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Journal Cover Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
  [SJR: 0.471]   [H-I: 7]   [9 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2210-6006
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Predictors of healthcare seeking delays among children with chronic
           musculoskeletal disorders in Nepal

    • Authors: Drake G. LeBrun; Divya Talwar; Tuyetnhi A. Pham; Bibek Banskota; David A. Spiegel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Drake G. LeBrun, Divya Talwar, Tuyetnhi A. Pham, Bibek Banskota, David A. Spiegel
      Background Healthcare seeking behaviors among children with musculoskeletal disorders are poorly understood. We sought to analyze healthcare seeking delays among children with chronic musculoskeletal conditions in Nepal and identify predictors of clinically significant delays. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large pediatric musculoskeletal rehabilitation center in Nepal. Baseline sociodemographic data and healthcare seeking behaviors were assessed via interviews with 75 randomly selected caregivers. Delays of at least 3 months between disease recognition and presentation to a health worker were considered clinically significant. Predictors of significant delay were assessed via multivariable logistic regression. Results Clubfoot was the most common condition seen in the study sample (N = 33; 37%). Mean and median presentation delays were 33 months and 14 months, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of children were delayed at least 3 months and 40% were delayed at least 2 years. Caregiver occupation in agriculture or unskilled labor was associated with an increased risk of delayed presentation (adjusted OR = 4.05; 95% CI: 1.36–12.09). Conclusions Children with chronic musculoskeletal disorders in Nepal face significant delays in accessing healthcare. This poses a major clinical problem as the delayed diagnosis and treatment of childhood musculoskeletal disorders can complicate management options and decrease long-term quality of life.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.10.002
  • A 360-degree view of an ancient killer disease

    • Authors: Sarah E. Ahlbrand; Madhukar Pai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Sarah E. Ahlbrand, Madhukar Pai

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.10.003
  • Prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among
           human-immunodeficiency-virus-seropositive patients and their treatment

    • Authors: C.K. Vidyaraj; A. Chitra; S. Smita; M. Muthuraj; S. Govindarajan; B. Usharani; S. Anbazhagi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): C.K. Vidyaraj, A. Chitra, S. Smita, M. Muthuraj, S. Govindarajan, B. Usharani, S. Anbazhagi
      Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) are a threat to the TB control programs in developing countries, and the situation is worsened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study was performed to correlate treatment outcome with the resistance patterns in HIV-seropositive patients coinfected with pulmonary TB. Sputum specimens were collected from 1643 HIV-seropositive patients and subjected to microscopy and liquid culture for TB. The smear- and culture-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were subjected to Genotype MTBDRplus assay version 2.0. The M. tuberculosis culture-positivity rate was 39.44% (648/1643) among the 1643 HIV-seropositive patients and the overall MDR-TB rate was 5.6% (36/648). There were 421 newly diagnosed and 227 previously treated patients, among whom, MDR-TB was associated with 2.9% and 10.57% cases, respectively. The rate of rifampicin monoresistant TB among the cases of MDR-TB was 2.31% (15/648) and the rate of combined rifampicin and isoniazid resistance was 3.24% (21/648). The cure and death rates among the 20 registered cases were 30% (6/20) and 35% (7/20), respectively. Five cases were on treatment and two cases were defaulters among the 20 registered cases. High death rate (13, 36.1%, 95% confidence interval 20.8–53.8) was observed in this study among the patients who had mutations at the 530–533 codons. The present study emphasized the prerequisite to monitor the trend of drug-resistant TB in various mutant populations in order to timely implement appropriate interventions to curb the threat of MDR-TB.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:24:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.09.002
  • Characterization of SCCmec and spa types of methicillin-resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus isolates from health-care and community-acquired
           infections in Kerman, Iran

    • Authors: Yaser Fasihi; Somayeh Kiaei; Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Yaser Fasihi, Somayeh Kiaei, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
      Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is a worldwide problem. Molecular typing is a useful tool to understand MRSA epidemiology. Herein, we determined vancomycin-resistant, SCCmec and spa types among MRSA isolates recovered from healthcare and community-acquired infections in Kerman, Iran. A total of 170 S. aureus isolates were collected from different patients who were admitted to affiliated hospitals of Kerman University of Medical science. MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) isolates were detected by phenotypic methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for detection of mecA, vanA and vanB genes. Staphylococcal cassette chromosomemec (SCCmec) and spa typing were used for molecular typing of among MRSA isolates. Overall, 53% of isolates were considered as MRSA. Two MRSA isolates were resistant to vancomycin and vanA was detected in only one of VRSA isolates. SCCmec type III belonged to spa types t030 and t459 which they were the dominant spa types among community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and healthcare-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates. Our findings showed that the SCCmec type I and III spread from hospital settings to community, although the SCCmec type IV spread from community to healthcare systems. We have also reported VRSA isolates from hospitalized patients, therefore, appropriate policies should be enforced in order to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance isolates in hospitals settings.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.08.004
  • Prenatal care utilization in Zimbabwe: Examining the role of
           community-level factors

    • Authors: Marshall Makate; Clifton Makate
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Marshall Makate, Clifton Makate
      This paper assesses the importance of community-level factors on prenatal care utilization in Zimbabwe. The analysis is performed using data from the two most recent rounds of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11 linked with other community-level data. We use logistic, generalized linear regressions as well as multilevel mixed models to examine the factors associated with the frequency, timing and quality of prenatal care. Our results suggest that contraceptive prevalence, religious composition, density of nurses, health expenditures per capita and availability of government hospitals in communities are important predictors of prenatal care use in Zimbabwe. These findings have important implications for public health policy in Zimbabwe – a country with unfavorable maternal and child health outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T09:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.08.005
  • ‘Before reaching the last mile’- Knowledge, attitude, practice and
           perceived barriers related to tuberculosis directly observed therapy among
           ASHA workers in Central India: A mixed method study

    • Authors: Akash Ranjan Singh; Abhijit Pakhare; Arun M. Kokane; Hemant Deepak Shewade; Ashish Chauhan; Abhishek Singh; Arti Gangwar; Prahlad Singh Thakur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Akash Ranjan Singh, Abhijit Pakhare, Arun M. Kokane, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ashish Chauhan, Abhishek Singh, Arti Gangwar, Prahlad Singh Thakur
      Introduction Community-based direct observed treatment (DOT) providers are an important bridge for the national tuberculosis programme in India to reach the unreached. The present study has explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers perceived by the community-based DOT providers. Methods Mixed–methods study design was used among 41 community-based DOT providers (Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHAs)) working in 67 villages from a primary health center in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional quantitative component assessed the knowledge and practices and three focus-group discussions explored the attitude and perceived barriers related to DOT provision. Result ‘Adequate knowledge’ and ‘satisfactory practice’ related to DOT provision was seen in 14 (34%) and 13 (32%) ASHAs respectively. Only two (5%) received any amount of honorarium for completion of DOT in last 3years. The focus-group discussions revealed unfavourable attitude; inadequate training and supervision, non-payment of honorarium, issues related to assured services after referral and patient related factors as the barriers to satisfactory practice of DOT. Conclusion Study revealed inadequate knowledge and unsatisfactory practice related to DOT provision among ASHAs. Innovations addressing the perceived barriers to improve practice of DOT provision by ASHAs are urgently required.

      PubDate: 2017-08-19T08:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.07.002
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis in Patna, India: Durations, delays, and health care
           seeking behaviour among patients identified through household surveys

    • Authors: Nerges Mistry; Eunice Lobo; Shimoni Shah; Sheela Rangan; Yatin Dholakia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Nerges Mistry, Eunice Lobo, Shimoni Shah, Sheela Rangan, Yatin Dholakia

      PubDate: 2017-08-19T08:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.08.001
  • Assessment of metabolic syndrome in Kashmiri population with type 2
           diabetes employing the standard criteria’s given by WHO, NCEPATP III and

    • Authors: Shafat Lone; Kouser Lone; Saika Khan; Rafiq Ahmed Pampori
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Shafat Lone, Kouser Lone, Saika Khan, Rafiq Ahmed Pampori
      Background Around 20–25 percent of the world’s adult populations have the metabolic syndrome and they are twice as likely to die from heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. The World Health Organization proposed a definition for the metabolic syndrome in 1998 and later on NCEP ATPIII and IDF provided new definitions of this syndrome in 2001 and 2003 respectively. Very few studies have compared the different definitions to diagnose the metabolic syndrome in type two diabetics in India while as for Kashmir valley no such documented study has been carried out till date. Objective To study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 Kashmir diabetics and to find out the degree of agreement between three different criteria given by WHO, NCEPATPIII and IDF for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Method A cross sectional study was conducted in one of the two tertiary care hospitals of Kashmir, India. About 1000 patients were selected and their demographic, clinical and biochemical parameters were studied after obtaining informed consent from each patient. Results Prevalance of metabolic syndrome was found to be highest(84.5%) while using WHO definition.Kappa statistic between WHO, ATP III and WHO, IDF definitions was 0.697 (95% CI 0.637-0.754) and 0.775 (95%CI 0.72–0.82) respectively while the degree of agreement between IDF and ATP III definitions was highest with kappa of 0.851 (95%CI 0.810–0.889). Conclusion Our study warrants for interventions to prevent the progression towards this syndrome among type 2 diabetics as early as the diagnosis of diabetes is made.

      PubDate: 2017-08-19T08:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.07.004
  • Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli infections among the children of Andaman
           Islands with special reference to pathotype distribution and clinical

    • Authors: .P Ramya Raghavan; Subarna Roy; Ramanathan Thamizhmani; Attayur Purushothaman Sugunan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): .P Ramya Raghavan, Subarna Roy, Ramanathan Thamizhmani, Attayur Purushothaman Sugunan
      Diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC) is one of the most common causes of diarrhoeal death in children less than five years globally. It is responsible for 30%–40% of all diarrhoeal episodes in developing countries. It is estimated that 0.12million children died of diarrhoea caused by DEC in 2011 globally. There is no baseline data on the occurrence of DEC diarrhoea in Andaman Islands, the remote islands of India. The study is particularly important as these strains are the emerging enteric pathogen in both developed and developing countries. DEC was screened from E. coli isolates obtained from diarrhoeal stool samples by multiplex PCR with specific primers using stasndard protocols. During the study period, among the 1394 stool samples collected, 95 (6.82%) patients were found infected with DEC. Of the 97 isolates from 95 patients, 68 (70.1%) were EAEC, 19 (19.6%) were EPEC and 10 (10.3%) were ETEC. Of the 19 EPEC isolates, 63.2% were atypical EPEC which is the emerging enteric pathogen among the children in developing as well as developed countries. More than 80% of the patients had watery diarrhoea and 6% of them had invasive diarrhoea. Persistent diarrhoea was also found in three infected children. This study documents the occurrence and type of DEC diarrhoea in Andaman Islands first time and highlights the significant proportions of E. coli diarrhoea being caused by EAEC and atypical EPEC strains.

      PubDate: 2017-08-08T19:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.07.003
  • Occupational stress, anxiety and depression among Egyptian teachers

    • Authors: Dalia Desouky; Heba Allam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Dalia Desouky, Heba Allam
      Occupational stress (OS) among teachers predispose to depression and anxiety. No study was done to assess these problems among Egyptian teachers. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of OS, depression and anxiety among Egyptian teachers. A cross sectional study was done on 568 Egyptian teachers. The respondents filled a questionnaire on personal data, and the Arabic version of the Occupational Stress Index (OSI), the Arabic validated versions of Taylor manifest anxiety scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess OS, anxiety and depression respectively. The prevalence of OS, anxiety and depression among teachers was (100%, 67.5% and 23.2%) respectively. OS, anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher among teachers with an age more than 40years, female teachers, primary school teachers, those with inadequate salary, higher teaching experience, higher qualifications and higher workload. A significant weak positive correlation was found between OS scores and anxiety and depression scores. This study indicated the need for future researches to address risk factors of OS and mental disorders among Egyptian teachers, and the need of periodical medical evaluation of teachers and medical and psychological support for the identified cases.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T17:41:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.06.002
  • Is Google Trends a reliable tool for digital epidemiology? Insights from
           different clinical settings

    • Authors: Gianfranco Cervellin; Ivan Comelli; Giuseppe Lippi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Gianfranco Cervellin, Ivan Comelli, Giuseppe Lippi
      Internet-derived information has been recently recognized as a valuable tool for epidemiological investigation. Google Trends, a Google Inc. portal, generates data on geographical and temporal patterns according to specified keywords. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of Google Trends in different clinical settings, both for both common diseases with lower media coverage, and for less common diseases attracting major media coverage. We carried out a search in Google Trends using the keywords “renal colic”, “epistaxis”, and “mushroom poisoning”, selected on the basis of available and reliable epidemiological data. Besides this search, we carried out a second search for three clinical conditions (i.e., “meningitis”, “Legionella Pneumophila pneumonia”, and “Ebola fever”), which recently received major focus by the Italian media. In our analysis, no correlation was found between data captured from Google Trends and epidemiology of renal colics, epistaxis and mushroom poisoning. Only when searching for the term “mushroom” alone the Google Trends search generated a seasonal pattern which almost overlaps with the epidemiological profile, but this was probably mostly due to searches for harvesting and cooking rather than to for poisoning. The Google Trends data also failed to reflect the geographical and temporary patterns of disease for meningitis, Legionella Pneumophila pneumonia and Ebola fever. The results of our study confirm that Google Trends has modest reliability for defining the epidemiology of relatively common diseases with minor media coverage, or relatively rare diseases with higher audience. Overall, Google Trends seems to be more influenced by the media clamor than by true epidemiological burden.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T14:09:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.06.001
  • Frequency and implications of ofloxacin resistance among previously
           treated tuberculosis patients

    • Authors: Jyoti Arora; Gavish Kumar; Ajoy Kumar Verma; Manpreet Bhalla; Ritu Singhal; Rohit Sarin; Vithal Prasad Myneedu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Jyoti Arora, Gavish Kumar, Ajoy Kumar Verma, Manpreet Bhalla, Ritu Singhal, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T12:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.05.003
  • The prevalence and association of stress with sleep quality among medical

    • Authors: Abdullah I. Almojali; Sami A. Almalki; Ali S. Alothman; Emad M. Masuadi; Meshal K. Alaqeel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Abdullah I. Almojali, Sami A. Almalki, Ali S. Alothman, Emad M. Masuadi, Meshal K. Alaqeel
      Introduction Medical students tend to reduce their sleep, in an effort to adjust and cope with their workload and stressful environment. This study estimated the prevalence of and the relationship between poor sleep quality and stress among medical students. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sample of male and female medical students in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the stress level by using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Results A high prevalence of poor sleep quality (76%) and stress (53%) were found, with a statistically significant association (p<0.001). Logistic regression indicated that students who are not suffering from stress are less likely to have poor sleep quality (OR=0.28, p<0.001), and the risk of having poor sleep quality is almost four times higher in students whose cumulative grade point average (GPA) is less than 4.25 (OR=3.83, p=0.01). Conclusion The study documents a statistically significant association between stress and poor sleep quality. A recommendation for the management of medical college is to establish academic counseling centers focusing in promoting good sleep hygiene and strengthening students’ study skills and coping with their stressful environment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T20:52:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.04.005
  • Trends in lung cancer incidence in Lebanon by gender and histological type
           over the period 2005–2008

    • Authors: Sally Temraz; Maya Charafeddine; Deborah Mukherji; Ali Shamseddine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Sally Temraz, Maya Charafeddine, Deborah Mukherji, Ali Shamseddine
      Introduction Lung cancer incidence rates, overall and by histologic subtypes, vary substantially by gender and smoking. This study’s aim was to review data regarding trends in the number of cases of different lung-cancer histologies and relate these to smoking habits by gender in Lebanon. Materials and methods Lung cancer data using ICD-O, 3rd edition, from the Lebanese National Cancer Registry from 2005 to 2008 were stratified by gender for histology type for patients aged over 18years. Results Lung cancer cases among males were 2.5 times higher than those in females. The most common lung cancer histology type for males and females was adenocarcinoma for all observed years. The proportion of squamous cell carcinoma in incident cases was significantly higher in males than in females for the total period from 2005 to 2008, P=0.032, but not in individual years. The ratio of adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma in incident cases between 2005 and 2008 was 2:45 for males and 3:15 for females. Conclusion Lung cancer histology in Lebanon is following a pattern similar to that found in most countries of North America and in Europe, where adenocarcinoma is the most prevalent subtype among both males and females.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T20:18:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.04.003
  • Determination of carbapenem resistance mechanism in clinical isolates of
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients, in Tehran, Iran

    • Authors: Akbar Mirsalehian; Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki; Morovat Taherikalani; Fereshteh Jabalameli; Mohammad Emaneini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Akbar Mirsalehian, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Morovat Taherikalani, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Mohammad Emaneini
      Carbapenems are the most important therapeutic options that effect against serious infections caused by multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) isolates. Carbapenems resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the carbapenem resistance mechanisms in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates from burn patients, in Tehran, Iran. A total of 53 non-duplicated isolates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were collected from burn patients. The presence of carbapenemase genes were determined by PCR. AmpC overproducer isolates were detected by phenotypic method. The mutation and transcription level of oprD were determined by PCR-sequencing and quantitative Real-time PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. Twenty-seven (50.9%) isolates were positive for carbapenemase (bla VIM =25 and bla IMP =2) and showed high-level resistance to imipenem and meropenem. Twenty-eight isolates were AmpC overproducers. All isolates had a mutation in the oprD gene and down-regulation of oprD was found in 56.6% of MDR-PA isolates. Although the presence of carbapenemase is the common mechanism of resistant to carbapenem, but carbapenem resistance was found by oprD mutation-driven and the AmpC overproducing isolates in Tehran, Iran.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T20:18:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.04.002
  • Investigation of OMNIgene·SPUTUM performance in delayed tuberculosis
           testing by smear, culture, and Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/RIF assays
           in Uganda

    • Authors: Cassandra Kelly-Cirino; P.S. Curry
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Cassandra D. Kelly-Cirino, P.S. Curry
      OMNIgene·SPUTUM (OM-S) is a sample transport reagent designed to work with all tuberculosis diagnostics while eliminating the need for cold chain. OM-S-treated sputum samples were assayed in several tests after multiday holds. Raw sputa from 100 patients underwent direct smear microscopy, were manually split and assigned to the OM-S group [OM-S added at collection (no other processing required) and tested after 0- to 5-day holds at room temperature] or standard-of-care (SOC) group (NaOH/N-acetyl l-cysteine decontamination, all tested on day of collection). Concentrated smear microscopy, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) culture, and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture were performed. For patients with negative direct smear, a second sample was split, with SOC (raw sputum) and OM-S portions (sediment) tested in the Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/RIF (Xpert) assay. OM-S group and SOC group results were strongly concordant on all four tests [range, 89% (MGIT)–97% (Xpert)]. OM-S MGIT, LJ, and Xpert tests were in statistical agreement with SOC MGIT as reference. OM-S specimens had lower culture contamination rates (3% vs. 10% LJ; 2% vs. 5% MGIT) but required, on average, 5.6 additional days to become MGIT-positive. The findings suggest that samples held/transported in OM-S are compatible with smear microscopy, LJ or MGIT culture, and Xpert, and perform comparably to fresh sputum samples. Larger feasibility studies are warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-04-14T09:13:15Z
  • Sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia: A challenge or not

    • Authors: Maha Mohammed Alotaibi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Maha Mohammed Alotaibi

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:54:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.12.006
  • Predictors of hepatitis C testing intention among African American Baby

    • Authors: Mohamed Rashrash; Mary Maneno; Anthony Wutoh; Earl Ettienne; Monika Daftary
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Mohamed Rashrash, Mary Maneno, Anthony Wutoh, Earl Ettienne, Monika Daftary
      Baby Boomers (BBs) are responsible for three-quarters of hepatitis C (HCV) infections in the United States; however, HCV testing is distinctly underused by them. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of HCV testing and to evaluate predictors of HCV testing intention among African–American BBs. The study was guided by the Health Belief Model and theory of reasoned action frameworks. Of the 137 participants included in the study, 44.8% had at least a college education; 13.9% received prior to 1992 blood transfusion. Findings related to HCV testing showed that 32.1% of the participants intended to test for HCV within 6months and 43.8% had received a previous HCV test. Significant predictors of HCV testing intention within 6months included having a blood transfusion prior to 1992 [odds ratio (OR)=8.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.02–33.61], perceptions of benefits (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.13–2.18), severity (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.17–1.65), and subjective norms (OR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.12–1.79). These predictors of HCV testing intention can be used to develop future HCV testing initiatives for African–American BBs.

      PubDate: 2017-02-20T03:15:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.12.005
  • New tuberculosis estimates must motivate countries to act

    • Authors: Madhukar Pai; Ziad A. Memish
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Madhukar Pai, Ziad A. Memish

      PubDate: 2017-02-20T03:15:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2017.02.001
  • Incidence and economic burden of acute otitis media in children aged up to
           5years in three Middle Eastern countries and Pakistan: A multinational,
           retrospective, observational study

    • Authors: Ghulam Mustafa; Amal Y. Al Aidaroos; Idris S. Al Abaidani; Kinga Meszaros; Kusuma Gopala; Mehmet Ceyhan; Mohamad Al-Tannir; Rodrigo DeAntonio; Shyam Bawikar; Johannes E. Schmidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Ghulam Mustafa, Amal Y. Al Aidaroos, Idris S. Al Abaidani, Kinga Meszaros, Kusuma Gopala, Mehmet Ceyhan, Mohamad Al-Tannir, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Shyam Bawikar, Johannes E. Schmidt
      Epidemiological data on acute otitis media (AOM), an infectious disease frequently affecting children, are lacking in some countries. This study was undertaken to assess the incidence of AOM in children ≤5years in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Pakistan, and Turkey, as well as the economic burden from a parent/caregiver perspective. Medical records of 4043 children (Saudi Arabia=1023, Oman=998, Pakistan=1022, Turkey=1000) were retrospectively reviewed and the incidence of AOM episodes calculated from suspected and confirmed cases. Using a standardized Health Economics Questionnaire, parents recorded resource use and expenses incurred per AOM episode [in local currency and converted to US dollars (USD)]. The overall incidence of AOM episodes per 1000 person–years was: Saudi Arabia, 207 [95% confidence interval (CI): 178–238]; Oman, 105 (95% CI: 85–127); Pakistan, 138 (95% CI: 116–163); and Turkey, 99 (95% CI: 79–123). The mean total out-of-pocket healthcare expense incurred by parents/caregivers per episode was: Saudi Arabia USD67.1 [standard deviation (SD)=93.0], Oman USD16.1 (SD=16.4), Pakistan USD22.1 (SD=20.5), and Turkey USD33.6 (SD=44.9). The incidence of AOM episodes varied across all four countries, probably due to different diagnostic and management practices. Nevertheless, our results confirm that AOM causes a substantial burden to public health, reinforcing the need for cost-effective prevention strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T02:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.12.004
  • Drug resistance detection and mutation patterns of multidrug resistant
           tuberculosis strains from children in Delhi

    • Authors: Jyoti Arora; Ritu Singhal; Manpreet Bhalla; Ajoy Verma; Niti Singh; Digamber Behera; Rohit Sarin; Vithal Prasad Myneedu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Jyoti Arora, Ritu Singhal, Manpreet Bhalla, Ajoy Verma, Niti Singh, Digamber Behera, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
      A total of 312 sputum samples from pediatric patients presumptive of multidrug resistant tuberculosis were tested for the detection of drug resistance using the GenoTypeMTBDRplus assay. A total of 193 (61.8%) patients were smear positive and 119 (38.1%) were smear negative by Ziehl–Neelsen staining. A line probe assay was performed for 208 samples/cultures (193 smear positive samples and 15 cultures from smear negative samples). Valid results were obtained from 198 tests. Some 125/198 (63.1%) were sensitive to both rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH), while 73/198 (36.9%) were resistant to at least INH/RIF, out of which 49 (24.7%) were resistant to both INH and RIF (multidrug resistant). Children with tuberculosis are often infected by someone close to them, so strengthening of contact tracing in the program may help in early diagnosis to identify additional cases within the household. There is a need to evaluate newer diagnostic assays which have a high sensitivity in the case of smear negative samples, a need for additional samples other than sputum among young children not able to expectorate, and a need to fill the gap between estimated and reported cases under the program.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T02:23:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.12.003
  • Ecological correlations of dietary food intake and mental health disorders

    • Authors: Jordan Hoerr; Joshua Fogel; Benjamin Van Voorhees
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Jordan Hoerr, Joshua Fogel, Benjamin Van Voorhees
      This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and substance use disorders) with a country’s fish/seafood and sugar/sweetener supply quantity using the Spearman rank correlation. Data were compared for 17 countries across the world. Sugar and sweetener supply quantity was significantly and positively associated with anxiety disorders (rho=0.75, p =0.001), mood disorders (rho=0.75, p =0.001), impulse control disorders (rho=0.78, p =0.001), and substance use disorders (rho=0.68, p =0.007). Fish and seafood supply quantity had no significant association with any mental health disorders. Mental health disorders represent a significant health problem around the world. Public health measures aimed at improving the quality and availability of a nation’s food supply could have a significant positive impact on mental health. Further randomized studies are needed to further validate the study findings.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T16:46:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.12.001
  • Population-attributable fraction of hypertension associated with obesity
           and abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the Central
           Provinces of Iran

    • Authors: Masoud Mohammadi; Masoud Mirzaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Masoud Mohammadi, Masoud Mirzaei
      The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in Iran over the past decade. This study aimed to determine the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of hypertension associated with obesity and abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the central provinces of Iran. Prevalence of hypertension was extracted from the Iranian Ministry of Health Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor InfoBase 2009. Measure of association between obesity and hypertension was extracted from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, for men and women, in order to calculate the PAF of hypertension associated with obesity. Age standardization of the reported prevalence of obesity was done using a World Health Organization method. The PAF of hypertension associated with the joint effect of obesity and abdominal obesity in females was highest in Semnan Province: 22.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.2–35.6], followed by Qom 21.09 (95% CI: 3.7–33.1), and Yazd 20.3 (95% CI: 3.5–32.1). In males, the highest PAF was observed in Qom Province 31.07 (95% CI: 16.7–41.1), followed by Semnan 29.6 (95% CI: 15.9–39.3), Qazvin 25.9 (95% CI: 13.7–34.5), Tehran 24.2 (95% CI: 12.7–32.3), and Isfahan 20.4 (95% CI: 3.5–27.4). Prevalence of hypertension is higher in more developed provinces. PAFs suggest that a sizable share of hypertension in these provinces is associated with obesity. It is recommended that health promotion programs focus on obesity in the provinces with a higher share of hypertension due to obesity.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T11:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.11.002
  • Are we facing a noncommunicable disease pandemic?

    • Authors: Luke Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Luke Allen
      The global boom in premature mortality and morbidity from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) shares many similarities with pandemics of infectious diseases, yet public health professionals have resisted the adoption of this label. It is increasingly apparent that NCDs are actually communicable conditions, and although the vectors of disease are nontraditional, the pandemic label is apt. Arguing for a change in terminology extends beyond pedantry as the move carries serious implications for the public health community and the general public. Additional resources are unlocked once a disease reaches pandemic proportions and, as a long-neglected and underfunded group of conditions, NCDs desperately require a renewed sense of focus and political attention. This paper provides objections, definitions, and advantages to approaching the leading cause of global death through an alternative lens. A novel framework for managing NCDs is presented with reference to the traditional influenza pandemic response.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T15:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.11.001
  • A clinical study of cutaneous changes in pregnancy

    • Authors: Vinitha V. Panicker; Najeeba Riyaz; P.K. Balachandran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Vinitha V. Panicker, Najeeba Riyaz, P.K. Balachandran
      Background/objective Pregnant women experience a myriad of physiological and metabolic changes that affect different organ systems in the body. Cutaneous and appendageal alterations that manifest during pregnancy are largely modulated by hormonal, immunologic, and metabolic factors. Detailed reports encompassing physiological changes and specific dermatoses of pregnancy and effects of various dermatoses on pregnant women are scanty in literature. This study was conducted to examine in detail both physiological changes and specific dermatoses. The cutaneous changes are divided into physiological changes, skin diseases aggravated by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. The objectives were to study the various cutaneous changes of pregnancy and to know the proportion of these cutaneous manifestations in pregnant women. Methods This study included 600 pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a tertiary teaching hospital in Northern Kerala, India. Detailed history elicitation and complete physical and dermatological examination were performed. Skin biopsy was performed in relevant cases. Results Cutaneous changes were seen in a majority of patients, of which physiological changes were the most common (99%). The most common cutaneous manifestation was hyperpigmentation (526; 87.6%), followed by striae gravidarum (72.8%). Other changes were vascular, including pedal edema (10%), pregnancy gingivitis (1.8%), and varicose veins (1%). Infections were the common dermatological problem in this study group. The most common infections were vulvovaginal candidiasis (21%), Tinea versicolor (6%), scabies (2.8%), dermatophytosis (1.5%), and sexually transmitted infection (0.5%). Specific dermatoses were seen in 12 cases (2%), with the most common being pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (1.3%). Conclusion Pregnant women are prone to suffer from a wide range of dermatological problems apart from specific dermatoses of pregnancy. The study emphasizes the need for a detailed and meticulous examination of these patients to detect these various disorders.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T15:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.10.002
  • Assessment of vitamin D levels, awareness among Lebanese pharmacy
           students, and impact of pharmacist counseling

    • Authors: Diana Malaeb; Souheil Hallit; Pascale Salameh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Diana Malaeb, Souheil Hallit, Pascale Salameh
      Vitamin D inadequacy, frequently underdiagnosed, affects people of all age groups worldwide. This prospective study aims at determining the percentage of inadequate vitamin D levels among students and evaluating the impact of pharmacist counseling on raising the awareness of the importance of sun exposure and adequate vitamin D intake. A total of 160 university students were recruited. Blood samples were taken to check the vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorous levels. Vitamin D levels ⩽30ng/mL were defined as inadequate. Scores were given to the questions and aimed at gathering patient knowledge about vitamin D before and after pharmacist counseling. A total of 115 (71.87%) patients had vitamin D levels <30ng/mL, with a mean vitamin D serum level of 16.80±5.85ng/mL. The mean level of calcium was 9.51±1.23mg/dL and, of phosphorus 3.62±0.95mg/dL. The mean difference in the knowledge score of the recommended daily amount of vitamin D before and after pharmacist counseling was 2.81 versus 5.88 (p <0.001). Concerning patient education for diseases and drugs that affect vitamin D levels, pharmacist counseling was effective in raising the awareness (p <0.001). Given that vitamin D inadequacy is linked to many disease progressions, it is important that health professionals provide interventional strategies and education measures to correct inadequate levels in patients of all age groups.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T04:51:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.09.001
  • Measuring a hidden population: A novel technique to estimate the
           population size of women with sexual violence-related pregnancies in South
           Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    • Authors: Lisa G. Johnston; Katherine R. McLaughlin; Shada A. Rouhani; Susan A. Bartels
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Lisa G. Johnston, Katherine R. McLaughlin, Shada A. Rouhani, Susan A. Bartels
      Successive sampling (SS)–population size estimation (PSE) is a technique used to estimate the sizes of hidden populations using data collected in respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys. We here assess past estimations and use new data from an RDS survey to calculate a new PSE. In 2012, 852 adult women in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, who self-identified as survivors of sexual violence, resulting in a pregnancy, since the start of the war (in 1996) were sampled using RDS. We used imputed visibility, enrollment order, and prior estimates for PSE using SS-PSE in RDS Analyst. Prior estimates varied between Congolese local experts and researchers. We calculated the PSE of women with a sexual violence-related pregnancy in South Kivu using researchers’ priors to be approximately 17,400. SS–PSE is an effective method for estimating the population sizes of hidden populations, useful for providing evidence for services and resource allocation. SS–PSE is beneficial because population sizes can be calculated after conducting the survey and do not rely on separate studies or additional data (as in network scale-up, multiplier, and capture-recapture methods).

      PubDate: 2016-09-25T02:51:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.08.003
  • Enhancing the role of pharmacists in the cascade of tuberculosis care

    • Authors: Amrita Daftary; Nita Jha; Madhukar Pai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Amrita Daftary, Nita Jha, Madhukar Pai

      PubDate: 2016-06-02T09:25:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.05.001
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