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Journal Cover European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
  [10 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
   Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • From a Building to an Architectural Artifact: The impact of
           Architect’s Worldview on the Status of an Architectural Artifact

    • Authors: Sepide Abbasi Yusefabad, Behnaz Aminzade, Mohammad Naghizade
      Abstract: Architecture is to design a space by human-architect for human-user; hence in addition to the physical and environmental factors, architect’s worldview is deemed to be as an initiative and a directing factor for the architectural designing process which is of high significance. An architect’s perception of human and human needs has a great impact on design process and the way designing is directed, it also architect’s worldview determines the domains from which the required data should be obtained and for which purpose they should be processed. The present study is aimed at exploring the issue of how the status of an architectural product as the tangible result of the designing process might be influenced by the architect’s worldview. Hence, by examining the relations between the existential fields of architecture and the existential realms of human beings, which is the resultant of the architect's worldview, a range of products starting from buildings and continuing to architectural products are investigated. Based on the nature of issues studied in this paper, a descriptive-analytical research method and deductive approach were used and the related data were collected through library method.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Antecedents of Dividend Policy: Empirical Evidence from Banking Sector of

    • Authors: Rizwan Hamid, Muhammad Shahbaz Yaqub, Muhammad Mubashir Hussain Awan
      Abstract: This paper explores the determinants of dividend policy of commercial banks operating in Pakistan. Dividend decision of any bank primarily depends upon its profitability, retained earnings, cash flows, corporate taxes and leverage. This study is an attempt to find out key determinants and their impact on cash payout and total payout ratios. It also aims to test the implication of dividend theories on Pakistani banks using data for a period of 8 years ranging from 2006 to 2013. Balanced panel data regression with fixed effects model has been used in this study. All independent variables - PAT, SLACK, EPS, CTA and TD[1] reported significant results. We found significant role of profitability theory, packing order theory, free cash flow theory and agency cost theory in determining dividend policies whereas, tax effect and financial slack has no effect in banking sector of Pakistan.
      [1] Profitability, retained earnings, earnings per share, cash flows, and leverage
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Calculation of Asymmetry factor using the Solution of Equilibrium Problem

    • Authors: Muhammad Asif
      Abstract: In this work we presented a theoretical calculation of the asymmetry factor (Shafranov parameter) by solving the simplest Grad–Shafranov Equation (GSE) with the  Solove’v assumption for a low-beta and large-aspect-ratio tokamak with a circular cross section.  In this paper we calculated the current-independent relation for the asymmetry factor (Shafranov  parameter).
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Comparing Export and Import Sport Goods in Iran in 2014 to Implement
           Resistive Economic

    • Authors: Reza Bagheri, Hamidreza Booali, Karamat Avazpour, Hamed Alizadeh Pahlevani, Karim Deris
      Abstract: The purpose of the research was to compare export and import sport goods in Iran in 2014 to implement the Resistive Economic. There was used laboratory and past vision method in the research. The registered comprehensive statics in official website of Chamber of Commerce, industries, mines and agriculture of Tehran were used to collect data. Its population included all registered export and import goods in Iran; among them, export and import sport equipments in Iran in 2014 were considered as the research sample. Goods exporter and importer countries to Iran were classified in 14 and 7 categories respectively. Then sport goods were 10 categories homogenously. Ranking export and import of sport goods was measured according to commercial partners and their dollar worth. The goods were compared by considering their Rial worth. The descriptive test and independent t-test were used to analyze data. Meanwhile, α= 0.05 was considered as significant level. The research findings showed 64% of importers of sport goods to Iran were China (36%), UAE (21%) and Turkey (7%). The imported sport goods were prioritized according to their Rial worth as follows: toys (56%), treadmill (24%), various rockets (5%), various balls (3%) and game facilities in open air (3%). In contrast, in terms of Rial worth, Iran exported sport goods to Iraq (70%), Turkmenistan (8%) and Afghanistan (7%). However, 100% exported sport goods included toys, treadmill and game facilities in open air. Finally, the research final findings showed no significant relationship between export and import sport equipments in Iran in 2014, in terms of their Rial worth. Now, it is suggested to explain necessary facilities to establish workshops and manufacturer factories based on ranking the imported goods within Iran. However, the imports should be controlled to support new established firms. It results in job creation and reduces foreign currency exit. Consequently, we should export sport goods and find consumer countries. Finally, free business policy should be considered to improve quality of the goods. As a result, we can satisfy consumer and control prices. In this way, we can improve Iran’s commercial balance and implement the Resistive Economic.
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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