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Journal Cover   Foot & Ankle International
  [SJR: 1.202]   [H-I: 68]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1071-1007
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [827 journals]
  • John Samuel Gould, MD (1939-2015)
    • Authors: Baumhauer; J.
      Pages: 1261 - 1263
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715614888
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Inflammatory Cytokines and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Synovial Fluid
           After Intra-articular Ankle Fracture
    • Authors: Adams, S. B; Setton, L. A, Bell, R. D, Easley, M. E, Huebner, J. L, Stabler, T, Kraus, V. B, Leimer, E. M, Olson, S. A, Nettles, D. L.
      Pages: 1264 - 1271
      Abstract: Background: Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) can occur after intra-articular fracture despite anatomic fracture reduction. It has been hypothesized that an early inflammatory response after intra-articular injury could lead to irreversible cartilage damage that progresses to PTOA. Therefore, in addition to meticulous fracture reduction, it would be ideal to prevent this initial inflammatory response but little is known about the composition of the synovial environment after intra-articular fracture. The purpose of this work was to characterize the inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) composition in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with acute intra-articular ankle fractures. Methods: Twenty-one patients with an intra-articular ankle fracture were included in this study. All patients had a contralateral ankle joint that was pain free, had no radiographic evidence of arthritis, and no history of trauma. The uninjured ankle served as a matched control. SF was obtained from bilateral ankles at the time of surgery which occurred at a mean of 17 days post-fracture (range 8-40). The SF was analyzed for granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-gamma (IFN-), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-10, CTXII, sGAG, and bilirubin/biliverdin (markers of hemearthrosis) using either multiplex assay or ELISA using commercially available kits. Mean concentrations of each factor were compared between SF from fractured and control ankles, and correlation analysis was done to determine potential relationships between levels of cytokines and time from fracture and age at fracture. Results: Twelve of 18 measured factors including GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-10, and bilirubin/biliverdin were found to be significantly higher in the fractured ankles. Mean concentrations of ECM degradation markers (sGAG and CTXII) were not found to be significatnly different between groups. Conclusion: These data indicate that after intra-articular ankle fracture the SF exhibits a largely pro-inflammatory and extra-cellular matrix degrading environment similar to that described in idiopathic osteoarthritis. IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-10 were significantly elevated and may play a role in the development of PTOA. Clinical Relevance: In addition to anatomic fracture reduction, these data lend credence to reducing acute intra-articular inflammation through the development of antagonists to these pro-inflammatory and degrading mediators. Likewise, intra-articular lavage might reduce this inflammatory burden.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715611176
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Repair of Acute Superficial Deltoid Complex Avulsion During Ankle Fracture
           Fixation in National Football League Players
    • Authors: Hsu, A. R; Lareau, C. R, Anderson, R. B.
      Pages: 1272 - 1278
      Abstract: Background: Infolding and retraction of an avulsed deltoid complex after ankle fracture can be a source of persistent increased medial clear space, malreduction, and postoperative pain and medial instability. The purpose of this descriptive case series was to analyze the preliminary outcomes of acute superficial deltoid complex avulsion repair during ankle fracture fixation in a cohort of National Football League (NFL) players. We found that there is often complete avulsion of the superficial deltoid complex off the proximal aspect of the medial malleolus during high-energy ankle fractures in athletes. Methods: Between 2004 and 2014, the cases of 14 NFL players who underwent ankle fracture fixation with open deltoid complex repair were reviewed. Patients with chronic deltoid ligament injuries or ankle fractures more than 2 months old were excluded. Average age for all patients was 25 years and body mass index 34.4. Player positions included 1 wide receiver, 1 tight end, 1 safety, 1 running back, 1 linebacker, and 9 offensive linemen. Average time from injury to surgery was 7.5 days. Surgical treatment for all patients consisted of ankle arthroscopy and debridement, followed by fibula fixation with plate and screws, syndesmotic fixation with suture-button devices, and open deltoid complex repair with suture anchors. Patient demographics were recorded with position played, time from injury to surgery, games played before and after surgery, ability to return to play, and postoperative complications. Return to play was defined as the ability to successfully participate in at least 1 full regular-season NFL game after surgery. Results: All NFL players were able to return to running and cutting maneuvers by 6 months after surgery. There were no significant differences in playing experience before surgery versus after surgery. Average playing experience before surgery was 3.3 seasons, 39 games played, and 22 games started. Average playing experience after surgery was 1.6 seasons, 16 games played, and 15 games started. Return to play was 86% for all players. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications noted, and no players had clinical evidence of medial pain or instability at final follow-up with radiographic maintenance of anatomic mortise alignment. Conclusion: Superficial deltoid complex avulsion during high-energy ankle fractures in athletes is a distinct injury pattern that should be recognized and may benefit from primary open repair. The majority of NFL players treated surgically for this injury pattern are able to return to play after surgery with no reported complications or persistent medial ankle pain or instability. Level of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715593374
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Percutaneous Achilles Repair System
           Versus Open Technique for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures
    • Authors: Hsu, A. R; Jones, C. P, Cohen, B. E, Davis, W. H, Ellington, J. K, Anderson, R. B.
      Pages: 1279 - 1286
      Abstract: Background: Limited incision techniques for acute Achilles tendon ruptures have been developed in recent years to improve recovery and reduce postoperative complications compared with traditional open repair. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the clinical outcomes and postoperative complications between acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated using a percutaneous Achilles repair system (PARS [Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL]) versus open repair and evaluate the overall outcomes for operatively treated Achilles ruptures. Methods: Between 2005 and 2014, 270 consecutive cases of operatively treated acute Achilles tendon ruptures were reviewed (101 PARS, 169 open). Patients with Achilles tendinopathy, insertional ruptures, chronic tears, or less than 3-month follow-up were excluded. Operative treatment consisted of a percutaneous technique (PARS) using a 2-cm transverse incision with FiberWire (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL) sutures or open repair using a 5- to 8-cm posteromedial incision with FiberWire in a Krackow fashion reinforced with absorbable sutures. Patient demographics were recorded along with medical comorbidities, activity at injury, time from injury to surgery, length of follow-up, return to baseline activities by 5 months, and postoperative complications. Results: The most common activity during injury for both groups was basketball (PARS: 39%, open: 47%). A greater number of patients treated with PARS were able to return to baseline physical activities by 5 months compared with the open group (PARS: 98%, open: 82%; P = .0001). There were no significant differences (P > .05) between groups in rates of rerupture (P = 1.0), sural neuritis (P = .16), wound dehiscence (P = .74), superficial (P = .29) and/or deep infection (P = .29), or reoperation (P = .13). There were no deep vein thromboses (DVTs) or reruptures in either group. In the PARS group, there were no cases of sural neuritis, 3 cases (3%) of superficial wound dehiscence, and 2 reoperations (2%) for superficial foreign-body reaction to FiberWire. In the open group, there were 5 cases (3%) of sural neuritis, 7 cases (4%) of superficial wound dehiscence, 3 cases (2%) of superficial infection, and 3 reoperations (2%) for deep infection. Conclusion: The present study reports the largest single-center series of acute Achilles tendon ruptures in the literature with lower complication rates for operatively treated Achilles ruptures compared with previous reports. The overall complication rate for all operatively treated Achilles ruptures was 8.5% with no reruptures, and most patients (88%) were able to return to baseline activities by 5 months after surgery. There were no significant differences in rates of postoperative complications between PARS and open repair for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective cohort study.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715589632
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Outcomes of the Bridle Procedure for the Treatment of Foot Drop
    • Authors: Johnson, J. E; Paxton, E. S, Lippe, J, Bohnert, K. L, Sinacore, D. R, Hastings, M. K, McCormick, J. J, Klein, S. E.
      Pages: 1287 - 1296
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes and objective measures of function that can be expected for patients following the Bridle procedure (modification of the posterior tibial tendon transfer) for the treatment of foot drop. Methods: Nineteen patients treated with a Bridle procedure and 10 matched controls were evaluated. The Bridle group had preoperative and 2-year postoperative radiographic foot alignment measurements and completion of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. At follow-up, both groups were tested for standing balance (star excursion test) and for ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion isokinetic strength, and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society and Stanmore outcome measures were collected only on the Bridle patients. Results: There was no change in radiographic foot alignment from pre- to postoperative measurement. Foot and Ankle Ability Measure subscales of activities of daily living and sport, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society, and Stanmore scores were all reduced in Bridle patients as compared with controls. Single-limb standing-balance reaching distance in the anterolateral and posterolateral directions were reduced in Bridle participants as compared with controls (P
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715593146
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Posterior Facet Settling and Changes in Bohler's Angle in Operatively and
           Nonoperatively Treated Calcaneus Fractures
    • Authors: Gonzalez, T. A; Lucas, R. C, Miller, T. J, Gitajn, I. L, Zurakowski, D, Kwon, J. Y.
      Pages: 1297 - 1309
      Abstract: Background: Patients with calcaneus fractures often exhibit settling of the posterior facet with a corresponding decrease in Bohler’s angle (BA) following either operative or nonoperative treatment. Both injury BA and postoperative BA have been shown to be prognostic for outcomes; however, the demographic and surgeon-specific factors that may contribute to settling have not been critically examined in the literature. The purpose of this study was to identify these causative factors. Methods: 234 patients with intra-articular calcaneus fractures were analyzed. All patients had preoperative plain radiographs, at least 5 months of orthopedic follow-up, and computed tomography scanning performed. BA was measured on the injury radiographs for all patients. For operatively treated patients, BA was measured on the immediate postoperative radiographs and compared with the last available radiograph. For nonoperatively treated patients, BA was measured on the last available radiograph. All patients were fully weightbearing at the time of final follow-up but not on initial radiographs due to their recent injury. Demographic data including age, gender, energy of injury mechanism, tobacco use, diabetes, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and substance/alcohol abuse were retrospectively collected. Fractures were classified using the Essex-Lopresti and Sanders classifications. Time to full weightbearing was documented, as were any reports of noncompliance with weightbearing restrictions. For patients treated operatively, type of fixation (calcaneal-specific perimeter plate, nonperimeter plate, screw fixation), use of locking screws, use of bone graft or graft substitutes, and the number of screws supporting the posterior facet were documented. Results: There was a statistically significant amount of settling within the operative and nonoperative groups, but there was no statistically significant difference in settling of BA between the groups. The average settling of BA for the operative and nonoperative group was 8 degrees. Age greater than 50 years, diabetes, and alcohol abuse were all statistically significant and independent predictors of BA settling irrespective of treatment. Conclusion: The amount of BA settling between the operative and nonoperative group was not significant and showed an average decrease of 8 degrees in each group. However, the amount of settling that we found, irrespective of treatment, increased with patient age, alcohol abuse, and diabetes. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715592448
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Pin Tract Infection Following Correction of Charcot Foot With Static
           Circular Fixation
    • Authors: Finkler, E. S; Kasia, C, Kroin, E, Davidson-Bell, V, Schiff, A. P, Pinzur, M. S.
      Pages: 1310 - 1315
      Abstract: Background: The traditional nonsurgical accommodative treatment for diabetes-associated Charcot foot arthropathy has been unsuccessful in improving the quality of life in affected individuals. This has led to the growing interest in surgical correction of the acquired deformity with either "super construct" internal fixation implants or fine-wire static circular external fixation. The use of static circular external fixation without implants has been demonstrated to achieve high rates of deformity correction with low complication rates. The goal of this investigation was to assess the risk of pin site infection in this high-risk patient population. Methods: Over an 11-year period, 283 consecutive diabetic patients underwent single-stage correction of Charcot foot deformity with static fine-wire circular external fixation and no internal fixation devices. Pin care was minimal. Results: Fifty-nine (20.8%) patients developed clinical signs of pin tract infection in at least 1 pin site. Forty-nine occurred in patients undergoing surgical correction of deformity in the foot. Eight occurred in patients undergoing surgical correction at the ankle level and 2 in patients undergoing complex reconstruction for combined foot and ankle deformity. Higher rates of pin site infections were observed in patients with osteomyelitis present at the time of surgery (25.6%) as compared with patients without evidence of infection (17.8%), although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .1184). There was no correlation between body mass index and pin site infection (P = .288). There was a statistically significant trend (P < .05) for higher rates of pin site infection in patients with elevated hemoglobin A1C levels. Erythema and drainage resolved in all patients with local pin care and empiric oral antibiotic therapy. None of the wires were removed prematurely, and all infections resolved following removal of the circular external fixator at the scheduled time for removal. Conclusions: Pin site infection was common following surgical correction of the acquired deformity associated with Charcot foot. These acquired pin site infections were a nuisance but did not appear to add permanent morbidity or require additional surgery to resolve. Level of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715593476
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Prevalence of Metatarsus Adductus in Symptomatic Hallux Valgus and Its
           Influence on Functional Outcome
    • Authors: Loh, B; Chen, J. Y, Yew, A. K. S, Chong, H. C, Yeo, M. G. H, Tao, P, Yeo, N. E. M, Koo, K, Rikhraj Singh, I.
      Pages: 1316 - 1321
      Abstract: Background: Metatarsus adductus (MA) increases the risk of developing symptomatic hallux valgus (HV). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MA in patients with symptomatic HV and to evaluate how it affected the functional outcome after scarf osteotomy. Methods: Between January 2007 and June 2012, a total of 206 patients who underwent scarf osteotomy for symptomatic HV at a tertiary hospital were included. The metatarsus adductus angle (MAA) was determined using the Modified Sgarlato method, and these patients were categorized into 2 groups: MA (MAA > 20 degrees); and Control (MAA ≤ 20 degrees). The patients were prospectively followed for 2 years. Results: The prevalence of MA was 33% (68/206) with a mean MAA of 24 ± 4 degrees (range = 20-39). There was a 21 ± 12 degrees and 18 ± 9 degrees improvement in hallux valgus angle for the MA and Control groups, respectively (P = .061), whereas there was a 6 ± 4 degrees and 6 ± 3 degrees improvement in intermetartarsal angle for the MA and Control groups, respectively (P = .475). The visual analog scale, AOFAS Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal Scale, and Physical and Mental Component Scores were comparable between the 2 groups both preoperatively and at 2 years’ follow-up (all P > .05). Two patients in the control group required revision surgery for recurrence symptomatic HV. Conclusion: The authors conclude that MA did not predispose the patient to poorer functional outcome after scarf osteotomy with the advent of good operative techniques. Level of Evidence: Level II, prospective comparative study.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715595618
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Role of a Limited Transarticular Release in Severe Hallux Valgus
    • Authors: Wagner, E; Ortiz, C, Figueroa, F, Vela, O, Wagner, P, Gould, J. S.
      Pages: 1322 - 1329
      Abstract: Background: Hallux valgus (HV) treatment is continuously evolving, and no definitive treatment can be recommended. Osteotomies are the main surgical choice for these deformities, but no clear role for soft tissue procedures is available. Objective: To perform a retrospective comparison of the radiographic and clinical outcomes of 2 groups of patients with severe HV operated with the same osteotomy technique but differing on the type of lateral release. Methods: Two groups of patients with symptomatic moderate to severe HV deformities were operated with the same proximal metatarsal osteotomy, which differed on the type of lateral release: group 1 had limited transarticular lateral capsule release (n = 62), and group 2 complete lateral release, including capsule, adductor tendon, and intermetatarsal (IM) ligament (n = 57). We recorded the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, HV and IM angles, first metatarsal shortening, concomitant metatarsal shortening osteotomies (Weil), Akin osteotomies, and complications. Results: The postoperative AOFAS score in group 1 was similar to that of group 2. The HV and IM angles improved in both groups with no significant difference. The multivariate analysis showed no influence of any variable analyzed on HV or IM angle improvement. Regarding AOFAS score improvement, a limited lateral release was associated with a higher increase in AOFAS score (P = .019). Conclusion: No studies are available to identify which soft tissue structures are involved in HV deformities nor which have to be released, if any. A limited transarticular release can provide similar clinical and radiologic outcomes when compared with a classic open lateral release. Level of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715593082
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Minimal Invasive Suture-Tape Augmentation for Chronic Ankle Instability
    • Authors: Cho, B.-K; Park, K.-J, Kim, S.-W, Lee, H.-J, Choi, S.-M.
      Pages: 1330 - 1338
      Abstract: Background: Although the modified Brostrom procedure has had excellent clinical results, postoperative complications such as skin irritation by suture material and problematic scar formation occur. This prospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of mini-open ligament augmentation (internal brace technique) using suture tape for chronic ankle instability in a select cohort of patients. Methods: Thirty-four young female patients with less than 70 kg of body weight were followed for more than 2 years after suture tape augmentation for lateral ankle instability. The clinical evaluation consisted of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) score, Sefton grading system, and the period to return to various activities. Measurement of talar tilt angle and anterior talar translation was obtained from stress radiographs to evaluate the longevity of mechanical ankle stability. Results: FAOS and FAAM scores had significantly improved to 92.5 points at final follow-up (P < .001). According to the Sefton grading, 31 cases (91.2%) achieved satisfactory functional results. The period to return to exercise was on average 10.2 weeks for jogging and 9.6 weeks for walking on uneven ground. The average subjective satisfaction score of patients was 93.8 points, and satisfaction with the scar was 98.5 points. Talar tilt angle and anterior talar translation had significantly improved to an average of 4.5 degrees and 4.1 mm, respectively, at final follow-up (P < .001). There were no complications such as skin irritation and wound infection, except for 1 case of chronic inflammation. Conclusions: Minimally invasive suture tape augmentation seems to be an effective alternative for young women with chronic ankle instability. Because there is a possibility of progressive elongation over time, the longevity of mechanical ankle stability and the proper indication for using the internal brace technique should be addressed in future studies. Level of Evidence: Level IV, case series study.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715592217
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Efficacy of Bilateral Simultaneous Hallux Valgus Correction Compared to
    • Authors: Boychenko, A. V; Solomin, L. N, Parfeyev, S. G, Obukhov, I. E, Belokrylova, M. S, Davidov, D. V.
      Pages: 1339 - 1343
      Abstract: Background: Hallux valgus affects up to 29% of adults and can be bilateral in 84% of cases. Contemporary surgical techniques provide the possibility of simultaneous bilateral correction, but still there is no consensus on whether staged or simultaneous correction should be performed if both feet are involved. The aim of the present study was to report our experience of treatment of patients with hallux valgus and to perform comparative analysis of results obtained from unilateral and simultaneous bilateral surgical correction. Methods: Data on 60 feet (40 patients) with hallux valgus that underwent surgery between 2010 and 2013 using scarf osteotomy and lateral soft tissue release were analyzed. Unilateral correction was performed in 30 feet (25 patients) and bilateral correction in 30 feet (15 patients). The patients from both groups were admitted to hospital for 7 days. Functional assessment (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society [AOFAS] score) and radiographic examination (intermetatarsal and hallux valgus angles) were performed preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 months after the procedure. Comparative analysis between groups with bilateral and unilateral correction was carried out. Results: At 24 months after surgery in the bilateral and unilateral groups, the mean AOFAS score was 86 ± 6.2 and 86 ± 6.9 (P > .05), the mean intermetatarsal angle was 8.4 ± 0.5 and 8.8 ± 0.8 degrees (P > .05), and the mean metatarsophalangeal angle was 13.0 ± 1.2 and 13.0 ± 0.9 degrees (P > .05), respectively. Conclusion: According to the data obtained, simultaneous bilateral correction had the same functional and radiographic results as unilateral surgery. Level of Evidence: Level III, case series.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715589174
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Implantation of Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
           in Foot Fat Pad in Rats
    • Authors: Molligan, J; Mitchell, R, Bhasin, P, Lakhani, A, Schon, L, Zhang, Z.
      Pages: 1344 - 1351
      Abstract: Background: The foot fat pad (FFP) bears body weight and may become a source of foot pain during aging. This study investigated the regenerative effects of autologous adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) in the FFP of rats. Methods: Fat tissue was harvested from a total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats for isolation of AT-MSCs. The cells were cultured, adipogenic differentiation was induced for 1 week, and the AT-MSCs were labeled with fluorescent dye before injection. AT-MSCs (5 x 104 in 50 µL of saline) were injected into the second infradigital pad in the right hindfoot of the rat of origin. Saline only (50 µL) was injected into the corresponding fat pad in the left hind paw of each rat. Rats (n = 10) were euthanized at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and the second infradigital fat pads were dissected for histologic examination. Results: The fluorescence-labeled AT-MSCs were present in the foot pads throughout the 3-week experimental period. On histologic testing, the area of fat pad units (FPUs) in the fat pads that received AT-MSC injections was greater than that in the control fat pads. Although the thickness of septae was not changed by AT-MSC injections, the density of elastic fibers in the septae was increased in the fat pads with implanted AT-MSCs. Conclusion: In this short-term study, the implanted AT-MSCs largely survived and might have stimulated the expansion of individual FPUs and increased the density of elastic fibers in the FFP in this rat model. Clinical Relevance: These data support the development of stem cell therapies for age-associated degeneration in FFP in humans.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715591092
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Influence of Ankle Position and Radiographic Projection Angle on
           Measurement of Supramalleolar Alignment on the Anteroposterior and
           Hindfoot Alignment Views
    • Authors: Barg, A; Amendola, R. L, Henninger, H. B, Kapron, A. L, Saltzman, C. L, Anderson, A. E.
      Pages: 1352 - 1361
      Abstract: Background: Using digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs), we determined how changes in the x-ray beam projection angle from the horizon, tibiotalar joint angle, and axial rotation of the foot influenced measurements of the medial distal tibial angle (MDTA) on the anteroposterior (AP) and hindfoot alignment views (HAV). Methods: Seven cadaver foot-ankle specimens were scanned by computed tomography (CT) at fixed tibiotalar joint positions, ranging from 15 degrees of dorsiflexion to 25 degrees of plantarflexion. DRRs were created from each CT scan to simulate alterations in the horizontal projection angle (0 to 25 degrees) and foot axial rotation (–30 to 30 degrees). The MDTA was measured on each DRR and compared with that quantified on the baseline HAV and AP view. Results: Altering the horizontal projection angle by ≥5 degrees and >10 degrees significantly altered the MDTA for the AP view and the HAV, respectively. Shifting dorsiflexion and plantarflexion caused minor changes in the MDTA that were only statistically significant for the HAV. Axial rotation significantly changed the MDTA on both views, but deviations were more pronounced for the HAV. Conclusions: Compared with the HAV, the MDTA on the AP view was less sensitive to changes in foot-ankle position. However, increasing the tilt of the x-ray beam from the horizon altered the MDTA on the AP view substantially. Clinical Relevance: To avoid misinterpretation of the MDTA, we recommend using the AP view to quantify supramalleolar alignment as it is less sensitive to changes in positioning of the foot-ankle. When acquiring an AP film, the x-ray beam should be directed along the horizon to ensure consistent assessment of the MDTA across patients.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715591091
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Arthroscopic Evaluation of Syndesmotic Instability in a Cadaveric Model
    • Authors: Watson, B. C; Lucas, D. E, Simpson, G. A, Berlet, G. C, Hyer, C. F.
      Pages: 1362 - 1368
      Abstract: Background: Ankle fractures are among the most common lower extremity injuries. Proper care requires evaluation for syndesmotic ligament disruption. Ankle arthroscopy has been proposed as an intraoperative tool that can evaluate stability. Our focus was to evaluate the amount of displacement produced in the coronal, sagittal, and transverse planes visualized through ankle arthroscopy in a cadaveric model. Methods: Seven below-knee specimens were mounted in a traction tower. Four groups were evaluated: no ligamentous disruption; anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament and interosseous ligament disruption; above plus anterior talofibular ligament and calcaneofibular ligament disruption; and posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament and transverse ligament disruption. Force was applied and measured using a digital scale. The amount of displacement of the fibula in relation to the center of the incisura was measured under arthroscopic evaluation using a calibrated probe. Results: An intact syndesmosis and lateral ankle ligaments provided multiplanar stability. In group 2, syndesmosis diastasis was appreciated in the transverse-external rotation plane with as little as 6 lb of force. In group 3, a greater amount of displacement was appreciated with less force. Multiplane instability was visible in every specimen with as little as 2 lb of force. Group 4 specimens were completely disrupted and so grossly unstable that testing was impossible. Conclusion: Ankle arthroscopy has the potential to evaluate even partial disruption of the syndesmotic ligament complex. Instability in the sagittal and transverse planes was encountered early in the spectrum of disruption. Traditional evaluation methods have poor sensitivity for instability in these planes. Clinical Relevance: Arthroscopic evaluation of subtle displacement in multiple planes may assist the surgeon in understanding the extent of the syndesmotic injury. Further studies are necessary to determine to what extent instability requires fixation as well as the role for arthroscopy in assessing anatomic reduction of the syndesmosis after fixation is performed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715589631
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Gradual Metatarsal Lengthening by External Fixation: A New Classification
           of Complications and a Stable Technique to Minimize Severe Complications
    • Authors: Barbier, D; Neretin, A, Journeau, P, Popkov, D.
      Pages: 1369 - 1377
      Abstract: Background: The surgical management of brachymetatarsia remains controversial, and choice is based on potential complications. We report a classification of complications based on severity, and we hypothesized that use of a semicircular external fixator would minimize severe complications in lateral metatarsal lengthening. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients (10 to 46 years old) with single or multiple brachymetatarsia and performed 54 metatarsal lengthenings with a mean follow-up of 7 months. Results: The mean gain in length was 15 mm (33.7%), and the mean healing index was 67 d/cm. No further procedure was performed. No dislocations or subluxations were reported, but 26 complications (48.1%) occurred, classified as 1 severe (1.8% of the metatarsals), 5 intermediate (9.3%), and 20 benign (37%): 4 incomplete osteotomies, 8 adjacent metatarsal osteotomies, 2 involuntary adjacent metatarsal fixations due to the lack of fluoroscopy use, 6 early consolidations, 2 metatarsal fractures, 2 skin complications, 1 superficial infection, and 1 metatarsophalangeal clinodactyly. Conclusion: A classification of complications based on severity was developed. Gradual lengthening of the lateral metatarsals by semicircular external fixation reduced the risk of severe complications because of stability without donor site morbidity. Thin wires were an advantage in the pediatric population. Level of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715593373
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Suture Fixation of the Syndesmosis Using Readily Available Materials
    • Authors: Georgiadis, A. G; Jung, E. K, North, W. T, Katcherian, D. A.
      Pages: 1378 - 1383
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715592218
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Hospital Alignment: What Does It Mean
    • Authors: Pomeroy; G.
      Pages: 1384 - 1385
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715600726
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
  • Education Calendar
    • Pages: 1386 - 1386
      PubDate: 2015-10-30T16:49:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1071100715616389
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 11 (2015)
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