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Journal Cover Clinical Psychological Science
  [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [839 journals]
  • Novel Links Between Troubled Marriages and Appetite Regulation: Marital
           Distress, Ghrelin, and Diet Quality
    • Authors: Jaremka, L. M; Belury, M. A, Andridge, R. R, Lindgren, M. E, Habash, D, Malarkey, W. B, Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K.
      Pages: 363 - 375
      Abstract: Distressed marriages enhance risk for health problems; appetite dysregulation is one potential mechanistic pathway. Research suggests that ghrelin and leptin, appetite-relevant hormones connected to shorter and longer-term energy balance, may differentially affect people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, both members of a couple (N = 86 participants) ate a standardized meal at the beginning of two visits. Observational recordings of a marital conflict assessed marital distress. Ghrelin and leptin were sampled premeal and postmeal at 2, 4, and 7 hr. Diet quality was measured using the USDA 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Approach. People in more distressed marriages had higher postmeal ghrelin (but not leptin) and a poorer quality diet than those in less distressed marriages, but only among participants with a lower BMI. These effects were consistent for both spouses. Ghrelin and diet quality may link marital distress to its corresponding negative health effects.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615593714
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Do Military Personnel "Acquire" the Capability for Suicide From
           Combat' A Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide
    • Authors: Bryan, C. J; Sinclair, S, Heron, E. A.
      Pages: 376 - 385
      Abstract: The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide has been the focus of considerable empirical investigation over the past decade. However, little research has focused on the theory’s proposition that the capability for suicide is "acquired" as a consequence of exposure to painful and provocative experiences such as violence, aggression, and trauma. To determine if capability for suicide is "acquired" over time, we conducted a prospective study of 168 military personnel deployed to Iraq. Capability scores remained stable over the course of 2 years from pre- to postdeployment, even among military personnel reporting high combat exposure. Significant positive correlations among capability and combat exposure were comparable both before and after deployment. These findings suggest that capability for suicide was not "acquired" following combat exposure in this sample of military personnel. Capability was, instead, a stable construct.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615595000
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Stressful Life Events Moderate the Relationship Between Genes and Biased
           Attention to Emotional Faces in Youth
    • Authors: Jenness, J. L; Hankin, B. L, Young, J. F, Smolen, A.
      Pages: 386 - 400
      Abstract: Attention bias to emotion may be an intermediate trait for stress-reactive psychopathology associated with biologically plausible candidate genes, yet the precise direction of effects within the youth literature remains unclear. The present study investigated whether stressful life events (SLEs) moderate the link between genetic risk (5-HTTLPR and COMT) and attention bias to emotion among youth (N = 467). Analyses revealed a differential effect of gene. Among youth who had experienced more recent SLEs, those homozygous for the low expressing allele of 5-HTTLPR (S/S) demonstrated preferential attention toward negative emotional expressions, whereas youth homozygous for the high expressing COMT genotype (Val/Val) showed attentional avoidance of positive facial expressions. No interaction between 5-HTTLPR and COMT was found. These findings highlight the importance of investigating stress as a moderator within the intermediate trait literature and suggest that biologically plausible candidate genes may have a differential effect in the pathway to psychological disorders.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615601000
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Can People Benefit From Acute Stress' Social Support, Psychological
           Improvement, and Resilience After the Virginia Tech Campus Shootings
    • Authors: Mancini, A. D; Littleton, H. L, Grills, A. E.
      Pages: 401 - 417
      Abstract: People’s responses to acute stress are largely thought to comprise four prototypical patterns of resilience, gradual recovery, chronic distress, and delayed distress. Here we present evidence of an additional response pattern: psychological improvement. Female survivors of the Virginia Tech shootings (N = 368) completed assessments before the shootings and at 2, 6, and 12 months post-shooting. Latent growth mixture modeling revealed distinct trajectories of resilience, chronic distress, delayed distress, continuous distress, and improvement. Although resilience was the most common pattern (56%–59%), a trajectory of substantial improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms also emerged among 13.2% and 7.4% of the sample, respectively. In support of this pattern, improvement was distinctively associated with marked increases in perceived social support and gains in interpersonal resources. Findings suggest a more complex understanding of the impact of mass trauma and a key role for dynamic changes in social support following acute stress.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615601001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Affective Disruption From Social Rhythm and Behavioral Approach System
           (BAS) Sensitivities: A Test of the Integration of the Social Zeitgeber and
           BAS Theories of Bipolar Disorder
    • Authors: Boland, E. M; Stange, J. P, LaBelle, D. R, Shapero, B. G, Weiss, R. B, Abramson, L. Y, Alloy, L. B.
      Pages: 418 - 432
      Abstract: The behavioral approach system (BAS)/reward hypersensitivity theory and the social zeitgeber theory are two biopsychosocial theories of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) that may work together to explain affective dysregulation. The present study examined whether BAS sensitivity is associated with affective symptoms via (a) increased social rhythm disruption in response to BAS-relevant life events or (b) greater exposure to BAS events leading to social rhythm disruption and subsequent symptoms. Results indicated that high BAS individuals were more likely to experience social rhythm disruption following BAS-relevant events. Social rhythm disruption mediated the association between BAS-relevant events and symptoms (Hypothesis a). High BAS individuals experienced significantly more BAS-relevant events, which predicted greater social rhythm disruption, which predicted greater levels of affective symptoms (Hypothesis b). Individuals at risk for BSD may be sensitive to BAS-relevant stimuli, experience more BAS-relevant events, and experience affective dysregulation due to the interplay of the BAS and circadian rhythms.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615603368
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • The Effects of Attachment Priming on Depressed and Anxious Mood
    • Authors: Carnelley, K. B; Otway, L. J, Rowe, A. C.
      Pages: 433 - 450
      Abstract: Correlational evidence links attachment insecurity (attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) to depression and anxiety, but the causal directions of these relationships remain unspecified. Our aim (Study 1, N = 144) was to prime attachment anxiety and avoidance and test causal relationships between these attachment patterns and depressed and anxious mood. Attachment anxious-primed participants reported higher depressed mood than secure-primed participants. Furthermore, avoidant-primed and anxious-primed participants reported higher anxious mood compared with secure-primed participants. In Study 2 (N = 81) we tested the effectiveness of repeatedly priming attachment security (versus a neutral prime), in the laboratory and via texts, on improving depressed and anxious mood. Secure-primed (compared with neutral-primed) participants reported less anxious mood postprime and one day later. Repeated secure-primed (compared with neutral) participants reported marginally less depressed mood postprime and one day later. Discussion considers possible clinical implications for repeated security priming.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615594998
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Spontaneous Eye-Blink Rate as an Index of Reward Responsivity: Validation
           and Links to Bipolar Disorder
    • Authors: Peckham, A. D; Johnson, S. L.
      Pages: 451 - 463
      Abstract: Extensive research supports the role of striatal dopamine in pursuing and responding to reward, and that eye-blink rate is a valid indicator of striatal dopamine. This study tested whether phasic changes in blink rate could provide an index of reward pursuit. This hypothesis was tested in people with bipolar I disorder (BD; a population with aberrations in reward responsivity) and in those without BD. A total of 31 adults with BD and 28 control participants completed a laboratory task involving effort toward monetary reward. Blink rate was recorded using eye tracking at baseline, reward anticipation, and postreward. Those in the BD group completed self-report measures relating to reward and ambition. Results showed that across all participants, blink rates increased from reward anticipation to postreward. In the BD group, reward-relevant measures were strongly correlated with variation in blink rate. These findings provide validation for phasic changes in blink rate as an index of reward response.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615594999
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cognitive Biases in Pathological Health Anxiety: The Contribution of
           Attention, Memory, and Evaluation Processes
    • Pages: 464 - 479
      Abstract: Pathological health anxiety refers to the medically unfounded fear of suffering from a severe illness. Differences in cognitive processes related to attention, memory, and evaluation of health threat have been hypothesized to underlie pathological health anxiety. In no study, however, have researchers systematically and simultaneously assessed different cognitive biases. On the basis of the idea that multiple cognitive biases simultaneously contribute to psychopathology (the combined-cognitive-bias hypothesis), we compared 88 patients with pathological health anxiety, 52 patients with depressive disorder, and 52 healthy participants on their performance in several cognitive tasks involving health-threatening content. Individuals with pathological health anxiety showed a stronger attentional bias to health-threat-related information, more negative explicit (but not implicit) evaluations of health threat, and biased response behavior in light of health threat. The results suggest that stronger bindings between feelings of arousal and health-threatening information in working memory might be crucial for the higher salience of health-threatening contents in pathological health anxiety.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615593474
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Rethinking Suicide Surveillance: Google Search Data and Self-Reported
           Suicidality Differentially Estimate Completed Suicide Risk
    • Authors: Ma-Kellams, C; Or, F, Baek, J. H, Kawachi, I.
      Pages: 480 - 484
      Abstract: Google search data have become an increasingly relied-on source of health information with a dual function as both a facilitative and a preventative resource. We tested the power of Google to predict suicide by comparing searches for explicitly suicidal terms with conventional measures of self-reported suicide risk in estimating completed suicides. In addition, we examined the extent to which discrepancies between Google-based and self-report-based estimates of suicide risk and completed suicide were asymmetrical across social-group lines. Relative to traditional self-reported measures of suicide risk, Google search data better estimated completed suicides. Furthermore, misestimation of suicidal risk was asymmetrical for both measures: Greater misestimation was likely in states with higher percentages of racial minorities and lower levels of socioeconomic status. Google search data can inform suicide-prevention efforts at the state level and suicide surveillance aimed at specific demographic groups.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615593475
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • The Price of Perspective Taking: Child Depressive Symptoms Interact With
           Parental Empathy to Predict Immune Functioning in Parents
    • Authors: Manczak, E. M; Basu, D, Chen, E.
      Pages: 485 - 492
      Abstract: Parental empathy is generally held as a positive characteristic; however, might there be contexts in which parental empathy is actually harmful' The present study examined whether adolescents’ depressive symptoms might have immunologic costs for more empathic parents. A total of 143 parents and their children completed self-report measures of empathy and depressive symptoms, respectively. One year later, production of four proinflammatory cytokines in parents’ blood was measured in response to in vitro exposure to a bacterial product. Significant interactions across all inflammatory markers emerged, such that parents who were higher in empathy showed greater inflammatory cytokine production if their children also reported high levels of depressive symptoms, but lower cytokine production if their children reported low levels of symptoms. Less empathic parents showed the opposite pattern. These results provide support for the hypothesis that parents high in empathy may be especially sensitive physiologically to their children’s psychopathologic symptoms.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615595001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • The Lingering Impact of Resolved PTSD on Subsequent Functioning
    • Authors: Bryant, R. A; McFarlane, A. C, Silove, D, ODonnell, M. L, Forbes, D, Creamer, M.
      Pages: 493 - 498
      Abstract: This study investigated whether impairment persists after posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has resolved. Traumatically injured patients (N = 1,035) were assessed during hospital admission and at 3 (85%) and 12 months (73%). Quality of life prior to traumatic injury was measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life–BREF during hospitalization and at each subsequent assessment. PTSD was assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale at 3 and 12 months. After controlling for preinjury functioning, current pain, and comorbid depression, patients whose PTSD symptoms had resolved by 12 months were more likely to have poorer quality of life in psychological (OR = 3.51), physical (OR = 10.17), social (OR = 4.54), and environmental (OR = 8.83) domains than those who never developed PTSD. These data provide initial evidence that PTSD can result in lingering effects on functional capacity even after remission of symptoms.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615598756
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Editors Introduction to the Series--Dissecting Antisocial Behavior: The
           Impact of Neural, Genetic, and Environmental Factors
    • Authors: Kazdin; A. E.
      Pages: 499 - 499
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616628521
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Dissecting Antisocial Behavior: The Impact of Neural, Genetic, and
           Environmental Factors
    • Authors: Baskin-Sommers; A. R.
      Pages: 500 - 510
      Abstract: Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous construct. The adverse consequences of the behaviors and diagnoses related to this construct produce great burden for the perpetrators, victims, family members, and for society at-large. The articles presented in this special series build on decades of research aimed at identifying various factors across neural, genetic, and environmental levels that contribute to antisocial behavior. However, there are several methodological issues plaguing this research and it often fails to address the specificity of certain factors for subtypes of antisocial behavior. Furthermore, most research on antisocial behavior does not provide a good sense of how combinations of factors produce specific behaviors or how these underlying factors achieve a level of durability (e.g., adaptive constancy) that continually promotes chronic antisocial behavior. The articles in this series take an important step toward disaggregating factors and individuals to develop appropriate assessment techniques, characterizations, intervention strategies, and prevention programs.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615626904
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Neighborhood Disadvantage Alters the Origins of Childrens Nonaggressive
           Conduct Problems
    • Authors: Burt, S. A; Klump, K. L, Gorman-Smith, D, Neiderhiser, J. M.
      Pages: 511 - 526
      Abstract: Neighborhood disadvantage plays a pivotal role in child mental health, including child antisocial behavior (e.g., lying, theft, vandalism; assault, cruelty). Prior studies have indicated that shared environmental influences on youth antisocial behavior increase with increasing disadvantage, but researchers have been unable to confirm that these findings persist once various selection confounds are considered. In the current study, we sought to fill this gap in the literature by examining whether and how neighborhood disadvantage alters the genetic and environmental origins of child antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 2,054 child twins participating in the Michigan State University Twin Registry, half of whom were oversampled to reside in modestly-to-severely impoverished neighborhoods. We made use of an innovative set of nuclear twin family models, thereby allowing us to disambiguate between, and simultaneously estimate, multiple elements of the shared environment as well as genetic influences. Although there was no evidence that the etiology of aggressive antisocial behavior was moderated by neighborhood disadvantage, the etiology of nonaggressive antisocial behavior shifted dramatically with increasing neighborhood disadvantage. Sibling-level shared environmental influences were estimated to be near zero in the wealthiest neighborhoods and increased dramatically in the most impoverished neighborhoods. By contrast, both genetic risk and family-level shared environmental transmission were significantly more influential in middle- and upper-class neighborhoods than in impoverished neighborhoods. Such results collectively highlight the profound role that pervasive neighborhood poverty plays in shaping the etiology of child nonaggressive antisocial behavior. Implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615618164
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Dissecting the Role of Amygdala Reactivity in Antisocial Behavior in a
           Sample of Young, Low-Income, Urban Men
    • Authors: Hyde, L. W; Shaw, D. S, Murray, L, Gard, A, Hariri, A. R, Forbes, E. E.
      Pages: 527 - 544
      Abstract: Neuroimaging has suggested that amygdala reactivity to emotional facial expressions is associated with antisocial behavior (AB), particularly among those high on callous–unemotional (CU) traits. To investigate this association and potential moderators of this relationship, including task/stimuli effects, subregional anatomy of the amygdala, and participant race, we used fMRI in a sample of 167 racially diverse 20-year-old men from low-income families. We found that AB, but not CU traits, was negatively related to amygdala reactivity to fearful faces. This result was specific to fearful faces and strongest in the centromedial subregion of the amygdala. Arrest record was positively related to basolateral amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry faces. Results were strongest among those identified as African American and not present in those identified as European American. Our findings suggest substantial complexity in the relationship between amygdala function and AB reflecting moderating effects of task stimulus, subregional anatomy, and race.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615614511
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Polygenic Risk for Externalizing Psychopathology and Executive Dysfunction
           in Trauma-Exposed Veterans
    • Authors: Sadeh, N; Wolf, E. J, Logue, M. W, Lusk, J, Hayes, J. P, McGlinchey, R. E, Milberg, W. P, Stone, A, Schichman, S. A, Miller, M. W.
      Pages: 545 - 558
      Abstract: The frequent co-occurrence of antisocial behavior and other disinhibited phenotypes reflects a highly heritable externalizing spectrum. We examined the molecular genetic basis of this spectrum by testing polygenic associations with psychopathology symptoms, impulsive traits, and cognitive functions in two samples of primarily military veterans (n = 537, n = 194). We also investigated whether polygenic risk for externalizing moderated the effects of trauma on these phenotypes. As hypothesized, polygenic risk positively predicted externalizing psychopathology and negatively predicted performance on inhibitory control tasks. Gene-by-environment effects were also evident, with trauma exposure predicting greater impulsivity and less working memory capacity, but only at high levels of genetic liability. As expected, polygenic risk was not associated with internalizing psychopathology or episodic memory performance. This is the first independent replication of the polygenic score as a measure of genetic predispositions for externalizing and provides preliminary evidence that executive dysfunction is a heritable vulnerability for externalizing psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615613310
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Selective Mapping of Psychopathy and Externalizing to Dissociable Circuits
           for Inhibitory Self-Control
    • Authors: Rodman, A. M; Kastman, E. K, Dorfman, H. M, Baskin-Sommers, A. R, Kiehl, K. A, Newman, J. P, Buckholtz, J. W.
      Pages: 559 - 571
      Abstract: Antisociality is commonly conceptualized as a unitary construct, but there is considerable evidence for multidimensionality. In particular, two partially dissociable symptom clusters—psychopathy and externalizing—have divergent associations to clinical and forensic outcomes and are linked to unique patterns executive dysfunction. Here, we used fMRI in a sample of incarcerated offenders to map these dimensions of antisocial behavior to brain circuits underlying two aspects of inhibitory self-control: interference suppression and response inhibition. We found that psychopathy and externalizing are characterized by unique and task-selective patterns of dysfunction. Although higher levels of psychopathy predicted increased activity within a distributed frontoparietal network for interference suppression, externalizing did not predict brain activity during attentional control. By contrast, each dimension had opposite associations to frontoparietal activity during response inhibition. These findings provide neurobiological evidence supporting the fractionation of antisocial behavior and identify dissociable mechanisms through which different facets predispose dysfunction and impairment.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616631495
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Identifying Essential Features of Juvenile Psychopathy in the Prediction
           of Later Antisocial Behavior: Is There an Additive, Synergistic, or
           Curvilinear Role for Fearless Dominance'
    • Authors: Vize, C. E; Lynam, D. R, Lamkin, J, Miller, J. D, Pardini, D.
      Pages: 572 - 590
      Abstract: Despite years of research and the inclusion of psychopathy in DSM-5, there remains debate over the fundamental components of psychopathy. Although there is agreement about traits related to agreeableness and conscientiousness, there is less agreement about traits related to fearless dominance (FD) or boldness. The present article uses proxies of FD and self-centered impulsivity (SCI) to examine the contribution of FD-related traits to the predictive utility of psychopathy in a large, longitudinal sample of boys to test four possibilities: FD (a) assessed earlier is a risk factor, (b) interacts with other risk-related variables to predict later psychopathy, (c) interacts with SCI interact to predict outcomes, and (d) bears curvilinear relations to outcomes. SCI received excellent support as a measure of psychopathy in adolescence; however, FD was unrelated to criteria in all tests. It is suggested that FD be dropped from psychopathy and that future research focus on agreeableness and conscientiousness.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12T21:00:27-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615622384
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
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