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Journal Cover Clinical Psychological Science
   [7 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [737 journals]
  • Refining the Candidate Environment: Interpersonal Stress, the Serotonin
           Transporter Polymorphism, and Gene-Environment Interactions in Major
    • Authors: Vrshek-Schallhorn, S; Mineka, S, Zinbarg, R. E, Craske, M. G, Griffith, J. W, Sutton, J, Redei, E. E, Wolitzky-Taylor, K, Hammen, C, Adam, E. K.
      Pages: 235 - 248
      Abstract: Meta-analytic evidence has supported a gene-environment interaction between life stress and the serotonin transporter–linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on depression, but few studies have examined factors that influence detection of this effect, despite years of inconsistent results. We propose that the candidate environment (akin to a candidate gene) is key. Theory and evidence have implicated major stressful life events (SLEs)—particularly major interpersonal SLEs—as well as chronic family stress. A total of 400 participants from the Youth Emotion Project (which began with 627 high school juniors oversampled for high neuroticism) completed up to five annual diagnostic and stress interviews and provided DNA samples. A significant gene-environment effect for major SLEs and S-carrier genotype was accounted for significantly by major interpersonal SLEs but not significantly by major noninterpersonal SLEs. S-carrier genotype and chronic family stress also significantly interacted. Identifying such candidate environments may facilitate future gene-environment research in depression and psychopathology more broadly.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:35-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613499329|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613499329
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Marital Dissolution and Major Depression in Midlife: A Propensity Score
    • Authors: Sbarra, D. A; Emery, R. E, Beam, C. R, Ocker, B. L.
      Pages: 249 - 257
      Abstract: Marital dissolution is commonly assumed to cause increased depression among adults, but causality can be questioned based on directionality and third-variable concerns. The present study improves on past research by using a propensity score matching algorithm to identify a subsample of continuously married participants equivalent in divorce risk to participants who actually experienced separation/divorce between two waves of the nationally representative Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. After correcting for participants’ propensity to separate/divorce, we observed increased rates of depression at the second MIDUS assessment only among participants who (a) were depressed at the initial MIDUS assessment and (b) experienced a separation/divorce. Participants who were not depressed at the initial assessment but who experienced a separation/divorce were not at increased risk for a later major depressive disorder. Thus, both social selection and social causation contribute to the increased risk for a major depressive disorder found among separated/divorced adults.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613498727|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613498727
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • The Geography of Intimate Partner Abuse Experiences and Clinical Responses
    • Authors: DePrince, A. P; Buckingham, S. E, Belknap, J.
      Pages: 258 - 271
      Abstract: Existing intimate partner abuse (IPA) research has focused on individual differences that affect women’s risk of exposure and posttraumatic symptoms with little consideration of the influence of proximal environments. In this study, we examine links between geographic context and characteristics of clinical reactions to IPA. We used raster analyses, which address methodological limitations in many geographic information system studies in the social sciences (e.g., reliance on arbitrary boundaries), to examine links between proximal environments and women’s (N = 192) reports of IPA characteristics, posttraumatic symptoms, and social support. Psychological-aggression severity varied spatially, which suggests that communities differ in tolerance of this form of IPA. Observed links between spatial characteristics, posttraumatic stress disorder/depression symptom severity, and social support were consistent with the so-called Latino paradox. Women living in areas with greater concentrations of Latinos reported less severe clinical symptoms and greater social support. Living in Latino communities was advantageous in terms of lower depression symptoms regardless of women’s own ethnic group membership.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613507556|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613507556
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Parenting During Early Adolescence and Adolescent-Onset Major Depression:
           A 6-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Schwartz, O. S; Byrne, M. L, Simmons, J. G, Whittle, S, Dudgeon, P, Yap, M. B. H, Sheeber, L. B, Allen, N. B.
      Pages: 272 - 286
      Abstract: In this study, we investigated the prospective relationship between maternal behaviors observed during mother-adolescent interactions and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) between early and late adolescence (ages 12–18). Maternal expressions of emotion and maternal responses to their child’s expressions of emotion were both examined. Results demonstrated that higher rates of maternal aggressive behavior and lower rates of maternal positive behavior prospectively predicted MDD onset across adolescence. In addition, negative (i.e., aggressive and dysphoric) maternal responses to adolescents’ aggressive and positive behaviors predicted MDD onset. Maternal dysphoric behavior and the way mothers respond to adolescents’ dysphoria were not related to MDD onset. These results extend previous findings on the relationship between parenting behaviors and depression onset in early to midadolescence and suggest that maternal emotion socialization behaviors in early adolescence prospectively predict MDD onset across the entire course of adolescence.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613505531|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613505531
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Childhood Poverty, Cumulative Risk Exposure, and Mental Health in Emerging
    • Authors: Evans, G. W; Cassells, R. C.
      Pages: 287 - 296
      Abstract: One out of four American children is born into poverty, but little is known about the long-term mental health implications of early deprivation. The more time in poverty from birth to age 9, the worse mental health is for these individuals as emerging adults (n = 196, M = 17.30 years, 53% male). These results maintained independently of concurrent, adult income levels for self-reported externalizing symptoms and a standard learned helplessness behavioral protocol, but internalizing symptoms were unaffected by childhood poverty. We then demonstrate that part of the reason why early poverty exposure is harmful to mental health among emerging adults is because of elevated cumulative risk exposure assessed at age 13. The significant prospective longitudinal relations between early childhood poverty and externalizing symptoms plus learned helplessness behavior are mediated, in part, by exposure to a confluence of psychosocial (violence, family turmoil, child separation from family) and physical (noise, crowding, substandard housing) risk factors during adolescence.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613501496|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613501496
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Nonsuicidal Self-Injury, Pain, and Self-Criticism: Does Changing
    • Authors: Hooley, J. M; St. Germain, S. A.
      Pages: 297 - 305
      Abstract: People who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) endure physical pain for longer periods than do noninjuring individuals. Pain endurance is also predicted by the presence of highly self-critical beliefs. We tested the hypothesis that changing beliefs about the self would change pain endurance in NSSI individuals. NSSI (n = 50) and control (n = 84) participants were randomly assigned to hear positive music, to receive a brief cognitive intervention designed to improve feelings of personal self-worth, or to a neutral condition. Pain endurance was measured before and after the experimental manipulations. As predicted, there was a significant Group x Condition x Time interaction. After the cognitive intervention, NSSI participants showed a 69-s decrease in pain endurance compared with a 9-s decrease for control participants. For NSSI participants, improvement in self-worth was also significantly correlated with decreased willingness to endure pain. Cognitive approaches that focus on self-worth may provide a new treatment direction for NSSI.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613509372|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613509372
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Recent and Frequent Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Is Associated With Diminished
           Implicit and Explicit Aversion Toward Self-Cutting Stimuli
    • Authors: Franklin, J. C; Lee, K. M, Puzia, M. E, Prinstein, M. J.
      Pages: 306 - 318
      Abstract: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that an instinctive barrier to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI)—the aversion to self-cutting stimuli—is diminished in people who engage in NSSI. In a sample of 86 noninjurers and 58 people with a history of self-cutting, we found that NSSI was associated with substantially reduced aversion to self-cutting stimuli across measures of both implicit (d = 0.61) and explicit (d = 0.93) affect even after controlling for emotion reactivity and dysregulation. This diminished aversion primarily applied to individuals who had engaged in NSSI within the past year or who had 10 or more lifetime episodes of self-cutting (ds = 0.87–1.23). Implicit identification with NSSI also significantly distinguished between groups (d = 0.67) but was not correlated with affective measures or NSSI recency/frequency. Although previous work has shown that the affective benefits of NSSI are natural and universal, these findings suggest that diminished instinctive barriers to NSSI may be specific NSSI risk factors that can be targeted in novel interventions.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613503140|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613503140
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Central Executive Dysfunction and Deferred Prefrontal Processing in
           Veterans With Gulf War Illness
    • Authors: Hubbard, N. A; Hutchison, J. L, Motes, M. A, Shokri-Kojori, E, Bennett, I. J, Brigante, R. M, Haley, R. W, Rypma, B.
      Pages: 319 - 327
      Abstract: Gulf War Illness is associated with toxic exposure to cholinergic-disruptive chemicals. The cholinergic system has been shown to mediate the central executive of working memory. In the current work, we propose that impairment of the cholinergic system in Gulf War Illness patients (GWIPs) leads to behavioral and neural deficits of the central executive of working memory. A large sample of GWIPs and matched control participants underwent functional MRI during a varied-load working memory task. Compared with matched control participants, GWIPs showed a greater decline in performance as working memory demand increased. Functional imaging results suggested that GWIPs evinced separate processing strategies, deferring prefrontal cortex activity from encoding to retrieval for high-demand conditions. Greater activity during high-demand encoding predicted greater working memory performance. Behavioral data suggest that working memory executive strategies are impaired in GWIPs. Functional data further support this hypothesis and suggest that GWIPs use less effective strategies during high-demand working memory.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613506580|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613506580
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Impaired Decision Making in Alzheimer's Disease: A Deficit of Cognitive
           Strategy Selection'
    • Authors: Hot, P; Ramdeen, K. T, Borg, C, Bollon, T, Couturier, P.
      Pages: 328 - 335
      Abstract: To assess whether the decline of decision-making processes in people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is explained by the use of an inappropriate analytic strategy induced by their high level of uncertainty about their ability, we used happiness induction to activate an appropriate heuristic processing of information. Healthy older adults and AD patients performed the Iowa Gambling Task either in a standard condition or after viewing a funny film clip. Although AD patients had impaired performances in the standard condition, the happiness condition significantly increased AD patient performance level compared with that of the control subgroups. Additional analyses showed that uncertainty levels were reduced in happy AD patients and that performances in the Iowa Gambling Task were not due to impairment in executive or memory functions. We suggest that higher uncertainty levels in patients with mild AD, which induce an inappropriate analytic strategy, can be reduced through emotional remediation techniques.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613504094|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613504094
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Avoided by Association: Acquisition, Extinction, and Renewal of Avoidance
           Tendencies Toward Conditioned Fear Stimuli
    • Authors: Krypotos, A.-M; Effting, M, Arnaudova, I, Kindt, M, Beckers, T.
      Pages: 336 - 343
      Abstract: Traditional theoretical models hold that avoidance reflects the interplay of Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Here we suggest that avoidance tendencies to intrinsically neutral cues may be established by mere Pavlovian association. Following fear conditioning, in which pictures of one object were paired with shock (CS+) whereas pictures of another object were not (CS–), CS+ pictures facilitated avoidance reactions and interfered with approach responses, relative to CS– pictures, in a symbolic approach/avoidance reaction time task. This was achieved without any instrumental relation between responses and CS continuation or unconditioned stimulus presentation. Moreover, those avoidance tendencies were sensitive to Pavlovian extinction (they were reduced after repeated presentations of the CS+ without shock) and renewal (recovery of conditioned responding upon returning to the initial conditioning context after extinction in a different context). The present results may help us understand the self-perpetuating nature of pathological fear and anxiety.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613503139|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613503139
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • The Nature, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Neuroticism: Back to the Future
    • Authors: Barlow, D. H; Sauer-Zavala, S, Carl, J. R, Bullis, J. R, Ellard, K. K.
      Pages: 344 - 365
      Abstract: We highlight the role of neuroticism in the development and course of emotional disorders and make a case for shifting the focus of intervention to this higher-order dimension of personality. Recent decades have seen great emphasis placed on differentiating disorders into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses; however, evidence has suggested that splitting disorders into such fine categories may be highlighting relatively trivial differences. Emerging research on the latent structure of anxiety and mood disorders has indicated that trait neuroticism, cultivated through genetic, neurobiological, and psychological factors, underscores the development of these disorders. We raise the possibility of a new approach for conceptualizing these disorders—as emotional disorders. From a service-delivery point of view, we explore the possibility that neuroticism may be more malleable than previously thought and may possibly be amenable to direct intervention. The public-health implications of directly treating and even preventing the development of neuroticism would be substantial.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T21:00:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613505532|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613505532
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
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