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Journal Cover   European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
  [15 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
   Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A Study of Methods of Utilizing Sunlight for Creation of Thermal Comfort
           in Residential Settlements of Tabriz

    • Authors: Behzad Hatefi, AmirHossein FarahiNia
      Abstract: Iran has different climatic characteristics one of which is dry and cold climate in North West regions of Iran. Therefore, it is evident that these regions have a significant share in national energy consumption to provide heating for buildings. The bases of this paper are qualitative library studies, existing books and papers in this regard and it is in descriptive and analytic method. In the present paper, the researcher attempted to introduce different passive solar systems (indirect absorption method) and their usage in the climate of Tabriz in a schematic manner and from different perspectives to provide the basis for sustainable development in large scale.  It endeavored to clarify different aspects of using these solutions and to spread out the usage of aforementioned systems which might finally lead to development of sustainable architecture in Tabriz.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Exploring the Dynamics of Second Language Writing Pedagogy: An Action

    • Authors: Stella Muchemwa
      Abstract: Writing is an essential human communication which has, however, proved to be complicated and difficult and school pupils’ written discourse is usually below the required levels. This action research was carried out at Solusi High School in Zimbabwe using 2013 form three pupils as participants of the study. Two composition approaches, namely the Product Focused Approach and the Process Oriented Approach were administered unto the participants who wrote two sets of compositions (products of the approaches); these were marked and analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that application of the Process Oriented Approach as a composition instructional pedagogy has shown better composition quality when compared to the Product Focused Approach. It was also discovered that learners could generally write meaningful compositions and the majority were likely to pass their “O” level examinations regardless of the approach used in composition writing.  This is because other factors, other than the teaching approach, also affect composition writing output.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Teaching Spirituality and
           Resiliency with Efficacy among High School Students in Iran

    • Authors: Hassan Bagherinia
      Abstract: In recent decades, with the rise of research in the field of psychology of religion, the consequences of moral excellences have been increased. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of teaching spirituality and resiliency with the efficacy of high school girl students in Sabzevar, Iran. Efficacy which was investigated in this study is one of the most effective components of happiness. 60 high school students were chosen randomly through Volunteer sampling and their accessibility, then divided randomly into the experimental and control groups. Spiritual Intelligence Questionnaire, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and Connor-Davidson Resiliency Scale (CD-RISC) were used to gather required data. The results indicated that in comparison to the average efficiency of the students in control group and according to the average efficiency of the students in experimental group, teaching spirituality and resiliency increased the average efficiency of the students in the experimental groups. Therefore the hypothesis of this study was confirmed and based on the efficacy; there was a significant difference between the students in the experimental and control groups which means teaching spirituality has more effectiveness on the students’ efficacy than teaching resiliency.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • The Study of the Place of Example and Illustration in the Bilingual
           Persian-French Dictionaries

    • Authors: Azade Fasanghari
      Abstract: Nowadays, it is necessary to use semantic examples in lexicography: example, quotation and semantic evidence of the work of contemporary and classic poets and writers and of the current literary texts and articles and newspapers accompany definitions of the words, and consequently support the use of words. This is not limited only to monolingual dictionaries but is also true for the bilingual dictionaries, especially those provided for the academic and specialized level: quotations and examples are used to help understand the meanings and definitions of words; on the other hand, the facilitative role of using the illustrations cannot be ignored in the bilingual dictionaries. This article discusses the place of example and illustration in bilingual Persian-French dictionaries.  Study of the common bilingual Persian-French dictionaries (Lazar, Moallem) and even dictionaries that have been recently published ( Parsayar, Lesani, Tahami, and Soltani) would show that lexicographers have not used the illustration and example in compiling these dictionaries whereas example and illustration play an important and undeniable role in better and more accurate explanation of the entry meanings. On the other hand, the determinant role of bilingual dictionaries in education and learning (French) verifies the need to use illustration and example in these dictionaries. Therefore, it would be no exaggeration to say that the use of example and illustration in bilingual Persian-French dictionaries is a forgotten necessity and it is hoped that lexicographers consider this necessity and we see the compilation of bilingual Persian-French dictionaries with such a feature in the near future.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Neurofeedback Training in Schizophrenia: A Study on Executive Functioning

    • Authors: G. Feizzadeh, O. Rezaei, P. Naimijoo
      Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the viability of neurofeedback training which entails the acquisition of effortful learning skills to gain volitional control on electrocortical activity in order to ameliorate executive function of schizophrenic patients. In this pre-test post-test design 30 schizophrenic male inpatients were selected out of which fifteen were trained to inhibit delta and theta at frontal cortex and reward SMR at vertex. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was administered prior and after the training stage. Descriptive methods were used and P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results revealed significant improvement in executive functioning measures in experimental group relative to the control group. Our finding suggests that being the prime feature of the disorder does not necessarily imply intractability.  It was once believed that schizophrenic patients could not learn to modify their bioelectrical functioning while the findings of the current research prompted a re-thinking.
      PubDate: 2015-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • The Effectiveness of Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) on Resiliency and
           Life Expectancy in Infertile Women from Rasht

    • Authors: Fatemeh Hedayati Shalkouhi, Hamidreza Vatankhah, Mohammadreza Zarbakhsh
      Abstract: The present research aims at studying the effects of SIT on resiliency and life expectancy in infertile women. This is a pilot study whereby using pretest-posttest control group design, all of the infertile women of age between 25-65 who were under treatment in Institute of Infertile Treatment (Mehr) of Rasht Town composed 65 participants of the research. From among them, thirty women have been chosen through simple randomizing and categorized into the control and experimental groups. The experimental group passed 9 sessions of SIT. For collecting data, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) (2003) and Schneider's life expectancy questionnaire (1991) have been used, where their internal consistency has been reported 0.89 and 0.84, respectively. The obtained data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results showed that there was a significant difference between the control group and experimental group, as the SIT had effects on resiliency and life expectancy in infertile women, causing an increase in the level of resiliency and life expectancy.
      PubDate: 2015-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Histological Evaluation of the Genital Tract of Artemia parthenogenetica
           in Urmia Lake Area

    • Authors: Sareh Najaf Asaadi, Iraj Pousty, Dariush Azadi Khah
      Abstract: This research aimed to study the histology of the genital tract of Artemia parthenogenetica in Urmia Lake area.The studied samples were put in the stabilization solutions of 10% formalin and Bowen in order to be investigated after verification of the experts of Artemia Research Center of country, during the hatching and rearing period in incubator, and during the sexual maturation. They were also examined after tissue periods and cut with microtome by Hematoxylin method and Eosin painting and by light microscopy and photomicrographs taken from them. In the histological study of simple epithelial cells, linings of the uterus gradually towards the output mouth are converted to stratified tissue. The basal lamina and the connective tissue are located under it. The smooth muscles are located out of the connective tissue, which gradually transforms into the striped muscle tissue to facilitate the passage of cysts in the uterus and outlet ducts.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • A Study of Hegelian Dialectical Embodiment in “Nostromo”
           written by Joseph Conrad

    • Authors: Asieh Beiranvand, Shahram Afrougheh, Elham Ahmadi
      Abstract: The present study investigates Hegel’s theory of dialectic consisting of thesis, antithesis and synthesis, considering social, political and moral concerns in the well known novel written by Joseph Conrad, namely Nostromo. Using Dialectic theory, the famous theory of George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, the German philosopher, the novel is evaluated in terms of the Dialectical features. In general, Conrad’s Nostromo novel is investigated here since it is deeply suspected to be closely associated with Dialectic and Hegel’s Dialectic theory based on which, everything is transient and finite, existing in the medium of time; everything is composed of contradictions (opposing forces); gradual changes lead to crises, turning points when one force overcomes its opponent force (quantitative change leads to qualitative change); and finally, change is helical (spiral), not circular (negation of the negation). 
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Investigation of Qualitative Condition of Nekarud River and Tajan River by
           NSFWQI Index

    • Authors: G. Darvishi, J. Noorbakhsh, M. Dadashpour, M. Rokni, F. Golbabaei Kootenaei
      Abstract: Rivers are exposed to large amounts of impurities. The first step for keeping river water quality and purification of polluted parts is obtaining information on the qualitative changes of river water in dimensions of time and place and also, determination of major sources and various water pollutants. Analysis of measured parameters alone or in combination, give in complete information on water quality because of variety of parameters, samples and stations. WQI is a mathematical and statistical tool for conversion of quantitative values of large quantity of water quality data into single number which presents a simple and understandable tool for qualitative assessment. Samples were collected seasonally from stations at upstream, middle stream and downstream of two rivers in east of Mazandaran province (Nekarud River, Tajan River) in a 2 years interval of 2011-2012 years, and analyzed in laboratory of  Environmental Protection agency of Mazandaran according to standard methods. The values of NSFWQI (water quality index ofAmerica’s national health organization) were calculated for all stations and all of the stations were located on the level of unsuitable conditions. The condition of Tajan River was relatively better than Nekarud River due to lower residential villages and towns around the river.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • A Creative Playground Design based on Universal Design: An Interaction

    • Authors: S. Torkaman, H. H. Shahabi
      Abstract: Problem solving algorithm of TRIZ using a creative method can provide appropriate solutions due to its abilities in problem analysis. This method is a combination of knowledge and experience. Therefore it has called engineering of creativity. Organizing the required methods for providing the proper solutions in a way that the number of trial and errors limited to 10% is one of the main advantages of TRIZ for problem solving. This research aims to design a playground equipment based on universal design method. Lack of suitable play equipment for interaction between disabled and healthy children make an interruption to communicate each other effectively. Therefore, disabled would be isolated in the society. The overall goal of this research is to provide a base for a proper interaction between ordinary and disabled children designing a playing tool for ordinary parks (not those specially designed for disabled children). In this research, a creative method based on TRIZ was introduced to design the playground equipment for children (healthy and disabled). A questionnaire was used to ensure its consistency. Cronbach’s alpha of questionnaire determined is 0.955 which shows the validity of this research.
      PubDate: 2015-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation and Potassium on Qualitative and
           Quantitative Characteristics of the Beans in Yasooj, Iran

    • Authors: Mohamad Mehdi Rahimi, Ali Akbar Salahizadeh
      Abstract: To study the effects of different levels of irrigation and potassium on Bean components practice, this study was carried out in Yasooj-Iran region in 2012-2013 cultivation year. Factorial experiment with two factors was carried out where the first factor of potassium sulfate fertilizer levels (zero, 100 and 200 kg per hectare) and the second factor of Irrigation (4 days, 8 days and 12 days) in a randomized complete block design were performed in triplicate. Developmental characteristics such as plant height, number of branches, stem diameter, number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Results showed that treatment with potassium sulphate on stem height, number of branches, stem diameter, number of pods, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index had a significant effect. The maximum amount of 1000 grains weight and harvest index was observed in the treatment of 100 kg per hectare of potassium sulfate. Irrigation factors on traits such as plant height, shoot fresh weight and seed yield showed a significant effect, the maximum amount of plant height, shoot fresh weight and seed yield was obtained from 4-day irrigation. Applying 100 KG per hectare of potassium sulfate is recommended to increasing of beans grown in.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Function of Dysfunctional Career Thoughts, Procrastination and Career
           Indecision among Allameh Tabatab'i University Students

    • Authors: Yoosef Jamali, Valiollah Araqi, Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh
      Abstract: The goal of the present study was to investigate the factors related to students' career indecision. There are many different variables associated with career indecision. This study examined the role of dysfunctional career thoughts and procrastination in career indecision. The sample of this study consists of 127 university students including 52 female students and 75 male students who were selected from the population of Allameh Tabatab'i University students. Questionnaires on dysfunctional career thoughts (kasayi & bahrami, 2006), Career Indecision Inventory (Osipow, 1976) and A General Procrastination Scale (Lee, 1986) were administered to the sample. Research findings show that dysfunctional career thoughts and procrastination are highly correlated with the students’ career indecision scores (p < .01). Secondly, it was found that the dysfunctional career thoughts and procrastination, could significantly predict the students’ career indecision scores (p < .01). According to the results, if dysfunctional career thoughts and procrastination increases, career indecision in the student would increase, too.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Perceived Organizational Politics and Employee Morale: Mediating Role of
           Social Exchange Perceptions in Pakistani Organizations

    • Authors: Mahmood A. Bodla, Talat Afza, Rizwan Qaiser Danish
      Abstract: Politics in organizations is an important aspect of organizational life which has been an interesting research area since last four decades. However, it is still deprived of practical approach due to its inconclusive studies and fragmented arguments. In politicized organizations, morale and motivation of employees depend mostly on their type of exchange relationships. The study in hand is another effort to view these exchange perceptions as intervening between the relationship of perceptions of organizational politics and morale of employees. As a part of larger study, data was collected through self administered questionnaire distributed among master of business administration students who were completing their management degree as part time along with their jobs during day time. All the Pakistani business schools were included in this study and surveys were distributed to 2000 employees during their classes and participation was voluntary ensuring anonymity and compliance with ethical considerations. Overall, 2000 questionnaires were distributed among which 1163 useable surveys were returned after screening and cleaning for unengaged response, left over pages and missing critical information. Thus response rate was 58%. Results of regression analysis indicated that social exchange perceptions was partial mediators in the relationship between perceptions of organizational politics and employee morale  and about 70% of the total effect was mediated by these perceptions which was an important indicator for understanding organizational life. Practical policy implications have also been discussed in discussion sections along with limitation of the study and guidelines for future research.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Flood Hazard Zonation using Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) in
           GIS (Case Study: Omidieh - Khuzestan)

    • Authors: Mina Arianpour, Ali Akbar Jamali
      Abstract: This study aims to discover the risk reasons, effective in flooding and the flood-susceptible areas. The researcher uses GIS and SMCE to identify the watershed of Omidieh and Bidboland 1262.25 Km2 area. So, the researcher first examines the causes affecting flooding. These reasons included: slope, land use, geology, erosion rates, soil texture, average annual rainfall, drainage density and vegetation of the area. Then, after describing data collection, Boolean and Fuzzy rules standardized the reasons in the SMCE model. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) determined the weight of each case. The next step was to integrate GIS layers by designing a criteria tree which resulted in the composite index map with fuzzy values (from 0 to 1). As a result, areas with values closer to one, equal to 466.025 Km2, were flooding-susceptible areas. The results show that about 62% of zonation area runs zero-​risk while the remaining areas have a higher potential of flooding in a Northeastern – Southeastern strip. This higher risk is because of less time focus, higher slope, and lower permeability of surface ground. Low vegetation, closeness to oil and gas installations and residential areas are other reasons. The potential for more flooding included 13% low risk, 23% moderate risk and 2% high-risk. To control and reduce the risk of flood damage, officials should take special measures.
      PubDate: 2015-02-10
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • A Study of Buchi Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood in the Light of
           Chandra Talpade Mohanty: A Postcolonial Feminist Theory

    • Authors: Zahra Barfi, Hamedreza Kohzadi, Fatemeh Azizmohammadi
      Abstract: Mohanty is a prominent contemporary postcolonial feminist who demands women’s solidarity based on the common context of struggle against the hierarchical powers- colonialism, capitalism, racism and patriarchy. This study seeks to examine traces of colonialism, capitalism, racism and solidarity in Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood according to Mohanty’s postcolonial feminist theory.
      PubDate: 2015-02-10
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • The Comparison of the Efficacy of Modern Experimental Psychology Reality
           Therapy and New Transactional Analysis as Independent Variable on Grief
           Reaction following Emotional Breakdown in Female Students

    • Authors: Mahnaz Rakhsha, Abdolali Yaghoubi, Tahereh Golestani bakht
      Abstract: The present study aims at investigating the efficacy of modern experimental psychology reality therapy and transactional analysis on grief reaction due to emotional breakdowns in female student. This is a semi-trial survey with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical sample includes all female students of Roudehen University who experienced emotional breakdown. From this population, 45 students were randomly selected as sample, then they were placed in three 15-member groups including two test groups and one control group and pretested through grief experience questionnaire (GEQ). The first experimental group was intervened for 8 sessions with Modern experimental psychology reality therapy, the second experimental group was intervened for 8 sessions with new transactional analysis and the control group received no training. At the end of the program, the subjects of three groups were again evaluated by the mentioned questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed by MANOVA. The results of covariance analysis showed that the posttest related to the symptoms of grief due to emotional breakdown in experiment group reduced in comparison with control group. Furthermore, the investigation of modified means indicates the superiority of the therapeutic therapy rather than transactional analysis therapy.
      PubDate: 2015-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Factors Affecting Sustainable Rice Farming:The Case of Rice Farmers in the
           Mazandaran Province, Iran

    • Authors: Najmeh Daryaei, Kurosh Rezaei-Moghaddam, Cyrus Salmanzadeh
      Abstract: In recent years, the production of high-yielding rice varieties in the Mazandaran province due to lack of attention in the environmental issues, has led to undesirable consequences. According to the key role of the farmers in the performanceof the sustainable agriculture principles, and the importance of their sustainability practices, the present study aimed to identify the factors affecting sustainability behavior of farmers regarding high-yielding rice varieties farming in the Mazandaran province. This study is based on survey method and statistical sample is selected 270 rice farmers of Amol, Babol and Sari counties in this province. Data were collected using questionnaire. The most important findings of the study shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between the managerial features, putting the value of the reference group opinions, sustainability attitudes, access to educational-extension and communicational factors, access to inputs and feasibility of sustainable agriculture methods, and farmers’ behavior regarding sustainability. Based on the results, feasibility of sustainable agriculture methods, access to educational-extensionand communicational factors, managerial features, putting the value of the reference group opinions and sustainability attitudes, explain 49% of sustainability behavior variations. Some recommendations have been provided based on the findings.
      PubDate: 2015-01-09
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Test Anxiety in Secondary Education

    • Authors: Ali Asgha Bayani
      Abstract: This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and test anxiety in 335 secondary education students (154 boys, 181 girls). Their ages ranged from 14 to 17 (M= 15.85, SD=1.47). All respondents completed a questionnaire booklet containing two self-report measures: the Test Anxiety Inventory and the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal. Analysis confirmed a significant positive association between emotional intelligence and test anxiety. A significant negative correlation has been found between the scores on the Emotional Intelligence and the Test Anxiety.
      PubDate: 2015-01-09
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
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Heriot-Watt University
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