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Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health    [8 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 2210-6006
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2556 journals]   [SJR: 0.105]   [H-I: 2]
  • Prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus infection types
           16/18/45 in a cohort of French females aged 15–23years
    • Authors: Ariane Baudu; Jean-Luc Prétet, Didier Riethmuller, Morgane Chotard, Christiane Mougin, Mariette Mercier
      Pages: 35 - 43
      Abstract: Abstract: Investigation of the prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the basis for developing prophylactic strategies against cervical cancer, especially for young women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of HPV infection among a cohort of sexually active young French women eligible for catch-up vaccination. Between 1997 and 2007, 2163 women aged 15–23years attending consultations at the department of gynecology in the Hospital of Besançon (France) were screened for high risk HPV (HR HPV) infection. Risk factors were investigated through a questionnaire sent to all participants in 2010. HPV DNA was detected by HC2 and Probe Set assays. The overall prevalence for HR HPV and HPV16, 18 and/or HPV45 was 44.6% (95% CI, 42.5–46.7%) and 19% (95% CI, 17.3–20.7%), respectively. The response rate to the questionnaire was 22.6%. The prevalence of independent risk factors (age older than 19, smoking, and oral contraception) for HPV 16/18/45 infection in this population was less than 20%. Based on this study, HPV vaccination should be offered not only to teenage girls, but also to young women, regardless of their sexual activity.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 1 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-01-27
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Availability of results from clinical research: Failing policy efforts
    • Authors: Tatyana A. Shamliyan; Robert L. Kane
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: : Objectives: Trial registration has a great potential to increase research transparency and public access to research results. This study examined the availability of results either in journal publications or in the trial registry from all studies registered at ClinicalTrials.gov.Methods: All 137,612 records from ClinicalTrials.gov in December 2012 were merged with all 19,158 PubMed records containing registration numbers in the indexing field or in the abstracts. A multivariate analysis was conducted to examine the association between the availability of the results with study and participant characteristics available in registration records.Results: Fewer than 10% of the registered studies and 15% of the registered and completed studies had published results. The highest publication rate of 22.4% was for randomized trials completed between 2005 (starting year for structured indexing in PubMed of study registration) and 2010. For 86% of overall and 78% of completed registered studies, no results were available in ClinicalTrials.gov or in journal publications. Studies funded by industry vs. other funding sources and drug studies vs. all studies of other interventions were published less often after adjustment for study type, subject characteristics, or posting of results in ClinicalTrials.gov.Conclusion: Existing policy does not ensure availability of results from clinical research. International policy revisions should charge principal investigators with ensuring that the approved protocols and posted data elements are aligned and that results are available from all conducted studies.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 1 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-09-25
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Socioeconomic status and obesity in Cairo, Egypt: A heavy burden for all
    • Authors: Mona Mowafi; Zeinab Khadr, Ichiro Kawachi, S.V. Subramanian, Allan Hill, Gary G. Bennett
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Abstract: Studies have generally shown a positive association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in low-income countries, but few have tested this relationship in the Middle East where obesity prevalence is extraordinarily high and the nutrition profile more closely resembles developed world contexts. The objective of this study is to examine the SES-obesity association in Cairo, Egypt.Multinomial regression analyses were conducted and predicted probabilities were found for overweight and obesity status among adult men and women in a stratified analysis. Data were taken from the 2007 Cairo Urban Inequity Study which collected information on 3993 individuals from 50 neighborhoods in the Cairo Governorate. Five different measures of SES were utilized – education, household expenditures, household assets, subjective wealth, and father’s education. No significant associations were found between most measures of SES and overweight/obesity in this population. Overweight and obesity are prevalent across the SES spectrum.These findings suggest that obesity programs and policies should be targeted at all SES groups in Cairo, although specific mechanisms may vary by SES and should be explored further in future studies.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 1 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-10-18
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Cardiovascular disease research output in WHO priority areas between 2002
           and 2011
    • Authors: Laura Myers; Shanthi Mendis
      Pages: 23 - 28
      Abstract: Abstract: Approximately 17.3 million people died from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2008, and approximately 80% came from low- and middle-income countries. However, previous studies document poor research productivity related to CVD prevention and treatment in these countries between 1991 and 1996. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a prioritized research agenda emphasizing research on policy development, translation of knowledge and implementation. This study assessed whether research output in priority areas increased between 2002 and 2011. It was reported that only 3–4% of papers from each year related to a priority area, and most were conducted by corresponding authors from high-income countries. Low-income countries were highly underrepresented both in terms of productivity and as the study population. However, there was a significant rise in the productivity of middle-income countries and their representation as the study population. While 30% of priority-related papers addressed a cost-effective strategy, this represents 1% of papers overall. More cost-effectiveness research is encouraged to decrease the millions of deaths per year attributed to CVD in the developing world.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 1 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-11-25
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Measuring the accuracy of a point system to diagnose tuberculosis in
           children with a negative smear or with no smear or culture
    • Authors: Constantino Giovani Braga Cartaxo; Laura C. Rodrigues, Carolina Pinheiro Braga, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes
      Pages: 29 - 34
      Abstract: Abstract: In Brazil, a scoring system was adopted to diagnose tuberculosis in childhood. This study determined the accuracy in diagnosing tuberculosis in children with either a negative smear or with no smear or culture conducted in a reference center in João Pessoa Paraíba – Brazil. It is a phase III validation study, using a cross-section design. The study population consisted of 167 patients attending the outpatient clinics suspected of having tuberculosis. The reference standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis was a blind and independent review of the medical records, radiology and tuberculin test by two experts. Of the 167 patients, 60 were considered to have tuberculosis (by the reference standard diagnostics). The results for the scoring system with the cut-off of 30 points were: sensitivity 78.57% (95%-CI: 65.56–88.41%), specificity 69.16% (95%-CI: 59.50–77.73%), positive predictive value (PPV): 57.14% (95%-CI: 45.35–68.37%), negative predictive value (NPV): 86.05% (95%-CI: 76.89–92.58%), likelihood ratio (+): 2,55, pre-test probability: 34.36%, and post-test probability (+): 57.14%. This supports the current recommendation for the use of this scoring system in Brazil and similar sites with the cut-off of 30 points. However, as the discriminatory power of the point scoring system may vary across settings, it would be advisable to replicate this phase III study in different settings.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 1 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Comparison of Tuberculin Skin Test result and interferon gamma response to
           human PPD in BCG scar positive and negative children
    • Authors: Shirin Sayyahfar; Abdollah Karimi, Alireza Fahimzad, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri
      Pages: 45 - 50
      Abstract: Abstract: Background: The aim of this study is to compare Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) result and interferon gamma response to human PPD (purified protein derivative), in scar positive and scar negative BCG-vaccinated children.Methods: Between August 2007 and May 2008 a total of 236 children aged 1–168months (mean 21months) admitted to Mofid Children’s Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Each patient was examined for BCG vaccine scar and tested with TST and human PPD-based Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA).Results: Two hundred and twenty one cases out of 236 (44% female, 1–168months, mean age 21months) were scar positive of whom 95% TST result was negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 110 (49.8%), negative in 85 (38.4 %) and indeterminate in 26 (11.8%) of scar positive patients.Fifteen children (40% female, 1–156months; mean age 42months) were scar negative. All the scar negative cases were TST negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 10 (66.7%), negative in 4 (26.7%) and indeterminate in 1 (6.7%) of scar negative patients.Conclusions: Immune responsiveness to human PPD antigens in scar positive and negative children may not correspond with results of the Tuberculin Skin Test.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 1 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-10-10
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala
           2008–2012: Results from a facility-based surveillance system
    • Authors: Stephen R. Benoit; Beatriz Lopez, Wences Arvelo, Olga Henao, Michele B. Parsons, Lissette Reyes, Juan Carlos Moir, Kim Lindblade
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Abstract: Introduction: Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala.Methods: Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ⩾3 antimicrobial classes.Results: Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 1 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-11-14
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Terrorism, civil war and related violence and substance use disorder
           morbidity and mortality: A global analysis
    • Authors: Bradley T. Kerridge; Maria R. Khan, Jürgen Rehm, Amir Sapkota
      Pages: 61 - 72
      Abstract: Abstract: Introduction: The purpose of this study is to examine associations between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war, and one-sided violence from 1994–2000 and substance use disorder disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).Methods: The relationship between terrorism, and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality among World Health Organization Member States in 2002, controlling for adult per capita alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, and economic variables at baseline in 1994.Results: Deaths as a result of terrorism and related violence were related to substance use disorder DALYs: a 1.0% increase in deaths as a result of terrorism, war and one-sided violence was associated with an increase of between 0.10% and 0.12% in alcohol and drug use disorder DALYs. Associations were greater among males and 15–44year-old.Conclusion: Terrorism, war and one-sided violence may influence morbidity and mortality attributable to substance use disorders in the longer-term suggests that more attention to be given to rapid assessment and treatment of substance use disorders in conflict-affected populations with due consideration of gender and age differences that may impact treatment outcomes in these settings. Priorities should be established to rebuild substance abuse treatment infrastructures and treat the many physical and mental comorbid disorders.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 1 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2013)
       
 
 
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