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Journal Cover   Clinical Psychological Science
  [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [814 journals]
  • Contributions of Feature Binding During Encoding and Functional
           Connectivity of the Medial Temporal Lobe Structures to Episodic Memory
           Deficits Across the Prodromal and First-Episode Phases of Schizophrenia
    • Authors: Haut, K. M; van Erp, T. G. M, Knowlton, B, Bearden, C. E, Subotnik, K, Ventura, J, Nuechterlein, K. H, Cannon, T. D.
      Pages: 159 - 174
      Abstract: Patients with and at risk for psychosis may have difficulty using associative strategies to facilitate episodic memory encoding and recall. In parallel studies, patients with first-episode schizophrenia (n = 27) and high psychosis risk (n = 28) compared with control participants (n = 22 and n = 20, respectively) underwent functional MRI during a remember-know memory task. Psychophysiological interaction analyses, using medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures as regions of interest, were conducted to measure functional connectivity patterns supporting successful episodic memory. During encoding, patients with first-episode schizophrenia demonstrated reduced functional coupling between MTL regions and regions involved in stimulus representations, stimulus selection, and cognitive control. Relative to control participants and patients with high psychosis risk who did not convert to psychosis, patients with high psychosis risk who later converted to psychosis also demonstrated reduced connectivity between MTL regions and auditory-verbal and visual-association regions. These results suggest that episodic memory deficits in schizophrenia are related to inefficient recruitment of cortical connections involved in associative memory formation; such deficits precede the onset of psychosis among those individuals at high clinical risk.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614533949
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Personality Predicts Individual Variation in Fear Learning: A Multilevel
           Growth Modeling Approach
    • Authors: Gazendam, F. J; Kamphuis, J. H, Eigenhuis, A, Huizenga, H. M. H, Soeter, M, Bos, M. G. N, Sevenster, D, Kindt, M.
      Pages: 175 - 188
      Abstract: Although fear-learning research has tended to focus on typical responses, there is substantial individual variation in response to threat. Here, we investigated how personality is related to variability in associative fear learning. We used multilevel growth curve modeling to examine the unique and interactive effects of Stress Reaction (SR) and Harmavoidance (HA; Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire scales) and their corresponding higher-order factors on differential fear conditioning (n = 225) and extinction (n = 109; 24–48 hr later). Fear was indexed by fear potentiation of the eyeblink startle reflex. Our findings demonstrated weaker discrimination between threat and safety with high levels of SR. Subsequently, both retention of differential fear acquisition and extinction were weaker with high levels of SR and HA, thereby indicating maladaptive fear learning, whereas they were stronger with low levels of SR and high levels of HA, which suggests efficient fear learning. These findings illustrate how specific personality traits may operate to confer vulnerability or resilience for anxiety disorders.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614535914
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Polygenic Risk for Externalizing Disorders: Gene-by-Development and
           Gene-by-Environment Effects in Adolescents and Young Adults
    • Authors: Salvatore, J. E; Aliev, F, Bucholz, K, Agrawal, A, Hesselbrock, V, Hesselbrock, M, Bauer, L, Kuperman, S, Schuckit, M. A, Kramer, J. R, Edenberg, H. J, Foroud, T. M, Dick, D. M.
      Pages: 189 - 201
      Abstract: In this project, we aimed to bring large-scale gene-identification findings into a developmental psychopathology framework. Using a family-based sample, we tested whether polygenic scores for externalizing disorders—based on single nucleotide polymorphism weights derived from genome-wide association study results in adults (n = 1,249)—predicted externalizing disorders, subclinical externalizing behavior, and impulsivity-related traits among adolescents (n = 248) and young adults (n = 207) and whether parenting and peer factors in adolescence moderated polygenic risk to predict externalizing disorders. Polygenic scores predicted externalizing disorders in adolescents and young adults, even after we controlled for parental externalizing-disorder history. Polygenic scores also predicted subclinical externalizing behavior and impulsivity traits in the adolescents and young adults. Adolescent parental monitoring and peer substance use moderated polygenic scores to predict externalizing disorders. This illustrates how state-of-the-science genetics can be integrated with psychological science to identify how genetic risk contributes to the development of psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614534211
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • The Effects of a Working Memory Load on Delay Discounting in Those With
           Externalizing Psychopathology
    • Authors: Finn, P. R; Gunn, R. L, Gerst, K. R.
      Pages: 202 - 214
      Abstract: This study investigated the influence of executive working memory (EWM) capacity on impulsive decision making in a sample of young adults (N = 623) who varied in degree of externalizing psychopathology (EXT) by examining (a) the effects of WM load on delay discounting rates and (b) the association between EWM capacity and delay discounting rates. EXT was measured as a latent variable indicated by lifetime problems with alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, other drugs, childhood conduct, and adult antisocial behavior. Results showed that (a) the WM load increased discounting rates throughout the spectrum of EXT, (b) EXT was associated with higher discounting rates and lower EWM capacity, and (c) EWM capacity was significantly associated with higher discounting rates when controlling for IQ, but only after a WM load. The results are discussed in terms of the role of EWM capacity in impulsive decision making in EXT.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614542279
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • ICD-11 Complex PTSD in U.S. National and Veteran Samples: Prevalence and
           Structural Associations With PTSD
    • Authors: Wolf, E. J; Miller, M. W, Kilpatrick, D, Resnick, H. S, Badour, C. L, Marx, B. P, Keane, T. M, Rosen, R. C, Friedman, M. J.
      Pages: 215 - 229
      Abstract: The 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD–11) is under development, and current proposals include major changes to trauma-related psychiatric diagnoses, including a heavily restricted definition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the addition of complex PTSD (CPTSD). We aimed to test the postulates of CPTSD in samples of 2,695 community participants and 323 trauma-exposed military veterans. CPTSD prevalence estimates were 0.6% and 13% in the community and veteran samples, respectively; one quarter to one half of those with PTSD met criteria for CPTSD. There were no differences in trauma exposure across diagnoses. A factor mixture model with two latent dimensional variables and four latent classes provided the best fit in both samples: Classes differed by their level of symptom severity but did not differ as a function of the proposed PTSD versus CPTSD diagnoses. These findings should raise concerns about the distinctions between CPTSD and PTSD proposed for ICD–11.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614545480
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Facial Dimorphism in Autistic Quotient Scores
    • Authors: Scott, N. J; Jones, A. L, Kramer, R. S. S, Ward, R.
      Pages: 230 - 241
      Abstract: Baron-Cohen’s extreme male brain theory proposes that autism results from elevated prenatal testosterone levels. In the present study, we assessed possible correlated effects of androgen exposure on adult morphology and, in particular, the development of facial features associated with masculinity. We created composite images capturing statistical regularities in facial appearance associated with high and low Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores. In three experiments, we assessed correlations between perceived facial masculinity and AQ scores. In Experiment 1, observers selected the high-AQ males as more masculine. We replicated this result in Experiment 2, using different photographs, composite-image methods, and observers. There was no association of masculinity and AQ scores for female faces in either study. In Experiment 3, we created high- and low-AQ male composites from the five AQ subscales. High-AQ images were rated more masculine on each of the subscales. We discuss these findings with respect to the organizational-activational hypothesis of testosterone activity during development.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614534238
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Influencing Help-Seeking Among People With Elevated Depressive
           Symptomatology: Mistargeting as a Persuasive Technique
    • Authors: Siegel, J. T; Lienemann, B. A, Tan, C. N.
      Pages: 242 - 255
      Abstract: We conducted two experimental studies influenced by the overheard communication technique in which we assessed whether a depression public service announcement (D-PSA) that appeared to be intended for someone else (e.g., "Do you have a friend who is depressed'") could influence help-seeking inclinations among people with elevated depressive symptomatology. In Study 1, participants (N = 335) viewed a print D-PSA that was either direct or mistargeted. In Study 2, participants (N = 1,195) viewed a direct or mistargeted video D-PSA or no video. In support of the utility of the mistargeted-communication technique, the mistargeted D-PSA resulted in significantly more help-seeking intentions from a romantic partner and close friends than did a direct D-PSA among people with heightened levels of depressive symptomatology (Study 1). In Study 2, among people with heightened levels of depressive symptomatology, assignment to the mistargeted D-PSA condition, compared with the direct D-PSA and the no D-PSA control conditions, resulted in more favorable attitudes and increased intentions to seek help from a website.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614542846
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • From Research Settings to Parents: The Role of Parent Social Networks in
           the Choices Parents Make About Services for Their Child With Autism
           Spectrum Disorder
    • Authors: Pickard, K. E; Ingersoll, B. R.
      Pages: 256 - 269
      Abstract: Despite research that has documented the types of services that are being used by parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), researchers have yet to determine how intervention-related knowledge spreads to parents. In the current study, we sought to clarify the impact of parent social networks on intervention use in 244 parents of a child with ASD by examining the following: (a) Do social-network variables predict the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) or non-EBPs' (b) Do social-network variables predict parent satisfaction with service use' and (c) Who are the referral sources of EBPs and non-EBPs' Results indicated that social-network variables predict parents’ EBP use and non-EBP use beyond income, education, and child ASD symptom severity. In addition, recommendations to EBPs and non-EBPs came from distinct referral sources. The results have implications for both the active provision of basic social-network support and psychoeducation at the onset of ASD diagnosis and the use of social networks to more effectively disseminate best-practice information on a larger scale.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614534240
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Controlling Offensive Behavior Using Narrative Exposure Therapy: A
           Randomized Controlled Trial of Former Street Children
    • Authors: Crombach, A; Elbert, T.
      Pages: 270 - 282
      Abstract: Insecure and violent environments foster two different forms of aggressive behavior: reactive aggressive responding, such as fearful or angry impulsive behavior to perceived threats, and appetitive aggression, which encompasses violence-related feelings of power, excitement, and pleasure. We tested whether forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET; five sessions) would reduce involvement in everyday violence and produce beneficial effects for mental and physical health. In a Burundian residential center for former street children, we identified a subset of 32 male youths (mean age = 17 years) who scored highly in appetitive aggression. We conducted a randomized controlled trial by assigning matched pairs to receive either FORNET or treatment as usual. During the follow-up (4–7 months after completing treatment), the 16 youths who received FORNET reported having committed significantly fewer offenses (Hedges’s g = 0.62) and presented with fewer physical-health complaints (Hedges’s g = 0.56) than did their matched control participants.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614534239
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Spiritual and Religious Resources in African American Women: Protection
           From Depressive Symptoms After Childbirth
    • Authors: Cheadle, A. C. D; Dunkel Schetter, C, Gaines Lanzi, R, Reed Vance, M, Sahadeo, L. S, Shalowitz, M. U, the Community Child Health Network, Vance, Minkovitz, O'Campo, Schafer, Sankofa, Walton, Wagenaar, Shalowitz, Adam, Duncan, Schoua-Glusberg, McKinney, McDade, Simon, Clark-Kauffman, Jones, Hobel, Schetter, Lu, Chung, Jones, Serafin, Young, Evans, Ruffin, Woolard, Thorp, DeClerque, Dolbier, Lorenz, Sahadeo, Salisbury, Patchen, Ramey, Lanzi, Klerman, Miodovnik, Ramey, Randolph, Timraz, German, Chinchilli, Belue, Faulkner, Hillemeier, Paul, Shaffer, Snyder, Lehman, Stetter, Schmidt, Cerullo, Whisler, Fisher, Boyer, Payton, Evans, Raju, Weglicki, Spittel, Willinger, Bryan, Phillippe, Fuentes-Afflick
      Pages: 283 - 291
      Abstract: Many women experience depressive symptoms after childbirth, and rates among African Americans are as high as 40%. Spirituality and religiosity are valued in African American communities, but their relevance to new mothers has not been empirically tested. We examined effects of religiosity and spirituality on trajectories of depressive symptoms during the year after childbirth. Data were collected by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network, which focuses on maternal-child health disparities. The sample consisted of 702 low-socioeconomic-status African American predominantly Christian women. Participants were interviewed in their homes throughout the year after a birth. Spirituality and religiosity each independently predicted changes in depressive symptoms, and low levels predicted increases over time. Effects of religiosity were mediated by a woman’s spirituality. Religiosity and spirituality functioned as significant, interrelated protective factors in this study, which provides novel insight about lower-income African American women after childbirth.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614531581
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Emotion-Network Density in Major Depressive Disorder
    • Authors: Pe, M. L; Kircanski, K, Thompson, R. J, Bringmann, L. F, Tuerlinckx, F, Mestdagh, M, Mata, J, Jaeggi, S. M, Buschkuehl, M, Jonides, J, Kuppens, P, Gotlib, I. H.
      Pages: 292 - 300
      Abstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent disorder involving disturbances in mood. There is still much to understand regarding precisely how emotions are disrupted in individuals with MDD. In this study, we used a network approach to examine the emotional disturbances underlying MDD. We hypothesized that compared with healthy control individuals, individuals diagnosed with MDD would be characterized by a denser emotion network, thereby indicating that their emotion system is more resistant to change. Indeed, results from a 7-day experience sampling study revealed that individuals with MDD had a denser overall emotion network than did healthy control individuals. Moreover, this difference was driven primarily by a denser negative, but not positive, network in MDD participants. These findings suggest that the disruption in emotions that characterizes depressed individuals stems from a negative emotion system that is resistant to change.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614540645
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Is Associated With Broad Impairments in
           Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Snyder, H. R; Kaiser, R. H, Warren, S. L, Heller, W.
      Pages: 301 - 330
      Abstract: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious and often chronically disabling condition. The current dominant model of OCD focuses on abnormalities in prefrontal-striatal circuits that support executive function (EF). Although there is growing evidence for EF impairments associated with OCD, results have been inconsistent, which makes the nature and magnitude of these impairments controversial. The current meta-analysis uses random-effects models to synthesize 110 studies in which participants with OCD were compared with healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. The results indicate that individuals with OCD are impaired on tasks measuring most aspects of EF, consistent with broad impairment in EF. EF deficits were not explained by general motor slowness or depression. Effect sizes were largely stable across variation in demographic and clinical characteristics of samples, although medication use, age, and gender moderated some effects.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:30-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614534210
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Erratum: Editor's Introduction to the Special Series: Targeted Training of
           Cognitive Processes for Behavioral and Emotional Disorders
    • Pages: 331 - 331
      Abstract: Kazdin, A. E. (2015). Editor’s introduction to the special series: Targeted training of cognitive processes for behavioral and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 38. There was an error in the printed version of this article. The correct version of the final paragraph is given as follows: We were extremely fortunate to have Dr. Onken serve as guest editor of the series. She has written extensively on how to conceptualize intervention research (e.g., stage model of psychotherapy), bridging efficacy and effectiveness studies, and much more. Also, she has overseen, fostered, and contributed to the research of others in her scholarly work and as part of her position at the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Her conceptualization of advances that are needed but are already taking place shaped the series as well as research well beyond the excellent set of articles that follows.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02T21:00:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615570018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
 
 
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