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Journal Cover   Clinical Psychological Science
  [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [821 journals]
  • Pretraumatic Stress Reactions in Soldiers Deployed to Afghanistan
    • Authors: Berntsen, D; Rubin, D. C.
      Pages: 663 - 674
      Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder is a diagnosis related to the past. Pretraumatic stress reactions, as measured by intrusive involuntary images of possible future stressful events and their associated avoidance and increased arousal, have been overlooked in the PTSD literature. Here we introduce a scale that measures pretraumatic stress reactions providing a clear future-oriented parallel to the posttraumatic stress reactions described in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We apply this Pretraumatic Stress Reactions Checklist (PreCL) to Danish soldiers before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. The PreCL has good internal consistency and is highly correlated with a standard measure of PTSD symptoms. The PreCL as answered before the soldiers’ deployment significantly predicted level of PTSD symptoms during and after their deployment, while controlling for baseline PTSD symptoms and combat exposure measured during and after deployment. The findings have implications for the conceptualization of PTSD, screening, and treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614551766
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • Neighborhood Poverty, College Attendance, and Diverging Profiles of
           Substance Use and Allostatic Load in Rural African American Youth
    • Authors: Chen, E; Miller, G. E, Brody, G. H, Lei, M.
      Pages: 675 - 685
      Abstract: A subset of African American youth who live in impoverished neighborhoods displays resilient profiles academically and behaviorally. We hypothesized that this resilience might be "skin deep," in that the ongoing efforts needed to achieve success might take a physiological toll on these youth. At age 19, a total of 452 rural African American youth were assessed on broader contextual risk (neighborhood poverty) and external indicators of success (college attendance). One year later, participants were assessed on substance use and cumulative physiological risk (allostatic load). African American youth from more disadvantaged neighborhoods who attended college had lower levels of substance use but higher levels of allostatic load compared with those from less disadvantaged neighborhoods who attended college or with those who did not attend college. These findings indicate that a subset of African American youth from poor neighborhoods exhibits a profile of "skin-deep resilience" characterized by external successes combined with heightened internal physiological risk.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614546639
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • Alcohol and Emotional Contagion: An Examination of the Spreading of Smiles
           in Male and Female Drinking Groups
    • Authors: Fairbairn, C. E; Sayette, M. A, Aalen, O. O, Frigessi, A.
      Pages: 686 - 701
      Abstract: Researchers have hypothesized that men gain greater reward from alcohol than do women. However, alcohol-administration studies in which participants were tested when they were drinking alone have offered weak support for this hypothesis. Research has suggested that social processes may be implicated in gender differences in drinking patterns. We examined the impact of gender and alcohol on "emotional contagion"—a social mechanism central to bonding and cohesion. Social drinkers (360 male, 360 female) consumed alcohol, placebo, or control beverages in groups of three. Social interactions were videotaped, and both Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiling were continuously coded using the Facial Action Coding System. Results revealed that Duchenne smiling (but not non-Duchenne smiling) contagion correlated with self-reported reward and typical drinking patterns. Importantly, Duchenne smiles were significantly less "infectious" among sober male groups versus female groups, and alcohol eliminated these gender differences in smiling contagion. Findings identify new directions for research that explores social-reward processes in the etiology of alcohol problems.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614548892
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • Stress and the Development of Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression
           Explain Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence
    • Authors: Hamilton, J. L; Stange, J. P, Abramson, L. Y, Alloy, L. B.
      Pages: 702 - 714
      Abstract: Although cognitive vulnerabilities to depression have received considerable empirical support, little research has evaluated the differential development of cognitive vulnerabilities in adolescent girls and boys. The current study examined the role of stressful life events, as well as sex differences in reactivity and exposure to stress, in the development of negative cognitive style and rumination in a multiwave study of 382 adolescents. Path analyses indicated that interpersonal dependent stress predicted higher prospective levels of negative cognitive styles and rumination. In addition, girls’ greater exposure to interpersonal dependent stress explained their higher levels of rumination, which accounted for higher levels of depressive symptoms in girls than in boys. These findings suggest that interpersonal dependent stress is a significant risk factor for the formation of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression during adolescence, and that the sex difference in depressive symptoms may result from girls’ greater exposure to interpersonal dependent stress and ruminative response style.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614545479
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • Do (Even) Depressed Individuals Believe That Life Gets Better and
           Better' The Link Between Depression and Subjective Trajectories for
           Life Satisfaction
    • Authors: Busseri, M. A; Peck, E.
      Pages: 715 - 725
      Abstract: We investigated the widespread belief that life gets better and better over time—as revealed in individuals’ "subjective trajectories" for life satisfaction (LS) derived from their ratings of recollected past, current, and anticipated future LS—among depressed (i.e., current major depressive disorder, fully remitted, partially remitted) and nondepressed groups using a two-wave longitudinal sample of American adults. Linear and inclining subjective trajectories (past LS < current LS < future LS) were normative among nondepressed individuals, as were nonlinear but inclining subjective trajectories (past LS ~ current LS < future LS) among depressed individuals. Furthermore, Wave 1 temporal-perspective LS ratings uniquely predicted risk of depression 10 years later (Wave 2), even after we controlled for baseline depression status. Thus, the use of a novel temporally expanded perspective revealed that even depressed individuals view their lives as improving over time and that such beliefs predict heightened (rather than less) risk of future depression.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614547265
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • Preventing Symptoms of Depression by Teaching Adolescents That People Can
           Change: Effects of a Brief Incremental Theory of Personality Intervention
           at 9-Month Follow-Up
    • Authors: Miu, A. S; Yeager, D. S.
      Pages: 726 - 743
      Abstract: The transition to high school coincides with an increase in the prevalence of depressive symptoms. Could this be due in part to increasing beliefs about the fixedness of personal traits at a time of frequent social setbacks' And could teaching adolescents that people can change help prevent the increase in depressive symptoms' A longitudinal intervention experiment involved three independent samples of students entering high school (N = 599). A brief self-administered reading and writing activity taught an incremental theory of personality—the belief that people’s socially relevant characteristics have the potential to change. The intervention reduced the incidence of clinically significant levels of self-reported depressive symptoms 9 months postintervention by nearly 40% among adolescents assigned to the intervention condition, compared with control participants. Analyses of symptom clusters, measures of self-esteem, and measures of natural language use explored the outcomes that did and did not show treatment effects. Moderation analyses confirmed theoretical expectations. Among adolescents assigned to the control condition, those who endorsed more of an entity theory of personality—believing people cannot change—showed greater increases in depressive symptoms during the year. The effect of this risk factor was eliminated by the intervention.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614548317
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • Negative Social-Evaluative Fears Produce Social Anxiety, Food Intake, and
           Body Dissatisfaction: Evidence of Similar Mechanisms Through Different
    • Authors: Levinson, C. A; Rodebaugh, T. L.
      Pages: 744 - 757
      Abstract: Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid, which suggests there are shared vulnerabilities that underlie the development of these disorders. Two proposed vulnerabilities are fear of negative evaluation and social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation regarding one’s appearance). In the current experimental study (N = 160 women), we measured these fears (a) through a manipulation comparing fear conditions, (b) with trait fears, and (c) with state fears. Results indicated that participants assigned to the fear of negative evaluation condition increased food consumption, whereas those assigned to the social appearance anxiety condition and high in trait social appearance anxiety experienced the highest amounts of body dissatisfaction. Participants in the fear of negative evaluation and social appearance anxiety conditions experienced elevated social anxiety. These results support the idea that negative-evaluation fears are shared vulnerabilities for eating and social anxiety disorders, but that the way these variables exert their effects may lead to disorder-specific behaviors.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614548891
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • Mechanisms of Selective Attention in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • Authors: Yiend, J; Mathews, A, Burns, T, Dutton, K, Fernandez-Martin, A, Georgiou, G. A, Luckie, M, Rose, A, Russo, R, Fox, E.
      Pages: 758 - 771
      Abstract: A well-established literature has identified different selective attentional orienting mechanisms underlying anxiety-related attentional bias, such as engagement and disengagement of attention. These mechanisms are thought to contribute to the onset and maintenance of anxiety disorders. However, conclusions to date have relied heavily on experimental work from subclinical samples. We therefore investigated individuals with diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), healthy volunteers, and individuals with high trait anxiety (but not meeting GAD diagnostic criteria). Across two experiments we found faster disengagement from negative (angry and fearful) faces in GAD groups, an effect opposite to that expected on the basis of the subclinical literature. Together these data challenge current assumptions that we can generalize, to those with GAD, the pattern of selective attentional orienting to threat found in subclinical groups. We suggest a decisive two-stage experiment identifying stimuli of primary salience in GAD, then using these to reexamine orienting mechanisms across groups.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614545216
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • Temporal Dynamics of Attentional Bias
    • Authors: Zvielli, A; Bernstein, A, Koster, E. H. W.
      Pages: 772 - 788
      Abstract: Biases of emotional attention are believed to be central to human (mal)adaptation and multiple forms of psychopathology. Yet fundamental questions remain regarding the nature and empirical study of attentional bias (AB). We thus aimed to (a) test a novel conceptualization and related operationalization of AB expression in time and (b) illuminate the nature of AB and specifically its temporal expression. We examined AB expression in time by means of a novel trial-level bias score (TL-BS) analysis of dot probe task data in two experiments—among spider phobics and healthy controls, and among smoking-deprived daily smokers. Findings revealed evidence of the dynamic expression of AB in time; furthermore, TL-BS parameters demonstrated unique associations with psychopathology and addiction beyond traditional bias score. The present research may help to bring the conceptualization and quantification of AB closer to the nature of the phenomenon and thereby advance basic and clinical knowledge.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614551572
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • Changing for Better or Worse' Posttraumatic Growth Reported by
           Soldiers Deployed to Iraq
    • Authors: Engelhard, I. M; Lommen, M. J. J, Sijbrandij, M.
      Pages: 789 - 796
      Abstract: There has been increased interest in self-perceived posttraumatic growth, but few longitudinal studies have focused on its relationship with posttraumatic stress. Self-perceived growth is generally thought to facilitate adjustment, but some researchers have proposed that it reflects a dysfunctional coping strategy that impedes adjustment and leads to posttraumatic stress. In this prospective longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between self-perceived posttraumatic growth and stress. Participants were soldiers deployed to Iraq. They were tested before their deployment (N = 479) and again 5 months (n = 382; 80%) and 15 months (n = 331; 69%) after returning home. Cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that more perceived growth 5 months postdeployment was associated with more posttraumatic stress 15 months postdeployment, even after we controlled for stressor severity, posttraumatic stress at 5 months, and potential predeployment confounders (extraversion, neuroticism, and cognitive ability). Findings suggest that it may be counterproductive to promote perceived growth to enhance adjustment after traumatic events.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614549800
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
  • The Promise of Neurotechnology in Clinical Translational Science
    • Authors: White, S. W; Richey, J. A, Gracanin, D, Bell, M. A, LaConte, S, Coffman, M, Trubanova, A, Kim, I.
      Pages: 797 - 815
      Abstract: Neurotechnology is broadly defined as a set of devices used to understand neural processes and applications that can potentially facilitate the brain’s ability to repair itself. In the past decade, an increasingly explicit understanding of basic biological mechanisms of brain-related illnesses has produced applications that allow a direct yet noninvasive method to index and manipulate the functioning of the human nervous system. Clinical scientists are poised to apply this technology to assess, treat, and better understand complex socioemotional processes that underlie many forms of psychopathology. In this review, we describe the potential benefits and hurdles, both technical and methodological, of neurotechnology in the context of clinical dysfunction. We also offer a framework for developing and evaluating neurotechnologies that is intended to expedite progress at the nexus of clinical science and neural-interface designs by providing a comprehensive vocabulary to describe the necessary features of neurotechnology in the clinic.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T21:00:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614549801
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 5 (2015)
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