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  The Medical Letter
  [SJR: 0.142]   [H-I: 16]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0025-732X - ISSN (Online) 1523-2859
   Published by The Medical Letter, Inc Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Addendum: Nivolumab (Opdivo) for Metastatic Melanoma and Metastatic NSCLC
    • Authors: admin
      Abstract: Date:  June 22, 2015 Issue #:  1471 Summary:  After our article on nivolumab (Opdivo – BMS) for treatment of metastatic melanoma and metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was published in the most recent issue of The Medical Letter (June 8, 2015),1 some new data became available supporting the efficacy of the drug in previously untreated melanoma and previously treated nonsquamous NSCLC.

      MELANOMA – In a double-blind trial, 945 patients with previously untreated, unresectable stage III or IV melanoma were randomized to receive ipilimumab, nivolumab, or combination therapy with ipilimumab and nivolumab. Progression-free survival, a primary endpoint, improved by 43% with nivolumab (median 6.9 months) and by 58% with combination therapy (median 11.5 months), compared to ipilimumab (median 2.9 months). In patients with tumors that expressed the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on ≥5% of cells, median progression-free survival was similar in the nivolumab and combination groups (both 14.0 months); in those with tumors that expressed PD-L1 on <5% of cells, it was 5.3 months with nivolumab alone and 11.2 months with both drugs. Rates of complete or partial response were 19.0% with ipilimumab, 43.7% with nivolumab, and 57.6% with combination therapy. At least one severe (grade 3-4) drug-related adverse effect occurred in 27.3% of patients receiving ipilimumab, 16.3% of those receiving nivolumab, and 55.0% of those receiving both drugs.2

      NONSQUAMOUS NSCLC – In an open-label trial (available only as an abstract), 582 patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC that had progressed during or after treatment with a platinum doublet-based regimen (and, if appropriate, a kinase inhibitor) were randomized to receive nivolumab or docetaxel until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Nivolumab significantly improved overall survival, the primary endpoint, by 27% compared to docetaxel (median 12.2 vs 9.4 months). Survival rates in the two groups were similar in patients with tumors expressing PD-L1 on <1% of cells, but in patients with tumors expressing PD-L1 on ≥1%, ≥5%, and ≥10% of cells, nivolumab improved overall survival by 41%, 57%, and 60%, respectively, compared to docetaxel. Patients receiving nivolumab were significantly more likely to have an objective response (19.2% vs 12.4%). Severe (grade 3+) drug-related adverse effects occurred in 10.5% of patients receiving nivolumab and in 53.7% of those receiving docetaxel.3


      Nivolumab (Opdivo) for metastatic melanoma and metastatic NSCLC. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2015; 57:85.
      J Larkin et al. Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab or monotherapy in untreated melanoma. N Engl J Med 2015 May 31 (epub).
      L Paz-Ares et al. Phase III, randomized trial (CheckMate 057) of nivolumab (NIVO) versus docetaxel (DOC) in advanced non-squamous cell (non-SQ) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). J Clin Oncol 2015; 33 (suppl; abstr LBA109). Available at: abstracts.asco.org. Accessed June 11, 2015.

      Download complete U.S. English article


      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:49:56 +000
       
  • Bellafill for Acne Scars
    • Authors: admin
      Abstract: Date:  June 22, 2015 Issue #:  1471 Summary:  Bellafill (Suneva), a dermal filler approved earlier for correction of nasolabial folds, has now also been approved by the FDA for correction of moderate to severe, atrophic, distensible facial acne scars on the cheek in adults ≥21 years old. It is the only dermal filler approved in the US for correction of facial acne scars.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jun 2015 12:18:04 +000
       
  • Droxidopa (Northera) for Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension
    • Authors: admin
      Abstract: Date:  June 22, 2015 Issue #:  1471 Summary:  The FDA has approved droxidopa (Northera – Lundbeck) for oral treatment of adults with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) caused by primary autonomic failure (Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, or pure autonomic failure), dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency, or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy. This is the first approval for droxidopa in the US. It has been available in Japan for use in NOH since 1989.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jun 2015 11:45:03 +000
       
  • Which PPI'
    • Authors: admin
      Abstract: Date:  June 22, 2015 Issue #:  1471 Summary:  An article published in the New York Times on May 1, 2015 listed the 10 drugs on which Medicare Part D spent the most in 2013. The most costly ($2.53 billion) was the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) Nexium (esomeprazole magnesium), which has recently become available generically.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jun 2015 11:44:34 +000
       
  • In Brief: Ketoacidosis with SGLT2 Inhibitors
    • Authors: admin
      Abstract: Date:  June 22, 2015 Issue #:  1471 Summary:  The FDA has warned that use of an SGLT2 (sodium-glucose co-transporter 2) inhibitor for treatment of type 2 diabetes may lead to ketoacidosis.1 Three SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet), dapagliflozin (Farxiga, Xigduo XR), and empagliflozin (Jardiance, Glyxambi), are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes in the US. Between March 2013 and June 2014, 20 cases of ketoacidosis requiring emergency room visits or hospitalization were reported in patients who had recently started taking an SGLT2 inhibitor; the median time to onset of symptoms after initiation of therapy was 2 weeks (range 1-175 days). SGLT2 inhibitors decrease renal glucose reabsorption and increase urinary glucose excretion, resulting in a reduction in blood glucose levels. The mechanism by which these drugs could cause ketoacidosis has not been established.

      Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs primarily in patients with type 1 diabetes; it is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels (usually ≥250 mg/dL), a high anion gap, glucosuria, and ketonuria.2 Unlike typical cases of DKA, most ketoacidosis cases associated with SGLT2 inhibitors have occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes, and in some patients glucose levels were <200 mg/dL. Only half of the 20 cases were associated with a recognizable DKA-precipitating factor, such as infection, reduced caloric intake, or reduced insulin dose. Other factors that may contribute to the development of high anion gap metabolic acidosis, such as hypovolemia, hypoxemia, reduced oral intake, acute renal impairment, and a history of alcohol use, were identified in some patients.1


      FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns that SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes may result in a serious condition of too much acid in the blood. Available at: www.fda.gov. Accessed June 11, 2015.
      AE Kitabchi et al. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32:1335.

      Download complete U.S. English article


      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jun 2015 11:43:58 +000
       
  • Liraglutide (Saxenda) for Weight Loss
    • Authors: admin
      Abstract: Date:  June 22, 2015 Issue #:  1471 Summary:  The injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide, previously approved by the FDA for treatment of type 2 diabetes as Victoza, has now also been approved at a higher dose as Saxenda (Novo Nordisk) for chronic weight management in adults with a BMI ≥30, or a BMI ≥27 with a weight-related comorbidity such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 May 2015 11:24:34 +000
       
 
 
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