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Journal Cover Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
  [SJR: 1.244]   [H-I: 79]   [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0706-7437 - ISSN (Online) 1497-0015
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [842 journals]
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Psychiatric Illness
    • Authors: Anglin; R.
      Pages: 444 - 445
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T17:23:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716646361
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 8 (2016)
       
  • Upstream Pathways Controlling Mitochondrial Function in Major Psychosis: A
           Focus on Bipolar Disorder
    • Authors: Machado, A. K; Pan, A. Y, da Silva, T. M, Duong, A, Andreazza, A. C.
      Pages: 446 - 456
      Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction is commonly observed in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and may be a central feature of psychosis. These illnesses are complex and heterogeneous, which is reflected by the complexity of the processes regulating mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are typically associated with energy production; however, dysfunction of mitochondria affects not only energy production but also vital cellular processes, including the formation of reactive oxygen species, cell cycle and survival, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and neurotransmission. In this review, we characterize the upstream components controlling mitochondrial function, including 1) mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, 2) mitochondrial dynamics, and 3) intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Characterizing and understanding the upstream factors that regulate mitochondrial function is essential to understand progression of these illnesses and develop biomarkers and therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T17:23:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716648297
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 8 (2016)
       
  • Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation System (OXPHOS) Deficits in
           Schizophrenia: Possible Interactions with Cellular Processes
    • Authors: Bergman, O; Ben-Shachar, D.
      Pages: 457 - 469
      Abstract: Mitochondria are key players in the generation and regulation of cellular bioenergetics, producing the majority of adenosine triphosphate molecules by the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Linked to numerous signaling pathways and cellular functions, mitochondria, and OXPHOS in particular, are involved in neuronal development, connectivity, plasticity, and differentiation. Impairments in a variety of mitochondrial functions have been described in different general and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ), a severe, chronic, debilitating illness that heavily affects the lives of patients and their families. This article reviews findings emphasizing the role of OXPHOS in the pathophysiology of SCZ. Evidence accumulated during the past few decades from imaging, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies points at OXPHOS deficit involvement in SCZ. Abnormalities have been reported in high-energy phosphates generated by the OXPHOS, in the activity of its complexes and gene expression, primarily of complex I (CoI). In addition, cellular signaling such as cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca+2, neuronal development, connectivity, and plasticity have been linked to OXPHOS function and are reported to be impaired in SCZ. Finally, CoI has been shown as a site of interaction for both dopamine (DA) and antipsychotic drugs, further substantiating its role in the pathology of SCZ. Understanding the role of mitochondria and the OXPHOS in particular may encourage new insights into the pathophysiology and etiology of this debilitating disorder.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T17:23:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716648290
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 8 (2016)
       
  • Cost-Effectiveness Results for Early Psychosis Intervention Programs Are
           Influenced by the Perspective Taken
    • Authors: Jacobs; P.
      Pages: 470 - 470
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T17:23:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716649924
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 8 (2016)
       
  • Potential Effects of the Choice of Costing Perspective on Cost Estimates:
           An Example Based on 6 Early Psychosis Intervention Programs
    • Authors: Dewa, C. S; Trojanowski, L, Cheng, C, Hoch, J. S.
      Pages: 471 - 479
      Abstract: Objective: Because health care resources are constrained, decision-making processes often require clarifying the potential costs and savings associated with different options. This involves calculating a program’s costs. The chosen costing perspective defines the costs to be considered and can ultimately influence decisions. Yet reviews of the literature suggest little attention has been paid to the perspective in economic evaluations. This article’s purpose is to explore how the costing perspective can affect cost estimates. Method: As a vehicle for our discussion, we use service use data for clients enrolled in 6 Ontario early psychosis intervention programs. Governmental and nongovernmental payer costing perspectives are considered. We examine annual costs associated with early psychosis intervention clients enrolled for ≤12 months versus those enrolled for >12 months. This also allows for an assessment of the impact that choice of time horizon can make on the results. Results: The difference in total between group cost for hospital, emergency room, and physicians is $2499; the >12-month group has relatively higher mean costs. When all governmental and nongovernmental costs are considered, there is a mean between-group cost difference of $1272, with lower mean costs for the >12-month group. Conclusions: Although the Ministry of Health bears a large proportion of costs, other governmental agencies and the private sector can incur a sizeable share. This example demonstrates the potential importance of including other cost perspectives with the hospital sector in analyses as well as the impact of time horizon on cost estimates.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T17:23:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716639917
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 8 (2016)
       
  • Perceived Stigma among Recipients of Mental Health Care in the General
           Canadian Population
    • Authors: Patten, S. B; Williams, J. V. A, Lavorato, D. H, Bulloch, A. G. M, Charbonneau, M, Gautam, M, Moss, P, Abbey, S, Stuart, H.
      Pages: 480 - 488
      Abstract: Objectives: The Mental Health Experiences Scale is a measure of perceived stigma, the perception of negative attitudes and behaviours by people with mental disorders. A recent Canadian survey (Canadian Community Health Survey–Mental Health) included this scale, providing an opportunity to describe perceived stigma in relation to diagnosis for the first time in the Canadian general population. Methods: The survey interview began with an assessment of whether respondents had utilised services for an "emotional or mental health problem" in the preceding 12 months. The subset reporting service utilisation were asked whether others "held negative opinions" about them or "treated them unfairly" for reasons related to their mental health. The analysis reported here used frequencies, means, cross-tabulation, and logistic regression, all incorporating recommended replicate sampling weights and bootstrap variance estimation procedures. Results: Stigma was perceived by 24.4% of respondents accessing mental health services. The frequency was higher among younger respondents (
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T17:23:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716639928
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 8 (2016)
       
  • Continuity between DSM-5 Categorical Criteria and Traits Criteria for
           Borderline Personality Disorder
    • Authors: Bach, B; Sellbom, M.
      Pages: 489 - 494
      Abstract: Objective: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) includes a heterogeneous constellation of symptoms operationalized with 9 categorical criteria. As the field of personality disorder (PD) research moves to emphasize dimensional traits in its operationalization, it is important to delineate continuity between the 9 DSM-IV/Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorical criteria for BPD and the trait dimensions in DSM-5 Section III. To date, no study has attempted such validation. Methods: We examined the associations between the 9 categorical DSM-IV/DSM-5 criteria for BPD and the trait dimensions of the alternative DSM-5 model for PDs in consecutively recruited psychiatric outpatients (N = 142; 68% female; age: mean 29.02, SD 8.38). This was investigated by means of bivariate correlations, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The categorical BPD criteria were associated with conceptually related DSM-5 Section III traits (P > 0.001), except for the criterion of chronic feelings of emptiness. Consistent with the proposed traits criteria for BPD in DSM-5 Section III, we found Emotional lability, Anxiousness, Separation insecurity, Depressivity, Impulsivity, Risk taking, and Hostility to capture conceptually coherent BPD categorical criteria, while Suspiciousness was also strongly associated with BPD criteria. At the domain level, this applied to Negative affectivity, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. Notably, Emotional lability, Impulsivity, and Suspiciousness emerged as unique predictors of BPD (P > 0.05). Conclusions: In addition to the proposed BPD traits criteria, Suspiciousness and features of Psychoticism also augment BPD features. Provided that these findings are replicated in forthcoming research, a modified traits operationalization of BPD is warranted.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T17:23:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0706743716640756
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 8 (2016)
       
 
 
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