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Journal Cover   Clinical Psychological Science
  [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [827 journals]
  • Limits of Current Approaches to Diagnosis Severity Based on Criterion
           Counts: An Example With DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder
    • Authors: Lane, S. P; Sher, K. J.
      Pages: 819 - 835
      Abstract: Within the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), some diagnoses are now associated with a severity gradient based on the number of diagnostic criteria satisfied. Reasons for questioning the validity of this approach include the implicit assumptions of equal criterion severity and strict additivity of criteria combinations. To assess the implications of heterogeneity of criterion configurations on severity grading, we examined the association between all observed combinations of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder criteria endorsement, at each level of number of criteria endorsed, and multiple validity measures among 22,177 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcoholism and Related Conditions (NESARC). Substantial variability of implied severity across criteria combinations was observed at each level of endorsement, with nontrivial overlap in implied severity across criterion counts. Findings suggest severity indices are at best imprecise, and potentially misleading. These problems are likely inherent in traditional polythetic approaches to diagnosis and almost certainly applicable to other disorders. Approaches for improving severity grading are proposed.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614553026
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • Mental Disorders as Causal Systems: A Network Approach to Posttraumatic
           Stress Disorder
    • Authors: McNally, R. J; Robinaugh, D. J, Wu, G. W. Y, Wang, L, Deserno, M. K, Borsboom, D.
      Pages: 836 - 849
      Abstract: Debates about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often turn on whether it is a timeless, cross-culturally valid natural phenomenon or a socially constructed idiom of distress. Most clinicians seem to favor the first view, differing only in whether they conceptualize PTSD as a discrete category or the upper end of a dimension of stress responsiveness. Yet both categorical and dimensional construals presuppose that PTSD symptoms are fallible indicators reflective of an underlying, latent variable. This presupposition has governed psychopathology research for decades, but it rests on problematic psychometric premises. In this article, we review an alternative, network perspective for conceptualizing mental disorders as causal systems of interacting symptoms, and we illustrate this perspective via analyses of PTSD symptoms reported by survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake in China. Finally, we foreshadow emerging computational methods that may disclose the causal structure of mental disorders.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614553230
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • The Structure of Psychopathology in Adolescence: Replication of a General
           Psychopathology Factor in the TRAILS Study
    • Authors: Laceulle, O. M; Vollebergh, W. A. M, Ormel, J.
      Pages: 850 - 860
      Abstract: This study aimed to replicate a study by Caspi and colleagues, which proposed that the structure of psychopathology is characterized by a general psychopathology factor, in addition to smaller internalizing and externalizing factors. Our study expanded the approach of the original by using continuous adolescent data and testing additional models, including both self- and parent-reported data, to bolster the robustness of the findings. Our findings indicate that the structure of psychopathology is best characterized by a model including a general factor, in addition to smaller internalizing and externalizing factors. These results emphasize the importance of this model for understanding the structure of psychopathology. Given the increasing emphasis on the importance of, and need for, replication, the overall evidence of a general factor seems rather robust.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614560750
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • Positive Adjustment Among American Repatriated Prisoners of the Vietnam
           War: Modeling the Long-Term Effects of Captivity
    • Authors: King, D. W; King, L. A, Park, C. L, Lee, L. O, Pless Kaiser, A, Spiro, A, Moore, J. L, Kaloupek, D. G, Keane, T. M.
      Pages: 861 - 876
      Abstract: A longitudinal life span model of factors contributing to later-life positive adjustment was tested on 567 American repatriated prisoners from the Vietnam War. This model encompassed demographics at time of capture and attributes assessed after return to the United States (reports of torture and mental distress) and approximately three decades later (later-life stressors, perceived social support, positive appraisal of military experiences, and positive adjustment). Age and education at time of capture and physical torture were associated with repatriation mental distress, which directly predicted poorer adjustment 30 years later. Physical torture also had a salutary effect, enhancing later-life positive appraisal of military experiences. Later-life events were directly and indirectly (through concerns about retirement) associated with positive adjustment. Results suggest that the personal resources of older age and more education and early-life adverse experiences can have cascading effects over the life span to impact well-being in both positive and negative ways.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614554448
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • Psychological Health and Aims of Aesthetic Surgery Seekers
    • Authors: Margraf, J; Meyer, A. H, Lavallee, K. L.
      Pages: 877 - 891
      Abstract: The psychological health of people who elect to surgically alter the embodied self is often questioned. This study examines characteristics and goals of 546 people who elect aesthetic surgery compared with 264 people who are interested in it and 1,135 population comparisons. Assessments included demographics, attractiveness, body image importance, depression, social phobia, joy, general health, life satisfaction, and open-ended and standard goals. Surgery and interested groups were more likely than the population to be female and younger, have lower income and lower body mass index, and have higher body image importance. The surgery group reported lower general attractiveness, life satisfaction, and joy, but also lower depression and higher overall health than the general population. There were no differences in social phobia. Overall, people obtaining and interested in cosmetic surgery appeared generally psychologically healthy. The most frequent goal was to "feel better about/in one’s own body." Overtly social or unrealistic goals were uncommon.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614551409
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • The Structure of Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression and Anxiety:
           Evidence for a Common Core Etiologic Process Based on a Meta-Analytic
    • Authors: Hong, R. Y; Cheung, M. W.- L.
      Pages: 892 - 912
      Abstract: Cognitive theories of psychopathology posit that maladaptive patterns of cognitions confer elevated risks to individuals in the development of psychological disorders. This meta-analysis examined the extent to which six cognitive vulnerabilities associated with depression (i.e., pessimistic inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, and ruminative style) and anxiety (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty, and fear of negative evaluation) were related with one another. A total of 159 effect sizes from 73 articles were obtained to estimate the mean correlations among the vulnerabilities. Results indicated that they were moderately to strongly correlated. Meta-analytic structural equation modeling was applied to evaluate two alternative factor analytic models underlying the associations among the vulnerabilities. A one-factor model provided the best fit to the meta-analytic data, suggesting a common etiologic factor shared among the vulnerabilities. This suggests that the vulnerabilities are not distinct at a broad level and their common core presents an avenue for transdiagnostic interventions.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614553789
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • Tendency to Recall Remote Memories as a Mediator of Overgeneral Recall in
    • Authors: Falco, D. E; Peynircioglu, Z. F, Hohman, T. J.
      Pages: 913 - 925
      Abstract: In the current study, remoteness of memories predicted overgeneral memory (OGM), and the tendency for remote recall was unrelated to either rumination or avoidance tendencies. In Experiments 1 and 2, dysphoric and nondysphoric participants dated their memories on autobiographical memory tests. Remoteness was related to OGM regardless of dysphoria. Furthermore, when instructed to recall from a specific time period, nondysphoric and dysphoric individuals showed similar levels of OGM for remote events and similar levels of memory specificity for recent events. Dysphoria correlated with OGM and the tendency to recall more remote memories, but remoteness was a better predictor of OGM and emerged as a mediating factor. In Experiment 3, remote memory recall was a better predictor of OGM than were either rumination or avoidance tendencies and was not correlated with either. We suggest that OGM is crucially tied to remote recall tendencies and discuss the theoretical and clinical implications within the framework of current models.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614552102
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • Rumination and Worry in Daily Life: Examining the Naturalistic Validity of
           Theoretical Constructs
    • Authors: Kircanski, K; Thompson, R. J, Sorenson, J. E, Sherdell, L, Gotlib, I. H.
      Pages: 926 - 939
      Abstract: Rumination and worry, two forms of perseverative thinking, hold promise as core processes that transect depressive and anxiety disorders. Whereas previous studies have been limited to the laboratory or to single diagnoses, we used an experience sampling methodology to assess and validate rumination and worry as transdiagnostic phenomena in the daily lives of individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and co-occurring MDD-GAD. Clinical and healthy control participants carried a handheld electronic device for one week. Eight times per day they reported on their current levels of rumination and worry and their theoretically postulated features: thought unpleasantness, repetitiveness, abstractness, uncontrollability, temporal orientation, and content, and overall senses of certainty and control. Both rumination and worry emerged as transdiagnostic processes that cut across MDD, GAD, and MDD-GAD. Furthermore, most psychological theories concerning rumination and worry strongly mapped onto participants’ reports, providing the first naturalistic validation of these constructs.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614566603
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • An Assessment of Emotional Reactivity to Frustration of Goal Pursuit in
           Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder
    • Authors: Edge, M. D; Lwi, S. J, Johnson, S. L.
      Pages: 940 - 955
      Abstract: Affective disturbance is a central feature of bipolar disorder. Many investigators have hypothesized that euthymic people with bipolar disorder might display elevated emotional reactivity, but laboratory studies of emotional reactivity have had mixed results. Drawing on theories of bipolar disorder that emphasize dysregulation of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that people with bipolar disorder might be emotionally hyperreactive to frustration of goal pursuit. Forty-seven euthymic participants with bipolar disorder and 43 control participants played a computer game for a monetary reward. To induce frustration, we programmed the game to respond inconsistently to user input during two periods. The frustration induction was successful as measured by self-report, physiological responding, and facial behavior, but contrary to the hypothesis of emotional hyperreactivity in bipolar disorder, the bipolar and control groups were equally reactive to frustration. Future studies will benefit from more specific hypotheses about how emotion might be altered in bipolar disorder.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614555412
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • Self-Distancing From Trauma Memories Reduces Physiological but Not
           Subjective Emotional Reactivity Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress
    • Authors: Wisco, B. E; Marx, B. P, Sloan, D. M, Gorman, K. R, Kulish, A. L, Pineles, S. L.
      Pages: 956 - 963
      Abstract: Self-distancing, or viewing oneself from a third-person perspective, reduces reactivity when analyzing one’s feelings. Self-distancing may have important effects among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who have heightened emotional and physiological reactivity to trauma memories, but the effects of self-distancing in this group are unclear. We randomly assigned 48 veterans diagnosed with PTSD to analyze their trauma-related feelings from an immersed (first-person) or distanced (third-person) perspective, and measured physiological and subjective emotional reactivity. Self-distancing during trauma analysis protected against increases in physiological reactivity, such that participants in the immersed condition showed a significant increase in heart rate and skin conductance responses not seen in the distanced condition. However, self-distancing had no effect on self-reported emotional reactivity. Our findings suggest that the effects of self-distancing on subjective emotions may not extend to trauma memories. However, self-distancing during trauma analysis did change physiological reactivity, suggesting at least a short-term benefit for individuals with PTSD.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614560745
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
  • The Emerging Field of Nutritional Mental Health: Inflammation, the
           Microbiome, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Function
    • Authors: Kaplan, B. J; Rucklidge, J. J, Romijn, A, McLeod, K.
      Pages: 964 - 980
      Abstract: We live in a transformational moment for understanding the etiology of mental disorders. The previous leap in understanding occurred 60 years ago, which led us to incorporate psychopharmacology into our curricula to address the chemical basis of neurotransmitter function, especially as explained through the then-popular catecholamine hypothesis. The current revolution is broader, consisting of the rapidly accumulating knowledge of how inflammation, microbiome imbalance (gut dysbiosis), oxidative stress, and impaired mitochondrial output affect brain function. Suitable interventions for fighting inflammation, restoring normal gut function, reducing oxidative stress, and improving mitochondrial metabolism incorporate lifestyle variables, including nutrients and probiotics. This article invites readers to stay abreast of this emerging model of the biological basis of mental illness, given that it has particular relevance for those readers interested in alleviating the suffering of individuals with mental disorders. This overview describes the basis for a new field in mental health: nutritional psychiatry/psychology.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T07:50:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614555413
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 6 (2015)
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