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Journal Cover Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
  [SJR: 1.244]   [H-I: 79]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0706-7437 - ISSN (Online) 1497-0015
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [838 journals]
  • Concussion and Psychiatric Outcome in Adults and Children
    • Authors: Max; J. E.
      Pages: 257 - 258
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T16:52:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716644952
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 5 (2016)
       
  • A Systematic Review of Psychiatric, Psychological, and Behavioural
           Outcomes following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents
           
    • Authors: Emery, C. A; Barlow, K. M, Brooks, B. L, Max, J. E, Villavicencio-Requis, A, Gnanakumar, V, Robertson, H. L, Schneider, K, Yeates, K. O.
      Pages: 259 - 269
      Abstract: Background: Evidence regarding longer-term psychiatric, psychological, and behavioural outcomes (for example, anxiety, mood disorders, depression, and attention disorders) following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children and adolescents has not been previously synthesized. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the available evidence examining psychiatric, psychological, and behavioural outcomes following mTBI in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Nine electronic databases were systematically searched from 1980 to August 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; study design was a randomized controlled trial, quasi-experimental design, cohort or historical cohort study, case-control study, or cross-sectional study; exposure included mTBI (including concussion); population included children and adolescents (
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T16:52:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716643741
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 5 (2016)
       
  • Knowing What We Dont Know: Long-Term Psychiatric Outcomes following Adult
           Concussion in Sports
    • Authors: Finkbeiner, N. W. B; Max, J. E, Longman, S, Debert, C.
      Pages: 270 - 276
      Abstract: Objective: Amidst a growing concern regarding concussion in sports, there is an emerging link between sport concussion and mental health outcomes. This review summarizes the current literature addressing long-term psychiatric sequelae associated with sport concussion in adults. Method: Several databases were searched using a broad list of keywords for each of concussion, sports, and mental health, with a resultant 311 studies for initial review. After limiting studies based on duplication, appropriateness of data, and relevance, 21 studies remained pertaining to depression, anxiety, substance use, and behavioural changes, including those highlighting chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Results: Most studies identified suggested an increased prevalence of depressive symptoms related to concussion history. A conference abstract and qualitative study suggested increasing anxiety related to concussion history; however, a PhD dissertation found no relationship. In reviewing substance use, several studies mentioned use in athletes suspected of having concussion histories, although no link was established, while another noted undiagnosed concussion as leading to current substance misuse. Regarding behavioural changes, all studies identified occurrences of behaviour and/or cognitive changes in participants, with 2 studies suggesting a link with concussion history. With respect to CTE, concerns with mood, behaviour, cognition, and substance use were consistently highlighted, suggesting relations to previous sport concussion; however, the notion of different CTE subtypes and clear aetiology behind concussion severity or frequency was not consistently elucidated. Conclusion: There appears to be a growing body of evidence supporting the presence of long-term psychiatric and psychological sequelae following sport concussion in adults.
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T16:52:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716644953
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 5 (2016)
       
  • No Mental Health without Oral Health
    • Authors: Kisely; S.
      Pages: 277 - 282
      Abstract: The poor physical health faced by people with mental illness has been the subject of growing attention, but there has been less focus on the issue of oral health even though it is an important part of physical health. This article discusses the two-way association between oral and mental health. In one direction, the prospect of dental treatment can lead to anxiety and phobia. In the other, many psychiatric disorders, such as severe mental illness, affective disorders, and eating disorders, are associated with dental disease: These include erosion, caries, and periodontitis. Left untreated, dental diseases can lead to teeth loss such that people with severe mental illness have 2.7 times the likelihood of losing all their teeth, compared with the general population. Possible interventions include oral health assessments using standard checklists that can be completed by nondental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral.
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T16:52:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716632523
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 5 (2016)
       
  • Apgar Scores Are Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
           Symptom Severity
    • Authors: Grizenko, N; Eberle, M. L, Fortier, M.-E, Cote-Corriveau, G, Jolicoeur, C, Joober, R.
      Pages: 283 - 290
      Abstract: Objective: Adverse events during pregnancy and delivery have been linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have investigated Apgar scores, which assess the physical condition of newborns, in relation to the risk of developing ADHD. We propose to go one step further and examine if Apgar scores are associated with ADHD symptom severity in children already diagnosed with ADHD. Method: ADHD symptoms severity, while off medication, was compared in 2 groups of children with ADHD: those with low (≤6, n = 52) and those with higher (≥7, n = 400) Apgar scores sequentially recruited from the ADHD clinic. Results: Children with low Apgar at 1 minute after birth had more severe symptoms as assessed by the externalizing scale of the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Conners’ Global Index for Parents, and the DSM-IV hyperactivity symptoms count (P = 0.02,
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T16:52:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716635544
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 5 (2016)
       
  • Dopamine 2 Receptor Genes Are Associated with Raised Blood Glucose in
           Schizophrenia
    • Authors: Lawford, B. R; Barnes, M, Morris, C. P, Noble, E. P, Nyst, P, Heslop, K, Young, R. M, Voisey, J, Connor, J. P.
      Pages: 291 - 297
      Abstract: Objective: Type 2 diabetes is commonly found in schizophrenia and is an important contributor to mortality and morbidity in this condition. Dopamine has been implicated in the aetiology of both diabetes and schizophrenia. It is possible that both disorders share a common genetic susceptibility. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 2 dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with schizophrenia (C939 T, rs6275 and C957 T, rs6277) along with fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) in 207 antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. All participants met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, and those with other psychiatric disorders were excluded. Analysis of covariance was used to compare fasting glucose results by DRD2 genotypes, after controlling for known confounds. For significant associations, follow-up Bonferroni post hoc tests examined differences in fasting glucose levels between genotypes. Specific comparisons were also made using analysis of variance and chi-square (Fisher’s exact test). Results: The 2 DRD2 risk genotypes were associated with significant increases in blood glucose, after controlling for BMI, age, sex, dosage and type of antipsychotic medication, number of hospitalisations, and negative symptoms (rs6275, F(2, 182) = 5.901, P = 0.003; rs6277 SNP, F(2, 178) = 3.483, P = 0.033). Conclusions: These findings support the involvement of DRD2 not only in schizophrenia but also in elevated levels of blood glucose commonly found in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. Our data support the notion that diabetes may not merely be a comorbid condition but could be fundamentally associated with the pathogenesis of schizophrenia itself.
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T16:52:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716644765
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 5 (2016)
       
  • Racial Discrimination, Cultural Resilience, and Stress
    • Authors: Spence, N. D; Wells, S, Graham, K, George, J.
      Pages: 298 - 307
      Abstract: Objective: Racial discrimination is a social determinant of health for First Nations people. Cultural resilience has been regarded as a potentially positive resource for social outcomes. Using a compensatory model of resilience, this study sought to determine if cultural resilience (compensatory factor) neutralized or offset the detrimental effect of racial discrimination (social risk factor) on stress (outcome). Methods: Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013 (N = 340) from adult members of the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation community in Ontario, Canada. The outcome was perceived stress; risk factor, racial discrimination; and compensatory factor, cultural resilience. Control variables included individual (education, sociability) and family (marital status, socioeconomic status) resilience resources and demographics (age and gender). The model was tested using sequential regression. Results: The risk factor, racial discrimination, increased stress across steps of the sequential model, while cultural resilience had an opposite modest effect on stress levels. In the final model with all variables, age and gender were significant, with the former having a negative effect on stress and women reporting higher levels of stress than males. Education, marital status, and socioeconomic status (household income) were not significant in the model. The model had R2 = 0.21 and adjusted R2 = 0.18 and semipartial correlation (squared) of 0.04 and 0.01 for racial discrimination and cultural resilience, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, cultural resilience compensated for the detrimental effect of racial discrimination on stress in a modest manner. These findings may support the development of programs and services fostering First Nations culture, pending further study.
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T16:52:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716638653
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 5 (2016)
       
  • Potential for Drug-Drug Interactions with Adjunctive Tramadol Use in
           Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • Authors: Brown, E. E; Davies, S.
      Pages: 308 - 309
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T16:52:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716633423
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 5 (2016)
       
 
 
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