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European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
     Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A survey of optimum strategies to urban planning and management by using
           TOPSIS method (Case study: Cities of Mazandaran Province, Iran)

    • Authors: Reza Mokhtari, Abdolrashid Gharanjik
      Abstract: One of the most important factors in quality improvement of transportation, communication, accommodation, utilities is urban infrastructures development. Certainly, with the intention of achieving the goal, approaches to urban infrastructures management must be ranked by Scientific and logical evaluation and calculation. This paper presents evaluation of governmental,  private,  and  public–private  partnership (PPP) approaches  based on efficient  performance of  Mazandaran’s cities as a Multiple Attribute Decision (MADM) problem by the TOPSIS for prioritization of effective indicators to rank the approaches, so it increase urban management system efficiency in Mazandaran’s cities.
      PubDate: 2014-06-05
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effectiveness of group counseling based on schema therapy approach in the
           attachment styles of married housewives

    • Authors: Farnaz Shekari Ghandpazi, Shokouh Navabi Nezhad, Ghodsi Ahghar
      Abstract: Attachment theory regards human as social beings that possess the amazing capacity for communicating with others. What’s more, enjoying intimate and intense relationship and affective attachment with significant others like parents, spouse, children is amongst the most crucial human needs. Hence, the research purpose is to carry out an investigation into the effectiveness of group counseling employing schema therapy approach in the attachment styles of married housewives. The research employs a semi-experimental method with two groups (control and experimental group) with pre-test, posttest and follow-up (one month) design. The sample was selected through multi-stage sampling. The attachment questionnaire was administered on all the women in the health house and those who had developed insecure-anxious and insecure-avoidant styles were identified and attended the interview, out of which a sample of 24 individuals was selected and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. In the pre-test stage the Revised Adult Attachment Scale was administered on the subjects who underwent eight 90-minute sessions of group counseling based on the schema therapy approach. The control group didn’t receive any training. In the posttest stage the Revised Adult Attachment Scale was administered on both groups and one month later on the experimental group. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and mean) and inferential statistics (covariance and t-test). Results confirmed the hypotheses of the research and indicated that group counseling based on the schema therapy approach was effective in the attachment styles of married housewives and changed their attachment styles into the secure one. The results proved to be relatively stable. With regard to the research results, it can be concluded that group counseling based on schema therapy can be used as an effective interventional method in altering the attachment styles specifically in married housewives.
      PubDate: 2014-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of different conditioning methods on the surface roughness of
           dental amalgam: SEM analysis

    • Authors: Mohammad Reza Rooholahi, Mohammad Bagher Rezvani, Mahdi Niknami, Zohre Moradi, Fateme Peyro Musavi
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was incorporation of SEM micrographs for evaluating the effect of different mechanical and chemical treatments on surface roughness of dental amalgam. Amalgam was condensed in 18 plastic molds and the following modification methods were accomplished on samples surface: 1) Chemical solutions (5 groups) on fresh amalgam 2) Chemical solutions (5 groups) on aged amalgam 3) Sandblast on aged amalgam 4) Sandblast on fresh amalgam (2 groups) before & after primary setting. 5) Use of diamond bur (0.10 coarse) on aged amalgam. 6) Acid etch (37% phosphoric acid) on fresh amalgam. 7) Metal etch on fresh amalgam. 8) Varnish solvent in amalgam capsule, trituration &condensation (fresh). 9) Standard sample without any treatment. All groups were analyzed by SEM (×l00, ×500 magnifications were used for roughness quantification and chemical analysis respectively). The numbers of surface peaks were counted in 5 area of each micrograph and consequently the data were assessed by K-S & student T- tests. All groups have statistically significant difference with control except three ones (incorporation of phosphoric acid, EDTA+NH3, and NaOH+I2 on fresh amalgam). Sandblast, diamond bur & metal etch reduced surface roughness and use of chemical solutions showed different reactions.
      PubDate: 2014-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Performance and development trends of small businesses in the
           agro-industrial complex

    • Authors: Y.A. Merkulov, A.N. Milovanov, N.S. Belkina
      Abstract: The article reviews key economic indicators of the development of small businesses in Russian agro-industrial complex (in terms of farm enterprises) over the period of their establishment and development up to the present day. The over-time contribution of farm enterprises to the total output of agricultural produce is shown; their work performance is analyzed. The article provides the performance review as well as the role of small businesses in the agro-industrial complex of the Saratov Oblast. It is demonstrated that the increase of state support for small businesses is required in the modern context. Research results of the performance of farm enterprises in the Saratov Oblast are presented. It is concluded that there is a required farm enlargement in order to increase the competitive ability and performance of small businesses. The article also provides survey results of rural population of the Saratov Oblast in order to determine the concerns of job loss in the mid-term.
      PubDate: 2014-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Comparison of attachment styles and social development in children of one-
           and multiple-child families in Isfahan

    • Authors: Farahnaz Daneshnia
      Abstract: This descriptive study of the causal type was conducted with the purpose of investigating and comparing attachment styles in students of one-child and multiple-child families studying in guidance schools in Esfahan. The sample population included all guidance-school-level students of the city of Esfahan in the school year 2012-2013 selected using the multi-stage sampling method. First, the educational districts 3 and 4 were selected at random from among school districts in the city. After listing the public and non-profit private schools of these two districts, eight schools were randomly selected. The study sample consisted of 90 students of each group who were selected at random from among students of these eight schools. The members of the study sample responded to questionnaires on Hazan and Shaver attachment styles.The data collected were analyzed using the software spss16 and employing the two-way variance analysis method. Results obtained showed that there were no significant differences in any of the attachment styles (secure, ambivalent, and avoidant) between the two groups of children belonging to one-child and multiple-child families. These results also indicated that there were no significant differences between the two sexes with respect to any of the variables of the study either.
      PubDate: 2014-05-20
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Investigation of the role of information systems in tourism marketing as
           one of the strategies of tourism development

    • Authors: Mohammad Akbar Sheikhzadeh, Muhammad Moradzahipour, Muhammad Ghasem mirzaei, Majid Toulabi
      Abstract: Nowadays tourism is considered as one of the main sources of income in the world, and also an effective factor in cultural exchanges between countries that is why it has a very special position as the largest service industry in the world. Therefore there is a close and intense competition in many countries to increase their revenues and interests by means of such an international activity. Obviously, a little negligence can lead to lost opportunities. Therefore, the most successful one among the competing countries is the one that moves forward based on a strategic plan; and one way of achieving the strategic plan is tourism marketing which aims at gaining customer satisfaction in a profitable manner. In order to succeed in tourism marketing, we must fit well to present the future orientations of the market. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of marketing information systems in tourism-as a way of attracting tourists- by descriptive approach. This paper shows that major changes have taken place in the business world; as a result, various economic sectors have been forced to manipulate information systems to gain overwhelming profits.
      PubDate: 2014-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on governance

    • Authors: Parvaneh Salatin, Hamid Fallah
      Abstract: ICT is an important channel for knowledge, political awareness, making consciousness, understanding and guiding citizens, political and social forces and groups. ICT causes developing of transparency, government accountability and reducing corruption. E-Government uses ICT for the development of more efficient and more economical government.  In this context, the main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of ICT on the quality of governance in selected middle-and high-income countries by using the generalized moment’s method. Results show that ICT has a significant positive impact on governance quality in selected countries of the period 1996 – 2010.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Designing a new integrated model for performance evaluation of R&D
           centers (Case study: Energy Research Institute)

    • Authors: Ramin Gharizadeh Beirgh, Asghar Razzaghpour, Saman Bina, Ali Atayi Azar
      Abstract: The necessity of design and implementation of performance evaluation systems for project-based research and development (R&D) centers is one of the crucial issues in all countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated performance evaluation method for research and development institutes. The proposed approach is a synthesis of BSC, AHP and network DEA appropriate for engineering departments and units of these organizations. Defining Indexes as input and output, regarding different features of BSC and prioritizing them based on expert judgment, to calculate unites and sub-unit's efficiency of these organizations, network DEA will be applied.  Research and Development institutes, usually, are conglomeration of divergent administration unites and research sub-units, which could be considered as sub Decision Making Unites (sub-DMU) in this efficiency measurement model. Obtained results through this suggested integrated approach indicates its strength in the performance evaluation of R&D centers, moreover, its compatibility to be applied in all the research-oriented organizations.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Organizational conflict and task groups' behavior

    • Authors: Hamid Reza Qasemi, Jalil Teymori, Ensiyeh Jahanbakht
      Abstract: The purpose of this project was reviewing the effect of organizational conflict on task groups' behavior. Samples of this study were employees of a public company of Iran who have had experience in task groups and committees. This study is applied and causative. The researcher has done a review of literature and also prepared a questionnaire based on 5- Likert. Also, 113 questionnaires were collected and analyzed as sample. Data have been analyzed by using linear regression method, Durbin-Watson test and Kolmogrov – Smirnov Test. The findings indicated that there was a reversal relation among relational conflict and avoidance, compromise and confidence. But there wasn’t any relationship between self-devotion changes of organizational relations and cooperation. On the other hand, task conflict had reversal relation to avoidance, compromise and confidence, but there was direct relation in self-devotion, organizational relational change, and collaboration.
      PubDate: 2014-04-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Predicting identity styles and coping styles using self-rumination and
           self-reflection: A multivariate multiple regression analysis

    • Authors: Fariborz Bagheri, Sanaz Nazari
      Abstract: Adaptive and maladaptive types of self-focus as well as identity styles and coping styles comprise opposite sides (internal or personal vs. external or situational). Given that, the present study tried to elucidate the predicting roles of self-rumination and self-reflection when confronting stressors or in solving identity-related problems. In conformity with hypotheses, hierarchical regression analyses of 400 people from Mashhad, Iran pointed out that, regarding identity measures rumination accounted for diffuse-avoidant style whereas reflection explained information-oriented style and commitment. With respect to coping styles, emotion-focused coping and problem-focused coping behaved reversely when it came to rumination and reflection. Some unexpected results in correlational analysis between identity styles and coping styles were also discussed due to cultural effects and current transition between generations.
      PubDate: 2014-04-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk of the Karachi Stock Exchange 100
           index: Comparing distribution-type and asymmetry-type models

    • Authors: Abdul Haque, Kashif Naeem
      Abstract: We investigate the daily volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR) forecasts for the Karachi Stock Exchange 100 Index (KSE-100) series from 1998 to 2008. The forecasting performance of the distribution-type volatility models (GARCH-N, -t, -SGT, and -HT) are compared with that of asymmetry-type models (GJR-GARCH and EGARCH) in order to ascertain the crucial determinants for improving forecast accuracy of daily volatility and VaR. Empirical results indicate that the GARCH-HT and GARCH-SGT models generate far more accurate daily volatility forecasts as compared to their competitors. For VaR calculation, the GARCH-t and GARCH-SGT are the appropriate models to predict the daily VaRs of KSE-100 stock index under high confidence level.
      PubDate: 2014-04-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Classroom teachers' views on environmental education

    • Authors: Ahmet Nalçacı, Hakkı Yazıcı
      Abstract: The present study aims to examine classroom teachers’ views on environmental education. The study was conducted using a case study method which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study group was determined via criterion sampling which is one of the purposeful sampling methods. The study group included 20 classroom teachers who work in primary schools. The data were obtained via a semi-structured interview form. The data were analyzed employing the descriptive analysis method. According to the findings of the study, teachers perceived environmental education as environmental consciousness, an attitude towards the future and the environment. The family, the school, the social environment, the media and religion were determined as the effective factors in environmental education. The issues about which the students should be informed are the practice of economy, prevention of pollution, keeping the environment clean, an active engagement with the environment and taking a holistic view of the environment.  It was concluded from the study that environmental education was an engagement with the environment and global thinking for the sake of our future.  
      PubDate: 2014-04-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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