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Journal Cover Clinical Psychological Science
  [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [835 journals]
  • Puberty, Socioeconomic Status, and Depression in Girls: Evidence for Gene
           x Environment Interactions
    • Authors: Mendle, J; Moore, S. R, Briley, D. A, Harden, K. P.
      Pages: 3 - 16
      Abstract: In the current study, we tested for Gene x Environment interactions in the association between pubertal timing and adolescent depression by examining how socioeconomic factors might moderate age at menarche’s relation with depressive symptoms. Participants comprised 630 female twin and sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Consistent with previous studies, results showed that genetic predispositions toward later menarche were associated with fewer depressive symptoms and that genetic predispositions toward earlier menarche were associated with more depressive symptoms. However, this pattern was subtle and evident only in girls from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Although girls from lower socioeconomic families showed the highest overall levels of depression, their symptoms appeared unrelated to timing of physical development through either a genetic or an environmental path.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614563598
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Interaction of CD38 Variant and Chronic Interpersonal Stress Prospectively
           Predicts Social Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Over 6 Years
    • Authors: Tabak, B. A; Vrshek-Schallhorn, S, Zinbarg, R. E, Prenoveau, J. M, Mineka, S, Redei, E. E, Adam, E. K, Craske, M. G.
      Pages: 17 - 27
      Abstract: Variation in the CD38 gene, which regulates secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin, has been associated with several social phenotypes. Specifically, rs3796863 A allele carriers have demonstrated increased social sensitivity. In 400 older adolescents, we used trait-state-occasion modeling to investigate how rs3796863 genotype, baseline ratings of chronic interpersonal stress, and their gene–environment (GxE) interaction predicted trait social anxiety and depression symptoms over 6 years. We found significant GxE effects for CD38 A-carrier genotypes and chronic interpersonal stress at baseline predicting greater social anxiety and depression symptoms. A significant GxE effect of smaller magnitude was also found for C/C genotype and chronic interpersonal stress predicting greater depression; however, this effect was small compared with the main effect of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, in the context of chronic interpersonal stress, heightened social sensitivity associated with the rs3796863 A allele may prospectively predict risk for social anxiety and (to a lesser extent) depression.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615577470
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Emotion Regulatory Flexibility Sheds Light on the Elusive Relationship
           Between Repeated Traumatic Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    • Authors: Levy-Gigi, E; Bonanno, G. A, Shapiro, A. R, Richter-Levin, G, Keri, S, Sheppes, G.
      Pages: 28 - 39
      Abstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that repeated traumatic exposure should strongly relate to increased posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, research with first responders, who are repeatedly exposed to traumatic events, finds inconsistent links to PTSD. Although recent studies explored associations between general self-reported emotion-regulation and PTSD, the present study was the first to test the moderating role of regulatory choice flexibility, the ability to choose regulatory options that suit contextual demands. A total of 69 firefighters with differing duty-related traumatic-exposure were tested on an innovative performance-based regulatory choice flexibility paradigm and evaluated for PTSD symptoms using clinical interviews. We predicted and found that firefighters with low but not high regulatory choice flexibility showed a significant positive correlation between traumatic exposure and PTSD symptoms. This moderation was specific to PTSD symptoms and contributed above and beyond other well-established correlates of PTSD. The results suggest that regulatory choice flexibility can intersect the deleterious link between traumatic exposure and PTSD symptoms.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615577783
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Psychosis Uncommonly and Inconsistently Precedes Violence Among High-Risk
    • Authors: Skeem, J; Kennealy, P, Monahan, J, Peterson, J, Appelbaum, P.
      Pages: 40 - 49
      Abstract: A small group of individuals with mental illness is repeatedly involved in violence. Little is known about how often and how consistently these high-risk individuals experience delusions or hallucinations just before a violent incident. To address these questions, data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study were used to identify 305 violent incidents associated with 100 former inpatients with repeated violence (representing 50% of incidents and 9% of participants) and test whether psychosis-preceded incidents cluster within individuals. Results indicated that (a) psychosis immediately preceded 12% of incidents, (b) individuals were "fairly" consistent in their violence type (ICC = .42), and (c) those with exclusively "non-psychosis-preceded" violence (80%) could be distinguished from a small group who also had some psychosis-preceded violence (20%). These findings suggest that psychosis sometimes foreshadows violence for a fraction of high-risk individuals, but violence prevention efforts should also target factors like anger and social deviance.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615575879
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • A Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Model of Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs:
           Development and Initial Validation
    • Authors: Latzman, R. D; Drislane, L. E, Hecht, L. K, Brislin, S. J, Patrick, C. J, Lilienfeld, S. O, Freeman, H. J, Schapiro, S. J, Hopkins, W. D.
      Pages: 50 - 66
      Abstract: The current work sought to operationalize constructs of the triarchic model of psychopathy in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a species well suited for investigations of basic biobehavioral dispositions relevant to psychopathology. Across three studies, we generated validity evidence for scale measures of the triarchic model constructs in a large sample (N = 238) of socially housed chimpanzees. Using a consensus-based rating approach, we first identified candidate items for the chimpanzee triarchic (CHMP-Tri) scales from an existing primate personality instrument and refined these into scales. In Study 2, we collected data for these scales from human informants (N = 301) and examined their convergent and divergent relations with scales from another triarchic inventory developed for human use. In Study 3, we undertook validation work examining associations between CHMP-Tri scales and task measures of approach-avoidance behavior (N = 73) and ability to delay gratification (N = 55). Current findings provide support for a chimpanzee model of core dispositions relevant to psychopathy and other forms of psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615568989
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Negative Affect Instability Among Individuals With Comorbid Borderline
           Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    • Authors: Scheiderer, E. M; Wang, T, Tomko, R. L, Wood, P. K, Trull, T. J.
      Pages: 67 - 81
      Abstract: Ecological momentary assessment was utilized to examine affective instability (AI) in the daily lives of outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 78), with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A psychiatric control group (n = 50) composed of outpatients with major depressive disorder/dysthymia (MDD/DYS) was employed to compare across subgroups: BPD-only, BPD+PTSD, MDD/DYS-only, and MDD/DYS+PTSD. Compared with the BPD-only group, the BPD+PTSD group had significantly greater instability of fear and sadness, but did not significantly differ in instability of hostility or aggregate negative affect. This pattern of elevated instability of fear and sadness was not present—and, in fact, was reversed—in the MDD/DYS group. Results emphasize the importance of examining AI within the context of specific comorbidities and affect types. Treatment and research addressing AI in the context of BPD-PTSD comorbidity may benefit from a focus on fear and sadness as separate from hostility or general negative affect.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615573214
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Boundary Restriction for Negative Emotional Images Is an Example of Memory
    • Authors: Takarangi, M. K. T; Oulton, J. M, Green, D. M, Strange, D.
      Pages: 82 - 95
      Abstract: We investigated whether boundary restriction—misremembering proximity to traumatic stimuli—is a form of memory amplification and whether reexperiencing trauma plays a role in boundary restriction errors. In four experiments, subjects viewed a series of traumatic photographs. Later, subjects identified the photographs they originally saw among distracters that could be identical, close-up, or wide-angled versions of the same photographs. Subjects also completed measures of mood, analogue PTSD symptoms, phenomenological experience of intrusions, and processing style. Across experiments, subjects were more likely to incorrectly remember the photographs as having extended boundaries: boundary extension. Despite this tendency, the extent to which subjects reexperienced traumatic aspects of the photographs predicted how often they incorrectly remembered the photographs as having narrower boundaries: boundary restriction. Our data suggest that although boundary extension is more common, boundary restriction is related to individual differences in coping mechanisms posttrauma. These results have theoretical implications for understanding how people remember trauma.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615569912
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • The Unhappy Triad: Pain, Sleep Complaints, and Internalizing Symptoms
    • Authors: Koffel, E; Krebs, E. E, Arbisi, P. A, Erbes, C. R, Polusny, M. A.
      Pages: 96 - 106
      Abstract: There is limited understanding of the etiology and temporal relations of chronic pain, sleep complaints, and depression/anxiety. Several models have been proposed by which sleep disruption represents a common mechanism for the comorbidity of these symptoms. The goals of this study were to (a) clarify the boundaries of these domains and (b) examine the relations of these symptoms over time following exposure to stressful and potentially traumatic experiences during a combat deployment. We found support for three distinct domains of sleep complaints, internalizing symptoms, and physical complaints. We tested two competing models that have been proposed in the literature, controlling for negative and positive emotionality. Internalizing symptoms strongly mediated the relation between sleep complaints and pain (total effect = .15, direct effect = –.05). The study suggests that increases in sleep complaints immediately following deployment increase the risk of internalizing symptoms and pain several years after deployment.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615579342
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of
           Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity
    • Authors: Rodebaugh, T. L; Heimberg, R. G, Taylor, K. P, Lenze, E. J.
      Pages: 107 - 121
      Abstract: Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder’s constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test–retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety and more extreme interpersonal problems, lead to less generous behavior on the economic task examined. Results were clearest regarding fine-grained indices derived from latent trajectories. Unexpectedly, the combination of generalized anxiety disorder and higher depression also restricted generosity. Two of three indices showed acceptable test–retest stability. Maladaptive giving behavior may be a treatment target to improve interpersonal functioning in psychiatric disorders; therefore, future work should more precisely characterize behavioral economic tasks, including basic psychometric work (i.e., tests of reliability and validity).
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615578128
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Serotonin Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) Predicts Biased Attention for
           Emotion Stimuli: Preliminary Evidence of Moderation by the Social
    • Authors: Pearson, R; McGeary, J. E, Maddox, W. T, Beevers, C. G.
      Pages: 122 - 128
      Abstract: A number of studies have found an association between attentional bias for negative stimuli and variation in the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). The current project examined whether a positive social environment mitigates this association. More specifically, we examined the relationship among attentional bias on the dot-probe task, variation in the 5-HTTLPR, and current social support among a community sample of adults (N = 216). Consistent with prior research, the S/LG homozygotes were more likely than the other genotype groups to have a negative attention bias. However, social support moderated the association between 5-HTTLPR variation and attentional bias. The S/LG homozygote group was particularly likely to exhibit greater attentional bias toward negative stimuli at low levels of social support. However, as social support improved, negative attention bias decreased. Findings suggest that supportive environments may attenuate genetic associations with negative attention bias.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614562470
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Reduced Prospective Motor Control in 10-Month-Olds at Risk for Autism
           Spectrum Disorder
    • Pages: 129 - 135
      Abstract: Motor impairments are not a part of the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but are overrepresented in the ASD population. Deficits in prospective motor control have been demonstrated in adults and older children with ASD but have never before been examined in infants at familial risk for the disorder. We assessed the ability to prospectively control reach-to-grasp actions in 10-month-old siblings of children with ASD (high-risk group, n = 29, 13 female) as well as in a low-risk control group (n = 16, 8 female). The task was to catch a ball rolling on a curvilinear path off an inclined surface. The low-risk group performed predictive reaches when catching the ball, whereas the high-risk group started their movements reactively. The high-risk group started their reaches significantly later than the low-risk group (p = .03). These results indicate impaired prospective motor control in infants susceptible for ASD.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615576697
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Does Testing Improve Learning for College Students With
           Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder'
    • Authors: Knouse, L. E; Rawson, K. A, Vaughn, K. E, Dunlosky, J.
      Pages: 136 - 143
      Abstract: Taking tests on to-be-learned material is one of the most powerful learning strategies available to students. We examined the magnitude and mechanisms of the testing effect in college students with (n = 25) and without (n = 75) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by comparing the effect of practice testing versus a comparable amount of restudy on long-term recall. Participants learned two lists of 48 words representing eight categories—one via eight consecutive study trials and another via four alternating study and test trials—and took recall tests 2 days later. Both groups demonstrated a moderate testing effect (ds = 0.50, 0.57), and testing improved memory by enhancing both relational and item-specific processing. Results support the use of test-enhanced learning to promote the academic achievement of college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the inclusion of self-testing strategies into skills-based interventions for this population.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614565175
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Nutritional Interventions in Clinical Depression
    • Authors: Rechenberg; K.
      Pages: 144 - 162
      Abstract: Depression is one of the leading causes of mental disability worldwide and a significant public health problem in the United States. Individuals with depression have lower quality of life, diminished role functioning, increased comorbidity, and increased mortality. Although psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are well-validated treatment options for clinical depression, nutritional supplements may be another means of alleviating depressive symptoms while limiting adverse effects. Nutritional supplements can be utilized in tandem with preexisting therapeutic regimens, or as stand-alone therapies. Omega-3 fatty acids, B-vitamins (folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6), S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and magnesium have been of interest in the treatment of depression for several decades. This article reviews the literature investigating these nutritional interventions for the treatment of clinical depression, with a particular focus on pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical research.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T21:00:26-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614566815
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
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