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Clinical Psychological Science    [7 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [718 journals]
  • The p Factor: One General Psychopathology Factor in the Structure of
           Psychiatric Disorders'
    • Authors: Caspi, A; Houts, R. M, Belsky, D. W, Goldman-Mellor, S. J, Harrington, H, Israel, S, Meier, M. H, Ramrakha, S, Shalev, I, Poulton, R, Moffitt, T. E.
      Pages: 119 - 137
      Abstract: Mental disorders traditionally have been viewed as distinct, episodic, and categorical conditions. This view has been challenged by evidence that many disorders are sequentially comorbid, recurrent/chronic, and exist on a continuum. Using the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, we examined the structure of psychopathology, taking into account dimensionality, persistence, co-occurrence, and sequential comorbidity of mental disorders across 20 years, from adolescence to midlife. Psychiatric disorders were initially explained by three higher-order factors (Internalizing, Externalizing, and Thought Disorder) but explained even better with one General Psychopathology dimension. We have called this dimension the p factor because it conceptually parallels a familiar dimension in psychological science: the g factor of general intelligence. Higher p scores are associated with more life impairment, greater familiality, worse developmental histories, and more compromised early-life brain function. The p factor explains why it is challenging to find causes, consequences, biomarkers, and treatments with specificity to individual mental disorders. Transdiagnostic approaches may improve research.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T09:30:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613497473|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613497473
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Altered Cognitive Development in the Siblings of Individuals With
    • Authors: Barch, D. M; Cohen, R, Csernansky, J. G.
      Pages: 138 - 151
      Abstract: Our goal in the current study was to further investigate the late neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia by examining cross-sectional, age-related changes in cognitive function among young adult (a) siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 66), (b) healthy control subjects (n = 77), and (c) the siblings of healthy control subjects (n = 77). All subjects participated in a battery of tasks in four domains: verbal IQ, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. We found significant group differences in the relationships between age and performance in working memory and episodic memory, with similar patterns for executive function and verbal IQ. The siblings of individuals with schizophrenia showed impaired performance in working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. In addition, healthy control subjects and their siblings showed age-related improvements in all four cognitive domains, whereas the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia showed this result for verbal IQ only.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T09:30:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613496244|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613496244
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Cerebellar Morphology and Procedural Learning Impairment in
           Neuroleptic-Naive Youth at Ultrahigh Risk of Psychosis
    • Authors: Dean, D. J; Bernard, J. A, Orr, J. M, Pelletier-Baldelli, A, Gupta, T, Carol, E. E, Mittal, V. A.
      Pages: 152 - 164
      Abstract: Despite evidence suggesting a role for cerebellar abnormalities in the pathogenesis of psychosis, the structure has yet to receive attention in individuals at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR). Accumulating research has suggested that the cerebellum helps modulate cognition and movement, domains in which UHR individuals show impairment; understanding putative markers of risk, such as structural abnormalities and behavioral correlates, is essential. In this study, participants underwent a high-resolution structural brain scan and participated in a pursuit rotor experiment. Cerebellar regions associated with movement (anterior cerebellum) and cognition (crus I) were subsequently analyzed. UHR participants showed impaired performance on the pursuit rotor task, learned at a slower rate, and showed smaller cerebellar volumes compared with control participants. Left crus I volume was significantly associated with poor rate of learning. The present results suggest that cerebellar abnormalities and their behavioral correlates (poor learning and motor control) precede the onset of psychosis.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T09:30:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613500039|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613500039
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Reduced Specificity in Episodic Future Thinking in Posttraumatic Stress
    • Authors: Kleim, B; Graham, B, Fihosy, S, Stott, R, Ehlers, A.
      Pages: 165 - 173
      Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the most common disorders following trauma, has been associated with a tendency to remember past personal memories in a nonspecific, overgeneral way. The present study investigated whether such a bias also applies to projections of future personal events. Trauma survivors (N = 50) generated brief descriptions of imagined future experiences in response to positive and negative cues in a future-based Autobiographical Memory Test. Survivors with PTSD imagined fewer specific future events in response to positive, but not to negative, cues, compared to those without PTSD. This effect was independent of comorbid major depression. Reduced memory specificity in response to positive cues was related to appraisals of foreshortened future and permanent change. Training to enhance specificity of future projections may be helpful in PTSD and protect against potentially toxic effects of autobiographical memory overgenerality.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T09:30:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613495199|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613495199
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Involuntary Memories and Dissociative Amnesia: Assessing Key Assumptions
           in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Research
    • Authors: Berntsen, D; Rubin, D. C.
      Pages: 174 - 186
      Abstract: Autobiographical memories of trauma victims often are described as disturbed in two ways. First, the trauma frequently is reexperienced in the form of involuntary, intrusive recollections. Second, the trauma is difficult to recall voluntarily (strategically); important parts may be totally or partially inaccessible—a feature known as dissociative amnesia. These characteristics often are mentioned by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) researchers and are included as PTSD symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR as well as DSM-5). In contrast, we have shown that both involuntary recall and voluntary recall are enhanced by emotional stress during encoding. We also have shown that the PTSD symptom in the diagnosis addressing dissociative amnesia—trouble remembering important aspects of the trauma—is less well correlated with the remaining PTSD symptoms than the conceptual reversal of having trouble forgetting important aspects of the trauma. Our findings contradict key assumptions that have shaped PTSD research during the past 40 years.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T09:30:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613496241|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613496241
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Affective and Self-Esteem Instability in the Daily Lives of People With
           Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder
    • Authors: Farmer, A. S; Kashdan, T. B.
      Pages: 187 - 201
      Abstract: Research on affect and self-esteem in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has focused on trait or average levels, but we know little about the dynamic patterns of these experiences in the daily lives of people with SAD. We asked 40 adults with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls to provide end-of-day reports on their affect and self-esteem over 2 weeks. Compared to healthy adults, participants with SAD exhibited greater instability of negative affect and self-esteem, though the self-esteem effect was driven by mean-level differences. The SAD group also demonstrated a higher probability of acute changes in negative affect and self-esteem (i.e., from one assessment period to the next), as well as difficulty maintaining positive states and improving negative states (i.e., dysfunctional self-regulation). Our findings provide insights on the phenomenology of SAD, with particular attention to the temporal dependency, magnitude of change, and directional patterns of psychological experiences in everyday life.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T09:30:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613495200|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613495200
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Adversity in Early and Midadolescence Is Associated With Elevated Startle
           Responses to Safety Cues in Late Adolescence
    • Authors: Wolitzky-Taylor, K; Vrshek-Schallhorn, S, Waters, A. M, Mineka, S, Zinbarg, R. E, Ornitz, E. M, Naliboff, B, Craske, M. G.
      Pages: 202 - 213
      Abstract: Elevated responding to safety cues in the context of threat is associated with anxiety disorder onset, but pathways underlying such responding remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether childhood/adolescent adversity was associated with larger startle reflexes during safe phases of a fear-potentiation startle paradigm (following delivery of an aversive stimulus) that predict anxiety disorders. Participants (N = 104) came from the Youth Emotion Project, a longitudinal study of risk factors for emotional disorders. Participants with no baseline psychopathology underwent a startle-modulation protocol and assessment for childhood and adolescent adversities using a validated interview. Adolescent adversity was associated with larger startle reflexes during the safe phases following an aversive stimulus. Neither child adversities nor adolescent adversities were associated with responding during any other phase of the protocol. These findings suggest a pathway between adolescent adversity and a risk factor for anxiety disorders in which adolescent adversity contributes to impaired responding to safety cues.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T09:30:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613495840|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613495840
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Unimpaired Attentional Disengagement and Social Orienting in Children With
    • Authors: Fischer, J; Koldewyn, K, Jiang, Y. V, Kanwisher, N.
      Pages: 214 - 223
      Abstract: Visual attention is often hypothesized to play a causal role in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because attention shapes perception, learning, and social interaction, early deficits in attention could substantially affect the development of other perceptual and cognitive abilities. Here we test two key attentional phenomena thought to be disrupted in autism: attentional disengagement and social orienting. We find in a free-viewing paradigm that both phenomena are present in high-functioning children with ASD (n = 44, ages 5–12 years) and are identical in magnitude to those in age- and IQ-matched typical children (n = 40). Although these attentional processes may malfunction in other circumstances, our data indicate that high-functioning children with ASD do not suffer from across-the-board disruptions of either attentional disengagement or social orienting. Combined with mounting evidence that other attentional abilities are largely intact, it seems increasingly unlikely that disruptions of core attentional abilities lie at the root of ASD.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T09:30:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613496242|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613496242
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • The Effect of Physical Cleaning on Threatened Morality in Individuals With
           Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • Authors: Reuven, O; Liberman, N, Dar, R.
      Pages: 224 - 229
      Abstract: The association between morality and physical cleansing has been demonstrated in a series of studies by Zhong and Liljenquist. We predicted that this association would be especially prominent in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants with OCD and matched control participants wrote about an immoral deed they had committed, after which half of the participants in each group cleaned their hands with a wipe. All participants were then offered an opportunity to help a fictitious graduate student by taking part in her experiment. Replicating previous findings, physical cleaning reduced the willingness to help and relieved moral emotions. As predicted, this effect was particularly prominent among participants with OCD. We discuss two processes that may account for the association between morality and cleanliness in general and particularly in the context of OCD: embodiment of morality in terms of physical cleanliness and assigning abstract meaning to the physical actions of cleaning.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T09:30:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613485565|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613485565
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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