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Journal Cover Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
  [SJR: 1.631]   [H-I: 87]   [17 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0706-7437 - ISSN (Online) 1497-0015
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [852 journals]
  • Suicide among Aboriginals: A "Burning" Public Health Issue in Need of
    • Authors: Tempier; R.
      Pages: 682 - 683
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716655787
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Indigenous Suicide: A Global Perspective with a New Zealand Focus
    • Authors: Hatcher; S.
      Pages: 684 - 687
      Abstract: This perspective article describes the problem of Canadian indigenous suicide from a non-Canadian viewpoint. In particular, the article compares both similarities and differences in suicide prevention between Māori in New Zealand and indigenous peoples in Canada. It emphasises that the problem of indigenous suicide is not being indigenous but coping with losses secondary to colonisation. A useful way to translate this into helpful clinical conversations and actions is to think about loss of belonging. Culture and belonging are key components of identity and as such should be considered in all psychiatric encounters, not just in those who are considered minorities or "other." The article concludes by suggesting how some of the experiences of addressing health inequalities and suicide in Māori may be applied in Canada.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716644147
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Suicide and Suicide Prevention among Inuit in Canada
    • Authors: Kral; M. J.
      Pages: 688 - 695
      Abstract: Inuit in Canada have among the highest suicide rates in the world, and it is primarily among their youth. Risk factors include known ones such as depression, substance use, a history of abuse, and knowing others who have made attempts or have killed themselves, however of importance are the negative effects of colonialism. This took place for Inuit primarily during the government era starting in the 1950s, when Inuit were moved from their family-based land camps to crowded settlements run by white men, and children were removed from their parents and placed into residential or day schools. This caused more disorganization than reorganization. The most negative effect of this colonialism/imperialism for Inuit has been on their family and sexual relationships. Many Inuit youth feel alone and rejected. Suicide prevention has been taking place, the most successful being community-driven programs developed and run by Inuit. Mental health factors for Indigenous peoples are often cultural. It is recommended that practitioners work with the community and with Inuit organizations. Empowered communities can be healing.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716661329
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Indigenous Knowledge Approach to Successful Psychotherapies with
           Aboriginal Suicide Attempters
    • Authors: Mehl-Madrona; L.
      Pages: 696 - 699
      Abstract: Introduction:Suicide is disproportionately common among Aboriginal people in Canada.Methods:Life stories were collected from 54 Aboriginal suicide attempters in northern Saskatchewan. Constant comparison techniques and modified grounded theory identified common themes expressed.Results:Three common plots/themes preceded suicide attempts: 1) relationship breakup, usually sudden, unanticipated, involving a third person; 2) being publicly humiliated by another person(s), accompanied by high levels of shame; and 3) high levels of unremitting, chronic life stress (including poverty) with relative isolation. We found 5 common purposes for suicide attempts: 1) to "show" someone how badly they had hurt the attempter, 2) to stop the pain, 3) to save face in a difficult social situation, 4) to get revenge, and 5) don’t know/don’t remember/made sense at the time, all stated by people who were under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the time of their suicide attempt. We found 5 common beliefs about death: 1) you just cease to exist, and everything just disappears; 2) you go into the spirit world and can see and hear everything that is happening in this world; 3) you go to heaven or hell; 4) you go to a better place; and 5) don’t know/didn’t think about it.Discussion:The idea of personal and cultural continuity is essential to understanding suicide among First Nations youth. Interventions targeted to the individual’s beliefs about death, purpose for suicide, and consistent with the life story (plot) in which they find themselves may be more successful than one-size-fits-all programs developed outside of aboriginal communities.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716659247
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Choosing Wisely: Wise Choices in Psychiatry
    • Authors: Urness, D; Parker, N. J, Rapoport, M. J, Wilkes, T. C. R.
      Pages: 700 - 704
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716643823
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • A Population-Based Study of Postpartum Mental Health Service Use by
           Immigrant Women in Ontario, Canada
    • Authors: Vigod, S; Sultana, A, Fung, K, Hussain-Shamsy, N, Dennis, C.-L.
      Pages: 705 - 713
      Abstract: Objective:Postpartum mental disorders are twice as common among immigrant women compared to nonimmigrant women in developed countries. Immigrant women may experience barriers to access and use of postpartum mental health services, but little is known about their service use on a population level. We described postpartum mental health service use of immigrant mothers living in Ontario, Canada, comparing to a referent group of mothers who were either born in Canada or had lived in Ontario or another Canadian province since 1985.Method:Among all women in Ontario, Canada, delivering a live infant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 450,622), we described mental health service use within 1 year postpartum, including mental health physician visits, psychiatric emergency department visits, and psychiatric hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing immigrant women to the referent group were adjusted for maternal age, parity, income, rurality, mental health services in prior 2 years, and maternal and newborn health.Results:Immigrant women (n = 123,231; 27%) were less likely to use mental health services than women in the referent group (14.1% vs. 21.4%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61), including for physician-based (13.9% vs. 21.1%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61) and emergency department (0.6% vs. 1.3%; aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.68) services. Hospitalization risk was lower among immigrants (0.20% vs. 0.33%) but became similar after covariate adjustment (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.06).Conclusions:Underuse of postpartum mental health services may be contributing to the high burden of postpartum mental disorders among immigrant women.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716645285
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Perinatal Health of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
           and Comorbid Mental Illness
    • Authors: Brown, H. K; Cobigo, V, Lunsky, Y, Dennis, C.-L, Vigod, S.
      Pages: 714 - 723
      Abstract: Objective:Women with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have high rates of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the perinatal health of women with co-occurring IDD and mental illness (dual diagnosis) is largely unknown. Our objectives were to 1) describe a cohort of women with dual diagnosis in terms of their social and health characteristics and 2) compare their risks for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes to those of women with IDD only.Method:We conducted a population-based study using linked Ontario (Canada) health and social services administrative data to identify singleton obstetric deliveries to women with dual diagnosis (n = 2080) and women with IDD only (n = 1852; 2002–2012). Primary maternal outcomes were gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, and venous thromboembolism. Primary neonatal outcomes were preterm birth, small for gestational age, and large for gestational age. We also examined several secondary outcomes.Results:Women with dual diagnosis were more likely than women with IDD only to live in poor neighborhoods and to have prepregnancy health conditions; however, they had more frequent prenatal care. Infants born to women with dual diagnosis had increased risks for preterm birth (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08 to 1.59) and neonatal morbidity (aRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.76) compared with infants born to women with IDD only. All other primary and secondary outcomes were nonsignificant.Conclusions:Comorbid mental illness contributes little additional risk for adverse perinatal outcomes among women with IDD. Women with dual diagnosis and women with IDD alone require increased surveillance for maternal and neonatal complications.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716649188
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Gambling and Problem Gambling among Canadian Urban Aboriginals
    • Authors: Williams, R. J; Belanger, Y. D, Prusak, S. Y.
      Pages: 724 - 731
      Abstract: Objective:To assess the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in urban Aboriginals in the Canadian Prairie provinces and to determine the predictors of problem gambling.Method:In total, 1114 Aboriginals living in 15 cities in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba were recruited via posters and direct solicitation at Native Friendship Centres, shopping malls, and other locations where Aboriginals congregated. They each completed a self-administered 5- to 10-minute survey.Results:Urban Aboriginals in the present sample were found to have a much higher level of gambling participation than the general Canadian public, especially for electronic gambling machines, instant lotteries, and bingo. Their intensity of participation in terms of number of formats, frequency of play, and gambling expenditure was also very high. This, in turn, is an important contributing factor to their very high rate of problem gambling, which was found to be 27.2%. Problem gambling was higher in males, unemployed people, and cities having the highest proportion of their population consisting of urban Aboriginals.Conclusions:Urban Aboriginal people appear to have some of the highest known rates of problem gambling of any group in Canada. This is attributable to having many more risk factors for problem gambling, such as a greater level of participation in gambling, greater participation in continuous forms of gambling (e.g., electronic gambling machines), younger average age, higher rates of substance abuse and mental health problems, and a range of disadvantageous social conditions (e.g., poverty, unemployment, poor education, cultural stress) that are conducive to the development of addictive behaviour.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716661990
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Burnout among Canadian Psychiatry Residents: A National Survey
    • Authors: Kealy, D; Halli, P, Ogrodniczuk, J. S, Hadjipavlou, G.
      Pages: 732 - 736
      Abstract: Objective:Burnout is a serious problem for health care providers that has implications for clinical practice and personal health. While burnout is known to affect residents, no studies have examined the prevalence or impact of burnout among Canadian psychiatry residents.Method:Residents in all Canadian psychiatry training programs were surveyed between May 1, 2014, and July 1, 2014. The survey included a well-validated, single-item measure to assess symptoms of burnout, several demographic questions, and Likert-scale items to assess residents’ appraisals of empathic functioning and strategies for coping with stress from patient encounters.Results:Responses were obtained from 400 residents, for a response rate of 48%. Twenty-one percent (N = 84) of residents reported symptoms of burnout. Burnout was reported more frequently by residents in postgraduate year 2 than by those in other years and was associated with engagement in personal psychotherapy during residency. No association was found between burnout and age, gender, or location of residency program. Residents who endorsed symptoms of burnout reported higher levels of compromised empathic functioning, were less likely to consult with supervisors about stressful clinical experiences, and were more likely to engage in unhealthy coping strategies.Conclusions:Symptoms of burnout affect one-fifth of Canadian psychiatry residents. The associations between burnout symptoms and problematic clinical and personal functioning suggest areas of concern for those involved in the training of Canadian psychiatry residents.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716645286
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Burnout and Depression in Psychiatric Residents
    • Authors: Schonfeld, I. S; Laurent, E, Vandel, P, Bianchi, R.
      Pages: 737 - 738
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716664333
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Unravelling the Relationship between Physician Burnout and Depression
    • Authors: Kealy, D; Halli, P, Ogrodniczuk, J. S, Hadjipavlou, G.
      Pages: 739 - 739
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716664334
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
  • Book Review: Integrated Treatment for Personality Disorder: A Modular
    • Authors: Paris; J.
      Pages: 740 - 740
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T15:45:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716659062
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 11 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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