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Journal Cover Clinical Psychological Science
  [SJR: 3.112]   [H-I: 14]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [852 journals]
  • Beyond Mental Illness: Targeting Stronger and More Direct Pathways to
    • Authors: Elbogen, E. B; Dennis, P. A, Johnson, S. C.
      Pages: 747 - 759
      Abstract: The association between violence and serious mental illness (SMI)—schizophrenia, other psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder—was examined and guided by the I3 model to frame analysis of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2, enrolling N = 34,653 participants representative of the U.S. population. SMI was related to subsequent violent behavior but in multivariable analysis had the weakest link to severe violence. Risk factors postulated to increase dispositional impellance (anger, perceived threats), situational impellance (recent divorce/separation, financial crisis, victimization), and disinhibition (alcohol/drug abuse) fully mediated the relationship between SMI and violence. Clinical research, interventions, and policies on violence should use conceptual models and consider SMI not in isolation but relative to other risk factors. Violence prevention targeting only psychiatric diagnosis is likely to have limited impact given lack of a strong or direct connection found between SMI and violent behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615619363
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Striatal Dopamine, Externalizing Proneness, and Substance Abuse: Effects
           on Wanting and Learning During Reward-Based Decision Making
    • Authors: Byrne, K. A; Patrick, C. J, Worthy, D. A.
      Pages: 760 - 774
      Abstract: We examined whether striatal dopamine moderates the impact of externalizing proneness (disinhibition) on reward-based decision making. Participants completed disinhibition and substance abuse subscales of the brief form Externalizing Spectrum Inventory and then performed a delay discounting task to assess preference for immediate rewards along with a dynamic decision making task that assessed long-term reward learning (i.e., inclination to choose larger delayed versus smaller immediate rewards). Striatal tonic dopamine levels were operationalized using spontaneous eyeblink rate. Regression analyses revealed that high disinhibition predicted greater delay discounting among participants with lower levels of striatal dopamine only, whereas substance abuse was associated with poorer long-term learning among individuals with lower levels of striatal dopamine, but better long-term learning in those with higher levels of striatal dopamine. These results suggest that disinhibition is more strongly associated with the wanting component of reward-based decision making, whereas substance abuse behavior is associated more with learning of long-term action-reward contingencies.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615618163
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Alcohol Craving and Consumption in Borderline Personality Disorder: When,
           Where, and With Whom
    • Authors: Lane, S. P; Carpenter, R. W, Sher, K. J, Trull, T. J.
      Pages: 775 - 792
      Abstract: Substance use is highly prevalent in our society, and substance use disorders are comorbid with most psychiatric disorders, including borderline personality disorder (BPD). Craving is a fundamental feature of addiction and disorder, yet the contexts in which craving occurs and is associated with substance use is still underresearched. We examined alcohol craving and consumption in a sample of 56 BPD individuals and a comparison group of community drinkers (COM; n = 60) who carried electronic diaries for approximately 21 days. BPD individuals reported more craving than COM individuals in most contexts. Compared with COM individuals, elevated craving in BPD individuals was paralleled by more drinking when at work, at home, and with romantic partners, coworkers, and children. These findings identify contexts of particular relevance to those with BPD and other mood/anxiety disorders in which craving may lead to risky and maladaptive alcohol use.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615616132
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Engaging With the Wrong People: The Basis of Selective Attention to
           Negative Faces in Social Anxiety
    • Authors: Grafton, B; MacLeod, C.
      Pages: 793 - 804
      Abstract: Previous studies investigating the hypothesis that elevated social anxiety vulnerability is characterized by an attentional bias to negative social information have yielded inconsistent findings. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that most such studies have failed to distinguish bias in attentional engagement with, and in attentional disengagement from, negative social information. It has been proposed that only one of these two possible forms of attentional bias may be associated with elevated social anxiety vulnerability, potentially giving rise to observed inconsistencies when assessment approaches have failed to dissociate them. The few studies that have sought to investigate this issue have been hampered by methodological limitations, which have compromised their capacity to differentially assess these two facets of attentional selectivity. In the present study, we employed a recently developed variant of the attentional-probe task that has proven capable of dissociating attentional engagement bias and disengagement bias, to contrast the patterns of attentional selectivity shown by participants high and low in social anxiety. Our findings reveal that elevated social anxiety vulnerability is characterized only by facilitated attentional engagement with socially negative information and not by impaired attentional disengagement from socially negative information.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615616344
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Testing a Hierarchical Model of Neuroticism and Its Cognitive Facets:
           Latent Structure and Prospective Prediction of First Onsets of Anxiety and
           Unipolar Mood Disorders During 3 Years in Late Adolescence
    • Authors: Zinbarg, R. E; Mineka, S, Bobova, L, Craske, M. G, Vrshek-Schallhorn, S, Griffith, J. W, Wolitzky-Taylor, K, Waters, A. M, Sumner, J. A, Anand, D.
      Pages: 805 - 824
      Abstract: Neuroticism and several other traits have been proposed to confer vulnerability for unipolar mood disorders (UMDs) and anxiety disorders (ADs). However, it is unclear whether the associations of these vulnerabilities with these disorders are attributable to a latent variable common to all vulnerabilities, more narrow latent variables, or both. In addition, some researchers have suggested that neuroticism predicts UMDs, ADs, and substance use disorders (SUDs) with comparable strength, whereas other researchers have hypothesized that neuroticism is more strongly related to UMDs and ADs. We tested hypotheses about the factor structure of several vulnerabilities and the prospective associations of these latent variables with initial onsets of UMDs, ADs, and SUDs during a 3-year period in 547 participants recruited as high school juniors. Although a general neuroticism factor predicted SUDs, it predicted UMDs and ADs more strongly and especially predicted comorbid UMDs and ADs. There was also mixed support for specific associations involving more narrow latent vulnerabilities.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615618162
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Major Depression With Seasonal Variation: Is It a Valid Construct'
    • Authors: Traffanstedt, M. K; Mehta, S, LoBello, S. G.
      Pages: 825 - 834
      Abstract: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is based on the theory that some depressions occur seasonally in response to reduced sunlight. SAD has attracted cultural and research attention for more than 30 years and influenced the DSM through inclusion of the seasonal variation modifier for the major depression diagnosis. This study was designed to determine if a seasonally related pattern of occurrence of major depression could be demonstrated in a population-based study. A cross-sectional U.S. survey of adults completed the Patient Health Questionnaire–8 Depression Scale. Regression models were used to determine if depression was related to measures of sunlight exposure. Depression was unrelated to latitude, season, or sunlight. Results do not support the validity of a seasonal modifier in major depression. The idea of seasonal depression may be strongly rooted in folk psychology, but it is not supported by objective data. Consideration should be given to discontinuing seasonal variation as a diagnostic modifier of major depression.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615615867
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Spontaneous Thought and Vulnerability to Mood Disorders: The Dark Side of
           the Wandering Mind
    • Authors: Marchetti, I; Koster, E. H. W, Klinger, E, Alloy, L. B.
      Pages: 835 - 857
      Abstract: There is increasing interest in spontaneous thought, namely task-unrelated or rest-related mental activity. Spontaneous thought is an umbrella term for processes like mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, and daydreaming, with evidence elucidating adaptive and maladaptive consequences. In this theoretical framework, we propose that, apart from its positive functions, spontaneous thought is a precursor for cognitive vulnerability in individuals who are at risk for mood disorders. It is important that spontaneous thought mostly focuses on unattained goals and evaluates the discrepancy between current and desired status. In individuals who stably (i.e., trait negative affectivity) or transitorily (i.e., stress) experience negative emotions in reaction to goal-discrepancy, spontaneous thought fosters major cognitive vulnerabilities (e.g., rumination, hopelessness, low self-esteem, and cognitive reactivity), which, in turn, enhance depression. Furthermore, we also highlight preliminary links between spontaneous thought and bipolar disorder. The evidence for this framework is reviewed, and we discuss theoretical and clinical implications of our proposal.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702615622383
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Editors Introduction to the Series--From Menarche to Menopause: Womens
           Reproductive Milestones and Risk for Psychopathology
    • Authors: Kazdin; A. E.
      Pages: 858 - 858
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616650425
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • From Menarche to Menopause: Womens Reproductive Milestones and Risk for
           Psychopathology--An Introduction to the Special Series
    • Authors: Mendle, J; Eisenlohr-Moul, T, Kiesner, J.
      Pages: 859 - 866
      Abstract: Beginning at puberty, prevalence of psychopathology in females changes as their reproductive lives change. Numerous studies show steep increases in psychological problems when girls reach puberty, including spikes in depression, anxiety, aggression, delinquency, self-injurious behavior, suicidality, substance use, disordered eating, school failure, and interpersonal conflict. Clinical symptoms continue to be linked with reproductive events across women’s lives (e.g., the menstrual cycle, childbirth) and drop noticeably after menopause. These patterns are present cross-culturally and documented in numerous Western, industrialized countries, as well as the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Despite this, very few psychological scientists consider the interplay of reproductive change and mental health. In this introduction to the special series, we present a brief discussion of the associations between reproductive change and psychological symptoms, explore the underrepresentation of research on this topic within psychological science, and highlight recent developments in this field.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616650424
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Pubertal Development, Emotion Regulatory Styles, and the Emergence of Sex
           Differences in Internalizing Disorders and Symptoms in Adolescence
    • Authors: Alloy, L. B; Hamilton, J. L, Hamlat, E. J, Abramson, L. Y.
      Pages: 867 - 881
      Abstract: Adolescence marks the emergence of sex differences in internalizing symptoms and disorders, with girls at increased risk for depression and anxiety during the pubertal transition. However, the mechanisms through which puberty confers risk for internalizing psychopathology for girls, but not boys, remain unclear. We examined two pubertal indicators (pubertal status and timing) as predictors of the development of emotion regulation styles (rumination and emotional clarity) and depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in a three-wave study of 314 adolescents. Path analyses indicated that early pubertal timing, but not pubertal status, predicted increased rumination, but not decreased emotional clarity, in adolescent girls, but not boys. Additionally, rumination mediated the association between early pubertal timing and increased depressive, but not anxiety, symptoms and disorder onset among adolescent girls. These findings suggest that the sex difference in depression may result partly from early maturing girls’ greater tendency to develop ruminative styles than boys.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616643008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Cyclical Symptom Change Across the Menstrual Cycle: Attributional,
           Affective, and Physical Symptoms
    • Authors: Kiesner, J; Mendle, J, Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A, Pastore, M.
      Pages: 882 - 894
      Abstract: Although menstrual cycle-related changes in psychological and physical symptoms have been the focus of study for decades, important gaps remain in our understanding of these changes. In the present study we test for individual differences and covariations in cyclical changes across diverse symptom domains, including physical symptoms, affective disturbances, and attributional style. Using prospective daily reports across two full menstrual cycles from n = 163 young adult women (M = 19.54 years), the present study applies a combination of within-person analyses (cosine function regressions) and structural equation modeling to examine individual differences, factor structure, and symptom-specific associations. Results suggest that (a) individual differences in cyclical change are consistently significant and relatively more important than average levels of change, (b) cyclical change across diverse symptom types are best modeled as separate but correlated factors, and (c) future research should also consider attributional style, along with cyclical changes in affective and physical symptoms.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616635031
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Differential Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone on Genetic and
           Environmental Risk for Emotional Eating in Women
    • Authors: Klump, K. L; OConnor, S. M, Hildebrandt, B. A, Keel, P. K, Neale, M, Sisk, C. L, Boker, S, Alexandra Burt, S.
      Pages: 895 - 908
      Abstract: Recent data show shifts in genetic and environmental influences on emotional eating across the menstrual cycle, with significant shared environmental influences during pre-ovulation and primarily genetic effects during post-ovulation. Factors driving differential effects are unknown, although increased estradiol during pre-ovulation and increased progesterone during post-ovulation are thought to play a role. We indirectly investigated this possibility by examining whether overall levels of estradiol and progesterone differentially impact genetic and environmental risk for emotional eating in adult female twins (N = 571) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Emotional eating, estradiol levels, and progesterone levels were assessed daily and then averaged to create aggregate measures for analysis. As predicted, shared environmental influences were significantly greater in twins with high estradiol levels, whereas additive genetic effects increased substantially across low versus high progesterone groups. Results highlight significant and differential effects of ovarian hormones on etiologic risk for emotional eating in adulthood.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616641637
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Postpartum Depressive Symptoms Following Consecutive Pregnancies:
           Stability, Change, and Mechanisms
    • Authors: Dunkel Schetter, C; Saxbe, D. E, Cheadle, A. C. D, Guardino, C. M.
      Pages: 909 - 918
      Abstract: Postpartum depression is a major mental health issue for women and society. We examined stability and change in symptoms of depression over two consecutive pregnancies and tested life stress as a potential mechanism. The Community Child Health Network followed an ethnically/racially diverse sample from 1 month after a birth for 2 years. A subset of 228 women had a second birth. Interview measures of depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and life stress (life events, perceived stress, chronic stress, interpersonal aggression) were obtained during home visits. Three-quarters of the sample showed intraindividual stability in depressive symptoms from one postpartum period to the next, and 24% of the sample had clinically significant symptoms after at least one pregnancy (9% first, 7.5% second, 3.5% both). Each of the four life stressors significantly mediated the association between depressive symptoms across two postpartum periods. Stress between pregnancies for women may be an important mechanism perpetuating postpartum depression.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616644894
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
  • Naturally Occurring Changes in Estradiol Concentrations in the Menopause
           Transition Predict Morning Cortisol and Negative Mood in Perimenopausal
    • Authors: Gordon, J. L; Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A, Rubinow, D. R, Schrubbe, L, Girdler, S. S.
      Pages: 919 - 935
      Abstract: Risk of depression increases considerably during the menopause transition (or perimenopause)—the 5 to 6 years surrounding the last menstrual period. Although the mechanisms underlying this increased risk are unknown, we have hypothesized that excessive estradiol (E2) fluctuation, which accompanies the perimenopause, may be implicated. We have furthermore proposed that dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis may underlie E2 fluctuation’s effect on mood. This study examined the relationship between weekly changes in salivary E2, salivary cortisol levels, and weekly mood in 30 perimenopausal women recruited to achieve equal numbers of women with current depression, past depression, and no history of depression. Greater weekly increases in E2 were associated with increased cortisol among past and currently depressed women; greater E2 increases were also associated with negative mood among currently depressed women. These findings provide evidence that HPA axis dysregulation, correlated with E2 fluctuation, may be implicated in the pathophysiology of perimenopausal depression.
      PubDate: 2016-09-25T21:00:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702616647924
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 5 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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