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Journal Cover   Clinical Psychological Science
  [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [819 journals]
  • Threat of Death and Autobiographical Memory: A Study of Passengers From
           Flight AT236
    • Authors: McKinnon, M. C; Palombo, D. J, Nazarov, A, Kumar, N, Khuu, W, Levine, B.
      Pages: 487 - 502
      Abstract: We investigated autobiographical memory in a group of passengers onboard a transatlantic flight that nearly ditched at sea. The consistency of traumatic exposure across passengers, some of whom developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), provided a unique opportunity to assess verified memory for life-threatening trauma. Using the Autobiographical Interview, which separates episodic from nonepisodic details, passengers and healthy controls (HCs) recalled three events: the airline disaster (or a highly negative event for HCs), the September 11, 2001, attacks, and a nonemotional event. All passengers showed robust mnemonic enhancement for episodic details of the airline disaster. Although neither richness nor accuracy of traumatic recollection was related to PTSD, production of nonepisodic details for traumatic and nontraumatic events was elevated in PTSD passengers. These findings indicate a robust mnemonic enhancement for trauma that is not specific to PTSD. Rather, PTSD is associated with altered cognitive control operations that affect autobiographical memory in general.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614542280
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Early Parenting Moderates the Association Between Parental Depression and
           Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring
    • Authors: Kujawa, A; Proudfit, G. H, Laptook, R, Klein, D. N.
      Pages: 503 - 515
      Abstract: Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid- to late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age 9, children completed an event-related potential assessment, and the feedback negativity (FN) was measured following rewards and losses (N = 344). Maternal authoritative parenting moderated the effect of maternal depression; among offspring of mothers with histories of depression, low authoritative parenting predicted a blunted FN. Observed maternal positive parenting interacted with paternal depression in a comparable manner, indicating that maternal parenting may buffer the effects of paternal depression. Early parenting may be important in shaping the neural systems involved in reward processing among children at high risk for depression.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614542464
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Security of Attachment to Spouses in Late Life: Concurrent and Prospective
           Links With Cognitive and Emotional Well-Being
    • Authors: Waldinger, R. J; Cohen, S, Schulz, M. S, Crowell, J. A.
      Pages: 516 - 529
      Abstract: Social ties are powerful predictors of late-life health and well-being. Although many adults maintain intimate partnerships into late life, little is known about mental models of attachment to spouses and how they influence aging. A total of 81 elderly heterosexual couples (162 individuals) were interviewed to examine the structure of attachment security to their partners; respondents also completed measures of cognition and well-being concurrently and 2.5 years later. Factor analysis revealed a single factor for security of attachment. Higher security was linked concurrently with greater marital satisfaction, fewer depressive symptoms, better mood, and less frequent marital conflicts. Greater security predicted lower levels of negative affect, less depression, and greater life satisfaction 2.5 years later. For women, greater security predicted better memory 2.5 years later and attenuated the link between frequency of marital conflict and memory deficits. Late in life, mental models of attachment to partners are linked to well-being concurrently and over time.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614541261
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Response Time to Craving-Item Ratings as an Implicit Measure of
           Craving-Related Processes
    • Authors: Germeroth, L. J; Wray, J. M, Tiffany, S. T.
      Pages: 530 - 544
      Abstract: Drug craving is typically measured through explicit ratings of craving levels. We examined response time to craving ratings as an implicit measure of craving processes in cigarette smokers. Response time and interitem variability were investigated as potential indices of certainty in craving ratings. Cigarette smokers, categorized as tobacco dependent or nondependent, completed multiple cue-reactivity sessions with smoking and neutral cues. After each cue presentation, craving level and response time were assessed. Significant inverted-U relationships emerged between craving level and both response time and interitem variability across conditions, sessions, and groups. Faster response times and less interitem variability emerged after neutral cues relative to smoking cues for nondependent smokers and after smoking cues relative to neutral cues for dependent smokers. Response time provided incremental validity beyond craving level in predicting dependence. Results support use of response time as an implicit measure of craving processes and further distinguish craving experiences between dependent and nondependent smokers.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614542847
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Dysfunctional Activation of the Cerebellum in Schizophrenia: A Functional
           Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Bernard, J. A; Mittal, V. A.
      Pages: 545 - 566
      Abstract: The cognitive dysmetria framework postulates that the deficits seen in schizophrenia are due to underlying cerebello-thalamo-cortical dysfunction. The cerebellum is thought to be crucial in the formation of internal models for both motor and cognitive behaviors. In healthy individuals there is a functional topography within the cerebellum. Alterations in the functional topography and activation of the cerebellum in schizophrenia patients may be indicative of altered internal models, providing support for this framework. Using state-of-the-art neuroimaging meta-analysis, we investigated cerebellar activation across a variety of task domains affected in schizophrenia and in comparison to healthy controls. Our results indicate an altered functional topography in patients. This was especially apparent for emotion and working memory tasks, and may be related to deficits in these domains. Results suggest that an altered cerebellar functional topography in schizophrenia may be contributing to the many deficits associated with the disease, perhaps because of dysfunctional internal models.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614542463
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Editor's Introduction to the Series: Mechanisms of Repetitive Thinking
    • Authors: Kazdin; A. E.
      Pages: 567 - 567
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615584288
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Mechanisms of Repetitive Thinking: Introduction to the Special Series
    • Authors: De Raedt, R; Hertel, P. T, Watkins, E. R.
      Pages: 568 - 573
      Abstract: Repetitive thinking about negative experience, such as worry and rumination, is increasingly recognized as a transdiagnostic process underlying various forms of psychopathology including anxiety and depression. Recent theoretical models have emphasized the role of impaired attentional control and the habitual nature of negative biases in the development and maintenance of pathological repetitive thought. In this introduction, we provide a brief overview of these theories and of how the articles in the special series provide experimental evidence concerning these basic mechanisms underlying rumination and worry, and their relation to clinical dysfunction. Together the research summarized in these articles instantiates these theoretical frameworks and provides convergent evidence confirming the value of adopting a transdiagnostic approach that focuses directly on fundamental mechanisms of psychopathology, instead of on diagnostic criteria.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615584309
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Ruminative Thinking: Lessons Learned From Cognitive Training
    • Authors: Mor, N; Daches, S.
      Pages: 574 - 592
      Abstract: Impairments in cognitive processes have been theorized to play a critical role in rumination, a well-established risk factor for depression. In this review, we outline central theories that present cognitive impairments as causal contributors to ruminative thinking and review relevant findings from cross-sectional and prospective studies. We then focus on experimental evidence gathered within the paradigm of cognitive bias modification (CBM). Although CBM has generated considerable interest in relation to anxiety and depression, it has only recently emerged in the field of rumination. After considering the purpose and possible advantages of CBM procedures, we review CBM work related to rumination and discuss key limitations and implications within this developing area of research. Among our recommendations, we outline ways to contrast and integrate cognitive theories of rumination, as well as to obtain stronger bias modification procedures.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615578130
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Attentional Control and Suppressing Negative Thought Intrusions in
           Pathological Worry
    • Authors: Fox, E; Dutton, K, Yates, A, Georgiou, G. A, Mouchlianitis, E.
      Pages: 593 - 606
      Abstract: Adaptive behavior relies on the ability to effectively and efficiently ignore irrelevant information, an important component of attentional control. The current research found that fundamental difficulties in ignoring irrelevant material are related to dispositional differences in trait propensity to worry, suggesting a core deficit in attentional control in high worriers. The degree of deficit in attentional control correlated with the degree of difficulty in suppressing negative thought intrusions in a worry assessment task. A cognitive training procedure utilizing a flanker task was used in an attempt to improve attentional control. Although the cognitive training was largely ineffective, improvements in attentional control were associated with improvements in the ability to suppress worry-related thought intrusions. Across two studies, the findings indicate that the inability to control worry-related negative thought intrusions is associated with a general deficiency in attentional control.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615575878
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • The Effects of Rumination Induction on Attentional Breadth for
           Self-Related Information
    • Authors: Grol, M; Hertel, P. T, Koster, E. H. W, De Raedt, R.
      Pages: 607 - 618
      Abstract: The attentional scope model of rumination describes the links between rumination and attentional breadth. The model postulates that a more narrow attentional scope, caused by negative mood, increases the likelihood that thoughts become repetitive on the same topic, which in turn could exacerbate negative mood and lead to more attentional narrowing. We experimentally tested this model by examining the attentional effects of rumination using a newly developed rumination versus problem-solving induction. In the first experiment we found that only at high levels of trait rumination, induction of rumination compared with a problem-solving approach was associated with more attentional narrowing for self-related information relative to other-related information. A second experiment on the relationship between trait rumination and attentional breadth in the absence of induced rumination revealed that especially trait brooding was related to more narrowed attention for self-related information relative to other-related information.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614566814
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Examining the Relation Between Mood and Rumination in Remitted Depressed
           Individuals: A Dynamic Systems Analysis
    • Authors: Koster, E. H. W; Fang, L, Marchetti, I, Ebner-Priemer, U, Kirsch, P, Huffziger, S, Kuehner, C.
      Pages: 619 - 627
      Abstract: Cognitive theories of recurrent depression suggest that the relationship between mood and cognition is altered by previous depressive episodes. In individuals remitted from depression (RMD) this would be linked to a larger susceptibility for new depressive symptoms. This study explored whether the association between mood and rumination indeed is different between RMD and nondepressed controls relying on dynamic systems theory (DST). From DST we selected entropy, defined here as the level of unpredictability in the relation between mood and rumination, as the main variable of interest. Daily electronic dairy measures of mood and rumination were administered in 31 RMD patients and 32 healthy controls. The results indicate that mean levels of rumination and negative mood were elevated in RMD compared with controls. At the group level, entropy did not differ significantly and entropy was also not associated with the number of episodes. However, entropy predicted depressive symptoms in the RMD group and the brooding subtype of rumination in both groups at the 6-month follow-up. These data are specific for entropy and were not obtained using mean levels of momentary mood and rumination.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615578129
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Stress-Induced Changes in Executive Control Are Associated With Depression
           Symptoms: Examining the Role of Rumination
    • Authors: Quinn, M. E; Joormann, J.
      Pages: 628 - 636
      Abstract: Deficits in executive control may underlie an inability to effectively respond to stressors, which has been linked to depression symptoms. Previous studies, however, have almost exclusively focused on trait executive control and have not assessed individual differences in changes in executive control when facing acute stressors. The current study examined whether changes in executive control when under stress are related to depression symptoms and whether this relation is moderated by brooding, a subtype of rumination. Ninety-two undergraduate students completed an n-back task before and immediately following a stress induction. As predicted, changes in n-back performance following the stress induction were related to depression symptoms and this relation was moderated by trait brooding. These results suggest that future studies examining the role of executive control in depression should measure executive control under conditions of stress as this may tap into a construct that is distinct from trait measures of executive control.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614563930
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Delineating the Role of Negative Verbal Thinking in Promoting Worry,
           Perceived Threat, and Anxiety
    • Authors: Hirsch, C. R; Perman, G, Hayes, S, Eagleson, C, Mathews, A.
      Pages: 637 - 647
      Abstract: Worry is characterized by streams of verbal thoughts about potential negative outcomes. Individuals with high levels of worry (and particularly those with generalized anxiety disorder) find it very difficult to control worry once it has started. What is not clear is the extent to which verbal negative thinking style maintains worry. Our study aimed to disentangle the effects of verbal versus imagery based thinking, and negative versus positive worry-related content on subsequent negative intrusive thoughts. High worriers were trained to engage in imagery or verbal processing, focusing on either negative or positive outcomes of their current main worry. Both thinking style and valence of worry content influenced later negative intrusive thoughts that play a role in initiating worry episodes. In contrast, only valence influenced subjective ratings of worry outcomes (i.e., cost, concern, and ability to cope, although not probability), with positive valence leading to lower ratings, irrespective of thinking style.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615577349
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • For Ruminators, the Emotional Future Is Bound to the Emotional Past:
           Heightened Ruminative Disposition Is Characterized by Increased Emotional
    • Authors: Watkins, E; Grafton, B, Weinstein, S. M, MacLeod, C.
      Pages: 648 - 658
      Abstract: Processing mode theory proposes that rumination is characterized by abstract processing that involves increased thinking about the implications of emotional events, which derives the prediction that heightened ruminative disposition will be associated with elevated emotional extrapolation from current events when formulating future expectancies. To test this, we used a novel Emotional Extrapolation Assessment Task that measured individual differences in the degree to which the emotional tone of initial events influences relative expectancy for subsequent events that are emotionally consistent or inconsistent with this initial event. In Experiment 1, ruminative disposition was associated with increased self-reported expectancy for negative subsequent events relative to positive subsequent events. As predicted, in Experiment 2, heightened ruminative disposition was associated with increased emotional extrapolation, assessed using a comprehension latency performance-based measure.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T21:00:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614566816
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
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