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Journal Cover Clinical Psychological Science
   [7 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [743 journals]
  • Editor's Comment on the July 2014 Special Series on Emotions and
           Psychopathology
    • Authors: Kazdin A. E.
      Pages: 659 - 660
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614551692|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614551692
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • Regulating the High: Cognitive and Neural Processes Underlying Positive
           Emotion Regulation in Bipolar I Disorder
    • Authors: Park, J; Ayduk, O, O'Donnell, L, Chun, J, Gruber, J, Kamali, M, McInnis, M. G, Deldin, P, Kross, E.
      Pages: 661 - 674
      Abstract: Although it is well established that bipolar I disorder (BD) is characterized by excessive positive emotionality, the cognitive and neural processes that underlie such responses are unclear. We addressed this issue by examining the role that an emotion regulatory process called self-distancing plays in two potentially different BD phenotypes—BD with versus without a history of psychosis—and healthy individuals. Participants reflected on a positive autobiographical memory and then rated their level of spontaneous self-distancing. Neurophysiological activity was continuously monitored using electroencephalogram. As predicted, participants with BD who have a history of psychosis spontaneously self-distanced less and displayed stronger neurophysiological signs of positive emotional reactivity compared with the other two groups. These findings shed light on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying excessive positive emotionality in BD. They also suggest that individuals with BD who have a history of psychosis may represent a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by dysfunctional emotion regulation.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614527580|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614527580
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • Hypomanic Experience in Young Adults Confers Vulnerability to Intrusive
           Imagery After Experimental Trauma: Relevance for Bipolar Disorder
    • Authors: Malik, A; Goodwin, G. M, Hoppitt, L, Holmes, E. A.
      Pages: 675 - 684
      Abstract: Emotional mental imagery occurs across anxiety disorders, yet is neglected in bipolar disorder despite high anxiety comorbidity. Furthermore, a heightened susceptibility to developing intrusive mental images of stressful events in bipolar disorder and people vulnerable to it (with hypomanic experience) has been suggested. The current study assessed, prospectively, whether significant hypomanic experience (contrasting groups scoring high vs. low on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, MDQ) places individuals at increased risk of visual reexperiencing after experimental stress. A total of 110 young adults watched a trauma film and recorded film-related intrusive images for 6 days. Compared to the low MDQ group, the high MDQ group experienced approximately twice as many intrusive images, substantiated by convergent measures. Findings suggest hypomanic experience is associated with developing more frequent intrusive imagery of a stressor. Because mental imagery powerfully affects emotion, such imagery may contribute to bipolar mood instability and offer a cognitive treatment target.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614527433|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614527433
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • A Quantitative Signature of Self-Control Repair: Rate-Dependent Effects of
           Successful Addiction Treatment
    • Authors: Bickel, W. K; Landes, R. D, Kurth-Nelson, Z, Redish, A. D.
      Pages: 685 - 695
      Abstract: Excessive temporal discounting undergirds addiction, and the quantitative relationships of changes in discounting have yet to be investigated. The quantitative relationship between pre- and posttreatment discount rates was examined using data from five of our studies with diverse interventions across different groups of substance users. Discounting and treatment-outcome drug-use data from 222 drug-dependent individuals were analyzed. The primary measures were discounting of delayed reinforcers and objective measures of drug use. Results revealed that change in discounting was inversely related to baseline rates of discounting, such that participants with low discount rates showed little change in discounting with treatment, whereas participants with high discount rates showed large reductions in discounting. As importantly, those treatments that produced the largest gains in drug abstinence had the largest effects on discount rates. Temporal discounting changes with the specific quantitative signature of rate dependence, and more efficacious treatments remediate high discounting rates.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614528162|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614528162
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • Culture and the Remembering of Trauma
    • Authors: Jobson, L; Moradi, A. R, Rahimi-Movaghar, V, Conway, M. A, Dalgleish, T.
      Pages: 696 - 713
      Abstract: This research investigated the influence of culture and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on global autobiographical remembering (Study 1a) and on the phenomenological properties (Study 1b) and memory-content variables (Study 1c) of trauma-specific autobiographical remembering. Australian, British, and Iranian trauma survivors with and without PTSD completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Self-Defining Memory Task, and Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire and provided trauma- and negative-memory narratives. We found that there were pan-cultural deficits and distortions in the global autobiographical remembering of participants with PTSD (Study 1a). In addition, the presence of PTSD moderated the usual effect of culture on the phenomenological properties of the trauma memory (Study 1b). Finally, participants with PTSD, regardless of cultural background, had significantly fewer expressions of autonomy and self-determination in their autobiographical remembering than did those without PTSD (Study 1c). The findings suggest that pan-culturally, individuals with PTSD have similar disruptions and distortions in their autobiographical remembering.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614529763|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614529763
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • Looking on the Dark Side: Rumination and Cognitive-Bias Modification
    • Authors: Hertel, P; Mor, N, Ferrari, C, Hunt, O, Agrawal, N.
      Pages: 714 - 726
      Abstract: To understand cognitive bases of self-reported ruminative tendencies, we examined interpretations and subsequent memories of ambiguous situations depicting opportunities for rumination. In Experiment 1, we recruited students, randomly assigned them to a distracting or ruminative concentration task, and then measured their latencies to complete fragments that resolved situational ambiguity in either a ruminative or a benign direction. Students in the ruminative task condition who previously self-identified as brooders were quicker to complete ruminative fragments. In Experiment 2, we simulated this bias to investigate its possible contribution to rumination; nonbrooding students were trained to make ruminative or benign resolutions of ambiguous situations. Ruminative training led to more negative continuations of new, potentially ruminative situations in a subsequent transfer task. Next, ruminative training also caused more negatively valenced errors in recalling the ambiguous transfer situations. Finally, after reflection about a personal experience, state-rumination scores were higher in the ruminative condition. These results establish the causal role of interpretation biases in ruminative patterns of thought.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614529111|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614529111
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • Role of Deontological Guilt in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Like Checking
           and Washing Behaviors
    • Authors: D'Olimpio, F; Mancini, F.
      Pages: 727 - 739
      Abstract: Obsessions and compulsions are driven by the goal of preventing or neutralizing guilt. We investigated whether inducing deontological versus altruistic guilt in healthy volunteers could activate checking behaviors and physical cleaning. Participants were asked to listen to stories that induced deontological guilt, altruistic guilt, or a neutral control state, and then were asked to classify 100 colored capsules into 12 small pots (Study 1) or to clean a Plexiglas cube (Study 2). Before and after hearing the story and after completing the task, participants completed a visual analog scale that assessed their current emotions. Finally, participants completed a self-report questionnaire about discomfort, doubts, and perceived performance. Participants in the deontological group checked more (Study 1), cleaned the cube more times (Study 2), and scored higher in doubts and discomfort than did participants in the altruistic or control groups. These data suggest that deontological guilt is the mental state specifically related to checking and cleaning compulsions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614529549|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614529549
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • Attachment Style Moderates the Effects of Oxytocin on Social Behaviors and
           Cognitions During Social Rejection: Applying a Research Domain Criteria
           Framework to Social Anxiety
    • Authors: Fang, A; Hoge, E. A, Heinrichs, M, Hofmann, S. G.
      Pages: 740 - 747
      Abstract: Whereas the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) categorizes individuals with similar self-reported symptoms, the research domain criteria offers a new approach for classifying mental disorders on the basis of dimensions of observable behaviors and neurobiological measures. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to adopt this approach by distinguishing individuals on the basis of disorder-related personality traits during an experimental manipulation that targeted a disorder-related biological mechanism. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, we examined whether attachment style moderated the effect of oxytocin administration on social behaviors and cognitions during a social-exclusion test in individuals with social anxiety disorder. Among participants who received oxytocin, as opposed to a placebo, only individuals with low attachment avoidance displayed more social affiliation and cooperation, and only those with high attachment avoidance showed faster detection of disgust and neutral faces. Thus, attachment style moderated oxytocin’s effects among individuals who shared the same DSM diagnosis. We conclude that neurobiological tests can inform new classification strategies by adopting a research domain criteria framework.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614527948|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614527948
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • Aberrant Neural Connectivity During Emotional Processing Associated With
           Posttraumatic Stress
    • Authors: Sadeh, N; Spielberg, J. M, Warren, S. L, Miller, G. A, Heller, W.
      Pages: 748 - 755
      Abstract: Given the complexity of the brain, characterizing relations among distributed brain regions is likely essential to describing the neural instantiation of posttraumatic stress symptoms. This study examined patterns of functional connectivity among key brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 35 trauma-exposed adults using an emotion-word Stroop task. PTSD symptom severity (particularly hyperarousal symptoms) moderated amygdala-mPFC coupling during the processing of unpleasant words, and this moderation correlated positively with reported real-world impairment and amygdala reactivity. Reexperiencing severity moderated hippocampus-insula coupling during pleasant and unpleasant words. Results provide evidence that PTSD symptoms differentially moderate functional coupling during emotional interference and underscore the importance of examining network connectivity in research on PTSD. They suggest that hyperarousal is associated with negative mPFC-amygdala coupling and that reexperiencing is associated with altered insula-hippocampus function, patterns of connectivity that may represent separable indicators of dysfunctional inhibitory control during affective processing.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614530113|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614530113
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • Negative Self-Beliefs in Eating Disorders: A Cognitive-Bias-Modification
           Study
    • Authors: Yiend, J; Parnes, C, Shepherd, K, Roche, M.-K, Cooper, M. J.
      Pages: 756 - 766
      Abstract: In eating disorders (EDs), interest commonly focuses on eating, weight, and shape rather than on beliefs. In this study, we investigated the importance of negative self-beliefs in EDs by examining whether manipulating those beliefs would elicit symptom-relevant change. The technique cognitive-bias modification is ideal for this purpose because it permits experimental manipulation of beliefs. Using content derived from the clinical literature, we applied cognitive-bias modification to a sample of 88 subclinical participants. Results demonstrated a wide range of effects, including significant change in target beliefs, ED behaviors, related intrusive thoughts, anxiety, and depression, some of which were maintained at 1-week follow-up. Although one measure of ED symptoms remained unaltered, our data nevertheless evidence a causal role of negative self-beliefs in ED pathology and suggest that future work in clinical samples is warranted, including identification of factors determining susceptibility to the technique.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614528163|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614528163
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
  • Value-Based Decision Making in Mental Illness: A Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Mukherjee, D; Kable, J. W.
      Pages: 767 - 782
      Abstract: In this study, we assessed value-based decision making in individuals diagnosed with mental illness. Two meta-analyses were conducted of studies that used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess value-based decision making. In the first meta-analysis (63 studies, combined N = 4,978), we compared IGT performance in healthy populations and populations with mental illness. In the second meta-analysis (40 studies, combined N = 1,813), we examined raw IGT performance scores as a function of type of mental illness. The first meta-analysis demonstrated that individuals with mental illness performed significantly worse than did healthy control individuals. The second meta-analysis demonstrated no performance differences based on type of mental illness. These findings suggest that value-based decision making is a promising target for transdiagnostic analyses of processes that go awry in mental illness. A critical priority for future work, given that impairment in the IGT could arise from changes in several decision processes, will be to investigate the specific decision processes affected in different mental illnesses.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T21:00:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614531580|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614531580
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 6 (2014)
       
 
 
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