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Journal Cover Foot & Ankle International
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1071-1007
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [835 journals]
  • Inconsistency in the Reporting of Adverse Events in Total Ankle
           Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review of the Literature
    • Authors: Mercer, J; Penner, M, Wing, K, Younger, A. S. E.
      Pages: 127 - 136
      Abstract: Background: Systems for classifying complications have been proposed for many surgical subspecialties. The goal of this systematic review was to analyze the number and frequency of different terms used to identify complications in total ankle arthroplasty. We hypothesized that this terminology would be highly variable, supporting a need for a standardized system of reporting. Methods: Studies that met predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria were analyzed to identify terminology used to describe adverse events. All terms were then tabulated and quantified with regard to diversity and frequency of use across all included studies. Terms were also grouped into 10 categories, and the number of reported occurrences of each adverse event was calculated. A reporting tool was then developed. Results: Of 572 unique terms used to describe adverse outcomes in 117 studies, 55.9% (320/572) were used in only a single study. The category that was most frequently reported was revision surgery, with 86% of papers reporting on this event using 115 different terms. Other categories included "additional non-revision surgeries" (74% of papers, 93 terms), "loosening/osteolysis" (63% of papers, 86 terms), "fractures" (60% of papers, 53 terms), "wound problems" (52% of papers, 27 terms), "infection" (52% of papers, 27 terms), "implant problems" (50% of papers, 57 terms), "soft tissue injuries" (31% of papers, 30 terms), "heterotopic ossification" (22% of papers, 17 terms), and "pain" (18% of papers, 11 terms). Conclusion: The reporting of complications and adverse outcomes for total ankle arthroplasty was highly variable. This lack of consistency impedes the accurate reporting and interpretation of data required for the development of cohesive, evidence-based treatment guidelines for end-stage ankle arthritis. Standardized reporting tools are urgently needed. This study presents a prototype worksheet for the standardized assessment and reporting of adverse events. Level of Evidence: Level-III, decision analyses, systematic review of Level III studies and above.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715609719
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • The Effect of Obesity on Functional Outcomes and Complications in Total
           Ankle Arthroplasty
    • Authors: Gross, C. E; Lampley, A, Green, C. L, DeOrio, J. K, Easley, M, Adams, S, Nunley, J. A.
      Pages: 137 - 141
      Abstract: Background: The prevalence of obesity in the United States is staggering. Currently, the effect of obesity on third-generation total ankle replacement (TAR) is unknown. Methods: We prospectively identified a consecutive series of 455 primary TARs operated between May 2007 and September 2013 who had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. We identified 266 patients with a body mass index (BMI) 35 (Obese II). Clinical outcomes including wound issues, infection rate, complications, and failure rates were compared. Functional outcomes including American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot score, Short Form–36 (SF-36), Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA), Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI), and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) were compared. Average patient follow-up in the Obese I group was 44.7 ± 17.3 months, Obese II was 42.7 ± 16.4 months, and 45.2 ± 17.4 months in the control group. Results: Age, race, and smoking history in the obese group were not significantly higher than the control group; however, sex was significantly related to BMI. There was no difference in complication, infection, or failure rates between the groups. Preoperatively, the Obese II group had significantly lower SF-36 scores and higher SMFA function, FADI, and FAOS Symptoms scores. For each of the Obese I, Obese II, and control groups, all functional outcome scores 1 year postoperatively and at most recent follow-up were significantly improved. However, at most recent follow-up, Obese II patients had lower FAOS Pain and SF-36 scores and higher FADI and SMFA Functional scores. Conclusion: Total ankle arthroplasty in obese patients was a relatively safe procedure. Although obese patients after TAR had lower functional outcome scores compared to their nonobese counterpart, they did experience significant functional and pain improvements at most recent follow-up. Level of Evidence: Level III, comparative series.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715606477
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Arthroscopic Debridement After Total Ankle Arthroplasty
    • Authors: Devos Bevernage, B; Deleu, P.-A, Birch, I, Gombault, V, Maldague, P, Leemrijse, T.
      Pages: 142 - 149
      Abstract: Background: Residual pain due to impingement after ankle arthroplasty can be addressed with arthroscopic debridement. Literature focusing on the effectiveness of arthroscopic debridement after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is scarce. The authors report a case series of 12 patients complaining of anterior or posterior impingement pain, 11 of which were in the absence of malalignment which were treated by arthroscopy. Methods: Of the 106 TAAs performed between 2003 and 2012, a total of 12 subjects reported postoperative pain resulting from anterior or anteromedial impingement, medial and/or lateral gutter impingement, posterior impingement, and/or ankylosis. All patients were reviewed on a regular basis through chart review, clinical examination, and radiologic evaluation. The average time to final follow-up was 58.8 months. The average period from the original TAA to the arthroscopic debridement was 38.2 months. Results: The median AOFAS hindfoot score was significantly (P < .05) improved from 64.6 preoperatively to 73.5 postoperatively. Eight subjects reported good pain relief after the arthroscopic debridement, and partial pain relief was reported by 4 subjects. Three patients with painful ankylosis had no improvement in the total range of motion of the TAA implant after the arthroscopic debridement. Conclusion: The results suggest that arthroscopic debridement in patients with residual pain due to impingement syndromes after TAA was effective in 8 of the 12 cases at 2 years’ follow-up. However, the results suggest that arthroscopic debridement in the presence of painful ankylosis associated with or without impingement syndromes results only in partial pain relief and does not improve the range of motion. Level of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715607965
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Joint Mobilization and Stretching Exercise vs Steroid Injection in the
           Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Study
    • Pages: 150 - 156
      Abstract: Background: This study compared the effectiveness of joint mobilization combined with stretching exercises (JM&Str) vs steroid injection (SI) in the treatment of plantar fasciitis (PF). Methods: A total of 43 patients (mean age, 45.5 ± 8.5 years; range, 30-60 years; 23 females) with PF were randomly assigned to receive either JM&Str (n = 22) or SIs (n = 21). JM&Str was applied 3 times per week for 3 weeks for a total of 9 visits. The SI group received 1 injection at baseline. The patients’ functional scores were assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), and pain was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Outcomes of interest were captured at baseline and at 3-week, 6-week, 12-week, and 1-year follow-ups. The primary aim was examined using a mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA). Pairwise comparisons were performed to examine differences between the baseline and follow-up periods using Bonferroni equality at an alpha level of 0.05. Results: Age, sex, body mass index, and dorsiflexion range of motion did not significantly impact pain relief or functional outcome (P > .05) at the 3-, 6- or 12-week follow-ups compared to baseline. Planned pairwise comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in pain relief and functional outcomes in both groups (P < .05) at the 3-, 6-, and 12-week follow-ups compared to baseline. However, at the 12-week and 1-year follow-ups, pain and functional outcomes were significantly improved in only the JM&Str group (P = .002). The overall group-by-time interaction was statistically significant for both FAAM (P = .001; F = 7.0) and VAS (P = .001; F = 8.3) scores. Between-group differences favored the SI group at the 3-week (P = .001, P = .001), 6-week (P = .002, P = .001), and 12-week (P = .008, P = .001) follow-ups for pain relief and functional outcomes. However, no significant differences (P = .62, P = .57) were detected in the measured outcomes at the 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that while both groups achieved significant improvements at the 3-, 6-, and 12-week follow-ups, the SI group exhibited better outcomes at all 3 time points. The noted improvements continued in only the JM&Str group for a period of time ranging from 12 weeks to 1 year. Level of Evidence: Level II, comparative study.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715607619
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Outcomes of Bone Grafting of Bone Cysts After Total Ankle Arthroplasty
    • Authors: Gross, C. E; Huh, J, Green, C, Shah, S, DeOrio, J. K, Easley, M, Nunley, J. A.
      Pages: 157 - 164
      Abstract: Background: The operative treatment of bone cysts after total ankle replacements (TAR) is not well described. Bone cysts may cause component migration, implant failure, and pain. Surgery is performed on cysts with the goals of reducing pain and preventing component failure. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a consecutive series of 726 primary TARs performed between January 1998 and May 2013 and identified those who had a subsequent bone cyst grafting procedure. We identified cyst location and method of treatment. Clinical outcomes including secondary procedures, infection rate, complications, and failure rate were recorded. Thirty-one patients were treated with a total of 33 operative procedures for bone cysts after TAR. Of these patients, 22 (71.0%) were males with an average age of 62.2 and median follow-up 65.9 months. Results: Intraoperatively, 22 tibial cysts (71.0%), 20 talar cysts (64.5%), 5 fibular cysts (16.1%), and 13 multiple cysts (41.9%) were treated. Allograft was used in 25 procedures (75.8%), calcium phosphate in 4 (12.1%), cement in 3 (9.1%), and autograft in 1 (3.0%). These procedures were supplemented by calcaneus autograft, allograft mixed with mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2, and demineralized bone matrix. There were no infections or wound complications. Of the 27 subjects with a successful second surgery, the success rate for bone grafting of cysts was 90.9% (95% CI: 50.8, 98.7%) at 24 months and 60.6% (95% CI: 25.1%, 83.4%) at 48 months. One patient needed a repeat bone grafting. The 4 failures observed postprocedure resulted in 3 tibial and talar component revisions, and 1 tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion. Conclusions: Grafting bone cysts without revision of TAR was in general an effective and safe means for treating patients with peri-prosthetic bone cysts. Treatment with grafting and supplemental materials may improve implant survivorship and might improve the structural support surrounding the implant. Further exploration of the etiology of bone cysts may aid in the prevention and treatment of cystic formation in the TAR. Level of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715609055
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Radiographic Recurrence of Deformity After Hallux Valgus Surgery in
           Patients With Metatarsus Adductus
    • Authors: Aiyer, A; Shub, J, Shariff, R, Ying, L, Myerson, M.
      Pages: 165 - 171
      Abstract: Background: Metatarsus adductus (MA) is a congenital condition that may lead to the development of hallux valgus (HV). The associated anatomic deformities may lead to recurrence of the HV in patients with MA. The goals of the study were to identify radiographic rates of recurrence of HV following surgery for HV in patients with MA. Methods: Between 2002 and 2013, 587 patients who underwent HV surgery were retrospectively identified. The radiographic parameters recorded included the hallux valgus angle (HVA), the intermetatarsal angle (IMA), and the metatarsus adductus angle (MAA) obtained from initial radiographs and at final follow-up. The MAA was considered abnormal if the value was greater than 20 degrees. Radiographic recurrence was defined as HV deformity >20 degrees. Results: The rate of radiographic recurrence of HV was 15% in patients without MA and 29.6% in patients with MA (P < .05). In the group with MA, rate of deformity recurrence did not differ among the operative procedures performed (Lapidus, 28.5%; distal first metatarsal osteotomy, 29.4%; proximal first metatarsal osteotomy, 28.9%). Patients with severe MA (MAA > 31 degrees) were found to have a recurrence rate of 18%, whereas those with less severe MA (MAA < 31 degrees) were found to have a recurrence rate of 82%. Of the patients with severe MA who did not have radiographic recurrence of HV, 60% had undergone a Lapidus arthrodesis and realignment arthrodesis of the second/third tarsometatarsal joints. Conclusion: The rate of radiographic recurrence for patients with MA undergoing HV correction was ~30%. This finding was consistent with our hypothesis that MA increases the risk of radiographic recurrence of HV deformity irrespective of the procedure performed. We believe the lower rate of recurrence of HV among patients with severe MA deformities is suggestive that more complete management of the deformity is warranted. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative series.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715608372
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • "Angle to Be Corrected" in Preoperative Evaluation for Hallux Valgus
           Surgery: Analysis of a New Angular Measurement
    • Authors: Ortiz, C; Wagner, P, Vela, O, Fischman, D, Cavada, G, Wagner, E.
      Pages: 172 - 177
      Abstract: Background: The most common methods for assessing severity of hallux valgus deformity and the effects of an operative procedure are the angular measurements in weightbearing radiographs, specifically the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle (IMA). Our objective was to analyze the interobserver variability in hallux valgus patients of a new angle called the "angle to be corrected" (ATC), and to compare its capacity to differentiate between different deformities against IMA. Methods: We included 28 symptomatic hallux valgus patients with 48 weightbearing foot x-rays. Three trained observers measured the 1 to 2 IMA and the ATC. We then identified retrospectively 45 hallux valgus patients, which were divided into 3 operative technique groups having used the ATC as reference, and analyzed the capacity of the IMA to differentiate between them. Results: The IMA average value was 13.6 degrees, and there was a significant difference between observer 3 and observer 1 (P = .001). The average value for the ATC was 8.9 degrees, and there was no difference between observers. Both angles showed a high intraclass correlation. Regarding the capacity to differentiate between operative technique groups, the ATC was different between the 3 operative technique groups analyzed, but the IMA showed differences only between 2. Conclusions: The ATC was at least as reliable as the intermetatarsal angle for hallux valgus angular measurements, showing a high intraclass correlation with no interobserver difference. It can be suggested that the ATC was better than the IMA to stratify hallux valgus patients when deciding between different operative treatments. Level of Evidence: Level III, comparative study.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715604000
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Patient-Reported Outcomes and Return to Activity After Peroneus Brevis
    • Authors: Steginsky, B; Riley, A, Lucas, D. E, Philbin, T. M, Berlet, G. C.
      Pages: 178 - 185
      Abstract: Background: There is limited data on functional outcomes after primary repair of partial peroneal tendon tears. Previous reports have been limited by small cohorts, duration of follow-up, and often included both tenodesis and primary repair. The purpose of this study was to report the functional outcomes and return to activity in the largest cohort to date with partial peroneal tendon tears treated with primary repair. Methods: A chart review identified all patients who underwent primary repair of the peroneus brevis tendon from 2008 to 2012. Demographic data, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and postoperative complications were reviewed. Patients were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), and Foot Function Index (FFI). There were 201 patients who underwent primary repair of the peroneus brevis tendon. The average age at time of operation was 44.3 years. Seventy-one patients returned the follow-up questionnaires with an average follow-up of 4.6 years. Fifty-two patients completed the FFI questionnaire preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: Fifty-nine patients (83.1%) reported a return to regular exercise and sports at final follow-up. At 1 year postoperatively, 76.5% of patients returned to the same preinjury activities, and 62.3% returned to the same level of preinjury activity. Furthermore, 85.9% of patients were satisfied with their outcome, and 91.4% of patients reported they would choose to undergo the same procedure again. The mean FAAM score was 85.2 at follow-up. The mean preoperative and postoperative FFI score was 41.1 and 12.2, respectively. There was a significant improvement in the FFI score of 28.9 after primary peroneus brevis tendon repair (P < .001). Conclusion: Primary repair of peroneus brevis tendon provided consistent improvement in functional outcomes in the majority of patients, as measured by a validated scoring system, the FFI. FAAM scores demonstrated good function compared to historical controls. The majority of patients were able to return to preinjury activity. Level of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715611960
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Vitamin D Status in an Elective Orthopedic Surgical Population
    • Authors: Michelson, J. D; Charlson, M. D.
      Pages: 186 - 191
      Abstract: Background: Adequate vitamin D availability is required for normal bone metabolism. Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in latitudes above 30 degrees. The goal of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in an unselected population of patients undergoing major ankle or hindfoot arthrodesis in Burlington, Vermont (latitude 44.5° N). Methods One hundred eighteen patients undergoing a major ankle, hindfoot, or midfoot arthrodesis between May 2012 and February 2014 were eligible for the study, of which 81 participated. All clinical data, including comorbidities, demographics, and lab values, were obtained from the comprehensive electronic medical record system that encompassed all inpatient and outpatient care. Based on the recommendations published by the Vitamin D Task Force Committee of the Endocrine Society, vitamin D levels above 30 ng/mL were considered normal. Statistical analyses were performed using a significance level of P
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715609054
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Outcomes and Return to Activity After Operative Repair of Chronic Latent
           Syndesmotic Instability
    • Authors: Ryan, P. M; Rodriguez, R. M.
      Pages: 192 - 197
      Abstract: Background: This study is a retrospective review of prospectively gathered data determining the postoperative outcomes of patients who underwent operative treatment to address chronic syndesmotic instability. Methods: The cohort is composed of 19 individuals who elected to undergo operative treatment of chronic syndesmotic instability. The operative repair consisted of arthroscopic debridement in all cases with reduction and suture button fixation of those patients who had greater than 4 mm of syndesmotic diastasis on arthroscopic evaluation. All patients had a minimum of 24 months follow-up. This study retrospectively examined the prospectively gathered preoperative and postoperative outcome scores to include a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score and an American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score. In addition, patients were questioned on their ability to return to their preinjury level of activity and their ability to continue running sports. Fourteen patients returned their postoperative surveys. Results: Mean AOFAS scores improved significantly from 48 to 82.7 (P = .014). Mean VAS scores improved from 6.1 to 1.0 (P = .002). Overall, 86% (12/14) of patients were able to return to running and 79% (11/14) of patients were able to return to their preinjury level of sport. Preoperative and postoperative weight-bearing ankle radiographs were reviewed to evaluate the tibiofibular clear space and overlap. The clear space measured on anteroposterior (AP) radiographs decreased from 5.4 mm to 4.6 mm (P = .005), the clear space evaluated on the mortise radiograph decreased from 4.5 mm to 3.6 mm (P = .006), and the overlap measured on the AP radiograph increased from 5.7 mm to 6.9 mm (P = .019). All radiographs were measured by a board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist. Conclusion: This study presents a treatment method that can be instituted at the time of diagnosis for syndesmotic injuries with greater than 4 mm of diastasis that were treated with debridement and stabilization. The results of this treatment technique are promising, with significant improvements in subjective outcome scores and a high rate of return to running sports. Level of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715606488
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Results of Arthroscopic Subtalar Arthrodesis for Adult-Acquired Flatfoot
           Deformity vs Posttraumatic Arthritis
    • Authors: Vila y Rico, J; Jimenez Diaz, V, Bravo Gimenez, B, Mellado Romero, M. A, Ojeda Thies, C.
      Pages: 198 - 204
      Abstract: Background: The goal of this study was to compare results with arthroscopic posterior subtalar arthrodesis between patients treated for adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) due to posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and patients with posttraumatic subtalar arthritis. Methods: Retrospective case series of 61 consecutive patients (group 1: posttraumatic arthritis, n = 37; group 2: AAFD, n = 24) averaging 49 years of age (range, 21-72 years) undergoing posterior arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis via 1 or 2 percutaneous 6.5- to 7.3-mm screws, with a mean follow-up of 57.5 months (range, 24-105 months). Fusion was defined as the appearance of bony trabeculae across the subtalar joint on standard x-rays, along with clinical signs of union. Results: Patients with posttraumatic arthritis (group 1) were more predominantly male and younger than patients treated for AAFD (group 2). Overall, we achieved a 95.1% radiologic union rate after an average of 11.7 weeks. Complications appeared in 14.8% of patients. Union rate and complications did not differ significantly between groups. American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores improved significantly for both patient groups, although patients with AAFD showed significantly larger improvement and higher postoperative AOFAS scores, even after adjusting for age and sex (mean improvement in AOFAS scores: 27.0 ± 9.1 points for the posttraumatic arthritis group vs 34.9 ± 7.4 points for the AAFD group; P < .001). Conclusions: Arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis was a safe and reliable technique, with consistent improvement in AOFAS scores throughout different patient subgroups, as well as comparable time to union and complication rates. Improvements were larger for patients treated for AAFD, even after adjusting for age and sex. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective case series.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715604237
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Evaluation of an Innovative Fixation System for Chevron Bunionectomy
    • Authors: Bennett, G. L; Sabetta, J. A.
      Pages: 205 - 209
      Abstract: Background: Distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy bunionectomy is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. There are several different methods to stabilize this osteotomy. We evaluated a new intramedullary plate system. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 57 consecutive patients who underwent distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy bunionectomy utilizing the intramedullary plate system. All operative procedures were performed by the senior author. Patients were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and at a final follow-up utilizing the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot scoring system. Results: Sixty-three surgically corrected feet went on to heal the osteotomy site. There were no hardware failures. We had one patient that expressed mild discomfort over the plate. All patients significantly improved their AOFAS scores compared with preoperative values. Conclusion: We concluded that the distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy bunionectomy resulted in excellent function and pain relief. The new plate system was a reliable and stable implant with a low profile, good strength, and ease of use. Level of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715607006
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Safe Zone for the Plantar Portal: A Cadaveric Study
    • Authors: Maeda, S; Niki, H, Hirano, T, Akiyama, Y.
      Pages: 210 - 217
      Abstract: Background: Understanding the plantar nerve anatomy is crucial for safe endoscopic surgery of the sole. We aimed to anatomically dissect the lateral aspect and soles of cadaveric feet to investigate the safety of peroneus longus tendoscopy with a plantar lateral portal and the safe zones for plantar portals. Methods: We studied 36 feet of 24 cadavers (mean age, 86.5 years). A cannula for 2.7-mm scope was inserted from the plantar lateral portal to the peroneus longus tendon, and the positional relationship between the cannula and sural nerve was observed. Then, the soft tissue of the sole was dissected, and the relationships between the plantar nerve and flexor digitorum longus tendon and flexor hallucis longus tendon was observed. The plantar nerve course was digitally imaged and uploaded into Image J software to determine nerve position. We further observed the positional relationship between the cannula and plantar nerve. Result: The mean minimum distance between the cannula and sural nerve was 13.8 mm, and the closest distance was 4.2 mm, allowing for the relatively safe creation of a plantar lateral portal. The use of the plantar lateral portal and evaluation of the peroneal tendon was safe with respect to the lateral plantar nerve as the nerve was in a different tissue layer of the foot. Dissection of the plantar foot demonstrated a relatively safe zone, 36.4% to 56% along a line between the medial aspect of the base of the first metatarsal bone to the proximal tip of the fifth metatarsal. This region may allow for a plantar endoscopic portal; however an anatomic variation may result in the plantar nerve being within this zone. The flexor digitorum longus tendon and peroneus longus tendon passed through the deep layer of the relatively safe zone. Conclusion: Peroneus longus tendoscopy was relatively safe to perform from a plantar lateral portal. No neurovascular structure exists on the slightly medial aspect of the central region of the sole, potentially allowing for a relatively safe creation of plantar central portal. An approach from the plantar central portal to the flexor digitorum longus tendon, flexor hallucis longus tendon, and peroneus longus tendon allows for a greater range of vision and treatment options as compared with conventional approaches. The combination of the plantar central portal with portals such as the plantar lateral portal may further the development of endoscopic surgery of the sole. Clinical Relevance: We found the anatomic characteristics of a relatively safe zone for the plantar portal for plantar lateral portal.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715607964
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Fixation of the Proximal Metatarsal Crescentic Osteotomy Using a Head
           Locking X-Plate
    • Authors: Pauli, W; Koch, A, Testa, E, Dopke, K, Perry, P, Honigmann, P.
      Pages: 218 - 226
      Abstract: Background: We present a new method to stabilize proximal crescentic osteotomies (PCOs) for the correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. Methods: A single-center prospective study with a consecutive series of 72 patients (94 feet) with a PCO was performed using a head locking X-plate. The primary aim was to investigate the stability of the osteotomy, measuring the dorsal elevation of the first metatarsal head, first cuneiform height, talus–first metatarsal angle, and first metatarsal inclination pre- and postoperatively. A secondary outcome assessed weight distribution during gait, quality of life, and radiologically documented bone healing process. Results: Ninety-three percent of the feet were within ±2 mm change for dorsal elevation of the first metatarsal head, and 72% for the medial cuneiform height. Eighty-nine percent were within ±4 degrees change for the first metatarsal inclination, 73% for the talus–first metatarsal angle, and 100% for the calcaneus pitch angle. The mean changes between pre- and 1-year postoperative were not significantly different for any of the stability measurements except for the first metatarsal inclination angle. The SF36 showed a significant improvement of physical function, general health, and decreased bodily pain. Harris mat footprints showed a decrease of 46% underneath the second and a pressure decrease of 40% underneath the third metatarsal head. Conclusion: This technique, of using a head locking X-plate to stabilize the PCO, showed satisfactory and reproducible results in terms of stability, clinical outcome, bone healing, and patient satisfaction. The plate provided substantial support for the PCO resulting in adequate and easy fixation. Level of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715606892
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Comparison of 2D-3D Measurements of Hallux and First Ray Sagittal Motion
           in Patients With and Without Hallux Valgus
    • Authors: Swanson, J. E; Stoltman, M. G, Oyen, C. R, Mohrbacher, J. A, Orandi, A, Olson, J. M, Glasoe, W. M.
      Pages: 227 - 232
      Abstract: Background: Clinicians base treatment decisions on measures of hallux and first ray motion in the management of first metatarsophalangeal joint disorders. Women account for a majority of the patients. This study assessed the reliability of a 2D approach for the measurements of sagittal motion, and compared the result to a Cardan (3D) angle criterion standard and evaluated how hallux valgus (bunion) deformity affected the comparisons. Methods: Twenty-nine women (controls n = 10; bunion n = 19) were examined using a retrospective repeated measures design. Weightbearing magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired to replicate the position of the foot during the stance phase of gait. The images were reconstructed into virtual bone models using computer processes, whereby measures of hallux and first ray motion were represented by 2D and 3D methods of measurement. An examiner measured 2D motion on the image data sets using a goniometer, and reliability was assessed. The 3D Cardan angle result was derived from a matrix calculation. The 2D-3D comparison of measurements was evaluated with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) model across gait conditions, run separate for groups. Results: The 2D measurement was reliable (ICC ≥ 0.98, SEM ≤ 0.89 degrees). There was no method-by-condition interaction (F ≤ 1.37, P ≥ .25) between variables. No significant difference was detected between the 2D-3D measurements in the control group (F ≤ 1.24, P ≥ .30), but the measurements were statistically different (F ≥ 4.46, P ≤ .049) in the bunion group. Conclusion: This study described a reliable 2D approach for measuring hallux and first ray sagittal motion from weightbearing images. The 2D measurements were comparable to a Cardan angle component motion result in controls, but not in women with bunion. Clinical Relevance: Joint motion measurements may augment clinical decision making. These results suggest that a 2D image–based approach may be adequate to estimate hallux and first ray sagittal motion, although bunion deformity creates out-of-plane motions that may require 3D methods to accurately quantify. Further clinical study is required to assess the differences in clinical outcomes between measurement techniques.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715604238
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures
    • Authors: Gross, C. E; Nunley, J. A.
      Pages: 233 - 239
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715619606
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
  • Education Calendar
    • Pages: 240 - 240
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T16:46:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100716629447
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2016)
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