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African Journal of Reproductive Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.381
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1118-4841 - ISSN (Online) 2141-3606
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [264 journals]
  • Editorial

    • Authors: Enitome E Bafor
      Abstract: Potentials for Use of Medicinal Plants in Female Reproductive Disorders – The Way Forward
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer Outcomes in
           Nigeria: A commentary

    • Authors: Jonah Musa
      Abstract: Although cervical cancer is a preventable cancer with a well-known natural history, it remains a huge burden in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where organized cervical cancer screening services are lacking. Developed countries that have invested on providing organized screening programs have made substantial progress in reducing both incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. Implementing evidence-based interventions such as human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls, early detection and treatment of premalignant conditions of the cervix through conventional Pap cytology, HPV screening or visual aided inspection with acetic acid could significantly reduce incidence of new cases at population level. Societal investment for such preventive services and provision of effective treatment for those diagnosed at early stages will yield economic benefits in reducing premature deaths of women at the prime of their productive lives. From a societal perspective, this should be a priority area for national investment towards the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria and similar settings in Africa. 
      Keywords: Cancer prevention, treatment, society, cervical cancer
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross-Sectional
           Survey of Two Urban Counties

    • Authors: Nelson Keyonzo, Julius Korir, Faith Abilla, Morine Sirera, Peter Nyakwara, Eva Bazant, Charles Waka, Nancy Koskei, Mark Kabue
      Abstract: As international development partners reduce funding for family planning (FP) programs, the need to estimate the financial resources devoted to FP is becoming increasingly important both at all levels. This cross-sectional assessment examined the FP financing sources, agents, and expenditures in two counties of Kenya for fiscal years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to guide local decision-making on financial allocations. Data were collected through a participatory process. This involved stakeholder interviews, review of financial records and service statistics, and a survey of facilities offering FP services. Financing sources and agents were identified, and source amounts calculated. Types of FP provider organizations and the amounts spent by expenditure categories were identified. Overall, five financing sources and seven agents for FP were identified. Total two-year expenditures were KSh 307.8 M (US$ 3.62 M). The government‘s share of funding rose from 12% to 21% over the two years (p=0.029). In 2010/2011, the largest expense categories were administration, commodities, and labor; however, spending on commodities increased by 47% (p=0.042). This study provides local managers with FP financing and expenditure information for use in budget allocation decision-making. These analyses can be done routinely and replicated in other local counties or countries in a context of devolution. 
      Keywords: Contraception, Expenditure, Budget, Decision-making
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • Medicinal Plants used during Antenatal Care by Pregnant Women in Eastern

    • Authors: Patricia A. Nalumansi, Maud Kamatenesi-Mugisha, Godwin Anywar
      Abstract: Plants are commonly used during the antenatal stage in pregnancy to manage different ailments in Africa. In Uganda, both medicinal and food plants are used to handle common pregnancy related conditions. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Iganga district, eastern Uganda. Seven traditional birth attendants (TBA) and 46 mothers were interviewed. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and household interviews. The TBAs were identified using snowball sampling. A total of 33 plant species, belonging to 23 families were documented. Out of these, the pregnant mothers used 45.5 % as both food and medicine. The most frequently used plant life form was herbs (58.8%). The leaves are the most commonly used plant parts (59%). Most of the plants (58.8%) were semi cultivated and were being domesticated in crop fields and home gardens. Most of the plants were used to manage anaemia and for child development and good health among the pregnant women. The pregnant women and TBAs in Namungalwe sub County have diverse knowledge on medicinal and nutri-medicinal plants in the management of common pregnancy related diseases, which can be used to supplement modern antenatal services, inspite of the ban of the activities of TBA. Further research on the bioavailability of nutrients, efficacy and safety of the medicinal plants used by pregnant women should be done. 
      Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Antenatal, Traditional Birth Attendants, Uganda
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Status among Ever-Married and Cohabiting
           Zimbabwean Women: An Examination of Partners’ Traits

    • Authors: Loren Henderson, Assata Zerai, Rebecca L. Morrow
      Abstract: This study examines the connection between intimate partner violence (IPV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus status among married and cohabitating women in Zimbabwe using an African feminist framework. Stata 13.0 was used to analyze data from the 2010-2011 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, which used a national probability sample of households in the country of Zimbabwe. This study used logistic regression to analyze the 2,830 ever-married or cohabitating women who also answered the violence and spousal traits questionnaire as well as provided blood samples. The logistic regression revealed that women who had experienced any type of intimate partner violence (odds ratio=1.29, CI [1.00, 1.67]) or broken bones (odds ratio=2.39, CI [1.19, 4.77]) were more likely to be HIV positive; relative to those with bruises bruises (odds ratio=- .64 CI [.41, .99]) were less likely. Women with partners who are trackers (odds ratio=1.28, CI [1.04, 1.59]) were more likely to be HIV positive. Patriarchal, hypermasculist culture, shown through violence against women, contributes to the likelihood of HIV in wives and partners. A cultural shift at the highest levels may help to prevent IPV and reduce the spread of HIV. 
      Keywords: HIV, domestic violence, structural violence, socioeconomic status, African feminist framework
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • Perceptions of Infertility and In Vitro Fertilization Treatment among
           Married Couples in Anambra State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Nneka I. Okafor, Ngozi N. Joe-Ikechebelu, Joseph I. Ikechebelu
      Abstract: There is a high rate of infertility among couples in Nigeria. This challenge is perceived differently in each socio-cultural context in which it is experienced but solution to the problem is adversely affected by the people‘s perception of the phenomenon. This study thus explored the perceptions of infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and how to enhance the use of IVF treatment among married couples. This was a cross-sectional survey in Anambra State, Nigeria involving household respondents (married couples) and hospital respondents (couples undergoing infertility evaluation). Structured questionnaire and key informant interview (KII) guide were used for data collection. Altogether 600 questionnaires were administered and 589 were validly completed and analysed. The main outcome measures included perceptions of infertility and IVF treatment, utilization of IVF treatment and association between some demographic variables and IVF utilization. The results showed that infertility was perceived majorly as - destiny/supernatural powers (17.1%), threat to men‘s procreativity/continuity of lineage (14.3%), women‘s problem only (15.6%). Solutions to the challenges were adversely affected by perception. The use of IVF treatment was low with misconceptions like it‘s too costly (15.4%) and unnatural (7.6%), giving rise to unmet need for assisted reproductive technology. Women (especially above 35 years) were more likely to accept IVF treatment than men. Reproductive health education and awareness creation should target the misconceptions about infertility/IVF and fertility treatment should be covered by national health insurance to reduce the cost of IVF treatment and improve its use in Anambra State.
      Keywords: Married couples, Infertility, In vitro fertilization, Perception, Anambra State, Nigeria
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • An Audit of Perineal Trauma and Vertical Transmisson Of HIV

    • Authors: Amaka N. Ocheke, Ephraim Samuels, Isaac E. Ocheke, Patricia A. Agaba, Clement Ekere, James Bitrus, Emmanuel I. Agaba, Atiene S. Sagay
      Abstract: Restrictive episiotomy is recommended for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. The study compared the frequency of episiotomy use and the occurrence of perineal tears; and related factors in HIV positive and HIV negative women and to assess their effect on Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. A total of 110 HIV positive and 134 HIV negative parturients were enrolled in the study. The incidence of episiotomy was more in the HIV negative group (p=0.0000) while that of perineal tear was not affected by HIV status (p=0.17). The rate of episiotomy was significantly affected by primigravidity in HIV negative subjects (OR= 0.032, 95% CI 0.0072-0.13). The rate of perineal tear was significantly affected by primigravidity in HIV positive subjects (OR=8.55, 95% CI 1.91-38.7) and multigravidity in HIV negative subjects (OR= 0.030, 95% CI 0.133-0.71). Gestational age and mean birth weight had no effect on the rate of episiotomy (p value =0.57 and 0.30) and perineal tear (p value= 0.79 and 0.061). There was no mother-to-child HIV transmission. Episiotomies should be given when needed irrespective of HIV status because of the risk of consequent perineal tear and with HAART the risk of MTCT from perineal trauma is minimal.Keywords: HIV positive; perineal trauma; episiotomy; perineal tear; MTCT
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • Determinants of Home Delivery among Women attending Antenatal Care in
           Bagwai Town, Kano Nigeria

    • Authors: Salisu Abubakar, Dalhatu Adamu, Ruqayya Hamza, Jamila B. Galadima
      Abstract: Unskilled home delivery is a threat to maternal and child health. In northern Nigeria, many pregnant women attend antenatal care but opt to deliver at home despite knowing the potential consequences. An institutional delivery, helps reduce various complications during childbirth, and therefore decreases the rates of maternal and child mortality. To explore the determinants of home delivery after attending antenatal services, this study employed a cross-sectional design and a non-probability purposive sampling technique. Findings of the study revealed that, majority (74.1%) of the women predominantly between the ages of 25-35 years, (29±6.4) quit antenatal care to deliver at home mainly due to maternity staff attitude and presence of male healthcare workers during delivery. The study concluded that, pregnant women are aware of the importance of antenatal care and, do deliver at home due to behavioural, sociocultural and religious preferences. To combat the maternal mortality in this region, values and beliefs of the women and families should be put into cognizance. Additionally, healthcare workers should be respectful and create a conducive environment in the maternity centres. More maternity centres including waiting homes should be provided.Keywords: Pregnancy, unskilled delivery, maternal, antenatal and child health
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • Empowerment of Adolescent Girls for Sexual and Reproductive Health Care: A
           Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Zainab Alimoradi, Nourossadat Kariman, Masoumeh Simbar, Fazlollah Ahmadi
      Abstract: Adolescent girls should be empowered to acquire the ability to take care of their sexual and reproductive health. The present study aimed to improve the understanding of the factors affecting the empowerment of Iranian adolescent girls in terms of taking care of their sexual and reproductive health (e.g. pubertal and menstrual health, preventing high risk sexual behaviors, treatment seeking for sexual and reproductive complaints such as dysmenorrhea, genitalia infection). The present qualitative study was performed using conventional content analysis method. Eight key informants were purposively selected and interviewed. Data collection was performed through unstructured and in-depth interviews. The qualitative content was analyzed simultaneously with data collection based on Graneheim and Lundman method using MAXQDA 2010 software. Data analysis led to the emergence of the main theme of empowerment for care with four classes of reinforcing the foundations of sexual and reproductive health, providing services in health system, reinforcing educational institutions, and consolidating the interaction between adolescent and family, as well as thirteen sub-classes. Results of the present study showed the need for inter-sectional interaction and collaboration among authorities of health systems, education systems, and policymaking institutions to achieve a model for empowering adolescent girls via a multi-level and comprehensive approach. 
      Keywords: Adolescent girls, empowerment, self-care, sexual and reproductive health, Iran
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • Examining the Role of Couples’ Characteristics in Contraceptive use
           in Nigeria and Zambia

    • Authors: Lorretta Favour. C. Ntoimo, Pamela Chirwa-Banda
      Abstract: Relationship-related characteristics influence diverse health and demographic outcomes. This study examined the role of couples‘ characteristics in contraceptive use. Data were obtained from 2013 Nigeria and 2013-14 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys. The study population consisted of couples in monogamous union (married or living together) who had at least one live birth and the wife was not pregnant at the time of the survey. Prevalence of contraceptive use among couples in Nigeria was 27% and 63% in Zambia. Couples‘ educational attainment, religious affiliation, the frequency of listening to the radio, reported number of children, fertility preference, region of residence and household wealth index were significant predictors of contraceptive use among couples in Nigeria and Zambia. Given the significant role of couples‘ characteristics in the uptake of contraceptives, there is the need to encourage interventions that target couples, particularly those of poor socioeconomic status. Keywords: Contraceptive, relationship-related characteristics, monogamous union, couples, Nigeria, Zambia
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
  • Gender-Based Violence among Married Women in Debre Tabor Town, Northwest
           Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Achenef A. Muche, Adeyemi O. Adekunle, Ayodele O. Arowojolu
      Abstract: Gender-based violence is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the perception and attitude of the community towards gender-based violence among married women in Northwest Ethiopia. A qualitative study was conducted using the purposive sampling technique for the three focus group discussions and ten in-depth interviews among married women. Data was analyzed thematically using version 3.4 of the Open Code Software. Most of the participants perceived that gender-based violence was acceptable in the community, violent acts needed to be considerably tolerated rather than condemned. Additionally, participants perceived that the consequences of gender-based violence were mild, and its elimination was difficult. Domestic violence was found to be common, marital rape was not clearly understood, and there was no tendency to disapprove it. This study revealed that the attitude of people and traditional norms played the major role in determining the acceptability of gender-based violence on married women. Increasing awareness on the consequences of gender-based violence, strengthening of women empowerment, involving different stakeholders on the provision of education, amending and enforcing the existing laws, and providing professional help to stop or reduce violence against women are recommended. (Afr J Reprod Health 2017; 21[4]: 102-109).
      Keywords: Gender-based violence, attitude, cultural norms, domestic violence, sexual coercion, rape
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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