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Journal Cover Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
  [SJR: 0.142]   [H-I: 2]   [7 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2210-6006
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • A commentary of the article “Prevalence of Lebanese stroke
           survivors: A comparative pilot study” by N. Lahoud, P. Salameh, N.
           Saleh and H. Hosseini, published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Global
           Health on October 24th 2015

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Josué A. Lily Vidal

      PubDate: 2016-07-23T17:52:45Z
  • Peritoneal dialysis related peritonitis due to Mycobacterium spp.: A case
           report and review of literature

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Anusha Rohit, Georgi Abraham

      PubDate: 2016-07-18T16:43:32Z
  • The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and atopic markers in obstructive
           sleep apnea

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Ghadah Gadi, Siraj Wali, Emad Koshak, Mohammad Albar, Abdulkareem Fida, Muntasir Abdelaziz, Khaled Alnoury, Nabil Alama
      Allergic rhinitis (AR) related inflammation might worsen the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), however, the relationship between the two disorders remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of AR and atopic markers in OSA. This cross-sectional study recruited participants with sleep-related complaints referred to a sleep center from February 2013 to June 2014. The diagnosis of OSA was based on the Berlin questionnaire (BQ) followed by confirmatory polysomnography (PSG). The diagnosis of AR was made via focused history and clinical examination and was confirmed by measuring atopic markers. OSA was diagnosed in 97 out of 157 adults attending the sleep clinic (61.8%). There was a high prevalence of AR (52.6%) among OSA individuals. This was not significantly different from the frequency in the non-OSA individuals (p =0.5). Elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE; >100K/μL), eosinophil count, and positive Phadiatop tests were found in individuals with OSA to be 37.1%, 11.3%, and 41.2%, respectively. Individuals without OSA have shown similar percentages. In our cohort, there was no significant difference in frequency of AR and atopy among participants with OSA compared to those without OSA.

      PubDate: 2016-07-03T15:13:14Z
  • Predictors of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Lily A. van Bilsen, Ary I. Savitri, Dwirani Amelia, Mohammad Baharuddin, Diederick E. Grobbee, Cuno S.P.M. Uiterwaal

      PubDate: 2016-07-03T15:13:14Z
  • Community-engaged strategies to promote hepatitis B testing and linkage to
           care in immigrants of Florida

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Jevetta Stanford, Alma Biba, Jagdish Khubchandani, Fern Webb, Mobeen H. Rathore
      To improve early identification and linkage to treatment and preventive services for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in persons born in countries with intermediate or high (>2%) HBV prevalence, the University of Florida Center for HIV/AIDS Research, Education, and Services (UF CARES) employed community-engaged strategies to implement the Hepatitis B Awareness and Service Linkage (HBASL) program. In this brief report, we present a summary of program components, challenges, and successes. Faith and community-based networks were established to improve HBV testing and screening and to increase foreign born nationals (FBNs) access to HBV care. A total of 1516 FBNs were tested and screened for hepatitis B. The majority were females (50.4%), Asians (62.8%), non-Hispanic (87.2%), and they also received post-test counseling (54.8%). Noted program advantages included the development of community networks and outreach to a large population of FBNs. The major challenges were institutional delays, pressures related to meeting program deliverables, and diversity within FBNs populations. Community health workers in the United States can replicate this program in their respective communities and ensure success by maintaining a strong community presence, establishing partnerships and linkage processes, developing a sustainability plan, and ensuring the presence of dedicated program staff.

      PubDate: 2016-07-03T15:13:14Z
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Medinah City, Saudi
           Arabia: Demographic, clinical and survival data

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Nahid Sherbini, Ayman Iskandrani, Ayman Kharaba, Ghalilah Khalid, Mohammed Abduljawad, Hamdan AL-Jahdali
      Background Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is an emerging virus respiratory infection. It has a high mortality rate and a wide spectrum of clinical features. This study describes the clinical characteristics and outcome of MERS infected patients. Methods A retrospective study was conducted of all confirmed MERS-CoV infections from March 2014 to May 2014 at two tertiary care hospitals in Medinah region (Saudi Arabia). We gathered data about demographic, clinical presentation, and factors associated with severity and mortality. Results A total of 29 cases were identified; 20 males (69%) and nine females (31%), age 45±12years. The death rate was higher for men (52%) than for women (23%). Initial presentation was fever in 22 (75%) cases, cough in 20 (69%) cases, and shortness of breath in 20 (69%) cases. Associated comorbidities were diabetes mellitus in nine (31%) patients and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in eight (27%) patients. Duration of symptoms before hospitalization ranged from 2.9days to 5days. Elevated liver enzymes were present in 14 (50%) patients and impaired renal profile present in eight (27%) patients. We also describe in this study radiological patterns and factors associated with mortality Conclusion MERS-CoV infection transmission continues to occur as clusters in healthcare facilities. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women and among patients with comorbidities.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T06:52:56Z
  • Enhancing the role of pharmacists in the cascade of tuberculosis care

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Amrita Daftary, Nita Jha, Madhukar Pai

      PubDate: 2016-06-02T09:25:53Z
  • Four cases of nontravel-related leptospirosis in Oman: A call for action

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Idris Saleh Al-Abaidani

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • A novel sputum transport solution eliminates cold chain and supports
           routine tuberculosis testing in Nepal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Bhagwan Maharjan, Bhabana Shrestha, Alexandra Weirich, Andrew Stewart, Cassandra D. Kelly-Cirino
      This preliminary study evaluated the transport reagent OMNIgene SPUTUM (OMS) in a real-world, resource-limited setting: a zonal hospital and national tuberculosis (TB) reference laboratory, Nepal. The objectives were to: (1) assess the performance of OMS for transporting sputum from peripheral sites without cold chain stabilization; and (2) compare with Nepal’s standard of care (SOC) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear and culture diagnostics. Sixty sputa were manually split into a SOC sample (airline-couriered to the laboratory, conventional processing) and an OMS sample (OMS added at collection, no cold chain transport or processing). Smear microscopy and solid culture were performed. Transport was 0–8days. Forty-one samples (68%) were smear-positive using both methods. Of the OMS cultures, 37 (62%) were positive, 22 (36%) were negative, and one (2%) was contaminated. Corresponding SOC results were 32 (53%), 21 (35%), and seven (12%). OMS “rescued” six (i.e., missed using SOC) compared with one rescue using SOC. Of smear-positives, six SOC samples produced contaminated cultures whereas only one OMS sample was contaminated. OMS reduced culture contamination from 12% to 2%, and improved TB detection by 9%. The results suggest that OMS could perform well as a no cold chain, long-term transport solution for smear and culture testing. The findings provide a basis for larger feasibility studies.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Institutional Research Evaluation Model (IREM): A framework for measuring
           organizational research trends and impact and its application in medical
           academia in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Mazen Hassanain, Shirin Anil, Ayman Abdo
      Increased financial and human resource constraints for research and development (R&D) imply rigorous research evaluation to guide the research policy for wise allocation of resources. In this study, we developed a conceptual framework called the “Institutional Research Evaluation Model” (IREM) to evaluate the quality of research and its determinants. The IREM was then applied to a medical institution to study its applicability in Saudi Arabia. The IREM consists of five levels: duration decision; choice of research quality indicators [impact factor (IF), article influence scores (AIS), citations per paper (CPP), and publication in indexed journal]; trend indicators (numbers of publications, study design, subject); data extraction; and statistical techniques to determine the factors affecting impact of research. Application of the IREM to the College of Medicine, King Saud University (CMKSU) for research evaluation from 2003 to 2013 revealed that during this duration, 1722 studies were published, the highest in 2013 (n =314) and 85.5% (n =1472) in indexed journals (p <0.001). The mean IF was 2.6, mean AIS 1.16, and mean CPP 10.06. IF was positively associated with duration, indexation, CPP, and subject being human genetics at multivariable linear regression. The IREM is an applicable basic tool for institutional research evaluation which can guide the research policy.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Burden of chronic kidney disease and its risk factors in Malaysia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Rubina Begum, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Long Chiau Ming

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Corrigendum to “Volunteering to improve health worldwide. Current
           trends in Out of Programme Experience/Training in the UK 2014” [J.
           Epidemiol. Glob. Health 5 (2015) 295–296]

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Tehmina Bharucha, A. Traianou, M. Keniger, G. Chisholm, G. Lewis, J. Roland, M. Stark, C.S. Brown

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Protecting health workers from nosocomial Hepatitis B infections: A review
           of strategies and challenges for implementation of Hepatitis B vaccination
           among health workers in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Bridget Malewezi, Saad B. Omer, Beatrice Mwagomba, Trish Araru
      The Sub-Saharan region has the highest Hepatitis B virus (HBV) rates, and health workers are at an increased risk of contracting nosocomial HBV infection. Vaccination of health workers plays a critical role in protecting them from sequelae of HBV; however, health-worker vaccination remains a challenge for many countries. This study was conducted to review practices/measures and challenges in the Sub-Saharan region relating to vaccination of health workers against HBV. We performed a literature review of articles addressing any aspect of HBV vaccination of health workers in the Sub-Saharan region sourced from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, including a case study of Malawi policies and strategies in training institutions and facilities. Our findings indicated that HBV awareness and vaccination were relatively high, but vaccination rates were lower, with 4.6–64.4% of those “ever vaccinated” completing the vaccination regimen. There was also great variation in the proportion of health workers exhibiting natural immunity from previous exposure (positive for anti-Hepatitis B core antibodies; 41–92%). Commonly cited reasons for non-uptake of vaccine included cost, lack of awareness of vaccine availability, and inadequate information concerning the vaccine. Countries in this region will require locally relevant data to develop cost-effective strategies that maximize the benefit to their health workers due to the great diversity of HBV epidemiology in the region.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between
           Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in
           development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and
           lifetime care costs

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): David A. Geier, Janet K. Kern, Brian S. Hooker, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier
      Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between mercury (Hg) exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and specific delays in development. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal cohort study (n =49,835) using medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (T-HBVs) administered at specific intervals in the first 6months of life and specific delays in development [International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9): 315.xx] among children born between 1991 and 1994 and continuously enrolled from birth for at least 5.81years. Infants receiving increased Hg doses from T-HBVs administered within the first month, the first 2months, and the first 6months of life were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with specific delays in development than infants receiving no Hg doses from T-HBVs. During the decade in which T-HBVs were routinely recommended and administered to US infants (1991–2001), an estimated 0.5–1million additional US children were diagnosed with specific delays in development as a consequence of 25μg or 37.5μg organic Hg from T-HBVs administered within the first 6months of life. The resulting lifetime costs to the United States may exceed $1 trillion.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • The psychology of health and well-being in mass gatherings: A review and a
           research agenda

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Nick Hopkins, Stephen Reicher
      Mass gatherings bring large numbers of people into physical proximity. Typically, this physical proximity has been assumed to contribute to ill health (e.g., through being stressful, facilitating infection transmission, etc.). In this paper, we add a new dimension to the emerging field of mass gatherings medicine. Drawing on psychological research concerning group processes, we consider the psychological transformations that occur when people become part of a crowd. We then consider how these transformations may have various consequences for health and well-being. Some of these consequences may be positive. For example, a sense of shared identity amongst participants may encourage participants to view others as a source of social support which in turn contributes to a sense of health and well-being. However, some consequences may be negative. Thus, this same sense of shared identity may result in a loss of disgust at the prospect of sharing resources (e.g., drinking utensils) which could, in turn, facilitate infection transmission. These, and related issues, are illustrated with research conducted at the Magh Mela (North India). We conclude with an agenda for future research concerning health practices at mass gatherings.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Factors associated with the farmer suicide crisis in India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Dominic Merriott
      Background In India, it is estimated that ∼16,000 farmers die by suicide each year, and at rates far above those of the general population. This paper reviews much of the literature concerning the factors associated with this crisis. Methods A literature search was undertaken from multiple databases on Ovid, as well as more elementary searches of Google, Google Scholar, and PubMed. This paper presents a review of the key results. Results Socioeconomic factors, rather than mental health problems, are associated with farmer suicides, with increased indebtedness playing the predominant role. Available research suggests this has arisen to a greater extent recently, due to an agrarian crisis affecting the most vulnerable farmers. This has multiple manifestations, including a lack of agricultural investment and irrigation improvement, use of cash crops, the increased use of noninstitutional credit sources, and the reduction of trade barriers. Bt cotton is unlikely to be an important factor and no studies reported a significant burden of mental health problems. Conclusion Indebtedness and numerous factors relating to this are clearly identified as the most important risk factors. Further large-scale assessments are required to further understand the situation.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Disaster response under One Health in the aftermath of Nepal earthquake,

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): G.V. Asokan, A. Vanitha
      Until now, an estimate quotes that 1100 healthcare facilities were damaged and over 100,000 livestock lost in the two earthquakes that occurred in April and May of 2015 in Nepal. Threats of infectious diseases, mostly zoonoses, could affect Nepal’s economy, trade, and tourism, and reaching the targets of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Historically, outbreaks of infectious diseases, including zoonoses, were largely associated with the aftereffects of the earthquakes. It has been documented that zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this communication was to examine the infectious disease outbreaks after earthquakes around the world and explore the risk assessment of the zoonoses threats reported in Nepal and highlight adopting One Health. Our summaries on reported zoonoses in Nepal have shown that parasitic zoonoses were predominant, but other infectious disease outbreaks can occur. The fragile public health infrastructure and inadequately trained public health personnel can accelerate the transmission of infections, mostly zoonoses, in the post impact phase of the earthquake in Nepal. Therefore, we believe that with the support of aid agencies, veterinarians and health professionals can team up to resolve the crisis under One Health.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T19:35:53Z
  • Declining trends in injuries and ambulance calls for road traffic crashes
           in Bahrain post new traffic laws of 2015

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Muyssar Sabri Awadalla, G.V. Asokan, Amina Matooq, Richard Kirubakaran
      Road traffic crashes (RTC) are of serious global health concern. To identify whether the number of ambulance calls, injuries, and deaths has declined after the implementation of the new traffic law (NTL) 2015 in Bahrain, de-identified administrative RTC data obtained from the tertiary care center, and the General Directorate of Traffic (GDT) of Bahrain were used. A quasi-experimental design was employed to trend the impact of the NTL on RTC and associated healthcare events. Bahrainis and non-Bahrainis who met with RTC, either in a vehicle or as a pedestrian, between February 8 and May 8 in 2013, 2014 (pre NTL), and 2015 (post NTL) were included in the study. Our results show a reduction in the number of ambulance calls from vehicular and pedestrian RTC victims. The ambulance calls from pedestrian RTC victims were <10% compared to the number of ambulance calls from vehicular RTC victims. There was a significant reduction in minor injuries post 2015, whereas no obvious difference was seen for serious injuries and deaths. A longer follow-up study to confirm the sustained decline in RTC, enforcing a zero tolerance policy toward traffic transgressions, and raising public awareness on the “critical four minutes” and “golden hour” is recommended.

      PubDate: 2016-03-20T16:55:36Z
  • Addressing noncommunicable diseases in disaster risk reduction – An
           issue of equity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Sam Gnanapragasam, Amina Aitsi-Selmi, Elaine Rashbrook, Virginia Murray
      The issues raised by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) during and after disasters are a challenge to equity within local communities, as well as between countries. Individuals with NCDs are particularly vulnerable in disasters and their aftermath given health systems are disrupted. Although welcome progress has been made in taking NCDs and equity into account in the UN General Assembly ratified agreement, the Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction 2015–2030, there is need now for a clear plan of implementation.

      PubDate: 2016-03-20T16:55:36Z
  • Healthcare-seeking behaviors for acute respiratory illness in two
           communities of Java, Indonesia: a cross-sectional survey

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Catharina Y. Praptiningsih, Kathryn E. Lafond, Yunita Wahyuningrum, Aaron D. Storms, Amalya Mangiri, Angela D. Iuliano, Gina Samaan, Christiana R. Titaley, Fitra Yelda, Jennifer Kreslake, Douglas Storey, Timothy M. Uyeki
      Understanding healthcare-seeking patterns for respiratory illness can help improve estimations of disease burden and inform public health interventions to control acute respiratory disease in Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to describe healthcare-seeking behaviors for respiratory illnesses in one rural and one urban community in Western Java, and to explore the factors that affect care seeking. From February 8, 2012 to March 1, 2012, a survey was conducted in 2520 households in the East Jakarta and Bogor districts to identify reported recent respiratory illnesses, as well as all hospitalizations from the previous 12-month period. We found that 4% (10% of those less than 5years) of people had respiratory disease resulting in a visit to a healthcare provider in the past 2weeks; these episodes were most commonly treated at government (33%) or private (44%) clinics. Forty-five people (0.4% of those surveyed) had respiratory hospitalizations in the past year, and just over half of these (24/45, 53%) occurred at a public hospital. Public health programs targeting respiratory disease in this region should account for care at private hospitals and clinics, as well as illnesses that are treated at home, in order to capture the true burden of illness in these communities.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T15:49:59Z
  • Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding travel health among Muscat
           International Airport travelers in Oman: Identifying the gaps and
           addressing the challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Seif S. Al-Abri, Doaa M. Abdel-Hady, Idris S. Al-Abaidani
      Although the majority of travel-associated communicable diseases can be prevented, the public health burden of these diseases remains significant. Relatively little is known about how travelers know and perceive the health risks associated with travel and how they utilize preventive measures before and while traveling abroad. This study was conducted to determine the level of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Muscat International Airport travelers about travel health in order to assess the knowledge gap and the need for travel health services in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1week using a self-administered questionnaire. The overall level of knowledge about vaccine-preventable diseases, food safety, and preventive measures against insect bites of the participants was inadequate. The practice concerning preventive travel health measures, such as the use of specific immunizations and antimalarial prophylaxis, was very limited, and influenced by some personal and travel-related factors. The inadequate level of travelers’ knowledge and poor utilization of travel medicine services highlights the need for the provisions of specialized travel medicine services at the national level and to develop educational materials promoting the importance of pre-travel health advice.

      PubDate: 2016-03-05T19:06:10Z
  • Presence of blaPER-1 and blaVEB-1 beta-lactamase genes among isolates of
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa from South West of Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Elham Davodian, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Abdolmajid Ghasemian, Samileh Noorbakhsh
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates have acquired resistance to antibiotics such as novel beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to investigate the bla PER-1, bla VEB-1, and bla PSE-1 genes among isolates of P. aeruginosa among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Sixty-five isolates were collected. The antibiotic susceptibility testing and combined disk tests were performed to detect the isolates producing ESBLs among ceftazidime-resistant isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of bla PER-1, bla VEB-1, and bla PSE-1 genes was conducted. Ten (15.3%) isolates were ESBL-positive, of which 40% (n =4) belonged to males and 60% (n =6) were collected from females. Moreover, two and one isolates harbored bla PER-1 and bla VEB-1 genes, respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-03-05T19:06:10Z
  • Commentary for Special Issue “Public health is new in Saudi Arabia.
           With this degree, I can go back and help to develop the field
           there.” – Naif Mohammed Alraihan, King Abdullah Fellow,
           Rollins School of Public Health, 2015

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Scott J.N. McNabb, Abdullah M. Assiri, Samar Alsaggaf, Ziad A. Memish

      PubDate: 2016-02-24T17:26:05Z
  • Evaluation of tuberculosis public health surveillance, Al-Madinah
           province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2012

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohammed J. Alkhalawi, Scott J.N. McNabb, Abdullah M. Assiri, Ziad A. Memish
      The objective of the study is to evaluate the quality of the data, the sensitivity of the surveillance, and the completeness of identification and investigation of tuberculosis (TB) patient’s contacts. The study covered the TB surveillance program in Al-Madinah province in 2011. First, we reviewed all the notifications, treatment cards, and register books, as well as monthly and quarterly reports, for completeness and accuracy of data. Then, we searched for the missed cases that were not reported. Finally, we reviewed all the patients’ household contacts’ reports to assess the degree of completion of identification and investigation. There were 444 cases detected during the study period; only 200 cases were reported. The sensitivity of the TB surveillance system was 45%. Among the 200 reported cases, the results revealed high completeness rates for demographic and disease data and low completeness rates for the test result fields. The contact identification and investigation showed that 34.4% of smear-positive cases’ contacts were not identified. Only 67% of identified contacts were investigated. The review of hospital records and lab registers showed that 244 cases were not reported. In conclusion, the TB surveillance system has several areas that need improvement.

      PubDate: 2016-02-24T17:26:05Z
  • Antimicrobial resistance and the growing threat of drug-resistant

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Madhukar Pai, Ziad A. Memish

      PubDate: 2016-02-18T16:39:03Z
  • A retrospective analysis of meningioma in a rapidly developed demographic

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Ekokobe Fonkem, Jad A. Dandashi, Edana Stroberg, David Garrett, Frank S. Harris, Ibrahim M. El Nihum, James Cooper, Samantha Dayawansa, Jason H. Huang
      Documented meningioma cases in Central Texas (USA) from 1976 to 2013 were studied utilizing the Scott & White Brain Tumor Registry. All the cases examined were histologically diagnosed as meningiomas. Of the 372 cases, most were benign tumors (p <0.05). A majority of the patients were females (p <0.05). Elderly individuals (>45years of age) superseded the younger patients in meningioma incidence (p <0.05). Previous data regarding meningioma epidemiology in Texas showed a higher incidence in black patients when compared to white patients. By contrast, this study’s findings of Central Texas meningioma demographics show increased incidence of meningiomas in white patients (p <0.05). This interesting find in meningioma prevalence warrants further investigation with a larger sample size, in order to establish validity and further parse out possible causes of meningioma development among white individuals.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:34:02Z
  • A cohort study of chronic diseases for Mongolian people: Outline with
           baseline data of the Moncohort study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Tsogzolbaatar Enkh-Oyun, Dambadarjaa Davaalkham, Kazuhiko Kotani, Yasuko Aoyama, Satoshi Tsuboi, Ryusuke Ae, Gombojav Davaa, Dayan Angarmurun, Nanjid Khuderchuluun, Yosikazu Nakamura
      Many Mongolian people suffer from non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to plan preventive strategies against such diseases, we designed a community-based prospective cohort study of chronic diseases, called the Moncohort study, in Mongolia. This is the first nationwide large-scale cohort study of chronic diseases. This paper describes the study’s rationale, design and methods with baseline data. Mongolian residents aged ⩾40years were selected nationwide from many geographic regions in 2009. Data were collected on demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements. In total, 2280 Mongolian residents were registered in the survey. Socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were differentiated by gender and geographical area in descriptive data. Aging, low social class, physical inactivity and infrequent fruits intake were positively associated with histories of chronic disease in men, while aging was positively associated with histories of chronic disease in women. Factors associated with chronic diseases reveal gender-oriented strategies might be needed for their prevention. Detailed prospective analyses will illustrate the impact of risk factors on chronic diseases and lead to evidence for designing programs aimed at preventing chronic diseases and related disorders in Mongolia.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:34:02Z
  • HIV-infected presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis: How
           many are eligible for antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Ajay M.V. Kumar, Anil Singarajipura, Balaji Naik, Deepak K. Guddemane, Yogesh Patel, Suresh Shastri, Sunil Kumar, Rajesh Deshmukh, B.B. Rewari, Anthony David Harries
      For certain subgroups within people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [active tuberculosis (TB), pregnant women, children <5years old, and serodiscordant couples], the World Health Organization recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of CD4 count. Another subgroup which has received increased attention is “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB”. In this study, we assess the proportion of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients eligible for ART in Karnataka State (population 60million), India. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients diagnosed in May 2015 abstracted from national TB and HIV program records. Of 42,585 presumptive TB patients, 28,964 (68%) were tested for HIV and 2262 (8%) were HIV positive. Of the latter, 377 (17%) had active TB. Of 1885 “presumptive TB patients without active TB”, 1100 (58%) were already receiving ART. Of the remaining 785 who were not receiving ART, 617 (79%) were assessed for ART eligibility and of those, 548 (89%) were eligible for ART. About 90% of “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” were eligible for ART. This evidence supports a public health approach of starting all “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” on ART irrespective of CD4 count in line with global thinking about ‘test and treat’.

      PubDate: 2016-01-29T15:15:49Z
  • Verification of measles elimination in Australia: Application of World
           Health Organization regional guidelines

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): H.F. Gidding, N.V. Martin, V. Stambos, T. Tran, A. Dey, G.K. Dowse, H.A. Kelly, D.N. Durrheim, S.B. Lambert
      Background The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) Guidelines on verification of measles elimination were established in 2012. This article outlines Australia’s approach to addressing the guideline’s five lines of evidence, which led to formal verification of elimination by the WHO Regional Verification Commission (RVC) in March 2014. Methods The criteria were addressed using national measles notifications, data from selected laboratories, the national childhood immunization register, and three national serosurveys (1998/1999, 2002, 2007). Results Australia met or exceeded all indicator targets with either national or sentinel data. Laboratory and epidemiological surveillance were of high quality, with 85% of cases documented as imported/import-related (target 80%); coverage with the first dose of measles vaccine was close to 94% in 2008–2012 and second dose coverage increased to 91% in 2012 (target >95%). There is ongoing commitment by the Australian Government to increase immunization coverage, and the absence of sustained transmission of any single measles genotype was demonstrated. Conclusions This is the first documentation of the successful application of the WPR RVC guidelines. The indicators afford some flexibility but appear to provide appropriate rigor to judge achievement of measles elimination. Our experience could assist other countries seeking to verify their elimination status.

      PubDate: 2016-01-29T15:15:49Z
  • Democracy predicts sport and recreation membership: Insights from 52

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Shea M. Balish
      Although evidence suggests sport and recreation are powerful contributors to worldwide public health, sizable gender differences persist. It is unknown whether country characteristics moderate gender differences across countries. The primary purpose of this study was to examine if countries’ levels of democracy and/or gender inequality moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. The secondary purpose was to examine if democracy and/or gender inequality predicts overall rates of sport and recreation membership for both males and females. This study involved a nested cross-sectional design and employed the sixth wave (2013) of the world value survey (n Ss =71,901, n countries =52). Multiple hierarchal nonlinear Bernoulli models tested: (1) if countries’ levels of democracy moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership; and (2) if democracy is associated with increased sport and recreation membership for both males and females. Countries’ level of democracy fully moderated gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. Moreover, democracy was positively associated with both male and female membership, even when controlling for individual and country-level covariates. Democratic political regimes may confer health benefits via increased levels of sport and recreation membership, especially for females. Future research should test mediating mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2016-01-29T15:15:49Z
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