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Journal Cover Disability Studies Quarterly  
   [9 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1041-5718 - ISSN (Online) 2159-8371
   Published by Ohio State University Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Review of The Politics of Race, Class, and Special Education: The Selected
           Works of Sally Tomlinson

    • Authors: David J. Connor
      PubDate: 2014-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Human Rights and Neoliberalism in Australian Welfare to Work Policy:
           Experiences and Perceptions of People with Disabilities and Disability
           Stakeholders

    • Authors: Sarah Parker Harris, Randall Owen, Karen R Fisher, Robert Gould
      Abstract: Recent policy approaches in Australia, influenced by neoliberalism, have constrained the implementation of international disability rights at the national level. Within the neoliberal and human rights approaches to social policy, what is the lived experience of people with disabilities? In focus groups with people with disabilities and interviews with disability stakeholders in Australia, participants were asked about their experiences and perspectives of welfare to work programs. We analyzed the data by drawing on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities as a framework. The analysis revealed tensions between the rights and responsibilities of citizens and the government, and a disconnection between policy discourse and policy practice. The results suggest that disability rights are jeopardized unless governments take responsibility to create the policy environment for rights-based policy to be implemented; including the equalization of opportunities, providing accessible information and communication about employment, and addressing the administration and process practices that employment service providers follow.
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Editor's Introduction

    • Authors: Bruce Henderson
      PubDate: 2014-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • If You Don’t Know Me by Now: The Failure of Care in “Bartleby,
           The Scrivener”

    • Authors: Kari Nixon
      Abstract: "Bartleby, the Scrivener" is one of the most haunting tales of the nineteenth century. Criticism has centered on analysis of both the narrator and Bartleby himself, taking up the question of whether or not the narrator ultimately fulfills his moral obligations to Bartleby. I believe an approach to the story, however, which takes as its starting point a critique of the medical model of disability helps elucidate this issue. This approach makes it clear that given his situation in a world which values a medically inspired model of understanding difference, the narrator, benevolent as he may be, can never do enough for Bartleby, because, given this situation, he can never ask the right questions of Bartleby or posit appropriate solutions for him. I conclude my argument with a consideration of critical complicity in this issue as critics attempt to classify Bartleby, thereby following in the narrator's misguided footsteps.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Perceptions of disability among parents of children with disabilities in
           Nicaragua: Implications for future opportunities and health care access

    • Authors: Susan B Matt
      Abstract: The purposes of this study were to explore caregiver perceptions of the origin of their children's disabilities, aspirations for their children's future, and the frequency with which they sought health care and rehabilitation services for their children with disabilities. A qualitative descriptive design using face-to-face semi-structured interviews of 13 caregivers of children with disabilities was employed. Caregivers cited biomedical explanations, as well as beliefs in superstitious, traditional, and religious-based causes of disability. Respondents reported limited access to medical care and rehabilitation services. Nevertheless, caregivers have hope for their children's futures. Increased global medical volunteer involvement has the potential to improve access to care and rehabilitation services.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • The Giver: Movie Review

    • Authors: Alan Santinele Martino, Vanja Spirić
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • The Autistic Detective: Sherlock Holmes and his Legacy

    • Authors: Sonya Freeman Loftis
      Abstract: Sherlock Holmes has long been rumored to be on the autism spectrum. Yet the significance of the great detective's autism "diagnosis" has been largely overlooked. While it would be impossible to diagnose a fictional character with a neurological difference, it says something about the way that the public imagines autism that Holmes is consistently imagined and described as a person on the spectrum. Indeed, Conan Doyle's character popularized the stereotype of the detective with autistic traits, thus perpetuating several common tropes about autism. Emulating Conan Doyle's famous tales, contemporary crime fiction frequently creates detective characters with autistic characteristics. For example, popular television shows such as Criminal Minds present detectives with autistic traits who are clearly constructed to remind audiences of Holmes. While figures such as Spenser Reid (and other crime fighters following in Holmes's shadow) may seem to counteract fears of people with cognitive disabilities as deviant, criminal, or dangerous, they may actually reinforce those stereotypes.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • “I be Dawg”: Intellectual Disability and the Animal Other in
           the Works of William Faulkner

    • Authors: S. A. Larson
      Abstract: There is a considerable dearth of criticism that applies the critical lens of Disability Studies to the works of William Faulkner. This paper hopes to contribute to the discourse on Faulkner and disability by using a Disability Studies prospective to explore the intersection of intellectual disability and the psychological coping mechanism of dehumanization in the novels Sanctuary and The Hamlet. In both novels, characters with intellectual disabilities are depicted as animals. This paper argues that Faulkner's normate characters use dehumanization to marginalize, neglect, and even abuse characters with intellectual disabilities. However, the act of dehumanization has the paradoxical effect of calling attention to the humanity and sentience of characters with intellectual disabilities.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Disabled Capital: A Narrative of Attention Deficit Disorder in the
           Classroom Through the Lens of Bourdieu’s Capital

    • Authors: Jared David Berezin
      Abstract: Within each socio-economic class there exist able classes, characterized by the ability to successfully access and enact their preferred capital. There also exist disabled classes of individuals who possess preferred capital, but remain unable to perform in the same manner as able bodies. In the attempt to perform accumulated knowledge and normality, the disabled individual confronts the relationship between his capital and body, his intention and ability. By examining my own classroom experience as a student with attention deficit disorder, together with research from the fields of education and disability studies, this research-based narrative reveals that preferred capital does not merely comprise cultural knowledge and social relationships, but also the ability to perform one's knowledge and desires through behavior that is valued in the classroom. In a field dominated by able-bodied individuals, the disabled body possesses "disabled capital", as preferred capital becomes compromised when housed within a disabled body.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Unsmoothing the Cyborg: Technology and the Body in Integrated Dance

    • Authors: Margaret M. Quinlan, Benjamin R. Bates
      Abstract: Contemporary cyborg theory tends to approach the integration of human bodies and technology innovations as if the cyborg were a unified whole. And, because of the potential of the cyborg body to help ameliorate disability, the cyborg has been suggested as a way to restore function to individuals living with disabilities. We investigate the deployment of the cyborg integrated dance company using theoretical concepts provided by Gilles Deleuze. Rather than observing a smoothly integrated whole, our ethnographic research reveals tensions within the cyborg body. Our analysis revealed three types of creative/reactive forces. Each of these forces comes from the effects/functions of the three striations of the cyborg body: (1) the effects/functions from the machine stria; (2) those from the human stria; and (3) those from the animal stria. Although together these striae constitute the assemblage of the cyborg, as each one takes on greater intensity such that the others are of decreased intensity, the hybridized whole of the cyborg becomes less functional as one is becoming-machine, becoming-human, or becoming-animal.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Changing Times: Self-disclosure and the Representational Styles of
           Legislators with Physical Disabilities

    • Authors: Richard K. Scotch, Sally Friedman
      Abstract: As a number of factors have produced more opportunities for people with disabilities, entry into the political arena is a logical consequence. Questions about what challenges such individuals will face as politicians and how they will choose to "represent" and focus on disability concerns become paramount. We profile the disability-oriented activities of two politicians (Bob Dole and James Langevin) representative of different cultural eras in the disability rights movement. Despite differences in constituencies and ideologies, findings suggest, as has been true for other underrepresented groups, politicians with disabilities will be more likely to represent disability issues. Because Langevin has been more public than Dole about disclosing aspects of his disability, findings also highlight the impact of a changed cultural context, a member's background, personality and other circumstances on aspects of his political activity.  
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Determining “Best Interests” in End-of-Life Decisions for the
           Developmentally Disabled: Minnesota State Guardians and Wards

    • Authors: Mary Lay Schuster, Ann L. Russell, Dianne Bartels, Holli Kelly-Trombley
      Abstract: Abstract In this article, we report the results of a study of 129 case files and 16 guardian interviews on end-of-life decision making for Minnesota state wards who are developmentally disabled and are seldom competent to assert their wishes. We review the legal cases, legislative statutes, and professional standards that guide public guardians in deciding whether to begin, continue, or withdraw or withhold life-sustaining medical treatment from their wards. In particular, we reveal how the guardians' recommendations to the state Public Guardianship Administrator include such ableist assumptions as "normal," "natural," and "reasonable," but we also recognize the guardians' resistance to mind/body dichotomies and their expertise in determining quality of life in the context of how their wards live those lives.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Supporting institution-to-community transitions for people with
           psychiatric disabilities: Findings and implications from a participatory
           action research project

    • Authors: Andrea Gossett Zakrajsek, Mansha Mirza, Nathan Kai-Cheong Chan, Tom Wilson, Mark Karner, Joy Hammel
      Abstract: Despite preference for community-based living, large numbers of people with psychiatric disabilities live in nursing homes throughout the US. Community-based services for this population are limited by public policy and service system barriers. This paper summarizes these barriers and presents the second phase of a participatory action research project jointly developed by university-based researchers and two Centers for Independent Living. A qualitative case study methodology was used to understand the experiences of three individuals with psychiatric disabilities reintegrating into the community from nursing homes. Findings revealed themes of social isolation, participation in virtual communities, variability of impairment experiences and unmet needs for community supports. In addition to thematic findings, action products were generated for the benefit of community partners. These products included national best practice resources and a needs assessment survey tool. Study findings and products point to specific systems change and policy recommendations to better support community reintegration for this population. These recommendations are discussed in light of U.S. healthcare reform and broader disability advocacy efforts.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • The Tale of Two Civil Societies: Comparing disability rights movements in
           Nicaragua and Uruguay

    • Authors: Stephen Meyers, Elizabeth Lockwood
      Abstract: The UNCRPD is unique amongst international rights instruments because it empowers civil society organizations to represent the rights-bearers themselves—persons with disabilities. As such, DPOs in the Global South have become a major concern for UN agencies and international NGOs who believe that grassroots disability associations need political advocacy training in order to take up their role as rights advocates. These expectations contain implicit assumptions regarding civil society-state relations and the existence of governmental capacity. The authors, however, hypothesize that not all civil societies will fit the rights advocacy model due to the political culture and public resources available within their respective, local communities. Disability movements in Nicaragua and Uruguay are compared and contrasted. In Nicaragua, a disability rights coalition dismisses many international expectations in favor for continuing to follow traditional civil society expectations to provide services. In Uruguay, a long history of high levels of social spending and disability organizing enabled DPOs to successfully advocate for progressive laws. The deaf community, however, decided to implement their own, separate advocacy strategies to ensure a fairer distribution of public resources. The authors conclude that rather than top-down civil society training, the international movement should allow local organizations set their own priorities.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Kenya: Challenges
           and Prospects

    • Authors: M.J. Chomba, S.G. Mukuria, P.W. Kariuki, S. Tumuti, B.A. Bunyasi
      Abstract: Kenya has great potential for enhancing education for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The fact that it has recognized the need to care for learners with special needs is commendable. In comparison to many African countries, Kenya and Nigeria are ahead in developing programs for special education in institutions of higher learning, and in starting schools and units for special education. However, a legal mandate is still required as it would seal many loopholes that currently exist. Without it, the assessment of individual with intellectual disabilities cannot be administered correctly and professionally. In this article, the authors present a coherent account on various aspects related to learners with intellectual disabilities in Kenya. No doubt, the issues and challenges identified call for attention by not only the government of Kenya but also those interested in improving the status of learners with intellectual disabilities.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Sites of Normalcy: Understanding Online Education as Prosthetic Technology

    • Authors: Marie Moeller, Julie Jung
      Abstract: Research on online education in relation to disability has, importantly, focused on issues of access and usability. This article seeks to complicate this research by examining the ways in which online education participates in an ideology of normalcy. Toward this end, we first describe online education as a site that promotes normalcy through its material practices of marginalization. We then extend this reading by analyzing how cultural narratives about online education function asdiscursive sites of normalcy by marking both online education and its users as less-than substitutes for the "real" versions. By constructing online education as a prosthetic technology, these narratives persuade marginalized bodies to recognize themselves as problems in need of solution, yet this reading itself becomes open to revision when we consider how the complexities of embodiment challenge an understanding of normalcy as a determinate discursive force.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • An Examination of Violence Practiced against Disabled Brazilians in
           Relation to Sustainable Development

    • Authors: Lyusyena Kirakosyan
      Abstract: Although there are no national data and statistics regarding violence against disabled citizens in Brazil, findings from a number of small-scale research studies suggest that it is a problem of considerable magnitude. This article draws on the existing literature on violence and oppression, empirical studies on violence against disabled people in Brazil and interviews with a sample of disabled Brazilians to argue that the most prevalent forms of violence in the nation are subtle and concealed forms of oppression that reproduce discriminatory power structures in Brazilian society. Such power structures prevent the developing world in general and Brazil in particular from securing democratic and sustainable development in the post-2015 era, when disadvantaged people must be at the center. The analysis is organized in three parts. First, I outline briefly the main issues in defining impairment, disability and violence, since these represent political choices that shape policy decisions. Second, I analyze the forms of violence that affect disabled Brazilians and the relationships and institutions that create and sustain them. Third, I describe and evaluate the government's key current strategies aimed at addressing violence against disabled Brazilians. The purpose here is to suggest ways in which violence against disabled Brazilians can be addressed in public policies as a sustainable development issue and thus help close the "gap" between disabled and nondisabled populations to create truly sustainable democratic societies that honor human dignity.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Mzungu

    • Authors: Brent Carson Elder
      Abstract: This piece of creative non-fiction documents the author’s experiences collaborating with the Ministry of Education in Kenya in 2011. The aim of the project was to develop sustainable inclusive primary school programs where children with and without disabilities access education in a shared space. Specifically, the purpose of the project was to establish the foundations of an inclusive education system aligned with Article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). However, the author’s experiences encompassed more than an education system. The project brought to light issues of (post)colonialism and development. It also transcended cultural identity, and crossed country lines. Connectivity and community were at the core of the experience.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Cartographies of Friendship, Desire, and Home; Notes on surviving
           neoliberal security regimes

    • Authors: Debanuj DasGupta
      Abstract: In this auto-ethnographic essay I shed light upon processes of racialiazation and sexualization which work to construct the figure of the disabled, diseased, alien. The paper argues disability based immigration policies, along with neoliberal notions of productivity and enterprise operate as technologies of power, excluding queer HiV positive migrant subjects from the gates of the US nation-state. I shed light upon HIV based immigration policies, disability and sexuality rights activism, pre and post 9/11 US national security practices by retracing lived experiences of mine from Kolkata, India and post 9/11 New York City. The narrative journeys to spaces such as HIV clinics, S&M chambers, and hospital rooms in hopes of understanding collective claims to life being made by those occupying the interstitial shadow spaces between nation-states, perverse/ normal, ability/disability, and ultimately life/death.

      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
  • Throw Yo' Voice Out: Disability as a Desirable Practice in Hip-Hop
           Vocal Performance

    • Authors: Alex S. Porco
      Abstract: Disabled bodies and disabling spaces— especially the recording studio— shape the sound iconicity of hip-hop vocal performances. The disabled voice is the audible sign by which hip-hop artists trouble cultural definitions of the self and other; exceptionalism and failure; the natural and techno-mediated; comedy and tragedy; and aesthetic play and seriousness. Hip-hop vocal performances also function as self-conscious acts of transvaluation that challenge the discursive dominance of ableism. A materialist approach to vocal performance resists reducing voice to a silent metaphor for race, oppositionality, or liberation; and it emphasizes, instead, the physiological and social processes that render hip-hop voices unique, particular, and audible. It emphasizes the agency hip-hop artists possess in seeking out disabled bodies and assuming disabled identities for aesthetic and political ends. Thus, the body is returned to the analysis of style.
      PubDate: 2014-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2014)
       
 
 
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