: Karakoula, P; Triliva, S.
      Pages: 396 - 410
      Abstract: The main body of research on addiction and pathological narcissism has focused on the study of their co-occurrence by applying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) definitions for these clinical phenomena or by assessing trait narcissism in substance-dependent populations. Clinically informed comprehensive conceptualizations of narcissism which focus on its phenomenological range from vulnerability to grandiosity have not been applied in studying the specific narcissistic disturbances that underlie the relationship between these comorbid conditions. Aiming to examine this relationship, this study compared the presence of pathological narcissism, and more specifically narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability, in substance-dependent individuals in treatment with individuals from the general population. Comparisons indicate that substance-dependent individuals experience significant narcissistic disturbances more likely related to vulnerability than grandiosity. Shame, rage, and self-esteem contingent upon external validation comprise the intrapsychic and interpersonal vulnerability. Implications for the clinical conceptualization of pathological narcissism as well as for substance dependence treatment interventions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616659761
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • Evolution of the United States Marijuana Market in the Decade of
           Liberalization Before Full Legalization
    • Authors: Davenport, S. S; Caulkins, J. P.
      Pages: 411 - 427
      Abstract: The past decade has seen a remarkable liberalization of marijuana policies in many parts of the United States. We analyze data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for coinciding changes in the marijuana market from 2002 to 2013, including market size, number and demographics of customers, and varying means of acquiring the drug. Results suggests that (a) the national market has grown, especially in terms of the number of daily users; (b) marijuana users remained economically "downscale" over this period, and in many ways resemble cigarette users; (c) distribution networks appear to be professionalizing in a sense, as fewer users obtain marijuana socially; (d) the typical purchase has gotten smaller by weight but not price paid, suggestive of a trend toward higher potencies; (e) marijuana expenditures vary by user group; and (f) respondents with medical marijuana recommendations differ from other users in systematic ways.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616659759
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • Reefer Madness to Marijuana Legalization: Media Exposure and American
           Attitudes Toward Marijuana (1975-2012)
    • Authors: Stringer, R. J; Maggard, S. R.
      Pages: 428 - 445
      Abstract: American attitudes toward marijuana have varied greatly from the time it was criminalized in the 1930s through the present day, and public opinion favoring the legalization of marijuana has steadily risen since 1990. It is generally well accepted that the media played a large role in shaping not only marijuana laws but also the general public’s attitudes toward marijuana. As such, this study utilized General Social Survey data to examine the relationship between media exposure and attitudes toward the legalization of marijuana from 1975 through 2012, 1975 through 1990, and 1991 through 2012. The findings indicate that while media exposure was not significantly related to attitudes about marijuana legalization from 1975 through 1990, both television and newspaper exposure had a significant positive relationship with favor toward the legalization of marijuana from 1991 through 2012.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616659762
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • The Stigma of Anabolic Steroid Use
    • Authors: Griffiths, S; Murray, S. B, Mond, J. M.
      Pages: 446 - 456
      Abstract: Little is known about the stigma of anabolic steroid use despite clear implications for treatment-seekers and for public policy development. We investigated the predictors of steroid stigma and contextualized the results by comparing steroids with marijuana. Undergraduates (N = 304) completed measures of drug stigma, exposure to drug users, and history of drug use. Participants stigmatized steroid use more than marijuana use—a very large effect. Participants reported less exposure to steroid users. Nevertheless, 15% of participants reported having a steroid-using friend. History of drug use, but not exposure to steroid users, predicted lower steroid stigma. Drug use and exposure both predicted lower marijuana use stigma. The amount of stigma expressed toward steroids is commensurate with that of "hard" drugs, such as heroin, likely constituting a formidable barrier to treatment. The public’s difficulty empathizing with male body image insecurities may partially explain why exposure to steroid users did not predict lower stigmatization.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616661837
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
  • A Mixed-Method Analysis of Reports on 100 Cases of Improper Prescribing of
           Controlled Substances
    • Authors: DuBois, J. M; Chibnall, J. T, Anderson, E. E, Eggers, M, Baldwin, K, Vasher, M.
      Pages: 457 - 472
      Abstract: Improper prescribing of controlled substances (IPCS) contributes to opioid addictions and deaths by overdose. Studies conducted to date have largely lacked a theoretical framework and ignored the interaction of individual with environmental factors. We conducted a mixed-method analysis of published reports on 100 cases that occurred in the United States. An average of 17 reports (e.g., from medical boards) per case were coded for 38 dichotomous variables describing the physician, setting, patients, and investigation. A theory on how the case occurred was developed for each case. Explanatory typologies were developed and then validated through hierarchical cluster analysis. Most cases involved physicians who were male (88%), >40 years old (90%), non-board certified (63%), and in small private practices (97%); 54% of cases reported facts about the physician indicative of self-centered personality traits. Three explanatory typologies were validated. Increasing oversight provided by peers and trainees may help prevent improper prescribing of controlled substances.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T06:53:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0022042616661836
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 4 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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