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Journal Cover Clinical Psychological Science
  [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [842 journals]
  • Introduction to the Featured Article--A Unified Model of Depression:
           Integrating Clinical, Cognitive, Biological, and Evolutionary Perspectives
           
    • Authors: Kazdin; A. E.
      Pages: 595 - 595
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616646989
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Unified Model of Depression: Integrating Clinical, Cognitive,
           Biological, and Evolutionary Perspectives
    • Authors: Beck, A. T; Bredemeier, K.
      Pages: 596 - 619
      Abstract: We propose that depression can be viewed as an adaptation to conserve energy after the perceived loss of an investment in a vital resource such as a relationship, group identity, or personal asset. Tendencies to process information negatively and experience strong biological reactions to stress (resulting from genes, trauma, or both) can lead to depressogenic beliefs about the self, world, and future. These tendencies are mediated by alterations in brain areas/networks involved in cognition and emotion regulation. Depressogenic beliefs predispose individuals to make cognitive appraisals that amplify perceptions of loss, typically in response to stressors that impact available resources. Clinical features of severe depression (e.g., anhedonia, anergia) result from these appraisals and biological reactions that they trigger (e.g., autonomic, immune, neurochemical). These symptoms were presumably adaptive in our evolutionary history, but are maladaptive in contemporary times. Thus, severe depression can be considered an anachronistic manifestation of an evolutionarily based "program."
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616628523
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Posttraumatic Growth--An Antecedent and Outcome of Posttraumatic Stress:
           Cross-Lagged Associations Among Individuals Exposed to Terrorism
    • Authors: Blix, I; Birkeland, M. S, Hansen, M. B, Heir, T.
      Pages: 620 - 628
      Abstract: There is a gap in the literature concerning the temporal course, and the bidirectional nature, of the relationship between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms. This longitudinal study investigated PTG and posttraumatic stress in individuals directly exposed to the 2011 Oslo bombing (N = 240). To investigate the relationships between PTG and posttraumatic stress 10 (T1) and 22 (T2) months after the bombing, a cross-lagged autoregressive model was applied. High levels of PTG at T1 were associated with high levels of posttraumatic stress at T2. Furthermore, high levels of posttraumatic stress at T1 were associated with high levels of PTG at T2. The association between PTG and stress declined from 10 to 22 months and was not significant after 22 months. These findings indicate that PTG may be both a consequence and antecedent of posttraumatic stress.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615615866
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Self-Distancing Buffers High Trait Anxious Pediatric Cancer Caregivers
           Against Short- and Longer-Term Distress
    • Authors: Penner, L. A; Guevarra, D. A, Harper, F. W. K, Taub, J, Phipps, S, Albrecht, T. L, Kross, E.
      Pages: 629 - 640
      Abstract: Pediatric cancer caregivers are typically present at their child’s frequent, invasive treatments, and such treatments elicit substantial distress. Yet variability exists in how even the most anxious caregivers cope. Here we examined one potential source of this variability: caregivers’ tendencies to self-distance when reflecting on their feelings surrounding their child’s treatments. We measured caregivers’ self-distancing and trait anxiety at baseline, anticipatory anxiety during their child’s treatment procedures, and psychological distress and avoidance 3 months later. Self-distancing buffered high (but not low) trait anxious caregivers against short- and long-term distress without promoting avoidance. These findings held when controlling for other buffers, highlighting the unique benefits of self-distancing. These results identify a coping process that buffers vulnerable caregivers against a chronic life stressor while also demonstrating the ecological validity of laboratory research on self-distancing. Future research is needed to explicate causality and the cognitive and physiological processes that mediate these results.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615602864
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Daily Actigraphy Profiles Distinguish Depressive and Interepisode States
           in Bipolar Disorder
    • Authors: Gershon, A; Ram, N, Johnson, S. L, Harvey, A. G, Zeitzer, J. M.
      Pages: 641 - 650
      Abstract: Disruptions in activity are core features of mood states in bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, we sought to identify activity patterns that discriminate between mood states in BD. Locomotor activity was collected by using actigraphy for 6 weeks in participants with interepisode BD Type I (n = 37) or participants with no lifetime mood disorders (n = 39). The 24-hr activity pattern of each participant-day was characterized and within-person differences in activity patterns were examined across mood states. Results showed that among participants with BD, depressive days are distinguished from other mood states by an overall lower activity level and a pattern of later activity onset, a midday elevation of activity, and low evening activity. No distinct within-person activity patterns were found for hypomanic/manic days. Given that activity can be monitored noninvasively for extended time periods, activity pattern identification may be leveraged to detect mood states in BD, thereby providing more immediate delivery of care.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615604613
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Impaired Visual Cortical Processing of Affective Facial Information in
           Schizophrenia
    • Authors: Maher, S; Ekstrom, T, Chen, Y.
      Pages: 651 - 660
      Abstract: Facial-emotion-perception impairment in schizophrenia is currently viewed as abnormal affective processing. Facial-emotion perception also relies on visual processing. Yet visual cortical processing of facial emotion is not well understood in this disorder. We measured perceptual thresholds for detecting facial fear and happiness in patients (n = 23) and control participants (n = 23) and adjusted emotion intensity of facial stimuli (via morphing between images of neutral and emotive expressions) for each participant. We then evaluated activations of the visual cortex and amygdala during the performance of perceptually equated facial-emotion-detection tasks. Patients had significantly lower fear- and happiness-induced activations in the visual cortex and amygdala. Activations between the visual cortex and amygdala were largely correlated, but the correlations in patients occurred abnormally early in the response time course during fear perception. In schizophrenia, visual processing of facial emotion is deficient, and visual and affective processing of negative facial emotion may be prematurely associated.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615609595
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Positive Affectivity Is Dampened in Youths With Histories of Major
           Depression and Their Never-Depressed Adolescent Siblings
    • Authors: Kovacs, M; Bylsma, L. M, Yaroslavsky, I, Rottenberg, J, George, C. J, Kiss, E, Halas, K, Benak, I, Baji, I, Vetro, A, Kapornai, K.
      Pages: 661 - 674
      Abstract: Although hedonic capacity is diminished during clinical depression, it is unclear whether that deficit constitutes a risk factor or persists after depression episodes remit. To examine these issues, adolescents with current/past major depression (probands; n = 218), never-depressed biological siblings of probands (n = 207), and emotionally well controls (n = 183) were exposed to several positively valenced probes. Across baseline and hedonic probe conditions, controls consistently reported higher levels of positive affect than high-risk siblings, and siblings reported higher levels of positive affect than probands (remitted and depressed probands’ reports were similar). Extent of positive affect across the protocol predicted adolescents’ self-reports of social support network and parental reports of offspring’s use of various adaptive mood repair responses in daily life. Attenuated hedonic responding among youths remitted from depression offers partial support for anhedonia as a trait, whereas its presence among never-depressed high-risk siblings argues for anhedonia as a potential diathesis for clinical depression.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615607182
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Revisiting Depression Contagion as a Mediator of the Relation Between
           Depression and Rejection: A Speed-Dating Study
    • Authors: Pe, M. L; Gotlib, I. H, Van Den Noortgate, W, Kuppens, P.
      Pages: 675 - 682
      Abstract: Interpersonal theories of depression postulate that depressed individuals’ experience of social isolation is attributable, in part, to their tendency to behave in ways that elicit rejection from others. Depression contagion has been implicated as a factor that may account for the rejection of depressed individuals. In the current study, we revisit this hypothesis by using a controlled, but realistically motivated, setting: speed dating. Approximately 2 weeks before the speed-dating event, participants’ depression levels were assessed. During the event, participants had 4-min "dates" with opposite-sex partners. After each date, they responded to items that measured their affect and romantic attraction. At the end of the evening, participants indicated which partners they wanted to see again. Our results did not support depression contagion: After 4 min of interaction with partners with high levels of depressive symptoms, participants did not experience increased negative affect; instead, they experienced reduced positive affect, which led to the rejection of these partners.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615602672
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • The Economics of Losing a Loved One: Delayed Reward Discounting in
           Prolonged Grief
    • Authors: Maccallum, F; Bonanno, G. A.
      Pages: 683 - 690
      Abstract: The tendency for individuals to discount the subjective value of future rewards is a well-established phenomenon. Individual differences in the rate at which one devalues the future have been associated with a range of economic and health outcomes. In this study we investigate future reward discounting in prolonged grief (PG), a potential outcome of bereavement that is associated with significant impairment. A total of 75 bereaved individuals, recruited online, made a series of choices between a small amount of money available immediately and a larger amount available after a specified delay. Greater PG symptomatology was associated with greater discounting of both a small and a relatively larger delayed reward. Results are consistent with findings suggesting that individuals with PG have difficulties orienting to the future and help shed light on economic decision making processes that may contribute to ongoing dysfunction in PG.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615605827
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Prosocial Behavior Mitigates the Negative Effects of Stress in Everyday
           Life
    • Authors: Raposa, E. B; Laws, H. B, Ansell, E. B.
      Pages: 691 - 698
      Abstract: Recent theories of stress reactivity posit that, when stressed, individuals tend to seek out opportunities to affiliate with and nurture others to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of stress. However, few studies have tested empirically the role of prosocial behavior in reducing negative emotional responses to stress. The current analyses used daily diary data to investigate whether engaging in prosocial behavior buffered the negative effects of naturally occurring stressors on emotional well-being. Results showed that on a given day, prosocial behavior moderated the effects of stress on positive affect, negative affect, and overall mental health. Findings suggest that affiliative behavior may be an important component of coping with stress and indicate that engaging in prosocial behavior might be an effective strategy for reducing the impact of stress on emotional functioning.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615611073
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Editors Introduction for the Special Series: Diversity Science
    • Authors: Kazdin; A. E.
      Pages: 699 - 700
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616649351
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Diversity Science: New Dawn in a Golden Age
    • Authors: Rosmarin; D. H.
      Pages: 701 - 703
      Abstract: Despite a stated value for diversity within clinical psychology, testing of theories and treatments is often conducted with homogenous/monolithic samples, and diversity science thus lags behind. Recognizing these trends, the present special series contains three articles, each of which presents a significant advancement in clinical psychological science as it applies to diverse groups (Asian Americans, African Americans, and Native Americans). These contributions highlight that cultural and other factors indelibly shape not only the presentation of psychological symptoms, but also mechanisms by which they develop, manifest, and can be ameliorated. Moreover, these articles serve as exemplars for how our field—which has reached a golden age—can use its methods to push the burgeoning field of diversity science forward and thereby create a new dawn for clinical psychological science as a whole.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616647926
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Adolescents Stigma Attitudes Toward Internalizing and Externalizing
           Disorders: Cultural Influences and Implications for Distress
           Manifestations
    • Authors: Lau, A. S; Guo, S, Tsai, W, Nguyen, D. J, Nguyen, H. T, Ngo, V, Weiss, B.
      Pages: 704 - 717
      Abstract: This study examined predictors of stigma attitudes toward common youth emotional behavioral problems to test the hypothesis that interdependent cultural values would be associated with differential stigma toward externalizing versus internalizing disorders. Furthermore, we examined whether problem-specific stigma attitudes would predict adolescents’ own self-reported manifestations of distress. A total of 1,224 Vietnamese American and European American adolescents completed measures of social distance stigma attitudes in response to vignettes depicting youth with internalizing (depression, social anxiety, somatization) and externalizing (alcohol use, aggressive behaviors, delinquency) disorders. A subset of 676 youth also provided self-reports on their own adjustment prospectively over 6 months. Measurement models revealed clear separation of negatively correlated factors assessing stigma toward externalizing versus internalizing problems. Values related to family interdependence were significantly associated with greater tolerance of internalizing disorders and lower tolerance of externalizing disorders. Stigma toward internalizing disorders was associated with lower concurrent self-reported internalizing symptoms, whereas stigma toward externalizing symptoms was associated with lower concurrent externalizing symptoms and greater decreases in externalizing symptoms over time. The results of the study suggest that stigma attitudes are differentiated by problem type and may represent one cultural factor shaping distress manifestations
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616646314
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • What Can Parents Do' Examining the Role of Parental Support on the
           Negative Relationship Among Racial Discrimination, Depression, and Drug
           Use Among African American Youth
    • Authors: Zapolski, T. C. B; Fisher, S, Hsu, W.-W, Barnes, J.
      Pages: 718 - 731
      Abstract: African American youth who experience racial discrimination are at heightened risk to use drugs as a coping response to distress. Based on the buffer-stress hypothesis, we proposed that parental support would attenuate this effect. Participants were 1,521 African American youth between 4th and 12th grade. As hypothesized, a mediation pathway was observed among racial discrimination, depression symptoms, and drug use. This effect was observed for both genders, although the pathway was partially mediated for males. In addition, as hypothesized, parental support buffered the negative effect of depression symptomatology on drug use as a consequence of discrimination. Our findings highlight the impact racial discrimination has on health outcomes for African American youth and the importance of managing youths’ emotional responses to discrimination. Moreover, findings illuminate the protective role of supportive parenting within the risk model and should thus be considered as an important component within prevention programming for this population of youth.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616646371
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Cautionary Tale: Examining the Interplay of Culturally Specific Risk and
           Resilience Factors in Indigenous Communities
    • Authors: Walls, M. L; Whitbeck, L, Armenta, B.
      Pages: 732 - 743
      Abstract: Efforts to build empirical evidence for the protective effects of Indigenous cultural factors on psychological health have yielded mixed findings. We examine the interplay of previously hypothesized culturally relevant risk (discrimination, historical loss) and protective (spiritual activities) factors among Indigenous people. The sample includes 569 Indigenous adolescents (mean age = 17.23, SD = 0.88; 51.0% girls) and 563 Indigenous adult caregivers (mean age = 44.66, SD = 9.18; 77.4% women). Our central finding was that indigenous spirituality was associated with poorer psychological outcomes across several domains (depressive symptoms, anger, anxiety, somatization, and interpersonal difficulties), but observed effects were attenuated once perceived discrimination and historical losses were added to statistical models. Thus, consideration of relevant stressors drastically changed our conclusions, underscoring the uncertain dynamics through which specific Indigenous cultural factors impact mental health. Researchers should work in collaboration with Indigenous communities to improve measurement and empirical investigation of these complex constructs.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T21:05:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616645795
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2016)
       
 
 
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