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Journal Cover Clinical Psychological Science
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 2167-7026 - ISSN (Online) 2167-7034
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [739 journals]
  • A Behavior Genetic Analysis of Pleasant Events, Depressive Symptoms, and
           Their Covariation
    • Authors: Whisman, M. A; Johnson, D. P, Rhee, S. H.
      Pages: 535 - 544
      Abstract: Although pleasant events figure prominently in behavioral models of depression, little is known regarding characteristics that may predispose people to engage in pleasant events and derive pleasure from these events. The present study was conducted to evaluate genetic and environmental influences on the experience of pleasant events, depressive symptoms, and their covariation in a sample of 148 twin pairs. A multivariate twin modeling approach was used to examine the genetic and environmental covariance of pleasant events and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that the experience of pleasant events was moderately heritable and that the same genetic factors influence both the experience of pleasant events and depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that genetic factors may give rise to dispositional tendencies to experience both pleasant events and depression.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613512793|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613512793
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
  • Influences of Ovarian Hormones on Dysregulated Eating: A Comparison of
           Associations in Women With Versus Women Without Binge Episodes
    • Authors: Klump, K. L; Racine, S. E, Hildebrandt, B, Burt, S. A, Neale, M, Sisk, C. L, Boker, S, Keel, P. K.
      Pages: 545 - 559
      Abstract: Changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in emotional eating across the menstrual cycle. However, in prior studies, researchers have not examined whether the nature of associations varies across dysregulated-eating severity. In the current study, we determined whether the strength or nature of hormone/dysregulated-eating associations differ on the basis of the presence of clinically diagnosed binge episodes (BEs). Participants included 28 women with BEs and 417 women without BEs who provided salivary hormone samples, ratings of emotional eating, and BE frequency for 45 days. Results revealed stronger associations between dysregulated eating and ovarian hormones in women with BEs relative to women without BEs. The nature of associations also differed, as progesterone moderated the effects of lower estradiol levels on dysregulated eating in women with BEs only. Although hormone/dysregulated-eating associations are present across the spectrum of pathology, the nature of associations may vary in ways that have implications for etiological models and treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614521794|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614521794
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
  • Specificity of Implicit-Shame Associations: Comparison Across Body
           Dysmorphic, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Social Anxiety Disorders
    • Authors: Clerkin, E. M; Teachman, B. A, Smith, A. R, Buhlmann, U.
      Pages: 560 - 575
      Abstract: In this study, we investigated the specificity of implicit-shame associations across individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (n = 30), obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 30), and social anxiety disorder (n = 29) and individuals in a mentally healthy control group (n = 33). All participants completed a series of Implicit Association Tests that tapped into shame associated with each disorder. Planned contrasts indicated that compared with individuals in the other groups, individuals in the body dysmorphic disorder group had greater body-relevant implicit shame and those in the obsessive-compulsive disorder group had greater implicit shame tied to obsessive thoughts. The social anxiety disorder group did not differ significantly from the other groups on implicit performance-relevant shame, although in comparison with the other clinical groups, means were in the expected direction. Our comparative design adds to existing cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of body dysmorphic, obsessive-compulsive, and social anxiety disorders that have traditionally focused on strategic forms of cognition within a single disorder.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614524944|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614524944
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
  • Mental Health on the Go: Effects of a Gamified Attention-Bias Modification
           Mobile Application in Trait-Anxious Adults
    • Authors: Dennis, T. A; O'Toole, L. J.
      Pages: 576 - 590
      Abstract: Interest in the use of mobile technology to deliver mental-health services has grown in light of the economic and practical barriers to treatment. Yet research on alternative delivery strategies that are more affordable, accessible, and engaging is in its infancy. Attention-bias modification training (ABMT) has the potential to reduce treatment barriers as a mobile intervention for stress and anxiety, but the degree to which ABMT can be embedded in a mobile gaming format and its potential for transfer of benefits is unknown. In the present study, we examined effects of a gamified ABMT mobile application in highly trait-anxious participants (N = 78). A single session of the active training relative to the placebo training reduced subjective anxiety and observed stress reactivity. Critically, the long (45 min) but not the short (25 min) active training condition reduced the core cognitive process implicated in ABMT (threat bias) as measured by an untrained, gold-standard protocol.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614522228|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614522228
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
  • Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in
           African American and Caucasian Men's Antisocial Behavior
    • Authors: Choe, D. E; Shaw, D. S, Hyde, L. W, Forbes, E. E.
      Pages: 591 - 601
      Abstract: Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys’ antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social context longitudinally across 20 years, those men with the low activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at ages 1.5, 2, and 5 years showed more antisocial behavior from ages 15 through 20 years. Effects of punitive discipline on antisocial behavior differed by caregiver and age at which it occurred, suggesting sensitive periods throughout early childhood in which low MAOA activity elevated boys’ vulnerability to harsh parenting and risk for antisocial behavior. This genetic vulnerability to punitive discipline—and not just extreme, maltreatment experiences—may generalize to other male populations at risk for antisocial behavior.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613518046|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613518046
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
  • Solitary Alcohol Use in Teens Is Associated With Drinking in Response to
           Negative Affect and Predicts Alcohol Problems in Young Adulthood
    • Authors: Creswell, K. G; Chung, T, Clark, D. B, Martin, C. S.
      Pages: 602 - 610
      Abstract: Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether solitary drinking in adolescence (ages 12–18) predicted alcohol-use disorders in young adulthood (age 25) in 466 alcohol-using teens recruited from clinical programs and 243 alcohol-using teens recruited from the community. Findings showed that solitary drinking was associated with drinking in response to negative affect during adolescence and predicted alcohol problems in young adulthood. Results indicate that drinking alone is an important type of alcohol-use behavior that increases risk for the escalation of alcohol use and the development of alcohol problems.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613512795|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613512795
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
  • Common Prefrontal Regions Activate During Self-Control of Craving,
           Emotion, and Motor Impulses in Smokers
    • Authors: Tabibnia, G; Creswell, J. D, Kraynak, T. E, Westbrook, C, Julson, E, Tindle, H. A.
      Pages: 611 - 619
      Abstract: It has been posited that self-regulation of behaviors, emotions, and temptations may rely on a common resource. Recent reviews have suggested that this common resource may include the inferior frontal cortex. However, to our knowledge, no single functional neuroimaging study has investigated this hypothesis. We obtained functional MRI scans of 25 abstinent, treatment-seeking cigarette smokers as they completed motor, affective, and craving self-control tasks before smoking-cessation treatment. We identified two regions in the left inferior frontal cortex and a region in the presupplementary motor area that were commonly activated in all three tasks. Furthermore, psychophysiological-interaction analyses suggested that the inferior frontal cortex may involve dissociable pathways in each self-control domain. Specifically, the inferior frontal cortex showed negative functional connectivity with large portions of the thalamus and precentral gyrus during motor stopping, with the insula and other portions of the thalamus during craving regulation, and, potentially, with a small limbic region during emotion regulation. We discuss implications for understanding self-control mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614522037|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614522037
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
  • Learning and Memory Consolidation Processes of Attention-Bias Modification
           in Anxious and Nonanxious Individuals
    • Authors: Abend, R; Pine, D. S, Fox, N. A, Bar-Haim, Y.
      Pages: 620 - 627
      Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that attention-bias-modification (ABM) procedures may reduce anxiety via computerized attention-training tasks. However, the mechanisms underlying the modification of attention patterns in anxiety remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared anxious and nonanxious participants in terms of learning and memory consolidation effects associated with training to attend either toward or away from threat. When trained to attend away from threat, the primary training condition in ABM treatment, anxious participants demonstrated impaired within-session learning. In contrast, consolidation of threat-related learning did not vary as a function of anxiety. These findings suggest that anxious participants have a selective difficulty in altering their threat-related attention patterns during ABM. This specific deficit could explain inconsistent findings in the ABM research base, as well as elucidate potential targets for optimizing ABM protocols in the treatment of anxiety.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614526571|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614526571
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
  • Environmental and Genetic Influences on Neurocognitive Development: The
           Importance of Multiple Methodologies and Time-Dependent Intervention
    • Authors: Karmiloff-Smith, A; Casey, B. J, Massand, E, Tomalski, P, Thomas, M. S. C.
      Pages: 628 - 637
      Abstract: Genetic mutations and environmental factors dynamically influence gene expression and developmental trajectories at the neural, cognitive, and behavioral levels. The examples in this article cover different periods of neurocognitive development—early childhood, adolescence, and adulthood—and focus on studies in which researchers have used a variety of methodologies to illustrate the early effects of socioeconomic status and stress on brain function, as well as how allelic differences explain why some individuals respond to intervention and others do not. These studies highlight how similar behaviors can be driven by different underlying neural processes and show how a neurocomputational model of early development can account for neurodevelopmental syndromes, such as autism spectrum disorders, with novel implications for intervention. Finally, these studies illustrate the importance of the timing of environmental and genetic factors on development, consistent with our view that phenotypes are emergent, not predetermined.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702614521188|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702614521188
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
  • The Four-Function Model of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Key Directions for
           Future Research
    • Authors: Bentley, K. H; Nock, M. K, Barlow, D. H.
      Pages: 638 - 656
      Abstract: Nonsuicidal self-injury is receiving increasing attention in empirical and clinical realms. Indeed, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders designated nonsuicidal self-injury as a condition that requires further study, which signals possible future official adoption. Despite growing interest in this perplexing phenomenon, much remains unknown about why nonsuicidal self-injury occurs, including fundamental features of its etiology and underlying mechanisms. In addition, no evidence-based interventions that directly target this maladaptive behavior currently exist. The recently developed, empirically supported four-function model posits that nonsuicidal self-injury is maintained by four distinct reinforcement processes. In this review, we used the four-function model to guide the understanding of important unanswered questions and suggest much-needed studies for future research in the field of self-injury.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T21:00:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2167702613514563|hwp:master-id:spcpx;2167702613514563
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2014)
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