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Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 2210-6006
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 0.105]   [H-I: 2]
  • Health conditions for travellers to Saudi Arabia for the Umra and
           pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) – 2014
    • Authors: Ziad A. Memish; Abdullah A. Al Rabeeah
      Pages: 73 - 75
      Abstract: The Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia has issued the following requirements and recommendations for entry visas for the Hajj and Umra seasons in 2014. (A) In accordance with the , all travellers arriving from countries or areas at risk of yellow fever (see list below) must present a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate showing that the person was vaccinated at least 10days previously.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-14
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2014)
  • Improving the quality of tuberculosis care: We need standards and
           strategies to translate them into practice
    • Authors: Madhukar Pai
      Pages: 77 - 80
      Abstract: In 2012, an estimated 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB), and 1.3 million died because of TB . In their most recent Global TB Report, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised two major concerns for TB control. First, of the estimated 8.6 million cases, nearly 3 million cases were deemed ‘missing’ either because they were not diagnosed or not notified to health systems. Secondly, the alarming rise of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), where a majority of cases with MDR-TB are still not being detected .
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-04-23
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2014)
  • Nosocomial pathogens associated with the mobile phones of healthcare
           workers in a hospital in Anyigba, Kogi state, Nigeria
    • Authors: E.O. Nwankwo; N. Ekwunife, K.C. Mofolorunsho
      Pages: 135 - 140
      Abstract: Abstract: Background: Mobile phones of healthcare workers (HCWs) could be colonized by potential bacteria pathogens. The aim of this research is to evaluate the bacterial contamination and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates from mobile phones of HCWs in Grimad hospital.Method: A total of 112 swab samples were collected from the mobile phones of HCWs and students in June 2012 in Anyigba. While 56 samples were from HCWs in Grimad hospital, 56 samples were obtained from non-healthcare workers (NHCWs) who served as the control. The samples were all screened for bacterial pathogens by standard bacteriological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by the disc diffusion technique.Results: The rate of bacterial contamination of mobile phones of HCWs was 94.6%. Bacteria isolated from mobile phones of HCWs were more resistant to antibiotics than NHCWs phones. Staphylococcus Epidermidis (42.9%) was the most frequently isolated bacteria followed by Bacillus spp. (32.1%), Staphylococcus Aureus (25%), Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (19.6%), Escherichia Coli (14.3%), Streptococcus spp. (14.3%), Proteus spp. (12.5%), Klebsiella spp. (7.1%), and Acinetobacter spp. (5.3%). Cotrimoxazole, ampicillin and tetracycline showed high levels of resistance while gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone exhibited encouraging results.Conclusion: The presence of bacteria pathogens associated with nosocomial infection was identified. Transmission of pathogens can be reduced by hand hygiene and regular cleaning of mobile phones.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-01-02
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2014)
  • Health problems and the health care provider choices: A comparative study
           of urban and rural households in Egypt
    • Authors: Salma B. Galal; Nageya Al-Gamal
      Pages: 141 - 149
      Abstract: Abstract: Objective: To assess families’ health problems and the health facility choices in an urban and a rural district in Egypt.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study with a multi-stage random sample of 948 urban and 401 rural households was undertaken in a district of Cairo and rural Giza. Data was collected through interviews. The questionnaire addressed health problems and the use of health services within the fortnight prior to the survey.A follow-up of a sub-sample of 285 urban and 114 rural households was carried out 2–3weeks after the first interview to assess the outcome of complaints. The EPi Info Statistical Package was used for analysis and comparing urban and rural families.Results: Over 60% of urban and 78.8% of rural families had health complaints - respiratory, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Outpatient clinics in public hospitals were the first choice for 49.7% of urban families and 23% of rural, while 25.7% of urban and 42.8% of rural families visited private clinics. Over half of the families with complaints recover from their illnesses within a fortnight.Conclusion: Urban families have less health complaints than rural; however, rural families recover sooner. Families bypass often public primary health care services. Urban families overuse outpatient clinics in public hospitals.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2014-01-10
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2014)
  • Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis
           among final year students in Yazd, central Iran
    • Authors: Fatemah Behnaz; Golnaz Mohammadzade, Razieh S. Mousavi-e-roknabadi, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Treatment and prevention of TB has shifted from inpatient to outpatient settings. A report from the World Health Organization has emphasized educational strategy to ensure students graduate with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to the effective management of TB. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among medical students.The survey was done from 2012 to 2013. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were assessed regarding tuberculosis with a questionnaire.Knowledge mean score of students was 16.13±2.06 and Attitude score was 36.08±3.76, Knowledge and attitude levels of students were moderate to high in the majority of them. Practice score of the study subjects was 22.77±4.95, 11.9% of students had poor practice level. 43% did not know that a sputum smear is the most important method used for diagnosis of TB. Two-thirds of them did not know the distance that should be kept from contagious patients. Half of them believed that the BCG vaccination has no role in the prevention of TB.This study concluded that more efforts should be made to improve the knowledge of students regarding TB transmission and the role of sputum smear in diagnosis. The importance of the BCG vaccination should be emphasized.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-10-23
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013)
  • Egyptian students’ guardians knowledge, attitude and predictors of
           negative attitude of epilepsy in Assiut city
    • Authors: Ghaydaa A. Shehata; Dalia G. Mahran
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Abstract: Background: Epilepsy is very prevalent in Egypt, approaching 6.98 per 1000 population. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy among guardians of Egyptian high school students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was made among guardians (parents/guardians) of high school students in Assiut city, Egypt. A 15-item questionnaire was self-administered by 1257 students’ guardians who were randomly selected.Results: All recruited parents/guardians of high school students had heard about epilepsy. Families with a patient with epilepsy (PWE) had significantly better information about epilepsy and its aetiology than other families. The predictors of negative attitudes towards PWE were: age group ranging from 40 to 49years, no work, skilled work, male sex and incorrect knowledge.Conclusion: Having a patient with epilepsy is a predictor to having greater knowledge and a better attitude towards epilepsy. However, people still have a concept that PWE are stigmatized and are different from others. Raising awareness about epilepsy and its aetiology will increase the knowledge and improve the attitudes towards PWE.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-10-23
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013)
  • Difference in cerebral blood flow velocity in neonates with and without
    • Authors: Sriparna Basu; Dibyajyoti De, Ram Chandra Shukla, Ashok Kumar
      Pages: 97 - 106
      Abstract: Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the difference in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in neonates with and without hyperbilirubinemia.Methods: CBFV of 70 healthy late-preterm and term newborns with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (UCH) reaching the threshold of phototherapy requirement was compared with 70 gestational- and postnatal age-matched controls without hyperbilirubinemia. Resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), peak systolic velocity (PSV) and vascular diameter were measured in internal carotid, vertebral and middle cerebral arteries by transcranial color Doppler ultrasound at the beginning of phototherapy, after 48–72h of starting phototherapy and at 5–7days after its stoppage. In controls CBFV was assessed once at inclusion.Results: Both the groups were comparable. An increase in CBFV (decreased RI and PI, increased PSV and vasodilation) was observed in the UCH group. A further increase in CBFV was noticed after 48h of phototherapy. After 5–7days of stoppage of phototherapy, though there was a significant reduction in CBFV in mild-to-moderate UCH (serum bilirubin ⩽25mg/dL), in severe UCH (serum bilirubin >25mg/dL), CBFV remained increased. Four neonates developed features of acute bilirubin encephalopathy and had significantly higher CBFV compared to those with normal outcome.Conclusions: An increase in CBFV was observed in neonates with UCH compared to those without hyperbilirubinemia.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-11-04
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013)
  • Effects of habitat characteristics on the growth of carrier population
           leading to increased spread of typhoid fever: A model
    • Authors: J.B. Shukla; Ashish Goyal, Shikha Singh, Peeyush Chandra
      Pages: 107 - 114
      Abstract: Abstract: In this paper, a non-linear model is proposed and analyzed to study the effects of habitat characteristics favoring logistically growing carrier population leading to increased spread of typhoid fever. It is assumed that the cumulative density of habitat characteristics and the density of carrier population are governed by logistic models; the growth rate of the former increases as the density of human population increases. The model is analyzed by stability theory of differential equations and computer simulation. The analysis shows that as the density of the infective carrier population increases due to habitat characteristics, the spread of typhoid fever increases in comparison with the case without such factors.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-12-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013)
  • The global cancer divide: Relationships between national healthcare
           resources and cancer outcomes in high-income vs. middle- and low-income
    • Authors: Ali Batouli; Pooya Jahanshahi, Cary P. Gross, Danil V. Makarov, James B. Yu
      Pages: 115 - 124
      Abstract: Abstract: Background: Cancer continues to rise as a contributor to premature death in the developing world. Despite this, little is known about whether cancer outcomes are related to a country’s income level, and what aspects of national healthcare systems are associated with improved cancer outcomes.Methods: The most recent estimates of cancer incidence and mortality were used to calculate mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) for the 85 countries with reliable data. Countries were categorized according to high-income (Gross Domestic Product (GDP)>$15,000) or middle/low-income (GDP
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013)
  • Final program evaluation methods and results of a National Lymphedema
           Management Program in Togo, West Africa
    • Authors: Josh Ziperstein; Monique Dorkenoo, Michel Datagni, Naomi Drexler, Monica Murphy, Yao Sodahlon, Els Mathieu
      Pages: 125 - 133
      Abstract: Abstract: In order to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, the World Health Assembly recommends an approach which includes interruption of transmission of infection and the alleviation of morbidity. In 2000, the Togolese National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PNELF) started the annual mass drug administrations and in 2007, the program added a morbidity component for the management of lymphedema. This manuscript describes the methods of an evaluation aimed at assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the Togolese National Lymphedema Morbidity Program. The evaluation was conducted through in-depth interviews with stakeholders at each programmatic level. Interviews focused on message dissemination, health provider training, patient self-care practices, social dynamics, and program impact. The evaluation demonstrated that the program strengths include the standardization and in-depth training of health staff, dissemination of the program’s treatment message, a positive change in the community’s perception of lymphedema, and successful patient recruitment and training in care techniques. The lessons learned from this evaluation helped to improve Togo’s program, but may also provide guidance and strategies for other countries desiring to develop a morbidity program. The methods of program evaluation described in this paper can serve as a model for monitoring components of other decentralized national health programs in low resource settings.
      Citation: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4, 2 (2014)
      PubDate: 2013-12-23
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013)
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