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Journal Cover Clinical Psychological Science
  [SJR: 3.112]   [H-I: 14]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [853 journals]
  • Developing a Risk Model to Target High-Risk Preventive Interventions for
           Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female U.S. Army Soldiers
    • Authors: Street, A. E; Rosellini, A. J, Ursano, R. J, Heeringa, S. G, Hill, E. D, Monahan, J, Naifeh, J. A, Petukhova, M. V, Reis, B. Y, Sampson, N. A, Bliese, P. D, Stein, M. B, Zaslavsky, A. M, Kessler, R. C.
      Pages: 939 - 956
      Abstract: Sexual violence victimization is a significant problem among female U.S. military personnel. Preventive interventions for high-risk individuals might reduce prevalence but would require accurate targeting. We attempted to develop a targeting model for female Regular U.S. Army soldiers based on theoretically guided predictors abstracted from administrative data records. As administrative reports of sexual assault victimization are known to be incomplete, parallel machine learning models were developed to predict administratively recorded (in the population) and self-reported (in a representative survey) victimization. Capture–recapture methods were used to combine predictions across models. Key predictors included low status, crime involvement, and treated mental disorders. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was .83–.88. Between 33.7% and 63.2% of victimizations occurred among soldiers in the highest risk ventile (5%). This high concentration of risk suggests that the models could be useful in targeting preventive interventions, although final determination would require careful weighing of intervention costs, effectiveness, and competing risks.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616639532
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Cognitive Profiling Useful for Unraveling Cross-Disorder Mechanisms:
           Support for a Step-Function Endophenotype Model
    • Authors: Rommelse, N. N. J; van der Meer, J. M. J, Hartman, C. A, Buitelaar, J. K.
      Pages: 957 - 970
      Abstract: Cognitive subtyping may be essential for understanding shared mechanisms underlying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants from a population-based sample (n = 360) and an ASD/ADHD clinic-based sample (n = 254), ages 5 to 17 years, were administered a broad cognitive battery. Latent class analyses revealed a similar four-cognitive-class solution in both samples mainly characterized by speed–accuracy tradeoff differences instead of specific strengths and weaknesses. The classes were strongly predictive of both ASD and ADHD (and comorbid) symptoms in the clinical, but not the population, sample. Results support the hypothesis that both disorders are manifestations of the same overarching disorder and illustrate the effectiveness of subtyping based on cognitive profiles. Results also support a step-function endophenotype model, in which cognitive problems mediate the gene–psychopathology associations but only in a clinically relevant way in the subgroup of children with high genetic susceptibility. Pre-onset longitudinal research is needed to corroborate this.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616638826
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • A Twin Study Examining Rumination as a Transdiagnostic Correlate of
           Psychopathology
    • Authors: Johnson, D. P; Rhee, S. H, Friedman, N. P, Corley, R. P, Munn-Chernoff, M. A, Hewitt, J. K, Whisman, M. A.
      Pages: 971 - 987
      Abstract: This study examined the genetic and environmental influences on rumination and its associations with several forms of psychopathology in a sample of adult twins (N = 744). Rumination was significantly associated with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety disorder, eating pathology, and substance dependence symptoms. There were distinct patterns of etiological overlap between rumination and each form of psychopathology; rumination had considerable genetic overlap with depression, modest genetic overlap with eating pathology, and almost no genetic overlap with substance dependence. Findings further suggest considerable overlap between genetic and environmental influences on rumination and those contributing to the covariance between forms of psychopathology. Results were specific to ruminative thought and did not extend to self-reflection. These findings support the conceptualization of rumination as a transdiagnostic correlate and risk factor for psychopathology and also suggest that the biological and environmental mechanisms linking rumination to psychopathology may differ depending on the disorder.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616638825
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • A Network Analysis of Developmental Change in ADHD Symptom Structure From
           Preschool to Adulthood
    • Authors: Martel, M. M; Levinson, C. A, Langer, J. K, Nigg, J. T.
      Pages: 988 - 1001
      Abstract: Although there is substantial support for the validity of the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is considerable disagreement about how to best capture developmental changes in the expression of ADHD symptomatology. This article examines the associations among the 18 individual ADHD symptoms using a novel network analysis approach, from preschool to adulthood. The 1,420 participants were grouped into four age brackets: preschool (ages 3–6, n = 109), childhood (ages 6–12, n = 548), adolescence (ages 13–17, n = 357), and young adulthood (ages 18–36, n = 406). All participants completed a multistage, multi-informant diagnostic process, and self and informant symptom ratings were obtained. Network analysis indicated ADHD symptom structure became more differentiated over development. Two symptoms, often easily distracted and difficulty sustaining attention, appeared as central, or core, symptoms across all age groups. Thus, a small number of core symptoms may warrant extra weighting in future diagnostic systems.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615618664
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Unmasking Ones True Self Facilitates Positive Relational Outcomes:
           Authenticity Promotes Social Approach Processes in Social Anxiety Disorder
           
    • Authors: Plasencia, M. L; Taylor, C. T, Alden, L. E.
      Pages: 1002 - 1014
      Abstract: Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are motivated to conceal what they perceive to be personal inadequacies. They recognize, however, that their behavior does not convey who they genuinely are. Here, we examined whether increasing perceived authenticity facilitates positive social functioning in these individuals. Participants diagnosed with SAD (N = 72) engaged in two social interactions with experimental confederates. Prior to the second interaction, participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions equated on all elements except a safety behavior reduction procedure intended to increase self-authenticity. As hypothesized, increased authenticity led to beneficial changes in the cognitive, affective, and motivation processes that promote relational functioning. These results suggest that the experience of expressing one’s authentic self may reduce SAD-related social impairment.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615622204
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • The Potential Benefits of Targeted Attentional Bias Modification on
           Cognitive Arousal and Sleep Quality in Worry-Related Sleep Disturbance
    • Authors: Milkins, B; Notebaert, L, MacLeod, C, Clarke, P. J. F.
      Pages: 1015 - 1027
      Abstract: Attentional bias for sleep-related negative information is believed to contribute to symptoms of insomnia by elevating arousal during the presleep period. In the present study, we examined whether the delivery of an attentional bias modification (ABM) procedure in the presleep period could produce transient benefits for sleep-disturbed individuals by reducing presleep cognitive arousal and improving ease of sleep onset. In a counterbalanced repeated A-B design, participants alternated completing an ABM training task and a nontraining control task across six nights and reported on presleep cognitive arousal and sleep onset latency. Significant reductions in presleep cognitive arousal and sleep onset latency were observed on nights where the ABM task was completed relative to nights where the control task was completed. These results suggest that delivery of ABM can attenuate cognitive arousal and sleep onset latency and highlights the possibility that targeted delivery of ABM could deliver real-world benefits for sleep-disturbed individuals.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615626898
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Persistent Cannabis Dependence and Alcohol Dependence Represent Risks for
           Midlife Economic and Social Problems: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
    • Authors: Cerda, M; Moffitt, T. E, Meier, M. H, Harrington, H, Houts, R, Ramrakha, S, Hogan, S, Poulton, R, Caspi, A.
      Pages: 1028 - 1046
      Abstract: With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18 and 38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (N = 1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than was alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616630958
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Spiraling Out of Control: Stress Generation and Subsequent Rumination
           Mediate the Link Between Poorer Cognitive Control and Internalizing
           Psychopathology
    • Authors: Snyder, H. R; Hankin, B. L.
      Pages: 1047 - 1064
      Abstract: Poor cognitive control is associated with nearly every mental disorder and has been proposed as a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology, including depression and anxiety. What specific mechanisms might cause individuals with poor cognitive control to experience higher levels of psychopathology? The current research tests a new process model linking poor cognitive control to depression and anxiety symptoms via increased dependent stress (i.e., self-generated stressors) and subsequent rumination. This model was supported across two studies in youth during the key period for emergence of internalizing psychopathology. Study 1 provides longitudinal evidence for prospective prediction of change in symptoms. Study 2 confirms this model using well-established executive function tasks in a cross-sectional study. These findings have potential implications for understanding why cognitive control impairments may be broadly associated with psychopathology and suggest that interventions to prevent stress generation might be effective in preventing negative consequences of poor cognitive control.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616633157
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • The Method of Loci Improves Longer-Term Retention of Self-Affirming
           Memories and Facilitates Access to Mood-Repairing Memories in Recurrent
           Depression
    • Authors: Werner-Seidler, A; Dalgleish, T.
      Pages: 1065 - 1072
      Abstract: The Method-of-Loci (MoL) is a mnemonic strategy that individuals with a history of depression can use to facilitate access to self-affirming memories. In the current study, we investigated (a) the utility of the MoL to enhance access to a preidentified set of personal memories and (b) the ability of the MoL to facilitate the recollection of memories to regulate emotion. Participants in remission from chronic depression used a MoL or rehearsal procedure to facilitate memory recall. Participants using the MoL showed superior retention of this material at both a 1-week and 3-month follow-up memory test, relative to the rehearsal group. For both groups, memory recall effectively repaired mood after a mood induction procedure. Using a diary measure, participants trained to use the MoL reported greater use of the memory repository to offset downturns in mood in day-to-day life, indicating that this could be a useful strategy for mood regulation.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615626693
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Dare to Approach: Single Dose Testosterone Administration Promotes Threat
           Approach in Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder
    • Authors: Enter, D; Spinhoven, P, Roelofs, K.
      Pages: 1073 - 1079
      Abstract: Persistent fear and avoidance in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with reduced testosterone levels. Because threat avoidance is a major maintaining factor in SAD, and because testosterone administration promotes social approach, we tested whether testosterone administration can directly facilitate threat approach behavior in SAD. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 17 female participants with SAD received a single dose of testosterone before performing a well-established social Approach-Avoidance Task. This objective implicit measure of social motivational action tendencies requires participants to approach or avoid visually presented emotional faces. After testosterone administration, the patients showed increased approach tendencies to angry facial expressions. These results suggest that testosterone can counteract persistent automatic social avoidance tendencies in SAD. This finding advances our understanding of steroid involvement in the regulation of social motivational action in general and in SAD in particular, and may have important clinical implications, promoting testosterone’s candidacy for pharmacological treatment-enhancement studies.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616631499
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Editors Introduction: Special Series on Nutrition and Mental Health
    • Authors: Kazdin; A. E.
      Pages: 1080 - 1081
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616651051
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Nutrition and Mental Health
    • Authors: Rucklidge, J. J; Kaplan, B. J.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616641050
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • The Association Between the Mediterranean Lifestyle and Depression
    • Authors: Sanchez-Villegas, A; Ruiz-Canela, M, Gea, A, Lahortiga, F, Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A.
      Pages: 1085 - 1093
      Abstract: This research assessed the association between the adherence to a Mediterranean lifestyle beyond the Mediterranean diet and the risk of depression in a prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates. Through a dynamic cohort study method, diet was assessed with a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The baseline assessment included a validated questionnaire on physical activity and average time spent with friends (socializing). Mediterranean lifestyle was defined as the joint exposure to Mediterranean diet, level of physical activity, and level of socializing. After a median follow-up of 8.5 years, 806 cases of depression among 11,800 participants were observed. Participants with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle showed a 50% relative risk reduction in depression risk as compared to those participants with the lowest adherence (multivariable hazard ratio = 0.50; 95% confidence interval = [0.32, 0.81]). The Mediterranean lifestyle might reduce depression risk in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort study beyond the known effects of the Mediterranean diet.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616638651
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Delay Aversion, Temporal Processing, and N-3 Fatty Acids Intake in
           Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    • Authors: Chang, J. P.-C; Jingling, L, Huang, Y.-T, Lu, Y.-J, Su, K.-P.
      Pages: 1094 - 1103
      Abstract: This study investigates the association between polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and neurocognitive functions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We recruited 21 drug-naïve children diagnosed with ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and 21 non-ADHD controls. The n-3 intake and essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency severity were recorded while the children were assessed for inhibitory control, delay aversion, and temporal processing with the Go/No Go Task, Delayed Reaction Time Task, and Finger Tapping Task, respectively. The ADHD group had more EFA deficiency symptoms (p = .02) and poorer performance in delay aversion (p = .02) and temporal processing (p < .001). Moreover, ADHD symptoms correlated negatively with n-3 intake and positively with EFA deficiency. In addition, EFA deficiency was associated with higher delay aversion (p < .001). Children with ADHD had a higher deficiency of EFA, and EFA deficiency had a positive association with ADHD severity and delay aversion.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616637820
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Participant Characteristics as Modifiers of Response to N-Acetyl Cysteine
           (NAC) in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • Authors: Sarris, J; Oliver, G, Camfield, D. A, Dean, O. M.
      Pages: 1104 - 1111
      Abstract: We previously reported on a 16-week, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT) using 3 grams per day of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (1.5 grams twice per day) in 44 participants (aged 18–70) with DSM-5-diagnosed obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We now report on an analysis of age, severity and duration of illness, OCD presentation type, baseline anxiety and depression scores, as well as the use of antidepressant medications as potentially modifying factors. Results revealed a significant effect (p = .037) for younger participants (under mean age of 34) responding to NAC. This remained significant using OCD severity as a covariate (p = .044). For those under 34 years of age with less than 17 years of OCD duration, this was also significant (p = .037). Regression analysis within the NAC treatment group also revealed that duration of OCD presentation was a significant predictor of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) change at study endpoint (p = .019), whereas baseline Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores were also a trend-level predictor (p = .060) of YBOCS change in the NAC group.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616639864
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Effect of Micronutrients on Insomnia in Adults: A Multiple-Baseline Study
    • Authors: Lothian, J; Blampied, N. M, Rucklidge, J. J.
      Pages: 1112 - 1124
      Abstract: Insomnia is a debilitating condition causing psychological distress and frequently comorbid with other mental health conditions. This study examined the effect of 8 weeks of treatment by broad spectrum micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) on insomnia using a multiple-baseline-across-participants open-label trial design. Seventeen adults were randomized to 1-, 2-, or 3-week baseline periods (14 completed). Self-report measures were the Consensus Sleep Diary–Morning (CSD-M), the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale (PIRS), and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS). Baselines were generally stable. Treatment completers reported reliable and clinically significant change in insomnia severity (PIRS), in depression, stress, and anxiety (DASS), and on at least two aspects of sleep measured by the CDS-M. All completers were treatment-compliant, and side effects were minimal. Nutritional supplementation is shown to be a novel, beneficial treatment for insomnia in adults. Follow-up research using placebo-controlled designs as well as comparisons to cognitive-behavioral and other treatments is recommended.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616631740
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Dietary Inflammatory Index and Recurrence of Depressive Symptoms: Results
           From the Whitehall II Study
    • Authors: Akbaraly, T. N; Kerlau, C, Wyart, M, Chevallier, N, Ndiaye, L, Shivappa, N, Hebert, J. R, Kivimäki, M.
      Pages: 1125 - 1134
      Abstract: There is a growing interest in understanding the role of inflammation in the diet–depression relationship. The present study examined whether the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII; a measure of the inflammatory potential of individuals’ diets) is associated with recurrent depressive symptoms (DepS) (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score > 16 or taking antidepressants both at baseline and follow-up) assessed over 5 years in middle-aged men (n = 3,178) and women (n = 1,068) from the Whitehall II Study. For each increment of 1 SD of DII score, odds of recurrent DepS increased by 66% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.30, 2.12]) in women, whereas no significant association between DII and recurrent DepS was observed in men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12; 95% CI = [0.92, 1.36]). This association was little attenuated after adjustment for confounders and after taking into account levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. In conclusion, there is an association between proinflammatory diet and recurrent DepS in women that seems to not be driven by circulating inflammatory markers.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:05:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616645777
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 6 (2016)
       
 
 
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