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Journal Cover   Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
  [SJR: 0.142]   [H-I: 2]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2210-6006
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Effect of age and gender in the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness
           among a sample of the Saudi population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Abdulhamid Fatani , Khalid Al-Rouqi , Jamal Al Towairky , Anwar E. Ahmed , Sarah Al-Jahdali , Yosra Ali , Abdullah Al-Shimemeri , Abdullah Al-Harbi , Salim Baharoon , Mohammad Khan , Hamdan Al-Jahdali
      The aim of this study is to assess whether the effect of gender on the excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is influenced by two confounders (age and hours of sleep per night). A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC-R). A total of 2095 respondents answered a questionnaire that included questions regarding gender, age, hours of sleep per night, and daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The prevalence of EDS was 20.5% (females 22.2%, males 19.5%, p-value=0.136). The EDS did not differ between genders, age groups, or hours of sleep per night (<6 vs. ⩾6h). However, stratified statistical analysis shows that the prevalence of EDS did differ according to gender (25.3% in females, 19.0% in males, p-value=0.036) in respondents with shorter hours of sleep per night. EDS was strongly related to female gender and young age (ages⩽29years) in respondents with short hours of sleep. This study reveals that one out of five of the general Saudi population has EDS. The effect of gender on EDS appeared to be influenced by hours of sleep per night. High EDS strongly related to female gender with short hours of sleep.

      PubDate: 2015-06-24T13:57:54Z
  • Do socio-demographic factors still predict the choice of place of
           delivery: A cross-sectional study in rural North India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Jyotiranjan Sahoo , Satyavir Singh , V.K. Gupta , Suneela Garg , Jugal Kishore
      Improving maternal health is one of the goals to be achieved under the Millennium Development Goal (MDG), especially MDG-5. One of the predictors of maternal health is place of child birth. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of home delivery and different socio-demographic factors associated with them. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. Women who delivered a baby in the past 1year were included in this study. A total of 300 women responded (93.2%) and gave consent to participate in the study. Prevalence of home delivery was 37.7%. Bivariate analysis showed that religion, caste, education of women and their partners, occupation of the spouse, monthly family income and socioeconomic status had a significant association with the choice of place of delivery. But multivariate regression analysis showed only religion, caste, education of spouse and monthly income to be significant factors in determining place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that individual countries have to formulate interventions which will target marginalized or vulnerable populations with reference to caste, religion and wealth. A significant improvement in reaching the 5th MDG can be achieved if the first three MDG goals are focused on, i.e., eradication of poverty, achieving universal education and women empowerment.

      PubDate: 2015-06-19T02:14:31Z
  • Prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits in type 2
           diabetes patients in South Trinidad
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Rishi Ramtahal , Claude Khan , Kavita Maharaj-Khan , Sriram Nallamothu , Avery Hinds , Andrew Dhanoo , Hsin-Chieh Yeh , Felicia Hill-Briggs , Mariana Lazo
      The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9kg/m2. The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (⩽6h) was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive anti-diabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients.

      PubDate: 2015-06-19T02:14:31Z
  • Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An
           analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among
           Thai adolescents and young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Bundit Sornpaisarn , Kevin D. Shield , Joanna E. Cohen , Robert Schwartz , Jürgen Rehm
      The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively “youth”) in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n =87,176 Thai youth, 15–24years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.

      PubDate: 2015-06-19T02:14:31Z
  • Household wealth, residential status and the incidence of diarrhoea among
           children under-five years in Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme , Joshua Amo-Adjei
      This study examines the impact that the joint effect of household wealth quintile and urban–rural residence has on the incidence of diarrhoea among Ghanaian children. Data for this paper were drawn from the Ghana Micro Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) of 2006. Descriptive and logistic regression was applied to analyse data on 3466 children. Rural residents are less likely, albeit insignificant, to report diarrhoea compared with those in urban areas. Significant wealth gradients are manifested in childhood experiences of diarrhoea. However, an interaction of wealth with residence does not show significant disparities. Controlling for other important covariates of childhood, the odds of diarrhoea incidence were significantly higher among: the rural poorer (OR=4.869; 95% CI=0.792, 29.94), the rural middle (OR=7.477; 95% CI=1.300, 42.99), the rural richer (OR=6.162; 95% CI=0.932, 40.74) and the rural richest (OR=6.152; 95% CI=0.458, 82.54). Apart from residential status and wealth quintile, female children (OR=0.441; 95% CI=0.304, 0.640), older children (OR=0.968; 95% CI=0.943, 0.993), having a mother with secondary and higher education (OR=0.313; 95% CI) had lesser odds of experiencing diarrhoea. The findings show that there is a need to apportion interventions intended to improve child health outcomes even beyond residential status and household wealth position.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T00:26:27Z
  • Association of lipoprotein lipase gene with coronary heart disease in
           Sudanese population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid , Safa Ahmed , Awatif Salah , Etayeb M.A. Tyrab , Lemya M. Yahia , Elbagire A. Elbashir , Hassan H. Musa
      Cardiovascular disease is stabilizing in high-income countries and has continued to rise in low-to-middle-income countries. Association of lipid profile with lipoprotein lipase gene was studied in case and control subject. The family history, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol consumption were the most risk factors for early-onset of coronary heart disease (CHD). Sudanese patients had significantly (P <0.05) lower TC and LDL-C levels compared to controls. Allele frequency of LPL D9N, N291S and S447X carrier genotype was 4.2%, 30.7% and 7.1%, respectively. We conclude that lipoprotein lipase polymorphism was not associated with the incidence of CHD in Sudan.

      PubDate: 2015-05-31T19:02:40Z
  • Role of patient-reported outcomes and other efficacy endpoints in the drug
           approval process in Europe (2008–2012)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Dipika Bansal , Anil Bhagat , Fabrizio Schifano , Kapil Gudala
      The present study aimed at systematically reviewing the role and extent of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) usage within the package of scientific evidence considered for marketing authorization (MA). All regulatory information published by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for products authorized between January 2008 and December 2012 and appearing in the European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) database was examined for efficacy endpoints. The endpoints here considered included: PROs, clinician reported outcomes (CROs), and laboratory reported outcomes (LROs). LROs were the most frequently reported endpoints. Out of the 180 products here selected, 99 (55%), 67 (37%), and 30 (17%), respectively, used LROs, CROs and PROs as primary endpoints (PEs). PROs as any endpoints were used in 82 (46%) products. Out of these, PROs were documented as PE in 30 (37%), with 27 (33%) products having used PROs both as primary and non-PEs. PRO usage was most frequently identified with nervous system and antineoplastic agents. During the study period, the use of all the three types of endpoints appeared to be static. Both the regulatory bodies and the industry should ensure complete and clear reporting of all endpoints used, including PROs, to improve transparency.

      PubDate: 2015-05-31T19:02:40Z
  • Evaluation of tuberculosis public health surveillance, Al-Madinah
           province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Mohammed J. Alkhalawi , Scott J.N. McNabb , Abdullah M. Assiri , Ziad A. Memish
      The objective of the study is to evaluate the quality of the data, the sensitivity of the surveillance, and the completeness of identification and investigation of tuberculosis (TB) patient’s contacts. The study covered the TB surveillance program in Al-Madinah province in 2011. First, we reviewed all the notifications, treatment cards, and register books, as well as monthly and quarterly reports, for completeness and accuracy of data. Then, we searched for the missed cases that were not reported. Finally, we reviewed all the patients’ household contacts’ reports to assess the degree of completion of identification and investigation. There were 444 cases detected during the study period; only 200 cases were reported. The sensitivity of the TB surveillance system was 45%. Among the 200 reported cases, the results revealed high completeness rates for demographic and disease data and low completeness rates for the test result fields. The contact identification and investigation showed that 34.4% of smear-positive cases’ contacts were not identified. Only 67% of identified contacts were investigated. The review of hospital records and lab registers showed that 244 cases were not reported. In conclusion, the TB surveillance system has several areas that need improvement.

      PubDate: 2015-05-21T14:52:21Z
  • An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven
           Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Alexandru Coman , Răzvan M. Cherecheş , Marius I. Ungureanu , Emanuela O. Marton Vasarhelyi , Marissa A. Valentine , Tara Sabo-Attwood , Gregory C. Gray
      Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GEOHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

      PubDate: 2015-05-12T13:22:58Z
  • First and second line drug resistance among treatment naïve cases
           pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a district under Revised National
           Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in New Delhi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Vithal Prasad Myneedu , Ritu Singhal , Khalid Umer Khayyam , Prem Prakash Sharma , Manpreet Bhalla , Digamber Behera , Rohit Sarin
      There is limited information of level of drug resistance to first-line and second line anti-tuberculosis agents in treatment naïve pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients from the Indian region. Therefore, the present prospective study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility to first-line and second line anti-TB drug resistance in such patients. Sputum samples from consecutive treatment naïve PTB cases registered in Lala Ram Sarup (LRS) district, under RNTCP containing 12 Directly Observed Treatment Centre’s (DOTS), were enrolled using cluster sampling technology. A total of 453 samples were received from July 2011 to June 2012. All samples were cultured on solid medium followed by drug susceptibility to first and second line anti-tubercular drugs as per RNTCP guidelines. Primary multi-drug resistance (MDR) was found to be 18/453; (4.0%). Extensively drug resistance (XDR) was found in one strain (0.2%), which was found to be resistant to other antibiotics. Data of drug resistant tuberculosis among treatment naïve TB patients are lacking in India. The presence of XDR-TB and high MDR-TB in small population studied, calls for conducting systematic multi-centric surveillance across the country.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Occlusal characteristics and prevalence of associated dental anomalies in
           the primary dentition
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Seema Lochib , K.R. Indushekar , Bhavna Gupta Saraf , Neha Sheoran , Divesh Sardana
      Introduction Morphological variations in primary dentition are of great concern to a pediatric dentist as it may pose clinical problems like dental caries, delayed exfoliation and also anomalies in the permanent dentition, such as impaction of successors, supernumerary teeth, permanent double teeth or aplasia of teeth. The present study was conducted to investigate the presence of dental anomalies in the primary dentition of 1000 schoolchildren in the 3–5year-old age group in Faridabad. Materials and methods One-thousand schoolchildren were examined using Type III examination (WHO, 1997) for primary molar relationship, occlusal characteristics, primate spaces, physiological spaces and other anomalies of teeth, including number and morphology. Results and conclusions The prevalence of physiological spaces in maxillary and mandibular arches was 50.9% and 46.7%, respectively, whereas primate spaces were found in 61.7% of the children in the maxillary arch and 27.9% in the mandibular arch. The prevalence of unilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite was 0.1% and 0.8%, respectively, in the present study. The prevalence of hypodontia in the primary dentition was found to be 0.4% and the prevalence of fusion and gemination in the present study was 0.5%. Double teeth (fusion and gemination) and hypodontia were the most common dental anomalies found in the primary dentition in the present study.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Tuberculosis screening among Bolivian sex workers and their children
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Silvia S. Chiang , Jessica K. Paulus , Chi-Cheng Huang , P.K. Newby , Dora Castellón Quiroga , Renée Boynton-Jarrett , Lara Antkowiak
      Bolivian sex workers were more likely than other employed women to report tuberculosis screening only if they reported HIV screening. Of all women with household tuberculosis exposure, <40% reported screening for themselves or their children. Coupling tuberculosis screening with sex workers’ mandatory HIV screenings may be a cost-efficient disease-control strategy.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Maryam Alfa-Wali , Kaji Sritharan , Mira Mehes , Fizan Abdullah , Shahnawaz Rasheed
      Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure to cater for emergency surgical needs. This article highlights the need for education, training and research to mitigate the problems related to terrorism and surgical public health.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Wardha district of Maharashtra,
           Central India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Pratibha Narang , Deepak K. Mendiratta , Naresh K. Tyagi , Ullhas N. Jajoo , Atul T. Tayade , Pratapsingh H. Parihar , Rahul Narang , Pranav S. Mishra , Sharda M. Anjinappa , Vineet K. Chadha
      A house based survey was conducted during 2007–2009 in a representative sample of population in Wardha district implementing Directly Observed Treatment Short Course strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control since 2001. The objective was to estimate prevalence of bacillary pulmonary TB (PTB) in individuals aged 15years or above, and to estimate trends in prevalence when compared to a previous survey carried out in mid 1980’s. Two sputum samples (one spot, one early morning) collected from individuals having symptoms suggestive of PTB, history of previous anti-TB treatment (ATT) or abnormal pulmonary shadow on Mass Miniature Radiography (MMR) consistent with possibly or probably active tuberculosis were subjected to Ziehl–Neelsen microscopy and culture on Lowenstein–Jensen medium. Of 55,096 individuals registered into the survey, 50,332 (91.4%) were screened by interview for symptoms and history of ATT and/or by MMR. Of them, 4805 were eligible for sputum collection; both specimens were collected in 4285 (89.2%) and only one specimen in 27 (0.6%). A total of 86 bacillary cases were detected during the survey. Prevalence of bacillary PTB was estimated at 188.7 (140.3–236.9) per 100,000 populations. There was a decline of 61% in the prevalence of PTB over a period of 22years.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Drinking water studies: A review on heavy metal, application of biomarker
           and health risk assessment (a special focus in Malaysia)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Nurul Hafiza Ab Razak , Sarva Mangala Praveena , Ahmad Zaharin Aris , Zailina Hashim
      Malaysia has abundant sources of drinking water from river and groundwater. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Malaysia. Heavy metal studies in terms of drinking water, applications of health risk assessment and bio-monitoring in Malaysia were reviewed from 2003 to 2013. Studies on heavy metal in drinking water showed the levels are under the permissible limits as suggested by World Health Organization and Malaysian Ministry of Health. Future studies on the applications of health risk assessment are crucial in order to understand the risk of heavy metal exposure through drinking water to Malaysian population. Among the biomarkers that have been reviewed, toenail is the most useful tool to evaluate body burden of heavy metal. Toenails are easy to collect, store, transport and analysed. This review will give a clear guidance for future studies of Malaysian drinking water. In this way, it will help risk managers to minimize the exposure at optimum level as well as the government to formulate policies in safe guarding the population.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial utilization in a Canadian
           tertiary-care teaching hospital
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Colin Lee , Sandra A.N. Walker , Nick Daneman , Marion Elligsen , Lesley Palmay , Bryan Coburn , Andrew Simor
      Objectives Inappropriate antimicrobial use can promote antimicrobial resistance, which is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality. Identifying the pattern of antimicrobial use can provide data from which targeted antimicrobial stewardship interventions can be made. The primary objective was to identify the prevalence of antimicrobial use at a tertiary care teaching hospital with both acute and long-term care patients. Methods A point prevalence study was conducted on July 19th, 2012. Data on antimicrobial utilization, indication for prescribing, duration of therapy, and frequency of infectious disease or antimicrobial stewardship consultations were collected using a customized integrated stewardship database (SPIRIT) and prospective chart review. Results One or more antimicrobial agents were ordered in 31% and 4% of acute care and long-term care patients, respectively. Respiratory and urinary tract infections were the most common indication for antimicrobial therapy in both acute and long-term care. About 25% of surgical prophylaxis orders were prescribed for greater than 24h. Conclusion This prospective point prevalence survey provided important baseline information on antimicrobial use within a large tertiary care teaching hospital and identified potential targets for future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. A multi-center point prevalence survey should be considered to identify patterns of antimicrobial use in Canada and to establish the first steps toward international antimicrobial surveillance.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana,
           Honduras, and India
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Daryl Ramai , Ryan Elliott , Shoshanna Goldin , Tejas Pulisetty
      Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health programs to reduce the global prevalence of blindness with increased efficiency. This study, which took place in Ghana, Honduras, and India, found that 95% of caregivers believed in the importance of eye exams for children, yet 66% of caregivers said that none of their children had ever received an eye exam. Participants’ major reasons for not bringing their children included the belief that their child had no eye problems along with similar and unique socio-economic barriers. Further information was gained through the use of a five-question test on basic child eye care symptoms, which showed that out of the three country locations, the studied population in India had the least understanding about pediatric eye symptoms. Further analysis revealed significant gaps in understanding of general eye health while detected knowledge barriers provide evidence that fundamental misconceptions appear to be inhibiting caregivers’ competence in facilitating their children’s eye health.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Adherence to medications and associated factors: A cross-sectional study
           among Palestinian hypertensive patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Rowa’ Al-Ramahi
      Objective To assess adherence of Palestinian hypertensive patients to therapy and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic and psychosocial variables on medication adherence. Methods A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken at a group of outpatient clinics of the Ministry of Health, in addition to a group of private clinics and pharmacies in the West Bank. Social and demographic variables and self-reported drug adherence (Morisky scale) were determined for each patient. Results Low adherence with medications was present in 244 (54.2%) of the patients. The multivariate logistic regression showed that younger age (<45years), living in a village compared with a city, evaluating health status as very good, good or poor compared with excellent, forgetfulness, fear of getting used to medication, adverse effect, and dissatisfaction with treatment had a statistically significant association with lower levels of medication adherence (P <0.05). Conclusions Poor adherence to medications was very common. The findings of this study may be used to identify the subset of population at risk of poor adherence who should be targeted for interventions to achieve better blood pressure control and hence prevent complications. This study should encourage the health policy makers in Palestine to implement strategies to reduce non-compliance, and thus contribute toward reducing national health care expenditures. Better patient education and communication with healthcare professionals could improve some factors that decrease adherence such as forgetfulness and dissatisfaction with treatment.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Energy drink usage among university students in a Caribbean country:
           Patterns of use and adverse effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sandra D. Reid , Jonathan Ramsarran , Rachel Brathwaite , Sarika Lyman , Ariane Baker , D’Andra C. Cornish , Stefan Ganga , Zahrid Mohammed , Avinash T. Sookdeo , Cathrine K. Thapelo
      Objective There has been little inquiry addressing whether or not concerns about adverse effects of energy drink usage are relevant in the Caribbean. This survey investigated energy drink usage and adverse consequences among tertiary level students in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1994 students from eight institutions was conducted using a de novo questionnaire based on findings from a focus group of students. Chi-squared analyses and logistic regression were used to assess relationships between energy drink usage, adverse effects and other factors affecting energy drink use, and to verify predictors of energy drink use. Results Prevalence of use was 86%; 38% were current users. Males were more likely to use, used more frequently and at an earlier age. Energy drinks were used most commonly to increase energy (50%), combat sleepiness (45%) and enhance academic performance (40%), and occurred during sports (23%) and mixed with alcohol (22.2%). The majority (79.6%) consumed one energy drink per sitting; 62.2% experienced adverse effects, most commonly restlessness (22%), jolt and crash (17.1%) and tachycardia (16.6%). Awareness of adverse effects was associated with no use (p =0.004), but adverse effects were not a deterrent to continued use. Conclusion Energy drink usage is prevalent among students. The use is not excessive, but associated with high rates of adverse effects and occurs in potentially dangerous situations like during exercise and with alcohol. There is a need to educate students about the potential adverse effects of energy drinks.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Commentary for Special Issue “Public health is new in Saudi Arabia.
           With this degree, I can go back and help to develop the field
           there.” – Naif Mohammed Alraihan, King Abdullah Fellow,
           Rollins School of Public Health, 2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Scott J.N. McNabb , Abdullah M. Assiri , Samar Alsaggaf , Ziad A. Memish

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
  • Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers
           in Los Angeles County California, 2009–2014
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Curtis Croker
      Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases.

      PubDate: 2015-04-04T19:40:34Z
  • Relationship between oral clinical conditions and daily performances among
           young adults in India – A cross sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Ramesh Nagarajappa , Mehak Batra , Sudhanshu Sanadhya , Hemasha Daryani , Gayathri Ramesh
      Objective of the present study was to investigate relationship between oral health-related quality of life using Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) scale and specific clinical dental measures. A cross sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 800 students. Oral health status and impacts were assessed using WHO guidelines and OIDP index respectively. Chi square test and multiple logistic regressions were employed for statistical analysis. Participants with caries were significantly (p ⩽0.05) more likely to have an impact on cleaning (OR=2.487) and sleeping and relaxing (OR=8.996). Similarly participants with oral mucosal conditions were more likely to have an impact on eating (OR=3.97), cleaning (OR=2.966) and physical activities (OR=11.190). Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) impacted on cleaning (OR=2.134), emotional stability (OR=3.957) and social contact (OR=3.21). OIDP Index showed acceptable psychometric properties in the context of an oral health survey. Subjects presented a strong and consistent relationship between dental status and perceived impacts.

      PubDate: 2015-04-04T19:40:34Z
  • Analyzing seasonality of tuberculosis across Indian states and union
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Pankaj Narula , Praveer Sihota , Sarita Azad , Pietro Lio
      A significant seasonal variation in tuberculosis (TB) is observed in north India during 2006–2011, particularly in states like Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. To quantify the seasonal variation, we measure average amplitude (peak to trough distance) across seasons in smear positive cases of TB and observe that it is maximum for Himachal Pradesh (40.01%) and minimum for Maharashtra (3.87%). In north India, smear positive cases peak in second quarter (April–June) and reach a trough in fourth quarter (October–December), however low seasonal variation is observed in southern region of the country. The significant correlations as 0.64 (p-value<0.001), 0.54 (p-value<0.01) and 0.42 (p-value<0.05) are observed between minimum temperature and seasonality of TB at lag-1 in north, central and northeast India respectively. However, in south India, this correlation is not significant.

      PubDate: 2015-03-18T17:52:25Z
  • Hypertension in the Lebanese adults: Impact on health related quality of
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Malak Khalife , Pascale Salameh , Amal Al Hajje , Sanaa Awada , Samar Rachidi , Wafa Bawab
      Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, hypertension being one of their most prevalent risk factors. Information on health related quality of life (QOL) of hypertensive individuals in Lebanon is lacking. Our objectives were to evaluate QOL of hypertensive patients compared with non-hypertensive subjects and to suggest possible predictors of QOL in Lebanon. We conducted a case control study among individuals visiting outpatient clinics. Quality of life was assessed using the eight item (SF-8) questionnaire administered face to face to the study population, applied to hypertensive (N =224) and non-hypertensive control (N =448) groups. Hypertensive patients presented lower QOL scores in all domains, particularly in case of high administration frequency and occurrence of drug related side effects. Among hypertensive patients, QOL was significantly decreased with the presence of comorbidities (β =−13.865, p =0.054), daily frequency of antihypertensive medications (β =−8.196, p <0.001), presence of drug side-effects (β =−19.262, p =0.031), older age (β =−0.548, p <0.001), female gender (β =−21.363, p =0.05), lower education (β =−22.949, p =0.006), and cigarettes smoked daily (β =−0.726, p <0.001); regular sport activity (β =23.15, p <0.001) significantly increased quality of life. These findings indicate the necessity for health professionals to take these factors into account when treating hypertensive patients, and to tackle special subgroups with attention to their deteriorated QOL.

      PubDate: 2015-03-14T17:34:56Z
  • Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total
           cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious andw cardiovascular
           diseases: An ecological analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): C. Oggioni , H. Cena , J.C.K. Wells , J. Lara , C. Celis-Morales , M. Siervo
      Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs.

      PubDate: 2015-03-09T16:10:41Z
  • Leveraging “big data” to enhance the effectiveness of
           “one health” in an era of health informatics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): G.V. Asokan , Vanitha Asokan
      Zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. The major obstacles to control zoonoses include insensitive systems and unreliable data. Intelligent handling of the cost effective big data can accomplish the goals of one health to detect disease trends, outbreaks, pathogens and causes of emergence in human and animals.

      PubDate: 2015-03-09T16:10:41Z
  • Fall-related injuries in a low-income setting: Results from a pilot injury
           surveillance system in Rawalpindi, Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Junaid A. Bhatti , Umar Farooq , Mudassir Majeed , Jahangir S. Khan , Junaid A. Razzak , Muhammad M. Khan
      This study assessed the characteristics and emergency care outcomes of fall-related injuries in Pakistan. This study included all fall-related injury cases presenting to emergency departments (EDs) of the three teaching hospitals in Rawalpindi city from July 2007 to June 2008. Out of 62,530 injury cases, 43.4% (N =27,109) were due to falls. Children (0–15years) accounted for about two out of five of all fall-related injuries. Compared with women aged 16–45years, more men of the same age group presented with fall-related injuries (50% vs. 42%); however, compared with men aged 45years or more, about twice as many women of the same age group presented with fall-related injuries (16% vs. 9%, P <0.001). For each reported death due to falls (n =57), 43 more were admitted (n =2443, 9%), and another 423 were discharged from the EDs (n =24,142, 91%). Factors associated with death or inpatient admission were: aged 0–15years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.35), aged 45years or more (aOR=1.94), male gender (aOR=1.15), falls occurring at home (aOR=3.38), in markets (aOR=1.43), on work sites (aOR=4.80), and during playing activities (aOR=1.68). This ED-based surveillance study indicated that fall prevention interventions in Pakistan should target children, older adult women, homes, and work sites.

      PubDate: 2015-02-28T15:15:40Z
  • Prospective study of predictors of poor self-rated health in a 23-year
           cohort of earthquake survivors in Armenia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Anahit Demirchyan , Varduhi Petrosyan , Haroutune K. Armenian , Vahe Khachadourian
      Long-term prospective studies exploring general health outcomes among disaster survivors are rare. Self-rated health (SRH) – a proven correlate of morbidity and mortality prognosis – was used to investigate predictors of perceived health status among a 23-year cohort of survivors of 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia. A geographically-stratified subsample of 725 adults from a larger initial cohort was followed during the period of 1990–2012. A logistic regression model identified predictors of SRH. Adjusted relative risks for the long-term predictors of SRH were calculated. The rate of poor SRH among the survivors was 18.8%, fair 56.5%, and good/excellent 24.7%. In the fitted model, long-term risk factors of poor SRH included baseline body mass index, baseline multi-morbidity, number of experienced stressful life events, and perceived poor living standards during the post-earthquake decade, while participation in sports in the early 1990s was a protective factor. Short-term protective factors included socio-economic status score, social support, employment and dignity, while current household size was a risk factor for poor SRH. No association was found between earthquake exposure severity and SRH after 23years. However, the identified predictors included a number of modifiable lifestyle, material and psychological factors. Thus, interventions targeting these factors could have a long-lasting impact on disaster victims’ health status.

      PubDate: 2015-02-23T14:34:38Z
  • Study of drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis cases in south coastal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Parashuram Rao , Kiran Chawla , Vishnu Prasad Shenoy , Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay , Vishwanath Brahmavar , Asha Kamath , Aswini Kumar Mohapatra
      The present cross-sectional study was conducted the first time from the Udupi district of coastal Karnataka to know the prevalence of drug resistance and comparative analysis of MDR and non-MDR cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Details of 862 smear positive cases of pulmonary tuberculosis with age ⩾15years from 12 designated microscopy centres of the Udupi district were studied. Initially 2 sputum samples trailed by one follow-up sample were collected from each patient and processed for culture and drug sensitivity on the Lowenstein–Jensen medium. A total resistance of 33.4% was observed that includes the mono-resistance of 22.5%, multidrug resistance (MDR) of 6.3% and extensive drug resistance (XDR) of 0.3%. Significant odds ratio (OR) was observed in category 2 cases (OR 3.9) for the development of MDR tuberculosis. A significant statistical association was observed using Fisher’s exact test while comparing mortality rate (19.3% vs. 1.8%), treatment failure (8.8% vs. 3.8%) and cure rate (68.4% vs. 85.4%) between MDR and non-MDR cases (p <0.001). Category 2 patients are important risk factors for the development of MDR in pulmonary tuberculosis. Due to the high mortality and low cure rate in MDR cases it is imperative to know the drug sensitivity report before institution of anti-tubercular treatment.

      PubDate: 2015-02-23T14:34:38Z
  • Foot ailments during Hajj: A short report
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Shruti Sridhar , Samir Benkouiten , Khadidja Belhouchat , Tassadit Drali , Ziad A. Memish , Philippe Parola , Philippe Brouqui , Philippe Gautret
      A study of ailments of the feet in pilgrims of Hajj revealed that 31% of them suffered from blisters, and the prevalence was five times higher in females. The presence of comorbidity (diabetes, obesity and advanced age) warrants immediate attention to them to avoid serious complications.

      PubDate: 2015-02-23T14:34:38Z
  • Global tuberculosis control requires greater ambition and resources
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Madhukar Pai , Ziad A. Memish

      PubDate: 2015-02-05T04:03:43Z
  • Counselling services in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT)
           in Delhi, India: An assessment through a modified version of UNICEF-PPTCT
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Arvind Kumar , Bir Singh , Yadlapalli S. Kusuma
      The study aims to assess the counselling services provided to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) under the Indian programme of prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV (PPTCT). Five hospitals in Delhi providing PMTCT services were randomly selected. A total of 201 post-test counselled women were interviewed using a modified version of the UNICEF-PPTCT evaluation tool. Knowledge about HIV transmission from mother-to-child was low. Post-test counselling mainly helped in increasing the knowledge of HIV transmission; yet 20%–30% of the clients missed this opportunity. Discussion on window period, other sexually transmitted diseases and danger signs of pregnancy were grossly neglected. The PMTCT services during the antenatal period are feasible and agreeable to be provided; however, certain aspects, like lack of privacy, confidentiality of HIV status of the client, counsellor’s ‘hurried’ attitude, communication skills and discriminant behaviour towards HIV-positive clients, and disinterest of clients in the counselling, remain as gaps. These issues may be addressed through refresher training to counsellors with an emphasis on social and behaviour change communication strategies. Addressing attitudinal aspects of the counsellors towards HIV positives is crucial to improve the quality of the services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

      PubDate: 2015-01-21T14:05:48Z
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