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Journal Cover Clinical Psychological Science
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     ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [738 journals]
  • How Affective Science Can Inform Clinical Science: An Introduction to the
           Special Series on Emotions and Psychopathology
    • Authors: Tracy, J. L; Klonsky, E. D, Proudfit, G. H.
      Pages: 371 - 386
      Abstract: The construct of emotion dysregulation has been used to describe and explain diverse psychopathologies. Although this is intuitively appealing and sensible, the application of emotion reactivity and regulation to the study of psychopathology has, to a large extent, proceeded independently from concepts and measures informed by affective science. Utilizing the innovative research approaches, measures, paradigms, and insights that have emerged in the burgeoning field of affective science holds substantial promise for emotion dysregulation theories of psychopathology. In this introduction to the special series on emotions and psychopathology, we review many of these advances, and highlight several broad methodological and conceptual issues that researchers seeking to continue this crosscutting work should bear in mind. We close with a brief review of the six articles that constitute the special series, noting how each exemplifies the pioneering methodological and substantive advances that are typical of the best work in this new interdisciplinary field.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614537627|hwp:resource-id:spcpx;2/4/371
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Emotion, Emotion Regulation, and Psychopathology: An Affective Science
    • Authors: Gross, J. J; Jazaieri, H.
      Pages: 387 - 401
      Abstract: Many psychiatric disorders are widely thought to involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. Unfortunately, it has proven far easier to assert the centrality of "emotion dysregulation" than to rigorously document the ways in which individuals with various forms of psychopathology differ from healthy individuals in their patterns of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. In the first section of this article, we define emotion and emotion regulation. In the second and third sections, we present a simple framework for examining emotion and emotion regulation in psychopathology. In the fourth section, we conclude by highlighting important challenges and opportunities in assessing and treating disorders that involve problematic patterns of emotion and emotion regulation.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614536164|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614536164
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Emotion Regulation in Depression: The Role of Biased Cognition and Reduced
           Cognitive Control
    • Authors: Joormann, J; Vanderlind, W. M.
      Pages: 402 - 421
      Abstract: Sustained negative affect and difficulties experiencing positive affect are hallmark features of major depressive disorder. Recent research has suggested that difficulties in emotion regulation are at the core of these cardinal symptoms of major depressive disorder; depressed patients exhibit more frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation and difficulties effectively implementing adaptive strategies. It remains unclear, however, what underlies these difficulties in emotion regulation. Cognitive theories of depression have a long tradition of focusing on cognitive factors that increase depression risk and maintain depressive episodes, but the link between cognitive and affective aspects of major depressive disorder remains to be explored. We propose that cognitive biases and deficits in cognitive control putatively associated with depression affect emotion regulation in critical ways, thereby setting the stage for maintained negative affect and diminished levels of positive affect. We close with a discussion of implications for treatment and future directions for research in this area.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614536163|hwp:resource-id:spcpx;2/4/402
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Personality, Emotions, and the Emotional Disorders
    • Authors: Watson, D; Naragon-Gainey, K.
      Pages: 422 - 442
      Abstract: We examined symptom-level relations between the emotional disorders and general traits within the five-factor model of personality. Neuroticism correlated strongly with the symptoms of general distress/negative affectivity (depressed mood, anxious mood, worry) that are central to these disorders; more moderately with symptoms of social phobia, affective lability, panic, posttraumatic stress disorder, lassitude, checking, and obsessive intrusions; and more modestly with agoraphobia, specific phobia, and other symptoms of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Extraversion was negatively correlated with symptoms of social anxiety/social phobia and was positively related to scales that assess expansive positive mood and increased social engagement in bipolar disorder. Conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness showed weaker associations and generally added little to the prediction of these symptoms. It is noteworthy, moreover, that our key findings replicated well across (a) self-rated versus (b) interview-based symptom measures. We conclude by discussing the diagnostic and assessment implications of these data.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614536162|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614536162
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Unseen Affective Faces Influence Person Perception Judgments in
    • Authors: Kring, A. M; Siegel, E. H, Barrett, L. F.
      Pages: 443 - 454
      Abstract: To demonstrate the influence of unconscious affective processing on consciously processed information among people with and without schizophrenia, we used a continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm to examine whether early and rapid processing of affective information influences first impressions of structurally neutral faces. People with and without schizophrenia rated visible neutral faces as more or less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen smiling or scowling faces compared to when paired with unseen neutral faces. Yet, people with schizophrenia also exhibited a deficit in explicit affect perception. These findings indicate that early processing of affective information is intact in schizophrenia but the integration of this information with semantic contexts is problematic. Furthermore, people with schizophrenia who were more influenced by smiling faces presented outside awareness reported experiencing more anticipatory pleasure, suggesting that the ability to rapidly process affective information is important for anticipation of future pleasurable events.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614536161|hwp:resource-id:spcpx;2/4/443
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • You Gotta Work at It: Pupillary Indices of Task Focus Are Prognostic for
           Response to a Neurocognitive Intervention for Rumination in Depression
    • Authors: Siegle, G. J; Price, R. B, Jones, N. P, Ghinassi, F, Painter, T, Thase, M. E.
      Pages: 455 - 471
      Abstract: Treatments for severe depression have moderate success rates, often take many weeks to yield responses, and are often followed by relapse or recurrence. Neurobehavioral interventions address these limitations by targeting mechanisms of cognitive and emotional dysregulation directly. This study extends data and observations from a pilot study examining effects of 2 weeks (6 sessions) of adjunctive cognitive control training exercises added to medication and psychotherapy in severely depressed patients. We examined acute effects and predictors of change in rumination, and long-term effects on service utilization. Compared with treatment as usual, exercises were associated with decreases in rumination and decreased use of intensive outpatient services in the following year. Responses were strongest among patients who displayed physiological indicators (pupillary oscillations at the task frequency) of task engagement before the intervention. These indices changed following intervention, suggesting that the intervention required capitalization on relevant attentional mechanisms and addressed fundamental emotional processes through their cognitive substrates.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614536160|hwp:resource-id:spcpx;2/4/455
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Affective Neuroscience Strategies for Understanding and Treating
           Depression: From Preclinical Models to Three Novel Therapeutics
    • Authors: Panksepp, J; Wright, J. S, Dobrossy, M. D, Schlaepfer, T. E, Coenen, V. A.
      Pages: 472 - 494
      Abstract: Mammalian brains contain seven primary-process affective substrates for primal emotional feelings and behaviors. Scientific labels for these interactive systems are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY. Understanding these brain substrates could lead to new treatments of emotional disturbances that accompany mental illnesses. We summarize how understanding of such emotional affects—especially those of separation distress (PANIC, promoting excessive sadness and grief), SEEKING (promoting enthusiasm), and PLAY (promoting social joy)—may regulate depressive affect through a focus on the following: (a) reducing PANIC, namely, "psychic pain" with "safe opioids" such as buprenorphine; (b) facilitating enthusiasm with deep brain stimulation of the transdiencephalic medial forebrain bundle–based SEEKING urges; and (c) how studies of brain neurochemical pathways that facilitate social joy (PLAY) in animals have yielded novel neurochemical interventions (e.g., GLYX-13, a partial agonist of glycine receptors) currently in successful human testing. Affective neuroscience principles that have led to these advances are summarized.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614535913|hwp:resource-id:spcpx;2/4/472
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Auditory Processing in Growth-Restricted Fetuses and Newborns and Later
           Language Development
    • Authors: Kisilevsky, B. S; Chambers, B, Parker, K. C. H, Davies, G. A. L.
      Pages: 495 - 513
      Abstract: Growth-restricted fetuses and newborns are at increased risk for language deficits, and language impairments have been associated with increased risk for cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral clinical disorders. Auditory-information processing was examined longitudinally in 167 fetuses in Study 1, 96 of whom were reexamined as newborns in Study 2. In Study 3, language was assessed at 15 months of age for 75 infants from Study 1. Compared with participants who were appropriately grown for gestational age, growth-restricted fetuses showed less sustained response to their mother’s voice; growth-restricted newborns showed less recovery to a novel word after habituation and no preference for their mother’s voice. At 15 months of age, those infants who had been born growth restricted showed expressive-language deficits on Mullen Scales of Early Learning and MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory subscales. Our results support the hypothesis that fetal growth restriction affects the development of auditory-system functioning and indicate that it may be possible to identify individual fetuses and newborns at risk for language deficits and to intervene early, when the foundation for language is being laid.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613509371|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613509371
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
  • Nothing Tastes as Good as Thin Feels: Low Positive Emotion Differentiation
           and Weight-Loss Activities in Anorexia Nervosa
    • Authors: Selby, E. A; Wonderlich, S. A, Crosby, R. D, Engel, S. G, Panza, E, Mitchell, J. E, Crow, S. J, Peterson, C. B, Le Grange, D.
      Pages: 514 - 531
      Abstract: Positive emotion (PE) has not been well studied in anorexia nervosa. Low positive emotion differentiation (PED), which involves a diminished ability to distinguish between discrete PEs, may contribute to PE dysregulation in anorexia. Specifically, low PED may interact with elevated PE intensity to both motivate and reinforce weight-loss and evaluation behaviors. Using ecological momentary assessment, we examined PE and weight-loss behaviors reported during a 2-week period. As hypothesized, low PED predicted more vomiting, laxative use, exercising, weighing, checking for fat, and restricting. Furthermore, participants with low PED who experienced elevated average PE intensity reported even more frequent behaviors. Within-subjects analyses indicated that for participants with low PED, more weight-loss behaviors at one recording predicted elevated PE at the subsequent recording. Similarly, for participants with low PED, higher momentary PE predicted more subsequent weight-loss behaviors. Thus, low PED in anorexia may reinforce and motivate weight-loss behavior.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613512794|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613512794
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2014)
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