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Journal Cover   Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
  [SJR: 0.142]   [H-I: 2]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2210-6006
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2800 journals]
  • Seasonality and trend analysis of tuberculosis in Lahore, Pakistan from
           2006 to 2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Aasia Khaliq, Syeda Aadila Batool, M. Nawaz Chaudhry
      Tuberculosis (TB) is a respiratory infectious disease which shows seasonality. Seasonal variation in TB notifications has been reported in different regions, suggesting that various geographic and demographic factors are involved in seasonality. The study was designed to find out the temporal and seasonal pattern of TB incidence in Lahore, Pakistan from 2006 to 2013 in newly diagnosed pulmonary TB cases. SPSS version 21 software was used for correlation to determine the temporal relationship and time series analysis for seasonal variation. Temperature was found to be significantly associated with TB incidence at the 0.01 level with p =0.006 and r =0.477. Autocorrelation function and partial autocorrelation function showed a significant peak at lag 4 suggesting a seasonal component of the TB series. Seasonal adjusted factor showed peak seasonal variation in the second quarter (April–June). The expert modeler predicted the Holt–Winter’s additive model as the best fit model for the time series, which exhibits a linear trend with constant (additive) seasonal variations, and the stationary R 2 value was found to be 0.693. The forecast shows a declining trend with seasonality. A significant temporal relation with a seasonal pattern and declining trend with variable amplitudes of fluctuation was observed in the incidence of TB.


      PubDate: 2015-08-28T16:15:13Z
       
  • Evaluation of home respiratory therapy delivered to patients in the
           Ministry of Health’s Home Medical Program (HMP) and administered
           through the Madinah HMP Cewnter, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Rana A. Alhelali, Scott J.N. McNabb, Ziad A. Memish
      This was an evaluation of home respiratory therapy (HRT) services administered through the Madinah Home Medical Program (MHMP) Center of the Ministry of Health (MoH), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Using a retrospective design and descriptive analyses, we analyzed 83 patient records for the clinical care received, outcomes, and patient satisfaction. We also assessed a subset from an economic perspective. Demographically, 72% were >60years of age, 80% were female, and 90% were Saudi. Asthma accounted for 34% of the diagnosed respiratory diseases, followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11%). Most patients (71%) required two or three respiratory modalities: 94% used oxygen therapy and 14% were on mechanical ventilation. A full 90% of HMP patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with the HMP overall care, and 43% saw an improvement in their condition. The MHMP lowered healthcare costs for HRT-receiving patients by decreasing the frequency of emergency room (ER) and outpatient visits by 50.8% from 59 to 30 visits. HRT administered through the MHMP Center improved clinical outcomes and increased patient satisfaction while reducing hospital utilization and associated costs. A prospective study is recommended to assess HMP services in comparison with hospitalization.


      PubDate: 2015-08-24T16:00:33Z
       
  • Pilot use of a novel smartphone application to track traveller health
           behaviour and collect infectious disease data during a mass gathering:
           Hajj pilgrimage 2014
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Amani S. Alqahtani, Nasser F. BinDhim, Mohamed Tashani, Harold W. Willaby, Kerrie E. Wiley, Anita E. Heywood, Robert Booy, Harunor Rashid
      This study examines the feasibility of using a smartphone application (app) to conduct surveys among travellers during the Hajj pilgrimage, where the use of apps has not been evaluated for infectious disease surveillance. A longitudinal study was conducted among pilgrims at the Hajj 2014 using an iPhone app with separate questionnaires for three study phases covering before, during, and after Hajj. Forty-eight pilgrims from 13 countries downloaded the app. Respondents were aged between 21 and 61 (median 36) years and 58.5% (24/41) were male. Of these, 85% (41/48) completed the first phase, 52% (25/41) completed both the second and third phases, and 25 of these reported meningococcal vaccination, with 36% (9/25) receiving other vaccines. All (25) reported hand hygiene use and 64% (16/25) wore a facemask at some point during the pilgrimage. Four (6%) reported close contact with camels. Respiratory symptoms commenced from the 4th day of Hajj, with sore throat (20%) and cough (12%) being the most common. Three participants (12%) reported respiratory symptoms after returning home. Conducting a prospective survey using a smartphone app to collect data on travel-associated infections and traveller compliance to prevention is feasible at mass gatherings and can provide useful data associated with health-related behaviour.


      PubDate: 2015-08-15T06:06:22Z
       
  • Cardiovascular risk profiles of adults with type-2 diabetes treated at
           urban hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Fatima Y. Al Slail, Omer Abid, Abdullah M. Assiri, Ziad A. Memish, Mohammed K. Ali
      Diabetes mellitus substantially increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Among Saudi Arabian citizens with diabetes, little is known about the prevalence and control of other CVD risk factors. We extracted data from medical records of a random selection of 422 patients seen between 2008 and 2012 at two diabetic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We calculated the proportion of patients who had additional CVD risk factors: obesity (body mass index⩾30kg/m2), hypertension (BP⩾140/90mmHg), elevated cholesterol fractions, and multiple risk factors). Further, we calculated the proportion of patients meeting the American Diabetes Association’s recommended care targets for each risk factor. Of 422 patients (mean age, 52years), half were women, 56% were obese, 45% had hypertension, and 77% had elevated LDL concentrations. In addition to diabetes, 70% had two or more CVD risk factors. Although 9% met both target HbA1c and BP values, only 3.5% had optimum HbA1c, BP, and lipid values. In Saudi Arabia’s best diabetes clinics, most patients have poor control of their disease. This huge disease burden and related care gaps have important health and financial implications for the country.


      PubDate: 2015-08-10T04:55:39Z
       
  • Study of drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis cases in south coastal
           Karnataka
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Parashuram Rao, Kiran Chawla, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay, Vishwanath Brahmavar, Asha Kamath, Aswini Kumar Mohapatra
      The present cross-sectional study was conducted for the first time from the Udupi district of coastal Karnataka to know the prevalence of drug resistance and comparative analysis of MDR and non-MDR cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Details of 862 smear positive cases of pulmonary tuberculosis with age ⩾15years from 12 designated microscopy centres of the Udupi district were studied. Initially 2 sputum samples trailed by one follow-up sample were collected from each patient and processed for culture and drug sensitivity on the Lowenstein-Jensen medium. A total resistance of 33.4% was observed that includes the mono-resistance of 22.5%, multidrug resistance (MDR) of 6.3% and extensive drug resistance (XDR) of 0.3%. Significant odds ratio (OR) was observed in category 2 cases (OR 3.9) for the development of MDR tuberculosis. A significant statistical association was observed using Fisher’s exact test while comparing mortality rate (19.3% vs. 1.8%), treatment failure (8.8% vs. 3.8%) and cure rate (68.4% vs. 85.4%) between MDR and non-MDR cases (p <0.001). Category 2 patients are important risk factors for the development of MDR in pulmonary tuberculosis. Due to high mortality and low cure rate in MDR cases it is imperative to know the drug sensitivity report before institution of anti-tubercular treatment.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Prospective study of predictors of poor self-rated health in a 23-year
           cohort of earthquake survivors in Armenia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Anahit Demirchyan, Varduhi Petrosyan, Haroutune K. Armenian, Vahe Khachadourian
      Long-term prospective studies exploring general health outcomes among disaster survivors are rare. Self-rated health (SRH) – a proven correlate of morbidity and mortality prognosis – was used to investigate predictors of perceived health status among a 23-year cohort of survivors of 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia. A geographically-stratified subsample of 725 adults from a larger initial cohort was followed during the period of 1990–2012. A logistic regression model identified predictors of SRH. Adjusted relative risks for the long-term predictors of SRH were calculated. The rate of poor SRH among the survivors was 18.8%, fair 56.5%, and good/excellent 24.7%. In the fitted model, long-term risk factors of poor SRH included baseline body mass index, baseline multi-morbidity, number of experienced stressful life events, and perceived poor living standards during the post-earthquake decade, while participation in sports in the early 1990s was a protective factor. Short-term protective factors included socio-economic status score, social support, employment and dignity, while current household size was a risk factor for poor SRH. No association was found between earthquake exposure severity and SRH after 23years. However, the identified predictors included a number of modifiable lifestyle, material and psychological factors. Thus, interventions targeting these factors could have a long-lasting impact on disaster victims’ health status.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Symptom clusters on primary care medical service trips in five regions in
           Latin America
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Christopher Dainton, Charlene Chu
      Short-term primary care medical service trips organized by the North American non-governmental organizations (NGOs) serve many communities in Latin America that are poorly served by the national health system. This descriptive study contributes to the understanding of the epidemiology of patients seen on such low-resource trips. An analysis was conducted on epidemiologic data collected from anonymized electronic medical records on patients seen during 34 short-term medical service trips in five regions in Ecuador, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic between April 2013 and April 2014. A total of 22,977 patients were assessed by North American clinicians (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) on primary care, low-resource medical service trips. The majority of patients were female (67.1%), and their average age was 36. The most common presenting symptoms in all regions were general pain, upper respiratory tract symptoms, skin disorders, eye irritation, dyspepsia, and nonspecific abdominal complaints; 71–78% of primary care complaints were easily aggregated into well-defined symptom clusters. The results suggest that guideline development for clinicians involved in these types of medical service trips should focus on management of the high-yield symptom clusters described by these data.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Smoking motivators are different among cigarette and waterpipe smokers:
           The results of ITUPP
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hamidreza Roohafza, Kamal Heidari, Tahereh Alinia, Razieh Omidi, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Elham Andalib, Ali Ajami, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
      The present study explores different drivers of cigarette and water pipe smoking among middle and high school students in Isfahan province. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Trained staff collected questionnaires and saliva samples for response accuracy evaluation. Prevalence by demographic, parental and educational factors was calculated. Logistic regression was applied to compare behavior drivers of those who purely smoked cigarettes or a waterpipe. Waterpipe smokers were considered as the reference category. This study reported ORs along 95% confidence intervals; 5408 questionnaires were returned. The sample age was 15.37±01.70 on average. The self-reported prevalence of cigarette and waterpipe experimentation was 11.60% (n =624) and 20.70% (n =1,109), respectively; and 5.08% (n =311), 11.06% (n =619) for smokers, and 13.30% (n =711) for the whole sample. Psychological factors were the most important driver for cigarette smoking; bad event happening with odds of 2.38 (95% CI: 1.29–4.39); angriness 2.58 times (95% CI: 1.51–4.43); and distress by 2.49 times (95% CI: 1.42–4.40). Habitual situations were strong predictors of cigarette smoking, but not a predictor of waterpipe smoking, such as smoking after a meal (OR =3.11, 95% CI: 1.67–5.77); and smoking after waking up (OR =2.56, 95% CI: 1.42–4.40). Comprehensive and multifaceted preventive programs must tailor identified factors and increase family’s awareness.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school-going adolescents in
           Madagascar
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sreenivas P. Veeranki, Hadii M. Mamudu, Rijo M. John, Ahmed E.O. Ouma
      Approximately 90% of adults start smoking during adolescence, with limited studies conducted in low-and-middle-income countries where over 80% of global tobacco users reside. The study aims to estimate prevalence and identify predictors associated with adolescents’ tobacco use in Madagascar. We utilized tobacco-related information of 1184 school-going adolescents aged 13–15years, representing a total of 296,111 youth from the 2008 Madagascar Global Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of tobacco use. Gender-wise multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify key predictors. Approximately 19% (30.7% males; 10.2% females) of adolescents currently smoke cigarettes, and 7% (8.5% males and 5.8% females) currently use non-cigarette tobacco products. Regardless of sex, peer smoking behavior was significantly associated with increased tobacco use among adolescents. In addition, exposures to tobacco industry promotions, secondhand smoke (SHS) and anti-smoking media messages were associated with tobacco use. The strong gender gap in the use of non-cigarette tobacco products, and the role of peer smoking and industry promotions in adolescent females’ tobacco use should be of major advocacy and policy concern. A comprehensive tobacco control program integrating parental and peer education, creating social norms, and ban on promotions is necessary to reduce adolescents’ tobacco use.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Estimating the potential impact fraction of hypertension as the main risk
           factor of stroke: Application of the distribution shift method
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Azam Biderafsh, Manoochehr Karami, Javad Faradmal, Jalal Poorolajal
      Few published studies have assessed the impact of quantitative risk factors such as high blood pressure on stroke. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential impact fraction (PIF) of hypertension on stroke in Hamadan Province, western Iran. Avoidable burden of stroke associated with high blood pressure was calculated using distribution shift at different scenarios. Data on the prevalence of high blood pressure among residents of Hamadan province older than 19years were extracted from non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system in 2009. Five mmHg hypothetical reduction in systolic blood pressure above 140mmHg, leads to 3.5% (PIF=0.035) reduction in the total burden to stroke. This value may reach 7%, if systolic blood pressure decreases 10mmHg. In addition, 5mmHg hypothetical reduction in diastolic blood pressure above 82mmHg, leads to 4.87% reduction in the total burden to stroke. PIF more than 10mmHg modification on distribution of diastolic blood pressure was estimated as 9.38%. According to these findings, policy makers are advised to implement interventions on hypertension based on the distribution shift method rather than the proportion shift one.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Spatial and non-spatial determinants of successful tuberculosis treatment
           outcomes: An implication of Geographical Information Systems in health
           policy-making in a developing country
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Goodarz Kolifarhood, Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh, Shaker Salarilak, Alireza Shoghli, Nasim Khosravi
      This retrospective study aimed to address whether or to what extent spatial and non-spatial factors with a focus on a healthcare delivery system would influence successful tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes in Urmia, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, data of 452 new TB cases were extracted from Urmia TB Management Center during a 5-year period. Using the Geographical Information System (GIS), health centers and study subjects’ locations were geocoded on digital maps. To identify the statistically significant geographical clusters, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) index was used. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association of spatial and non-spatial variables on the occurrence of adverse treatment outcomes. The spatial clusters of TB cases were concentrated in older, impoverished and outskirts areas. Although there was a tendency toward higher odds of adverse treatment outcomes among urban TB cases, this finding after adjusting for distance from a given TB healthcare center did not reach statistically significant. This article highlights effects of spatial and non-spatial determinants on the TB adverse treatment outcomes, particularly in what way the policies of healthcare services are made. Accordingly, non-spatial determinants in terms of low socio-economic factors need more attention by public health policy makers, and then more focus should be placed on the health delivery system, in particular men’s health.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Barriers related to non-adherence in a mammography breast-screening
           program during the implementation period in the interior of São Paulo
           State, Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): René Aloisio da Costa Vieira, Tânia Silveira Lourenço, Edmundo Carvalho Mauad, Valter Gonçalves Moreira Filho, Stela Verzinhasse Peres, Thiago Buosi Silva, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Lattore
      Mammography is the best exam for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Developing countries frequently have a low income of mammography and absence of organized screening. The knowledge of vulnerable population and strategies to increase adherence are important to improve the implementation of an organized breast-screening program. A mammography regional-screening program was implemented in a place around 54.238 women, aged 40–69years old. It was proposed to perform biannual mammography free of cost for the women. We analyze the first 2years of the implementation of the project. Mammography was realized in 17.964 women. 42.1% of the women hadn’t done de mammography in their lives and these women were principally from low socio-economic status (OR=2.99), low education (OR=3.00). The best strategies to include these women were mobile unit (OR=1.43) and Family Health Program (OR=1.79). The incidence of early breast tumors before the project was 14.5%, a fact that changed to 43.2% in this phase. Multivariate analysis showed that the association of illiterate and the mobile unit achieve more women who had not performed mammography in their lives. The strategies to increase adherence to mammography must be multiple and a large organization is necessary to overpass the barriers related to system health and education.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Fall-related injuries in a low-income setting: Results from a pilot injury
           surveillance system in Rawalpindi, Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Junaid A. Bhatti, Umar Farooq, Mudassir Majeed, Jahangir S. Khan, Junaid A. Razzak, Muhammad M. Khan
      This study assessed the characteristics and emergency care outcomes of fall-related injuries in Pakistan. This study included all fall-related injury cases presenting to emergency departments (EDs) of the three teaching hospitals in Rawalpindi city from July 2007 to June 2008. Out of 62,530 injury cases, 43.4% (N =27,109) were due to falls. Children (0–15years) accounted for about two out of five of all fall-related injuries. Compared with women aged 16–45years, more men of the same age group presented with fall-related injuries (50% vs. 42%); however, compared with men aged 45years or more, about twice as many women of the same age group presented with fall-related injuries (16% vs. 9%, P <0.001). For each reported death due to falls (n =57), 43 more were admitted (n =2443, 9%), and another 423 were discharged from the EDs (n =24,142, 91%). Factors associated with death or inpatient admission were: aged 0–15years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.35), aged 45years or more (aOR=1.94), male gender (aOR=1.15), falls occurring at home (aOR=3.38), in markets (aOR=1.43), on work sites (aOR=4.80), and during playing activities (aOR=1.68). This ED-based surveillance study indicated that fall prevention interventions in Pakistan should target children, older adult women, homes, and work sites.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Foot ailments during Hajj: A short report
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Shruti Sridhar, Samir Benkouiten, Khadidja Belhouchat, Tassadit Drali, Ziad A. Memish, Philippe Parola, Philippe Brouqui, Philippe Gautret
      A study of ailments of the feet in pilgrims of Hajj revealed that 31% of them suffered from blisters, and the prevalence was five times higher in females. The presence of comorbidity (diabetes, obesity and advanced age) warrants immediate attention to them to avoid serious complications.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Volunteering to improve health worldwide. Current trends in Out of
           Programme Experience/Training in the UK 2014
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): T. Bharucha, A. Traianou, M. Keniger, G. Chisholm, G. Lewis, J. Roland, M. Stark, C.S. Brown



      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Evaluation of medication adherence in Lebanese hypertensive patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Amal Al-Hajje, Sanaa Awada, Samar Rachidi, Salam Zein, Wafa Bawab, Zeinab El-Hajj, Mayssam Bou Zeid, Mohammad Yassine, Pascale Salameh
      Controlling hypertension is essential in cardiovascular disease. Poor medication adherence is associated with poor disease outcomes, waste of healthcare resources, and contributes to reduced blood pressure control. This study evaluates treatment adherence to antihypertensive therapy in Lebanese hypertensive patients by estimating the proportion of adherent hypertensive patients using a validated tool and investigates what factors predict this behavior. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 210 hypertensive outpatients selected from clinics located in tertiary-care hospitals and from private cardiology clinics located in Beirut. Adherence level was measured using a validated 8-item Modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMMAS). Among 210 patients, 50.5% showed high adherence, 27.1% medium adherence, and 22.4% low adherence to medication. Mean MMMAS score was 6.59±2.0. In bivariate analyses, having controlled blood pressure (p =0.003) and taking a combination drug (p =0.023) were predictors of high adherence. Forgetfulness (p <0.01), complicated drug regimen (p =0.001), and side effects (p =0.006) were predictors of low adherence after multiple liner regression. Logistic regression results showed that calcium channel blockers (p =0.030) were associated with increased adherence levels. In conclusion, developing multidisciplinary intervention programs to address the factors identified, in addition to educational strategies targeting healthcare providers, are necessary to enhance patient adherence.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Body shape dissatisfaction is a ‘normative discontent’ in a
           young-adult Nigerian population: A study of prevalence and effects on
           health-related quality of life
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Chukwunonso E.C.C. Ejike
      This study investigates the prevalence of weight misperception, weight preference, and body shape dissatisfaction (BSD) among young-adult Nigerians and assesses the impact of these factors on population quality-of-life (QOL). Relevant anthropometric data were collected according to internationally accepted protocols. Weight perception, weight preference, and BSD were measured using Stunkard silhouettes, while QOL was determined by subjective self-reporting. The results show that 26.7% of the population (18.8% for males and 34.5% for females) misperceived their weight. Among overweight participants, 56.6% (males) and 38.3% (females) thought they were thinner, while 11.5% (males) and 43.3% (females) thought they were heavier. Thin and obese males misperceived their weights more than their female counterparts. BSD was found in 62% of the population (52% for males and 71% for females) and was highest among obese participants (91.9%) and lowest among normal-weight participants (58.2%), irrespective of sex. In participants with BSD, QOL was worse in thin and normal-weight respondents who preferred to be heavier and in overweight respondents who preferred to be thinner. The high prevalence of weight misperception may lead to inappropriate weight loss habits, while BSD, a normative discontent in this population, negatively impacts subject QOL.


      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • Central coordination of humanitarian aid in Nepal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Maryam Alfa-Wali, Kaji Sritharan



      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
       
  • A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between
           Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in
           development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and
           lifetime care costs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): David A. Geier , Janet K. Kern , Brian S. Hooker , Paul G. King , Lisa K. Sykes , Mark R. Geier
      Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between mercury (Hg) exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and specific delays in development. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal cohort study (n =49,835) using medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (T-HBVs) administered at specific intervals in the first 6months of life and specific delays in development [International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9): 315.xx] among children born between 1991 and 1994 and continuously enrolled from birth for at least 5.81years. Infants receiving increased Hg doses from T-HBVs administered within the first month, the first 2months, and the first 6months of life were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with specific delays in development than infants receiving no Hg doses from T-HBVs. During the decade in which T-HBVs were routinely recommended and administered to US infants (1991–2001), an estimated 0.5–1million additional US children were diagnosed with specific delays in development as a consequence of 25μg or 37.5μg organic Hg from T-HBVs administered within the first 6months of life. The resulting lifetime costs to the United States may exceed $1 trillion.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T19:15:02Z
       
  • Achieving high seroprevalence against polioviruses in Sri
           Lanka—Results from a serological survey, 2014
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Deepa Gamage , Paba Palihawadana , Ondrej Mach , William C. Weldon , Steven M. Oberste , Roland W. Sutter
      The immunization program in Sri Lanka consistently reaches >90% coverage with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV), and no polio supplementary vaccination campaigns have been conducted since 2003. We evaluated serological protection against polioviruses in children. A cross-sectional community-based survey was performed in three districts of Sri Lanka (Colombo, Badulla, and Killinochi). Randomly selected children in four age groups (9–11months, 3–4years, 7–9years, and 15years) were tested for poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. All 400 enrolled children completed the study. The proportion of seropositive children for poliovirus Type 1 and Type 2 was >95% for all age groups; for poliovirus Type 3 it was 95%, 90%, 77%, and 75% in the respective age groups. The vaccination coverage in our sample based on vaccination cards or parental recall was >90% in all age groups. Most Sri Lankan children are serologically protected against polioviruses through routine immunization only. This seroprevalence survey provided baseline data prior to the anticipated addition of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into the Sri Lankan immunization program and the switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV).


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T19:15:02Z
       
  • Health conditions for travellers to Saudi Arabia for the pilgrimage to
           Mecca (Hajj) – 2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Homoud Alqarni , Ziad A. Memish , Abdullah M. Assiri



      PubDate: 2015-07-14T19:15:02Z
       
  • The psychology of health and well-being in mass gatherings: A review and a
           research agenda
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Nick Hopkins , Steve Reicher
      Mass gatherings bring large numbers of people into physical proximity. Typically, this physical proximity has been assumed to contribute to ill health (e.g., through being stressful, facilitating infection transmission, etc.). In this paper, we add a new dimension to the emerging field of mass gatherings medicine. Drawing on psychological research concerning group processes, we consider the psychological transformations that occur when people become part of a crowd. We then consider how these transformations may have various consequences for health and well-being. Some of these consequences may be positive. For example, a sense of shared identity amongst participants may encourage participants to view others as a source of social support which in turn contributes to a sense of health and well-being. However, some consequences may be negative. Thus, this same sense of shared identity may result in a loss of disgust at the prospect of sharing resources (e.g., drinking utensils) which could, in turn, facilitate infection transmission. These, and related issues, are illustrated with research conducted at the Magh Mela (North India). We conclude with an agenda for future research concerning health practices at mass gatherings.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T17:31:35Z
       
  • Predictive factors for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure among
           healthcare workers in a developing country
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Zeynep Türe , Ayşegül Ulu Kiliç , Fatma Cevahir , Dilek Altun , Esra Özhan , Emine Alp
      The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures in healthcare workers (HCW) in one of the largest centers of a middle income country, Turkey. This study has a retrospective design. HCWs who presented between August 2011 and June 2013, with Occupational Exposures (OEs) (cases) and those without (controls) were included. Demographic information was collected from infection control committee documents. A questionnaire was used to ask the HCWs about their awareness of preventive measures. HCWs who work with intensive work loads such as those found in emergency departments or intensive care units have a higher risk of OEs. Having heavy workloads and hours increases the risk of percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures. For that reason the most common occupation groups are nurses and cleaning staff who are at risk of OEs. Increasing work experience has reduced the frequency of OEs.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T17:31:35Z
       
  • Effect of age and gender in the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness
           among a sample of the Saudi population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Abdulhamid Fatani , Khalid Al-Rouqi , Jamal Al Towairky , Anwar E. Ahmed , Sarah Al-Jahdali , Yosra Ali , Abdullah Al-Shimemeri , Abdullah Al-Harbi , Salim Baharoon , Mohammad Khan , Hamdan Al-Jahdali
      The aim of this study is to assess whether the effect of gender on the excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is influenced by two confounders (age and hours of sleep per night). A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC-R). A total of 2095 respondents answered a questionnaire that included questions regarding gender, age, hours of sleep per night, and daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The prevalence of EDS was 20.5% (females 22.2%, males 19.5%, p-value=0.136). The EDS did not differ between genders, age groups, or hours of sleep per night (<6 vs. ⩾6h). However, stratified statistical analysis shows that the prevalence of EDS did differ according to gender (25.3% in females, 19.0% in males, p-value=0.036) in respondents with shorter hours of sleep per night. EDS was strongly related to female gender and young age (ages⩽29years) in respondents with short hours of sleep. This study reveals that one out of five of the general Saudi population has EDS. The effect of gender on EDS appeared to be influenced by hours of sleep per night. High EDS strongly related to female gender with short hours of sleep.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T13:57:54Z
       
  • Do socio-demographic factors still predict the choice of place of
           delivery: A cross-sectional study in rural North India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Jyotiranjan Sahoo , Satyavir Singh , V.K. Gupta , Suneela Garg , Jugal Kishore
      Improving maternal health is one of the goals to be achieved under the Millennium Development Goal (MDG), especially MDG-5. One of the predictors of maternal health is place of child birth. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of home delivery and different socio-demographic factors associated with them. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. Women who delivered a baby in the past 1year were included in this study. A total of 300 women responded (93.2%) and gave consent to participate in the study. Prevalence of home delivery was 37.7%. Bivariate analysis showed that religion, caste, education of women and their partners, occupation of the spouse, monthly family income and socioeconomic status had a significant association with the choice of place of delivery. But multivariate regression analysis showed only religion, caste, education of spouse and monthly income to be significant factors in determining place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that individual countries have to formulate interventions which will target marginalized or vulnerable populations with reference to caste, religion and wealth. A significant improvement in reaching the 5th MDG can be achieved if the first three MDG goals are focused on, i.e., eradication of poverty, achieving universal education and women empowerment.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T02:14:31Z
       
  • Prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits in type 2
           diabetes patients in South Trinidad
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Rishi Ramtahal , Claude Khan , Kavita Maharaj-Khan , Sriram Nallamothu , Avery Hinds , Andrew Dhanoo , Hsin-Chieh Yeh , Felicia Hill-Briggs , Mariana Lazo
      The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9kg/m2. The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (⩽6h) was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive anti-diabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T02:14:31Z
       
  • Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An
           analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among
           Thai adolescents and young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Bundit Sornpaisarn , Kevin D. Shield , Joanna E. Cohen , Robert Schwartz , Jürgen Rehm
      The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively “youth”) in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n =87,176 Thai youth, 15–24years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T02:14:31Z
       
  • Household wealth, residential status and the incidence of diarrhoea among
           children under-five years in Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme , Joshua Amo-Adjei
      This study examines the impact that the joint effect of household wealth quintile and urban–rural residence has on the incidence of diarrhoea among Ghanaian children. Data for this paper were drawn from the Ghana Micro Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) of 2006. Descriptive and logistic regression was applied to analyse data on 3466 children. Rural residents are less likely, albeit insignificant, to report diarrhoea compared with those in urban areas. Significant wealth gradients are manifested in childhood experiences of diarrhoea. However, an interaction of wealth with residence does not show significant disparities. Controlling for other important covariates of childhood, the odds of diarrhoea incidence were significantly higher among: the rural poorer (OR=4.869; 95% CI=0.792, 29.94), the rural middle (OR=7.477; 95% CI=1.300, 42.99), the rural richer (OR=6.162; 95% CI=0.932, 40.74) and the rural richest (OR=6.152; 95% CI=0.458, 82.54). Apart from residential status and wealth quintile, female children (OR=0.441; 95% CI=0.304, 0.640), older children (OR=0.968; 95% CI=0.943, 0.993), having a mother with secondary and higher education (OR=0.313; 95% CI) had lesser odds of experiencing diarrhoea. The findings show that there is a need to apportion interventions intended to improve child health outcomes even beyond residential status and household wealth position.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T00:26:27Z
       
  • Association of lipoprotein lipase gene with coronary heart disease in
           Sudanese population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid , Safa Ahmed , Awatif Salah , Etayeb M.A. Tyrab , Lemya M. Yahia , Elbagire A. Elbashir , Hassan H. Musa
      Cardiovascular disease is stabilizing in high-income countries and has continued to rise in low-to-middle-income countries. Association of lipid profile with lipoprotein lipase gene was studied in case and control subject. The family history, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol consumption were the most risk factors for early-onset of coronary heart disease (CHD). Sudanese patients had significantly (P <0.05) lower TC and LDL-C levels compared to controls. Allele frequency of LPL D9N, N291S and S447X carrier genotype was 4.2%, 30.7% and 7.1%, respectively. We conclude that lipoprotein lipase polymorphism was not associated with the incidence of CHD in Sudan.


      PubDate: 2015-05-31T19:02:40Z
       
  • Role of patient-reported outcomes and other efficacy endpoints in the drug
           approval process in Europe (2008–2012)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Dipika Bansal , Anil Bhagat , Fabrizio Schifano , Kapil Gudala
      The present study aimed at systematically reviewing the role and extent of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) usage within the package of scientific evidence considered for marketing authorization (MA). All regulatory information published by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for products authorized between January 2008 and December 2012 and appearing in the European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) database was examined for efficacy endpoints. The endpoints here considered included: PROs, clinician reported outcomes (CROs), and laboratory reported outcomes (LROs). LROs were the most frequently reported endpoints. Out of the 180 products here selected, 99 (55%), 67 (37%), and 30 (17%), respectively, used LROs, CROs and PROs as primary endpoints (PEs). PROs as any endpoints were used in 82 (46%) products. Out of these, PROs were documented as PE in 30 (37%), with 27 (33%) products having used PROs both as primary and non-PEs. PRO usage was most frequently identified with nervous system and antineoplastic agents. During the study period, the use of all the three types of endpoints appeared to be static. Both the regulatory bodies and the industry should ensure complete and clear reporting of all endpoints used, including PROs, to improve transparency.


      PubDate: 2015-05-31T19:02:40Z
       
  • Evaluation of tuberculosis public health surveillance, Al-Madinah
           province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Mohammed J. Alkhalawi , Scott J.N. McNabb , Abdullah M. Assiri , Ziad A. Memish
      The objective of the study is to evaluate the quality of the data, the sensitivity of the surveillance, and the completeness of identification and investigation of tuberculosis (TB) patient’s contacts. The study covered the TB surveillance program in Al-Madinah province in 2011. First, we reviewed all the notifications, treatment cards, and register books, as well as monthly and quarterly reports, for completeness and accuracy of data. Then, we searched for the missed cases that were not reported. Finally, we reviewed all the patients’ household contacts’ reports to assess the degree of completion of identification and investigation. There were 444 cases detected during the study period; only 200 cases were reported. The sensitivity of the TB surveillance system was 45%. Among the 200 reported cases, the results revealed high completeness rates for demographic and disease data and low completeness rates for the test result fields. The contact identification and investigation showed that 34.4% of smear-positive cases’ contacts were not identified. Only 67% of identified contacts were investigated. The review of hospital records and lab registers showed that 244 cases were not reported. In conclusion, the TB surveillance system has several areas that need improvement.


      PubDate: 2015-05-21T14:52:21Z
       
  • An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven
           Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Alexandru Coman , Răzvan M. Cherecheş , Marius I. Ungureanu , Emanuela O. Marton Vasarhelyi , Marissa A. Valentine , Tara Sabo-Attwood , Gregory C. Gray
      Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GEOHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.


      PubDate: 2015-05-12T13:22:58Z
       
  • First and second line drug resistance among treatment naïve cases
           pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a district under Revised National
           Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in New Delhi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Vithal Prasad Myneedu , Ritu Singhal , Khalid Umer Khayyam , Prem Prakash Sharma , Manpreet Bhalla , Digamber Behera , Rohit Sarin
      There is limited information of level of drug resistance to first-line and second line anti-tuberculosis agents in treatment naïve pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients from the Indian region. Therefore, the present prospective study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility to first-line and second line anti-TB drug resistance in such patients. Sputum samples from consecutive treatment naïve PTB cases registered in Lala Ram Sarup (LRS) district, under RNTCP containing 12 Directly Observed Treatment Centre’s (DOTS), were enrolled using cluster sampling technology. A total of 453 samples were received from July 2011 to June 2012. All samples were cultured on solid medium followed by drug susceptibility to first and second line anti-tubercular drugs as per RNTCP guidelines. Primary multi-drug resistance (MDR) was found to be 18/453; (4.0%). Extensively drug resistance (XDR) was found in one strain (0.2%), which was found to be resistant to other antibiotics. Data of drug resistant tuberculosis among treatment naïve TB patients are lacking in India. The presence of XDR-TB and high MDR-TB in small population studied, calls for conducting systematic multi-centric surveillance across the country.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Occlusal characteristics and prevalence of associated dental anomalies in
           the primary dentition
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Seema Lochib , K.R. Indushekar , Bhavna Gupta Saraf , Neha Sheoran , Divesh Sardana
      Introduction Morphological variations in primary dentition are of great concern to a pediatric dentist as it may pose clinical problems like dental caries, delayed exfoliation and also anomalies in the permanent dentition, such as impaction of successors, supernumerary teeth, permanent double teeth or aplasia of teeth. The present study was conducted to investigate the presence of dental anomalies in the primary dentition of 1000 schoolchildren in the 3–5year-old age group in Faridabad. Materials and methods One-thousand schoolchildren were examined using Type III examination (WHO, 1997) for primary molar relationship, occlusal characteristics, primate spaces, physiological spaces and other anomalies of teeth, including number and morphology. Results and conclusions The prevalence of physiological spaces in maxillary and mandibular arches was 50.9% and 46.7%, respectively, whereas primate spaces were found in 61.7% of the children in the maxillary arch and 27.9% in the mandibular arch. The prevalence of unilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite was 0.1% and 0.8%, respectively, in the present study. The prevalence of hypodontia in the primary dentition was found to be 0.4% and the prevalence of fusion and gemination in the present study was 0.5%. Double teeth (fusion and gemination) and hypodontia were the most common dental anomalies found in the primary dentition in the present study.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Tuberculosis screening among Bolivian sex workers and their children
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Silvia S. Chiang , Jessica K. Paulus , Chi-Cheng Huang , P.K. Newby , Dora Castellón Quiroga , Renée Boynton-Jarrett , Lara Antkowiak
      Bolivian sex workers were more likely than other employed women to report tuberculosis screening only if they reported HIV screening. Of all women with household tuberculosis exposure, <40% reported screening for themselves or their children. Coupling tuberculosis screening with sex workers’ mandatory HIV screenings may be a cost-efficient disease-control strategy.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Maryam Alfa-Wali , Kaji Sritharan , Mira Mehes , Fizan Abdullah , Shahnawaz Rasheed
      Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure to cater for emergency surgical needs. This article highlights the need for education, training and research to mitigate the problems related to terrorism and surgical public health.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Wardha district of Maharashtra,
           Central India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Pratibha Narang , Deepak K. Mendiratta , Naresh K. Tyagi , Ullhas N. Jajoo , Atul T. Tayade , Pratapsingh H. Parihar , Rahul Narang , Pranav S. Mishra , Sharda M. Anjinappa , Vineet K. Chadha
      A house based survey was conducted during 2007–2009 in a representative sample of population in Wardha district implementing Directly Observed Treatment Short Course strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control since 2001. The objective was to estimate prevalence of bacillary pulmonary TB (PTB) in individuals aged 15years or above, and to estimate trends in prevalence when compared to a previous survey carried out in mid 1980’s. Two sputum samples (one spot, one early morning) collected from individuals having symptoms suggestive of PTB, history of previous anti-TB treatment (ATT) or abnormal pulmonary shadow on Mass Miniature Radiography (MMR) consistent with possibly or probably active tuberculosis were subjected to Ziehl–Neelsen microscopy and culture on Lowenstein–Jensen medium. Of 55,096 individuals registered into the survey, 50,332 (91.4%) were screened by interview for symptoms and history of ATT and/or by MMR. Of them, 4805 were eligible for sputum collection; both specimens were collected in 4285 (89.2%) and only one specimen in 27 (0.6%). A total of 86 bacillary cases were detected during the survey. Prevalence of bacillary PTB was estimated at 188.7 (140.3–236.9) per 100,000 populations. There was a decline of 61% in the prevalence of PTB over a period of 22years.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Drinking water studies: A review on heavy metal, application of biomarker
           and health risk assessment (a special focus in Malaysia)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Nurul Hafiza Ab Razak , Sarva Mangala Praveena , Ahmad Zaharin Aris , Zailina Hashim
      Malaysia has abundant sources of drinking water from river and groundwater. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Malaysia. Heavy metal studies in terms of drinking water, applications of health risk assessment and bio-monitoring in Malaysia were reviewed from 2003 to 2013. Studies on heavy metal in drinking water showed the levels are under the permissible limits as suggested by World Health Organization and Malaysian Ministry of Health. Future studies on the applications of health risk assessment are crucial in order to understand the risk of heavy metal exposure through drinking water to Malaysian population. Among the biomarkers that have been reviewed, toenail is the most useful tool to evaluate body burden of heavy metal. Toenails are easy to collect, store, transport and analysed. This review will give a clear guidance for future studies of Malaysian drinking water. In this way, it will help risk managers to minimize the exposure at optimum level as well as the government to formulate policies in safe guarding the population.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial utilization in a Canadian
           tertiary-care teaching hospital
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Colin Lee , Sandra A.N. Walker , Nick Daneman , Marion Elligsen , Lesley Palmay , Bryan Coburn , Andrew Simor
      Objectives Inappropriate antimicrobial use can promote antimicrobial resistance, which is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality. Identifying the pattern of antimicrobial use can provide data from which targeted antimicrobial stewardship interventions can be made. The primary objective was to identify the prevalence of antimicrobial use at a tertiary care teaching hospital with both acute and long-term care patients. Methods A point prevalence study was conducted on July 19th, 2012. Data on antimicrobial utilization, indication for prescribing, duration of therapy, and frequency of infectious disease or antimicrobial stewardship consultations were collected using a customized integrated stewardship database (SPIRIT) and prospective chart review. Results One or more antimicrobial agents were ordered in 31% and 4% of acute care and long-term care patients, respectively. Respiratory and urinary tract infections were the most common indication for antimicrobial therapy in both acute and long-term care. About 25% of surgical prophylaxis orders were prescribed for greater than 24h. Conclusion This prospective point prevalence survey provided important baseline information on antimicrobial use within a large tertiary care teaching hospital and identified potential targets for future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. A multi-center point prevalence survey should be considered to identify patterns of antimicrobial use in Canada and to establish the first steps toward international antimicrobial surveillance.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana,
           Honduras, and India
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Daryl Ramai , Ryan Elliott , Shoshanna Goldin , Tejas Pulisetty
      Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health programs to reduce the global prevalence of blindness with increased efficiency. This study, which took place in Ghana, Honduras, and India, found that 95% of caregivers believed in the importance of eye exams for children, yet 66% of caregivers said that none of their children had ever received an eye exam. Participants’ major reasons for not bringing their children included the belief that their child had no eye problems along with similar and unique socio-economic barriers. Further information was gained through the use of a five-question test on basic child eye care symptoms, which showed that out of the three country locations, the studied population in India had the least understanding about pediatric eye symptoms. Further analysis revealed significant gaps in understanding of general eye health while detected knowledge barriers provide evidence that fundamental misconceptions appear to be inhibiting caregivers’ competence in facilitating their children’s eye health.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Adherence to medications and associated factors: A cross-sectional study
           among Palestinian hypertensive patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Rowa’ Al-Ramahi
      Objective To assess adherence of Palestinian hypertensive patients to therapy and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic and psychosocial variables on medication adherence. Methods A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken at a group of outpatient clinics of the Ministry of Health, in addition to a group of private clinics and pharmacies in the West Bank. Social and demographic variables and self-reported drug adherence (Morisky scale) were determined for each patient. Results Low adherence with medications was present in 244 (54.2%) of the patients. The multivariate logistic regression showed that younger age (<45years), living in a village compared with a city, evaluating health status as very good, good or poor compared with excellent, forgetfulness, fear of getting used to medication, adverse effect, and dissatisfaction with treatment had a statistically significant association with lower levels of medication adherence (P <0.05). Conclusions Poor adherence to medications was very common. The findings of this study may be used to identify the subset of population at risk of poor adherence who should be targeted for interventions to achieve better blood pressure control and hence prevent complications. This study should encourage the health policy makers in Palestine to implement strategies to reduce non-compliance, and thus contribute toward reducing national health care expenditures. Better patient education and communication with healthcare professionals could improve some factors that decrease adherence such as forgetfulness and dissatisfaction with treatment.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Energy drink usage among university students in a Caribbean country:
           Patterns of use and adverse effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sandra D. Reid , Jonathan Ramsarran , Rachel Brathwaite , Sarika Lyman , Ariane Baker , D’Andra C. Cornish , Stefan Ganga , Zahrid Mohammed , Avinash T. Sookdeo , Cathrine K. Thapelo
      Objective There has been little inquiry addressing whether or not concerns about adverse effects of energy drink usage are relevant in the Caribbean. This survey investigated energy drink usage and adverse consequences among tertiary level students in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1994 students from eight institutions was conducted using a de novo questionnaire based on findings from a focus group of students. Chi-squared analyses and logistic regression were used to assess relationships between energy drink usage, adverse effects and other factors affecting energy drink use, and to verify predictors of energy drink use. Results Prevalence of use was 86%; 38% were current users. Males were more likely to use, used more frequently and at an earlier age. Energy drinks were used most commonly to increase energy (50%), combat sleepiness (45%) and enhance academic performance (40%), and occurred during sports (23%) and mixed with alcohol (22.2%). The majority (79.6%) consumed one energy drink per sitting; 62.2% experienced adverse effects, most commonly restlessness (22%), jolt and crash (17.1%) and tachycardia (16.6%). Awareness of adverse effects was associated with no use (p =0.004), but adverse effects were not a deterrent to continued use. Conclusion Energy drink usage is prevalent among students. The use is not excessive, but associated with high rates of adverse effects and occurs in potentially dangerous situations like during exercise and with alcohol. There is a need to educate students about the potential adverse effects of energy drinks.


      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Commentary for Special Issue “Public health is new in Saudi Arabia.
           With this degree, I can go back and help to develop the field
           there.” – Naif Mohammed Alraihan, King Abdullah Fellow,
           Rollins School of Public Health, 2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Scott J.N. McNabb , Abdullah M. Assiri , Samar Alsaggaf , Ziad A. Memish



      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
       
  • Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers
           in Los Angeles County California, 2009–2014
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Curtis Croker
      Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T19:40:34Z
       
 
 
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