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Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 2210-6006
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 0.105]   [H-I: 2]
  • Incidence of acute-onset atrial fibrillation correlates with air
           temperature. Results of a nine-year survey
    • Authors: Ivan Comelli; Jayme Ferro, Giuseppe Lippi, Denis Comelli, Elisabetta Sartori, Gianfranco Cervellin
      Pages: 151 - 157
      Abstract: Abstract: Some diseases, such as renal colic, stroke, and myocardial infarction, correlate with seasonality and microclimatic variations. Although evidence is limited and controversial, a correlation between acute-onset atrial fibrillation (AAF) and seasonality has been previously reported. In order to elucidate the possible correlations between weather and incidence of AAF in a country with a temperate climate, the influence of day-by-day climate changes was analyzed based on the number of visits for AAF (defined as onset of symptoms within 48h) in a large urban Emergency Department (ED) of northern Italy. All the episodes of AAF were retrieved from the hospital’s electronic database during a period of 3287days (January 2002 to December 2010). Only the cases whose onset occurred within 48h from the ED visit were selected. The total number of ED visits was 725,812 throughout the observational period. Among these, 3633 AAF cases were observed, 52% of which were males. A slight but significant negative linear correlation was found between the number of AAFs and the daily temperature (R=−0.60; p=0.001). No correlation was found between the number of AAFs and the daily humidity (R=−0.07; p=0.2).
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-01-10
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • Acceptability of, and willingness to pay for, community health insurance
           in rural India
    • Authors: Ankit Jain; Selva Swetha, Zeena Johar, Ramesh Raghavan
      Pages: 159 - 167
      Abstract: Abstract: Objectives: To understand the acceptability of, and willingness to pay for, community health insurance coverage among residents of rural India.Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study of 33 respondents located in 8 villages in southern India. Interview domains focused on health-seeking behaviors of the family for primary healthcare, household expenditures on primary healthcare, interest in pre-paid health insurance, and willingness to pay for such a product.Results: Most respondents reported that they would seek care only when symptoms were manifest; only 6 respondents recognized the importance of preventative services. None reported impoverishment due to health expenditures. Few viewed health insurance as necessary either because they did not wish to be early adopters, because they had alternate sources of financial support, or because of concerns with the design of insurance coverage or the provider. Those who were interested reported being willing to pay Rs. 1500 ($27) as the modal annual insurance premium.Conclusions: Penetration of community health insurance programs in rural India will require education of the consumer base, careful attention to premium rate setting, and deeper understanding of social networks that may act as financial substitutes for health insurance.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-01-27
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • Coverage of vitamin A supplementation and deworming during Malezi Bora in
    • Authors: Paloma C. Clohossey; Heather I. Katcher, Geoffrey O. Mogonchi, Nancy Nyagoha, Marissa C. Isidro, Evelyn Kikechi, Edgar E.V. Okoth, Jessica L. Blankenship
      Pages: 169 - 176
      Abstract: Abstract: Twice-yearly child health weeks are an effective way of reaching children with essential child survival services in developing countries. In Kenya, child health weeks, or Malezi Bora, were restructured in 2007 from an outreach-based delivery structure to a health facility-based delivery structure to reduce delivery costs and increase sustainability of the events. Administrative data from 2007 to 2011 have demonstrated a decrease in coverage of Malezi Bora services to targeted children. A post-event coverage (PEC) survey was conducted after the May 2012 Malezi Bora to validate coverage of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and deworming and to inform program strategy. Nine hundred caregivers with children aged 6–59months were interviewed using a randomized, 30×30 cluster design. For each cluster, one facility-based health worker and one community-based health worker were also interviewed. Coverage of VAS was 31.0% among children aged 6–59months and coverage of deworming was 19.6% among children aged 12–59months. Coverage of VAS was significantly higher for children aged 6–11months (45.7%, n=116) than for children aged 12–59months (28.8%, n=772) (p
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-02-10
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • HIV status, knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and antenatal
           care use among Ethiopian women
    • Authors: Ida Sahlu; Chanelle J. Howe, Melissa A. Clark, Brandon D.L. Marshall
      Pages: 177 - 184
      Abstract: Abstract: Objective: To determine whether HIV status and knowledge of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV are associated with antenatal care (ANC) use.Methods: Data were obtained from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey among women aged 15–49years who agreed to HIV testing and who reported giving birth in the preceding five years. The two exposures of interest were HIV status and knowledge of MTCT. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios for ANC use were estimated by fitting modified Poisson regression models.Results: Among the 7392 women in the sample, ANC use was lowest among HIV-negative, low MTCT knowledge women (31.6% [95% confidence interval: 28.1–35.1]), and highest among HIV-positive, high knowledge women (81.9% [69.8–94.0%]). ANC use was significantly higher among HIV-positive, high knowledge (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]=1.60 [1.32–1.94]) and HIV-negative, high knowledge women (1.37 [1.24–1.51]) compared with HIV-negative, low knowledge women. There was no statistically significant difference in ANC use by HIV status among low knowledge women (1.26 [0.71–2.25]).Conclusions: HIV-positive women generally had better MTCT knowledge. Among HIV-negative women, the prevalence of ANC use was greater among women with higher knowledge. Increasing MTCT knowledge may facilitate ANC use and in turn may eliminate MTCT.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-02-19
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • MicroResearch: Finding sustainable local health solutions in East Africa
           through small local research studies
    • Authors: N.E. MacDonald; R. Bortolussi, J. Kabakyenga, S. Pemba, B. Estambale, K.H.M. Kollmann, R. Odoi Adome, M. Appleton
      Pages: 185 - 193
      Abstract: Abstract: Background: Sub-Saharan African countries have urged grassroots input to improve research capacity. In East Africa, MicroResearch is fostering local ability to find sustainable solutions for community health problems. At 5years, the following reports its progress.Methods: The MicroResearch program had three integrated components: (1) 2-week training workshops; (2) small proposal development with international peer review followed by project funding, implementation, knowledge translation; (3) coaching from experienced researchers. Evaluation included standardized questions after completion of the workshops, 2013 online survey of recent workshop participants and discussions at two East Africa MicroResearch Forums in 2013.Results: Between 2008 and 2013, 15 workshops were conducted at 5 East Africa sites with 391 participants. Of the 29 projects funded by MicroResearch, 7 have been completed; of which 6 led to changes in local health policy/practice. MicroResearch training stimulated 13 other funded research projects; of which 8 were external to MicroResearch. Over 90% of participants rated the workshops as excellent with 20% spontaneously noting that MicroResearch changed how they worked. The survey highlighted three local research needs: mentors, skills and funding – each addressed by MicroResearch. On-line MicroResearch and alumni networks, two knowledge translation partnerships and an East Africa Leaders Consortium arose from the MicroResearch Forums.Conclusion: MicroResearch helped build local capacity for community-directed interdisciplinary health research.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-02-24
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • Trend of application of World Health Organization control strategy of
           tuberculosis in Egypt
    • Authors: Amal Saad-Hussein; Asmaa M. Mohammed
      Pages: 195 - 202
      Abstract: Abstract: World Health Organization (WHO) control policy for tuberculosis (TB) includes Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine at birth, case detection, and treatment of cases with directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS). This policy has been applied through the Ministry of Health and Population in Egypt for more than 30years. The controversies about the efficacy of the BCG vaccination against TB in adults initiate some suggestions for its discontinuation from compulsory vaccinations in countries with low incidence of TB. The present work aimed to study the trend of applying the WHO control policy for TB in Egypt among the Egyptian population throughout the last 20years (1992–2011). The documented database of the country, bibliographic review on MEDLINE, published studies and reports, WHO and EMRO databases that covered the period from 1992 to 2011 were used in this study. The incidence rate of all forms of TB (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) dropped by 50% from 34 cases to 17 cases per 100,000 population, as well as the prevalence rate declined by 60.6% from 71 cases per 100,000 population throughout the last 20years. Case detection and treatment success rates have increased throughout the studied period while it flat-lined over the past 6years which may need attention. The results of this study introduce an evidence-based recommendation for continuation of the WHO TB control policy in Egypt towards elimination of the disease.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-13
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • Chikungunya outbreak in Al-Hudaydah, Yemen, 2011: Epidemiological
           characterization and key lessons learned for early detection and control
    • Authors: Mamunur Rahman Malik; Abraham Mnzava, Emad Mohareb, Alia Zayed, Abdulhakeem Al Kohlani, Ahmed A.K. Thabet, Hassan El Bushra
      Pages: 203 - 211
      Abstract: Abstract: Little is known about the occurrence of chikungunya fever in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). In January 2011, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPH&P) of Yemen reported to WHO an increasing number of “dengue-like” acute febrile illnesses of unknown origin from one of its coastal governorates. An epidemiological investigation was conducted in Al-Hudaydah governorate between 23 and 26 January 2011 by a joint team of WHO, the MoPH&P of Yemen and the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU-3) in Cairo, Egypt. The investigation led to the detection of an outbreak of chikungunya in Yemen which was the first time ever from any of the 22 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO. Appropriate public health control measures were strengthened following the investigation, and the outbreak was contained. This paper provides a short description of the outbreak and its epidemiological characteristics and highlights the important lessons that were learned for early detection and control of chikungunya in countries where competent vectors for transmission of the virus exist.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-17
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • Neonatal mortality in Nepal: A multilevel analysis of a nationally
    • Authors: Subas Neupane; David Teye Doku
      Pages: 213 - 222
      Abstract: Abstract: Objectives: This study investigated individual, community and district level factors associated with neonatal mortality among a national sample of Nepalese women.Methods: Data were drawn from the 2006 Nepalese Demographic and Health Survey on women aged 15–49 who delivered within three years prior to the survey (N=4136). Multilevel logistic regression models with three levels were fitted to assess the influences of measured individual, community and district level variables on neonatal mortality.Results: The total neonatal mortality in three years preceding the survey was 4.5 deaths per 100 live births (N=190), with neonatal mortality rate (NMR)=46 per 1000 live births. Having a partner with no formal education, being in the middle on the wealth index and residing in less developed district were associated with neonatal death in bivariate analysis. Women who were assisted by skilled personnel during delivery were less likely to have neonatal death (adjusted OR for no assistance = 2.26, 95% CI=1.19–4.26). Having prenatal care with skilled attendant was associated with less likelihood of neonatal death (adjusted OR for no care = 1.75, 95% CI=1.17–2.62). Older women, mother’s education, parity and wealth index were associated with neonatal mortality. Considerable variations in neonatal mortality at community and district levels were found.Conclusions: These findings emphasize the need for interventions at the individual level with regard to access and utilization of healthcare in order to reduce the neonatal mortality in Nepal.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-20
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • Mammography use among women with and without diabetes: Results from the
           Southern Community Cohort Study
    • Authors: Maureen Sanderson; Loren Lipworth, Xijing Han, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, David Shen-Miller, Kushal Patel, William J. Blot, Margaret K. Hargreaves
      Pages: 223 - 230
      Abstract: Abstract: Studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer associated with diabetes which may be due to differences in mammography use among women who have diabetes compared with women who do not have diabetes. Baseline data was used from the Southern Community Cohort Study – a prospective cohort study conducted primarily among low-income persons in the southeastern United States – to examine the association between diabetes and mammography use. In-person interviews collected information on diabetes and mammography use from 14,665 white and 30,846 black women aged 40–79years between 2002 and 2009. After adjustment for potential confounding, white women with diabetes were no more likely (odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85–1.06) to undergo mammography within the past 12months than white women without diabetes. Nor was there an association between diabetes and mammography use among black women (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.93–1.07). An increase in mammography use was seen within one year following diabetes diagnosis, more so among white than black women, but this was offset by decreases thereafter. Although there was some evidence of an increase in mammography use within one year of diabetes diagnosis, these results suggest that mammography use is not related to diabetes.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-21
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • A prospective, observational, epidemiological evaluation of the aetiology
           and antimicrobial susceptibility of acute otitis media in Saudi children
           younger than 5years of age
    • Authors: Khalid A. Al-Mazrou; Atef M. Shibl, Walid Kandeil, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Cinzia Marano
      Pages: 231 - 238
      Abstract: Abstract: Background: Information regarding acute otitis media (AOM) aetiology is important for developing effective vaccines. Here, bacterial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM were determined in young Saudi children.Methods: Children aged 3–60months with a new episode of AOM, who had not received antibiotics or had received antibiotics for 48–72h but remained symptomatic, were enrolled in this prospective, observational, epidemiological study in Riyadh. Middle ear fluid (MEF) samples were collected by tympanocentesis or from spontaneous otorrhea, and tested for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Moraxella catarrhalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the identified pathogens was assessed using E-tests.Results: Between June 2009 and May 2011, 66 children were enrolled. S. pneumoniae was detected in 6 episodes and non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) in 8 episodes. Moreover, Staphylococcus aureus, which is an uncommon cause of AOM, was detected in 17 episodes. Pneumococcal serotypes were 7F (n=2), 23F (n=2), 19F (n=1) and 15F (n=1). Susceptibility to cefotaxime was observed in all pneumococcal and H. influenzae isolates, to cefuroxime in 4/6 pneumococcal and 8/8 H. influenzae isolates, and to penicillin in 5/6 pneumococcal isolates.Conclusions: S. pneumoniae and NTHi were major bacterial contributors for AOM in Saudi children.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-23
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • Tracking women and children in a Continuum of Reproductive, Maternal,
           Newborn, and Child Healthcare (RMNCH) in India
    • Authors: Rajesh Kumar Rai
      Pages: 239 - 243
      Abstract: Abstract: The Continuum of Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Healthcare (RMNCH) model is suggested to be an effective tool to improve maternal and child health. This short dispatch proposes that if India pursues the continuum of care model, a well-designed follow-up strategy to track prospective mothers and their children is imperative.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-02-13
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
  • Objective cardiac markers and cerebrovascular lesions in Indian seniors
    • Authors: Stephanie H. Charles; Amanda C. Tow, Joe Verghese
      Pages: 245 - 247
      Abstract: Abstract: Cardiovascular risk factors are implicated in cerebrovascular disease, resulting in cognitive impairment. This study investigated the relationship between objective cardiac markers and cerebral changes in older Indian adults with and without dementia. Dementia patients with major electrocardiographic (EKG) abnormalities were 8.19 times more likely to have evidence of stroke on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with patients with no EKG abnormalities (p
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 3 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-03-31
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014)
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