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Journal Cover Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
  [SJR: 0.142]   [H-I: 2]   [7 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2210-6006
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Four cases of nontravel-related leptospirosis in Oman: A call for action

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Idris Saleh Al-Abaidani

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • A novel sputum transport solution eliminates cold chain and supports
           routine tuberculosis testing in Nepal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Bhagwan Maharjan, Bhabana Shrestha, Alexandra Weirich, Andrew Stewart, Cassandra D. Kelly-Cirino
      This preliminary study evaluated the transport reagent OMNIgene SPUTUM (OMS) in a real-world, resource-limited setting: a zonal hospital and national tuberculosis (TB) reference laboratory, Nepal. The objectives were to: (1) assess the performance of OMS for transporting sputum from peripheral sites without cold chain stabilization; and (2) compare with Nepal’s standard of care (SOC) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear and culture diagnostics. Sixty sputa were manually split into a SOC sample (airline-couriered to the laboratory, conventional processing) and an OMS sample (OMS added at collection, no cold chain transport or processing). Smear microscopy and solid culture were performed. Transport was 0–8days. Forty-one samples (68%) were smear-positive using both methods. Of the OMS cultures, 37 (62%) were positive, 22 (36%) were negative, and one (2%) was contaminated. Corresponding SOC results were 32 (53%), 21 (35%), and seven (12%). OMS “rescued” six (i.e., missed using SOC) compared with one rescue using SOC. Of smear-positives, six SOC samples produced contaminated cultures whereas only one OMS sample was contaminated. OMS reduced culture contamination from 12% to 2%, and improved TB detection by 9%. The results suggest that OMS could perform well as a no cold chain, long-term transport solution for smear and culture testing. The findings provide a basis for larger feasibility studies.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Institutional Research Evaluation Model (IREM): A framework for measuring
           organizational research trends and impact and its application in medical
           academia in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Mazen Hassanain, Shirin Anil, Ayman Abdo
      Increased financial and human resource constraints for research and development (R&D) imply rigorous research evaluation to guide the research policy for wise allocation of resources. In this study, we developed a conceptual framework called the “Institutional Research Evaluation Model” (IREM) to evaluate the quality of research and its determinants. The IREM was then applied to a medical institution to study its applicability in Saudi Arabia. The IREM consists of five levels: duration decision; choice of research quality indicators [impact factor (IF), article influence scores (AIS), citations per paper (CPP), and publication in indexed journal]; trend indicators (numbers of publications, study design, subject); data extraction; and statistical techniques to determine the factors affecting impact of research. Application of the IREM to the College of Medicine, King Saud University (CMKSU) for research evaluation from 2003 to 2013 revealed that during this duration, 1722 studies were published, the highest in 2013 (n =314) and 85.5% (n =1472) in indexed journals (p <0.001). The mean IF was 2.6, mean AIS 1.16, and mean CPP 10.06. IF was positively associated with duration, indexation, CPP, and subject being human genetics at multivariable linear regression. The IREM is an applicable basic tool for institutional research evaluation which can guide the research policy.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Burden of chronic kidney disease and its risk factors in Malaysia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Rubina Begum, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Long Chiau Ming

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Corrigendum to “Volunteering to improve health worldwide. Current
           trends in Out of Programme Experience/Training in the UK 2014” [J.
           Epidemiol. Glob. Health 5 (2015) 295–296]

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Tehmina Bharucha, A. Traianou, M. Keniger, G. Chisholm, G. Lewis, J. Roland, M. Stark, C.S. Brown

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Protecting health workers from nosocomial Hepatitis B infections: A review
           of strategies and challenges for implementation of Hepatitis B vaccination
           among health workers in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Bridget Malewezi, Saad B. Omer, Beatrice Mwagomba, Trish Araru
      The Sub-Saharan region has the highest Hepatitis B virus (HBV) rates, and health workers are at an increased risk of contracting nosocomial HBV infection. Vaccination of health workers plays a critical role in protecting them from sequelae of HBV; however, health-worker vaccination remains a challenge for many countries. This study was conducted to review practices/measures and challenges in the Sub-Saharan region relating to vaccination of health workers against HBV. We performed a literature review of articles addressing any aspect of HBV vaccination of health workers in the Sub-Saharan region sourced from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, including a case study of Malawi policies and strategies in training institutions and facilities. Our findings indicated that HBV awareness and vaccination were relatively high, but vaccination rates were lower, with 4.6–64.4% of those “ever vaccinated” completing the vaccination regimen. There was also great variation in the proportion of health workers exhibiting natural immunity from previous exposure (positive for anti-Hepatitis B core antibodies; 41–92%). Commonly cited reasons for non-uptake of vaccine included cost, lack of awareness of vaccine availability, and inadequate information concerning the vaccine. Countries in this region will require locally relevant data to develop cost-effective strategies that maximize the benefit to their health workers due to the great diversity of HBV epidemiology in the region.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between
           Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in
           development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and
           lifetime care costs

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): David A. Geier, Janet K. Kern, Brian S. Hooker, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier
      Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between mercury (Hg) exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and specific delays in development. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal cohort study (n =49,835) using medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (T-HBVs) administered at specific intervals in the first 6months of life and specific delays in development [International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9): 315.xx] among children born between 1991 and 1994 and continuously enrolled from birth for at least 5.81years. Infants receiving increased Hg doses from T-HBVs administered within the first month, the first 2months, and the first 6months of life were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with specific delays in development than infants receiving no Hg doses from T-HBVs. During the decade in which T-HBVs were routinely recommended and administered to US infants (1991–2001), an estimated 0.5–1million additional US children were diagnosed with specific delays in development as a consequence of 25μg or 37.5μg organic Hg from T-HBVs administered within the first 6months of life. The resulting lifetime costs to the United States may exceed $1 trillion.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • The psychology of health and well-being in mass gatherings: A review and a
           research agenda

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Nick Hopkins, Stephen Reicher
      Mass gatherings bring large numbers of people into physical proximity. Typically, this physical proximity has been assumed to contribute to ill health (e.g., through being stressful, facilitating infection transmission, etc.). In this paper, we add a new dimension to the emerging field of mass gatherings medicine. Drawing on psychological research concerning group processes, we consider the psychological transformations that occur when people become part of a crowd. We then consider how these transformations may have various consequences for health and well-being. Some of these consequences may be positive. For example, a sense of shared identity amongst participants may encourage participants to view others as a source of social support which in turn contributes to a sense of health and well-being. However, some consequences may be negative. Thus, this same sense of shared identity may result in a loss of disgust at the prospect of sharing resources (e.g., drinking utensils) which could, in turn, facilitate infection transmission. These, and related issues, are illustrated with research conducted at the Magh Mela (North India). We conclude with an agenda for future research concerning health practices at mass gatherings.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Factors associated with the farmer suicide crisis in India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Dominic Merriott
      Background In India, it is estimated that ∼16,000 farmers die by suicide each year, and at rates far above those of the general population. This paper reviews much of the literature concerning the factors associated with this crisis. Methods A literature search was undertaken from multiple databases on Ovid, as well as more elementary searches of Google, Google Scholar, and PubMed. This paper presents a review of the key results. Results Socioeconomic factors, rather than mental health problems, are associated with farmer suicides, with increased indebtedness playing the predominant role. Available research suggests this has arisen to a greater extent recently, due to an agrarian crisis affecting the most vulnerable farmers. This has multiple manifestations, including a lack of agricultural investment and irrigation improvement, use of cash crops, the increased use of noninstitutional credit sources, and the reduction of trade barriers. Bt cotton is unlikely to be an important factor and no studies reported a significant burden of mental health problems. Conclusion Indebtedness and numerous factors relating to this are clearly identified as the most important risk factors. Further large-scale assessments are required to further understand the situation.

      PubDate: 2016-05-12T07:30:40Z
  • Disaster response under One Health in the aftermath of Nepal earthquake,

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): G.V. Asokan, A. Vanitha
      Until now, an estimate quotes that 1100 healthcare facilities were damaged and over 100,000 livestock lost in the two earthquakes that occurred in April and May of 2015 in Nepal. Threats of infectious diseases, mostly zoonoses, could affect Nepal’s economy, trade, and tourism, and reaching the targets of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Historically, outbreaks of infectious diseases, including zoonoses, were largely associated with the aftereffects of the earthquakes. It has been documented that zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this communication was to examine the infectious disease outbreaks after earthquakes around the world and explore the risk assessment of the zoonoses threats reported in Nepal and highlight adopting One Health. Our summaries on reported zoonoses in Nepal have shown that parasitic zoonoses were predominant, but other infectious disease outbreaks can occur. The fragile public health infrastructure and inadequately trained public health personnel can accelerate the transmission of infections, mostly zoonoses, in the post impact phase of the earthquake in Nepal. Therefore, we believe that with the support of aid agencies, veterinarians and health professionals can team up to resolve the crisis under One Health.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T19:35:53Z
  • Declining trends in injuries and ambulance calls for road traffic crashes
           in Bahrain post new traffic laws of 2015

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Muyssar Sabri Awadalla, G.V. Asokan, Amina Matooq, Richard Kirubakaran
      Road traffic crashes (RTC) are of serious global health concern. To identify whether the number of ambulance calls, injuries, and deaths has declined after the implementation of the new traffic law (NTL) 2015 in Bahrain, de-identified administrative RTC data obtained from the tertiary care center, and the General Directorate of Traffic (GDT) of Bahrain were used. A quasi-experimental design was employed to trend the impact of the NTL on RTC and associated healthcare events. Bahrainis and non-Bahrainis who met with RTC, either in a vehicle or as a pedestrian, between February 8 and May 8 in 2013, 2014 (pre NTL), and 2015 (post NTL) were included in the study. Our results show a reduction in the number of ambulance calls from vehicular and pedestrian RTC victims. The ambulance calls from pedestrian RTC victims were <10% compared to the number of ambulance calls from vehicular RTC victims. There was a significant reduction in minor injuries post 2015, whereas no obvious difference was seen for serious injuries and deaths. A longer follow-up study to confirm the sustained decline in RTC, enforcing a zero tolerance policy toward traffic transgressions, and raising public awareness on the “critical four minutes” and “golden hour” is recommended.

      PubDate: 2016-03-20T16:55:36Z
  • Addressing noncommunicable diseases in disaster risk reduction – An
           issue of equity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Sam Gnanapragasam, Amina Aitsi-Selmi, Elaine Rashbrook, Virginia Murray
      The issues raised by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) during and after disasters are a challenge to equity within local communities, as well as between countries. Individuals with NCDs are particularly vulnerable in disasters and their aftermath given health systems are disrupted. Although welcome progress has been made in taking NCDs and equity into account in the UN General Assembly ratified agreement, the Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction 2015–2030, there is need now for a clear plan of implementation.

      PubDate: 2016-03-20T16:55:36Z
  • Healthcare-seeking behaviors for acute respiratory illness in two
           communities of Java, Indonesia: a cross-sectional survey

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Catharina Y. Praptiningsih, Kathryn E. Lafond, Yunita Wahyuningrum, Aaron D. Storms, Amalya Mangiri, Angela D. Iuliano, Gina Samaan, Christiana R. Titaley, Fitra Yelda, Jennifer Kreslake, Douglas Storey, Timothy M. Uyeki
      Understanding healthcare-seeking patterns for respiratory illness can help improve estimations of disease burden and inform public health interventions to control acute respiratory disease in Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to describe healthcare-seeking behaviors for respiratory illnesses in one rural and one urban community in Western Java, and to explore the factors that affect care seeking. From February 8, 2012 to March 1, 2012, a survey was conducted in 2520 households in the East Jakarta and Bogor districts to identify reported recent respiratory illnesses, as well as all hospitalizations from the previous 12-month period. We found that 4% (10% of those less than 5years) of people had respiratory disease resulting in a visit to a healthcare provider in the past 2weeks; these episodes were most commonly treated at government (33%) or private (44%) clinics. Forty-five people (0.4% of those surveyed) had respiratory hospitalizations in the past year, and just over half of these (24/45, 53%) occurred at a public hospital. Public health programs targeting respiratory disease in this region should account for care at private hospitals and clinics, as well as illnesses that are treated at home, in order to capture the true burden of illness in these communities.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T15:49:59Z
  • Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding travel health among Muscat
           International Airport travelers in Oman: Identifying the gaps and
           addressing the challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Seif S. Al-Abri, Doaa M. Abdel-Hady, Idris S. Al-Abaidani
      Although the majority of travel-associated communicable diseases can be prevented, the public health burden of these diseases remains significant. Relatively little is known about how travelers know and perceive the health risks associated with travel and how they utilize preventive measures before and while traveling abroad. This study was conducted to determine the level of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Muscat International Airport travelers about travel health in order to assess the knowledge gap and the need for travel health services in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1week using a self-administered questionnaire. The overall level of knowledge about vaccine-preventable diseases, food safety, and preventive measures against insect bites of the participants was inadequate. The practice concerning preventive travel health measures, such as the use of specific immunizations and antimalarial prophylaxis, was very limited, and influenced by some personal and travel-related factors. The inadequate level of travelers’ knowledge and poor utilization of travel medicine services highlights the need for the provisions of specialized travel medicine services at the national level and to develop educational materials promoting the importance of pre-travel health advice.

      PubDate: 2016-03-05T19:06:10Z
  • Presence of blaPER-1 and blaVEB-1 beta-lactamase genes among isolates of
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa from South West of Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Elham Davodian, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Abdolmajid Ghasemian, Samileh Noorbakhsh
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates have acquired resistance to antibiotics such as novel beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to investigate the bla PER-1, bla VEB-1, and bla PSE-1 genes among isolates of P. aeruginosa among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Sixty-five isolates were collected. The antibiotic susceptibility testing and combined disk tests were performed to detect the isolates producing ESBLs among ceftazidime-resistant isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of bla PER-1, bla VEB-1, and bla PSE-1 genes was conducted. Ten (15.3%) isolates were ESBL-positive, of which 40% (n =4) belonged to males and 60% (n =6) were collected from females. Moreover, two and one isolates harbored bla PER-1 and bla VEB-1 genes, respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-03-05T19:06:10Z
  • Commentary for Special Issue “Public health is new in Saudi Arabia.
           With this degree, I can go back and help to develop the field
           there.” – Naif Mohammed Alraihan, King Abdullah Fellow,
           Rollins School of Public Health, 2015

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Scott J.N. McNabb, Abdullah M. Assiri, Samar Alsaggaf, Ziad A. Memish

      PubDate: 2016-02-24T17:26:05Z
  • Evaluation of tuberculosis public health surveillance, Al-Madinah
           province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2012

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohammed J. Alkhalawi, Scott J.N. McNabb, Abdullah M. Assiri, Ziad A. Memish
      The objective of the study is to evaluate the quality of the data, the sensitivity of the surveillance, and the completeness of identification and investigation of tuberculosis (TB) patient’s contacts. The study covered the TB surveillance program in Al-Madinah province in 2011. First, we reviewed all the notifications, treatment cards, and register books, as well as monthly and quarterly reports, for completeness and accuracy of data. Then, we searched for the missed cases that were not reported. Finally, we reviewed all the patients’ household contacts’ reports to assess the degree of completion of identification and investigation. There were 444 cases detected during the study period; only 200 cases were reported. The sensitivity of the TB surveillance system was 45%. Among the 200 reported cases, the results revealed high completeness rates for demographic and disease data and low completeness rates for the test result fields. The contact identification and investigation showed that 34.4% of smear-positive cases’ contacts were not identified. Only 67% of identified contacts were investigated. The review of hospital records and lab registers showed that 244 cases were not reported. In conclusion, the TB surveillance system has several areas that need improvement.

      PubDate: 2016-02-24T17:26:05Z
  • Antimicrobial resistance and the growing threat of drug-resistant

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Madhukar Pai, Ziad A. Memish

      PubDate: 2016-02-18T16:39:03Z
  • A retrospective analysis of meningioma in a rapidly developed demographic

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Ekokobe Fonkem, Jad A. Dandashi, Edana Stroberg, David Garrett, Frank S. Harris, Ibrahim M. El Nihum, James Cooper, Samantha Dayawansa, Jason H. Huang
      Documented meningioma cases in Central Texas (USA) from 1976 to 2013 were studied utilizing the Scott & White Brain Tumor Registry. All the cases examined were histologically diagnosed as meningiomas. Of the 372 cases, most were benign tumors (p <0.05). A majority of the patients were females (p <0.05). Elderly individuals (>45years of age) superseded the younger patients in meningioma incidence (p <0.05). Previous data regarding meningioma epidemiology in Texas showed a higher incidence in black patients when compared to white patients. By contrast, this study’s findings of Central Texas meningioma demographics show increased incidence of meningiomas in white patients (p <0.05). This interesting find in meningioma prevalence warrants further investigation with a larger sample size, in order to establish validity and further parse out possible causes of meningioma development among white individuals.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:34:02Z
  • A cohort study of chronic diseases for Mongolian people: Outline with
           baseline data of the Moncohort study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Tsogzolbaatar Enkh-Oyun, Dambadarjaa Davaalkham, Kazuhiko Kotani, Yasuko Aoyama, Satoshi Tsuboi, Ryusuke Ae, Gombojav Davaa, Dayan Angarmurun, Nanjid Khuderchuluun, Yosikazu Nakamura
      Many Mongolian people suffer from non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to plan preventive strategies against such diseases, we designed a community-based prospective cohort study of chronic diseases, called the Moncohort study, in Mongolia. This is the first nationwide large-scale cohort study of chronic diseases. This paper describes the study’s rationale, design and methods with baseline data. Mongolian residents aged ⩾40years were selected nationwide from many geographic regions in 2009. Data were collected on demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements. In total, 2280 Mongolian residents were registered in the survey. Socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were differentiated by gender and geographical area in descriptive data. Aging, low social class, physical inactivity and infrequent fruits intake were positively associated with histories of chronic disease in men, while aging was positively associated with histories of chronic disease in women. Factors associated with chronic diseases reveal gender-oriented strategies might be needed for their prevention. Detailed prospective analyses will illustrate the impact of risk factors on chronic diseases and lead to evidence for designing programs aimed at preventing chronic diseases and related disorders in Mongolia.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:34:02Z
  • HIV-infected presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis: How
           many are eligible for antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Ajay M.V. Kumar, Anil Singarajipura, Balaji Naik, Deepak K. Guddemane, Yogesh Patel, Suresh Shastri, Sunil Kumar, Rajesh Deshmukh, B.B. Rewari, Anthony David Harries
      For certain subgroups within people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [active tuberculosis (TB), pregnant women, children <5years old, and serodiscordant couples], the World Health Organization recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of CD4 count. Another subgroup which has received increased attention is “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB”. In this study, we assess the proportion of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients eligible for ART in Karnataka State (population 60million), India. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients diagnosed in May 2015 abstracted from national TB and HIV program records. Of 42,585 presumptive TB patients, 28,964 (68%) were tested for HIV and 2262 (8%) were HIV positive. Of the latter, 377 (17%) had active TB. Of 1885 “presumptive TB patients without active TB”, 1100 (58%) were already receiving ART. Of the remaining 785 who were not receiving ART, 617 (79%) were assessed for ART eligibility and of those, 548 (89%) were eligible for ART. About 90% of “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” were eligible for ART. This evidence supports a public health approach of starting all “HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB” on ART irrespective of CD4 count in line with global thinking about ‘test and treat’.

      PubDate: 2016-01-29T15:15:49Z
  • Verification of measles elimination in Australia: Application of World
           Health Organization regional guidelines

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): H.F. Gidding, N.V. Martin, V. Stambos, T. Tran, A. Dey, G.K. Dowse, H.A. Kelly, D.N. Durrheim, S.B. Lambert
      Background The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) Guidelines on verification of measles elimination were established in 2012. This article outlines Australia’s approach to addressing the guideline’s five lines of evidence, which led to formal verification of elimination by the WHO Regional Verification Commission (RVC) in March 2014. Methods The criteria were addressed using national measles notifications, data from selected laboratories, the national childhood immunization register, and three national serosurveys (1998/1999, 2002, 2007). Results Australia met or exceeded all indicator targets with either national or sentinel data. Laboratory and epidemiological surveillance were of high quality, with 85% of cases documented as imported/import-related (target 80%); coverage with the first dose of measles vaccine was close to 94% in 2008–2012 and second dose coverage increased to 91% in 2012 (target >95%). There is ongoing commitment by the Australian Government to increase immunization coverage, and the absence of sustained transmission of any single measles genotype was demonstrated. Conclusions This is the first documentation of the successful application of the WPR RVC guidelines. The indicators afford some flexibility but appear to provide appropriate rigor to judge achievement of measles elimination. Our experience could assist other countries seeking to verify their elimination status.

      PubDate: 2016-01-29T15:15:49Z
  • Democracy predicts sport and recreation membership: Insights from 52

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Shea M. Balish
      Although evidence suggests sport and recreation are powerful contributors to worldwide public health, sizable gender differences persist. It is unknown whether country characteristics moderate gender differences across countries. The primary purpose of this study was to examine if countries’ levels of democracy and/or gender inequality moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. The secondary purpose was to examine if democracy and/or gender inequality predicts overall rates of sport and recreation membership for both males and females. This study involved a nested cross-sectional design and employed the sixth wave (2013) of the world value survey (n Ss =71,901, n countries =52). Multiple hierarchal nonlinear Bernoulli models tested: (1) if countries’ levels of democracy moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership; and (2) if democracy is associated with increased sport and recreation membership for both males and females. Countries’ level of democracy fully moderated gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. Moreover, democracy was positively associated with both male and female membership, even when controlling for individual and country-level covariates. Democratic political regimes may confer health benefits via increased levels of sport and recreation membership, especially for females. Future research should test mediating mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2016-01-29T15:15:49Z
  • Extracurricular activities associated with stress and burnout in
           preclinical medical students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Jawad Fares, Zein Saadeddin, Hayat Al Tabosh, Hussam Aridi, Christopher El Mouhayyar, Mohamad Karim Koleilat, Monique Chaaya, Khalil El Asmar
      This study aims to assess the prevalence of stress and burnout among preclinical medical students in a private university in Beirut, Lebanon, and evaluate the association between extracurricular involvement and stress and burnout relief in preclinical medical students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 165 preclinical medical students. Distress level was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) while that of burnout was measured through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). The MBI-SS assesses three interrelated dimensions: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and academic efficacy. Extracurricular activities were divided into four categories: physical exercise, music, reading, and social activities. All selected participants responded. A substantial proportion of preclinical medical students suffered from stress (62%) and burnout (75%). Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses revealed that being a female or a 1st year medical student correlated with higher stress and burnout. Music-related activities were correlated with lower burnout. Social activities or living with parents were associated with lower academic efficacy. The high stress and burnout levels call for action. Addressing the studying conditions and attending to the psychological wellbeing of preclinical medical students are recommendations made in the study.

      PubDate: 2015-11-29T06:45:20Z
  • Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Wardha district of Maharashtra,
           Central India

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 4, Supplement 1
      Author(s): Pratibha Narang, Deepak K. Mendiratta, Naresh K. Tyagi, Ullhas N. Jajoo, Atul T. Tayade, Pratapsingh H. Parihar, Rahul Narang, Pranav S. Mishra, Sharda M. Anjinappa, Vineet K. Chadha
      A house based survey was conducted during 2007–2009 in a representative sample of population in Wardha district implementing Directly Observed Treatment Short Course strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control since 2001. The objective was to estimate prevalence of bacillary pulmonary TB (PTB) in individuals aged 15years or above, and to estimate trends in prevalence when compared to a previous survey carried out in mid 1980’s. Two sputum samples (one spot, one early morning) collected from individuals having symptoms suggestive of PTB, history of previous anti-TB treatment (ATT) or abnormal pulmonary shadow on Mass Miniature Radiography (MMR) consistent with possibly or probably active tuberculosis were subjected to Ziehl–Neelsen microscopy and culture on Lowenstein–Jensen medium. Of 55,096 individuals registered into the survey, 50,332 (91.4%) were screened by interview for symptoms and history of ATT and/or by MMR. Of them, 4805 were eligible for sputum collection; both specimens were collected in 4285 (89.2%) and only one specimen in 27 (0.6%). A total of 86 bacillary cases were detected during the survey. Prevalence of bacillary PTB was estimated at 188.7 (140.3–236.9) per 100,000 populations. There was a decline of 61% in the prevalence of PTB over a period of 22years.

      PubDate: 2015-11-29T06:45:20Z
  • Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers
           in Los Angeles County California, 2009–2014

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Curtis Croker
      Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases.

      PubDate: 2015-11-09T16:43:00Z
  • Analyzing seasonality of tuberculosis across Indian states and union

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Pankaj Narula, Praveer Sihota, Sarita Azad, Pietro Lio
      A significant seasonal variation in tuberculosis (TB) is observed in north India during 2006–2011, particularly in states like Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. To quantify the seasonal variation, we measure average amplitude (peak to trough distance) across seasons in smear positive cases of TB and observe that it is maximum for Himachal Pradesh (40.01%) and minimum for Maharashtra (3.87%). In north India, smear positive cases peak in second quarter (April–June) and reach a trough in fourth quarter (October–December), however low seasonal variation is observed in southern region of the country. The significant correlations as 0.64 (p-value<0.001), 0.54 (p-value<0.01) and 0.42 (p-value<0.05) are observed between minimum temperature and seasonality of TB at lag-1 in north, central and northeast India respectively. However, in south India, this correlation is not significant.

      PubDate: 2015-11-09T16:43:00Z
  • Relationship between oral clinical conditions and daily performances among
           young adults in India – A cross sectional study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ramesh Nagarajappa, Mehak Batra, Sudhanshu Sanadhya, Hemasha Daryani, Gayathri Ramesh
      Objective of the present study was to investigate relationship between oral health-related quality of life using Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) scale and specific clinical dental measures. A cross sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 800 students. Oral health status and impacts were assessed using WHO guidelines and OIDP index respectively. Chi square test and multiple logistic regressions were employed for statistical analysis. Participants with caries were significantly (p ⩽0.05) more likely to have an impact on cleaning (OR=2.487) and sleeping and relaxing (OR=8.996). Similarly participants with oral mucosal conditions were more likely to have an impact on eating (OR=3.97), cleaning (OR=2.966) and physical activities (OR=11.190). Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) impacted on cleaning (OR=2.134), emotional stability (OR=3.957) and social contact (OR=3.21). OIDP Index showed acceptable psychometric properties in the context of an oral health survey. Subjects presented a strong and consistent relationship between dental status and perceived impacts.

      PubDate: 2015-11-09T16:43:00Z
  • Hypertension in the Lebanese adults: Impact on health related quality of

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Malak Khalifeh, Pascale Salameh, Amal Al Hajje, Sanaa Awada, Samar Rachidi, Wafa Bawab
      Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, hypertension being one of their most prevalent risk factors. Information on health related quality of life (QOL) of hypertensive individuals in Lebanon is lacking. Our objectives were to evaluate QOL of hypertensive patients compared with non-hypertensive subjects and to suggest possible predictors of QOL in Lebanon. We conducted a case control study among individuals visiting outpatient clinics. Quality of life was assessed using the eight item (SF-8) questionnaire administered face to face to the study population, applied to hypertensive (N =224) and non-hypertensive control (N =448) groups. Hypertensive patients presented lower QOL scores in all domains, particularly in case of high administration frequency and occurrence of drug related side effects. Among hypertensive patients, QOL was significantly decreased with the presence of comorbidities (β =−13.865, p =0.054), daily frequency of antihypertensive medications (β =−8.196, p <0.001), presence of drug side-effects (β =−19.262, p =0.031), older age (β =−0.548, p <0.001), female gender (β =−21.363, p =0.05), lower education (β =−22.949, p =0.006), and cigarettes smoked daily (β =−0.726, p <0.001); regular sport activity (β =23.15, p <0.001) significantly increased quality of life. These findings indicate the necessity for health professionals to take these factors into account when treating hypertensive patients, and to tackle special subgroups with attention to their deteriorated QOL.

      PubDate: 2015-11-09T16:43:00Z
  • Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total
           cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular
           diseases: An ecological analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): C. Oggioni, H. Cena, J.C.K. Wells, J. Lara, C. Celis-Morales, M. Siervo
      Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs.

      PubDate: 2015-11-09T16:43:00Z
  • Leveraging “big data” to enhance the effectiveness of
           “one health” in an era of health informatics

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): G.V. Asokan, Vanitha Asokan
      Zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. The major obstacles to control zoonoses include insensitive systems and unreliable data. Intelligent handling of the cost effective big data can accomplish the goals of one health to detect disease trends, outbreaks, pathogens and causes of emergence in human and animals.

      PubDate: 2015-11-09T16:43:00Z
  • Drinking water studies: A review on heavy metal, application of biomarker
           and health risk assessment (a special focus in Malaysia)

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Nurul Hafiza Ab Razak, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Ahmad Zaharin Aris, Zailina Hashim
      Malaysia has abundant sources of drinking water from river and groundwater. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Malaysia. Heavy metal studies in terms of drinking water, applications of health risk assessment and bio-monitoring in Malaysia were reviewed from 2003 to 2013. Studies on heavy metal in drinking water showed the levels are under the permissible limits as suggested by World Health Organization and Malaysian Ministry of Health. Future studies on the applications of health risk assessment are crucial in order to understand the risk of heavy metal exposure through drinking water to Malaysian population. Among the biomarkers that have been reviewed, toenail is the most useful tool to evaluate body burden of heavy metal. Toenails are easy to collect, store, transport and analysed. This review will give a clear guidance for future studies of Malaysian drinking water. In this way, it will help risk managers to minimize the exposure at optimum level as well as the government to formulate policies in safe guarding the population.

      PubDate: 2015-11-09T16:43:00Z
  • Trends of reported human cases of brucellosis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Abdulaziz D. Aloufi, Ziad A. Memish, Abdullah M. Assiri, Scott J.N. McNabb
      Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide the design of prevention and control measures. By using data from the national registry from 2004 to 2012, we calculated the cumulative numbers by age group and months. Trends of incidence rates (IRs) by gender, nationality, and region were also calculated. We found that there was a greater number of cases (19,130) in the 15–44years age group than in any other age group. The IRs significantly decreased from 22.9 in 2004 [95% confidence interval (CI)=22.3, 23.5] to 12.5 in 2012 (95% CI=12.1, 13). Males had a significantly greater IR than females. Most cases were reported during spring and summer seasons. The IR of Saudi citizens was significantly greater than that of non-Saudis, but this difference reduced over time. The IRs of Al-Qassim, Aseer, and Hail were in the highest 25th percentile. Young, male Saudi citizens living in highly endemic areas were at greatest risk of acquiring brucellosis. We recommend vaccinating susceptible animals against brucellosis and increasing the public’s awareness of preventive measures.

      PubDate: 2015-10-01T19:23:44Z
  • Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Saudi Arabian children
           younger than 5years of age

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Yagob Almazrou, Atef M. Shibl, Riyadh Alkhlaif, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Sameh Anis, Walid Kandeil, William P. Hausdorff
      This study evaluated the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Saudi Arabian children. This multicenter, prospective, clinical surveillance study included children under 5years of age, residents of one of the seven study health areas, who were brought to a study hospital with suspicion of IPD. Bacterial isolates from sterile site samples, collected less than 24h after hospital visit/admission, were identified, serotyped, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Between June 2007 and January 2009, 631 episodes of suspected IPD were recorded, and 623 were included in the analysis. One child (0.2%) had previously received one dose of a pneumococcal vaccine. Forty-seven episodes were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and three for Haemophilus influenzae. The incidence of confirmed IPD cases was estimated to be 2.5–21.6 per 100,000 children (<5years). Among the 46 S. pneumoniae isolates serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the most common serotypes were 5 and 23F (20% each), 6B (17%), and 1 and 14 (11% each). Sixty-three percent of isolates were multidrug-resistant. Vaccination of Saudi Arabian children with expanded-coverage conjugate pneumococcal vaccines containing serotypes 1 and 5 could have a substantial impact to prevent IPD in this population.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T17:25:25Z
  • Between-ward disparities in colorectal cancer incidence and screening in
           Washington DC

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Sharmila Chatterjee, Amit Chattopadhyay, Paul H. Levine
      This study aims to investigate the incidence and determinants of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its screening in District of Columbia (DC), and identify modifiable risk factors. Data (2000–2009) from the DC Cancer Registry, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS-DC) and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) were used to estimate CRC incidence in eight DC Wards. Risk factors and CRC screening were analyzed using uni-, bi-, and multivariable statistical methods with survey procedures in SAS (version 9.2) including binary, unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis. Factors measured included stage of diagnosis, age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol, exercise, body weight, health insurance, education, employment, and income. Over the study time, CRC screening increased from 48.4% to 68.6%. Mean age at diagnosis was 67years. CRC incidence is high in DC. Furthermore, CRC incidence rates in DC below 50years age were higher than the SEER18 average. Disparities exist between CRC incidence and screening among DC Wards. Identified risk factors for CRC are smoking, obesity, and low physical activity; screening was less prevalent among the uninsured and low socio-economic group. Local variations in CRC occurrence exist and may vary from average national experiences. Identification of local regions which vary from national trends in disease occurrence is important for comprehensive understanding of the disease in the community.

      PubDate: 2015-09-08T17:03:21Z
  • Seasonality and trend analysis of tuberculosis in Lahore, Pakistan from
           2006 to 2013

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Aasia Khaliq, Syeda Aadila Batool, M. Nawaz Chaudhry
      Tuberculosis (TB) is a respiratory infectious disease which shows seasonality. Seasonal variation in TB notifications has been reported in different regions, suggesting that various geographic and demographic factors are involved in seasonality. The study was designed to find out the temporal and seasonal pattern of TB incidence in Lahore, Pakistan from 2006 to 2013 in newly diagnosed pulmonary TB cases. SPSS version 21 software was used for correlation to determine the temporal relationship and time series analysis for seasonal variation. Temperature was found to be significantly associated with TB incidence at the 0.01 level with p =0.006 and r =0.477. Autocorrelation function and partial autocorrelation function showed a significant peak at lag 4 suggesting a seasonal component of the TB series. Seasonal adjusted factor showed peak seasonal variation in the second quarter (April–June). The expert modeler predicted the Holt–Winter’s additive model as the best fit model for the time series, which exhibits a linear trend with constant (additive) seasonal variations, and the stationary R 2 value was found to be 0.693. The forecast shows a declining trend with seasonality. A significant temporal relation with a seasonal pattern and declining trend with variable amplitudes of fluctuation was observed in the incidence of TB.

      PubDate: 2015-08-28T16:15:13Z
  • Evaluation of home respiratory therapy delivered to patients in the
           Ministry of Health’s Home Medical Program (HMP) and administered
           through the Madinah HMP Cewnter, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Rana A. Alhelali, Scott J.N. McNabb, Ziad A. Memish
      This was an evaluation of home respiratory therapy (HRT) services administered through the Madinah Home Medical Program (MHMP) Center of the Ministry of Health (MoH), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Using a retrospective design and descriptive analyses, we analyzed 83 patient records for the clinical care received, outcomes, and patient satisfaction. We also assessed a subset from an economic perspective. Demographically, 72% were >60years of age, 80% were female, and 90% were Saudi. Asthma accounted for 34% of the diagnosed respiratory diseases, followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11%). Most patients (71%) required two or three respiratory modalities: 94% used oxygen therapy and 14% were on mechanical ventilation. A full 90% of HMP patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with the HMP overall care, and 43% saw an improvement in their condition. The MHMP lowered healthcare costs for HRT-receiving patients by decreasing the frequency of emergency room (ER) and outpatient visits by 50.8% from 59 to 30 visits. HRT administered through the MHMP Center improved clinical outcomes and increased patient satisfaction while reducing hospital utilization and associated costs. A prospective study is recommended to assess HMP services in comparison with hospitalization.

      PubDate: 2015-08-24T16:00:33Z
  • Cardiovascular risk profiles of adults with type-2 diabetes treated at
           urban hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Fatima Y. Al Slail, Omer Abid, Abdullah M. Assiri, Ziad A. Memish, Mohammed K. Ali
      Diabetes mellitus substantially increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Among Saudi Arabian citizens with diabetes, little is known about the prevalence and control of other CVD risk factors. We extracted data from medical records of a random selection of 422 patients seen between 2008 and 2012 at two diabetic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We calculated the proportion of patients who had additional CVD risk factors: obesity (body mass index⩾30kg/m2), hypertension (BP⩾140/90mmHg), elevated cholesterol fractions, and multiple risk factors). Further, we calculated the proportion of patients meeting the American Diabetes Association’s recommended care targets for each risk factor. Of 422 patients (mean age, 52years), half were women, 56% were obese, 45% had hypertension, and 77% had elevated LDL concentrations. In addition to diabetes, 70% had two or more CVD risk factors. Although 9% met both target HbA1c and BP values, only 3.5% had optimum HbA1c, BP, and lipid values. In Saudi Arabia’s best diabetes clinics, most patients have poor control of their disease. This huge disease burden and related care gaps have important health and financial implications for the country.

      PubDate: 2015-08-10T04:55:39Z
  • Body shape dissatisfaction is a ‘normative discontent’ in a
           young-adult Nigerian population: A study of prevalence and effects on
           health-related quality of life

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Chukwunonso E.C.C. Ejike
      This study investigates the prevalence of weight misperception, weight preference, and body shape dissatisfaction (BSD) among young-adult Nigerians and assesses the impact of these factors on population quality-of-life (QOL). Relevant anthropometric data were collected according to internationally accepted protocols. Weight perception, weight preference, and BSD were measured using Stunkard silhouettes, while QOL was determined by subjective self-reporting. The results show that 26.7% of the population (18.8% for males and 34.5% for females) misperceived their weight. Among overweight participants, 56.6% (males) and 38.3% (females) thought they were thinner, while 11.5% (males) and 43.3% (females) thought they were heavier. Thin and obese males misperceived their weights more than their female counterparts. BSD was found in 62% of the population (52% for males and 71% for females) and was highest among obese participants (91.9%) and lowest among normal-weight participants (58.2%), irrespective of sex. In participants with BSD, QOL was worse in thin and normal-weight respondents who preferred to be heavier and in overweight respondents who preferred to be thinner. The high prevalence of weight misperception may lead to inappropriate weight loss habits, while BSD, a normative discontent in this population, negatively impacts subject QOL.

      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
  • Central coordination of humanitarian aid in Nepal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Maryam Alfa-Wali, Kaji Sritharan

      PubDate: 2015-07-31T20:58:09Z
  • Achieving high seroprevalence against polioviruses in Sri
           Lanka—Results from a serological survey, 2014

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Deepa Gamage , Paba Palihawadana , Ondrej Mach , William C. Weldon , Steven M. Oberste , Roland W. Sutter
      The immunization program in Sri Lanka consistently reaches >90% coverage with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV), and no polio supplementary vaccination campaigns have been conducted since 2003. We evaluated serological protection against polioviruses in children. A cross-sectional community-based survey was performed in three districts of Sri Lanka (Colombo, Badulla, and Killinochi). Randomly selected children in four age groups (9–11months, 3–4years, 7–9years, and 15years) were tested for poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. All 400 enrolled children completed the study. The proportion of seropositive children for poliovirus Type 1 and Type 2 was >95% for all age groups; for poliovirus Type 3 it was 95%, 90%, 77%, and 75% in the respective age groups. The vaccination coverage in our sample based on vaccination cards or parental recall was >90% in all age groups. Most Sri Lankan children are serologically protected against polioviruses through routine immunization only. This seroprevalence survey provided baseline data prior to the anticipated addition of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into the Sri Lankan immunization program and the switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV).

      PubDate: 2015-07-14T19:15:02Z
  • Health conditions for travellers to Saudi Arabia for the pilgrimage to
           Mecca (Hajj) – 2015

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Homoud Alqarni , Ziad A. Memish , Abdullah M. Assiri

      PubDate: 2015-07-14T19:15:02Z
  • Effect of age and gender in the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness
           among a sample of the Saudi population

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Abdulhamid Fatani , Khalid Al-Rouqi , Jamal Al Towairky , Anwar E. Ahmed , Sarah Al-Jahdali , Yosra Ali , Abdullah Al-Shimemeri , Abdullah Al-Harbi , Salim Baharoon , Mohammad Khan , Hamdan Al-Jahdali
      The aim of this study is to assess whether the effect of gender on the excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is influenced by two confounders (age and hours of sleep per night). A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC-R). A total of 2095 respondents answered a questionnaire that included questions regarding gender, age, hours of sleep per night, and daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The prevalence of EDS was 20.5% (females 22.2%, males 19.5%, p-value=0.136). The EDS did not differ between genders, age groups, or hours of sleep per night (<6 vs. ⩾6h). However, stratified statistical analysis shows that the prevalence of EDS did differ according to gender (25.3% in females, 19.0% in males, p-value=0.036) in respondents with shorter hours of sleep per night. EDS was strongly related to female gender and young age (ages⩽29years) in respondents with short hours of sleep. This study reveals that one out of five of the general Saudi population has EDS. The effect of gender on EDS appeared to be influenced by hours of sleep per night. High EDS strongly related to female gender with short hours of sleep.

      PubDate: 2015-06-24T13:57:54Z
  • Do socio-demographic factors still predict the choice of place of
           delivery: A cross-sectional study in rural North India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Jyotiranjan Sahoo , Satyavir Singh , V.K. Gupta , Suneela Garg , Jugal Kishore
      Improving maternal health is one of the goals to be achieved under the Millennium Development Goal (MDG), especially MDG-5. One of the predictors of maternal health is place of child birth. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of home delivery and different socio-demographic factors associated with them. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. Women who delivered a baby in the past 1year were included in this study. A total of 300 women responded (93.2%) and gave consent to participate in the study. Prevalence of home delivery was 37.7%. Bivariate analysis showed that religion, caste, education of women and their partners, occupation of the spouse, monthly family income and socioeconomic status had a significant association with the choice of place of delivery. But multivariate regression analysis showed only religion, caste, education of spouse and monthly income to be significant factors in determining place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that individual countries have to formulate interventions which will target marginalized or vulnerable populations with reference to caste, religion and wealth. A significant improvement in reaching the 5th MDG can be achieved if the first three MDG goals are focused on, i.e., eradication of poverty, achieving universal education and women empowerment.

      PubDate: 2015-06-19T02:14:31Z
  • Prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits in type 2
           diabetes patients in South Trinidad

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Rishi Ramtahal , Claude Khan , Kavita Maharaj-Khan , Sriram Nallamothu , Avery Hinds , Andrew Dhanoo , Hsin-Chieh Yeh , Felicia Hill-Briggs , Mariana Lazo
      The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9kg/m2. The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (⩽6h) was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive anti-diabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients.

      PubDate: 2015-06-19T02:14:31Z
  • Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An
           analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among
           Thai adolescents and young adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Bundit Sornpaisarn , Kevin D. Shield , Joanna E. Cohen , Robert Schwartz , Jürgen Rehm
      The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively “youth”) in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n =87,176 Thai youth, 15–24years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.

      PubDate: 2015-06-19T02:14:31Z
  • Association of lipoprotein lipase gene with coronary heart disease in
           Sudanese population

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid , Safa Ahmed , Awatif Salah , Etayeb M.A. Tyrab , Lemya M. Yahia , Elbagire A. Elbashir , Hassan H. Musa
      Cardiovascular disease is stabilizing in high-income countries and has continued to rise in low-to-middle-income countries. Association of lipid profile with lipoprotein lipase gene was studied in case and control subject. The family history, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol consumption were the most risk factors for early-onset of coronary heart disease (CHD). Sudanese patients had significantly (P <0.05) lower TC and LDL-C levels compared to controls. Allele frequency of LPL D9N, N291S and S447X carrier genotype was 4.2%, 30.7% and 7.1%, respectively. We conclude that lipoprotein lipase polymorphism was not associated with the incidence of CHD in Sudan.

      PubDate: 2015-05-31T19:02:40Z
  • Role of patient-reported outcomes and other efficacy endpoints in the drug
           approval process in Europe (2008–2012)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Dipika Bansal , Anil Bhagat , Fabrizio Schifano , Kapil Gudala
      The present study aimed at systematically reviewing the role and extent of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) usage within the package of scientific evidence considered for marketing authorization (MA). All regulatory information published by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for products authorized between January 2008 and December 2012 and appearing in the European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) database was examined for efficacy endpoints. The endpoints here considered included: PROs, clinician reported outcomes (CROs), and laboratory reported outcomes (LROs). LROs were the most frequently reported endpoints. Out of the 180 products here selected, 99 (55%), 67 (37%), and 30 (17%), respectively, used LROs, CROs and PROs as primary endpoints (PEs). PROs as any endpoints were used in 82 (46%) products. Out of these, PROs were documented as PE in 30 (37%), with 27 (33%) products having used PROs both as primary and non-PEs. PRO usage was most frequently identified with nervous system and antineoplastic agents. During the study period, the use of all the three types of endpoints appeared to be static. Both the regulatory bodies and the industry should ensure complete and clear reporting of all endpoints used, including PROs, to improve transparency.

      PubDate: 2015-05-31T19:02:40Z
  • An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven
           Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Alexandru Coman , Răzvan M. Cherecheş , Marius I. Ungureanu , Emanuela O. Marton Vasarhelyi , Marissa A. Valentine , Tara Sabo-Attwood , Gregory C. Gray
      Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GEOHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

      PubDate: 2015-05-12T13:22:58Z
  • First and second line drug resistance among treatment naïve cases
           pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a district under Revised National
           Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in New Delhi

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
      Author(s): Vithal Prasad Myneedu , Ritu Singhal , Khalid Umer Khayyam , Prem Prakash Sharma , Manpreet Bhalla , Digamber Behera , Rohit Sarin
      There is limited information of level of drug resistance to first-line and second line anti-tuberculosis agents in treatment naïve pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients from the Indian region. Therefore, the present prospective study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility to first-line and second line anti-TB drug resistance in such patients. Sputum samples from consecutive treatment naïve PTB cases registered in Lala Ram Sarup (LRS) district, under RNTCP containing 12 Directly Observed Treatment Centre’s (DOTS), were enrolled using cluster sampling technology. A total of 453 samples were received from July 2011 to June 2012. All samples were cultured on solid medium followed by drug susceptibility to first and second line anti-tubercular drugs as per RNTCP guidelines. Primary multi-drug resistance (MDR) was found to be 18/453; (4.0%). Extensively drug resistance (XDR) was found in one strain (0.2%), which was found to be resistant to other antibiotics. Data of drug resistant tuberculosis among treatment naïve TB patients are lacking in India. The presence of XDR-TB and high MDR-TB in small population studied, calls for conducting systematic multi-centric surveillance across the country.

      PubDate: 2015-05-02T21:47:09Z
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