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Journal Cover European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
   Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Chemical Diversity of Scarab Beetle Pheromones and its Implication in
           Chemical Evolution

    • Authors: Jason Lorenzo Lumabas, John Carlos Sioson, Jose Isagani B. Janairo
      Abstract: Pheromones are species-specific chemical signals used by insects to communicate, to find a mate, and to identify their territory. In this paper, we analyzed the structural similarity of scarab beetle pheromones using the Tanimoto coefficient in an attempt to draw insights regarding their ecology, evolution and chemotaxonomy. The results showed a very diverse scarab beetle pheromone structure which provides further support to an earlier hypothesis regarding beetle pheromone evolution. In addition, it was found that the scarab beetle pheromone structure cannot be used as a species marker in chemotaxonomy owing to the observed high structural diversity.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Simulation and Ergonomic Study and Fabrication Technology of Salt Man

    • Authors: Mahin Sohrabi, Nafiseh Yazdani
      Abstract: The ‘salt man footwear’ is one of the most interesting cases of footwear in the world which, due to its physical properties and appearance, is estimated to belong to either the end of Parthian era or to the beginning of Sasanian era. The salt man is reported to have been a rider and, therefore, his footwear must have been of the ‘riding boots’ type. This specific type of footwear possesses certain features in accordance with the modern day technological rules. Therefore, the present study circles around this question that to what extent the sample under analysis corresponds with such rules. The research embarks on studying the characteristics of this footwear on the basis of a ‘descriptive-exponential’ research method. Evaluation and final judgment in order to achieve the technological pattern for simulation has been conducted through ‘deductive reasoning, meaning that the historical footwear has been compared with the technological rules of manufacturing modern day footwear and simulation has been embarked on in a ‘semi experimental’ method. The results of the analysis reveal that the leather used in the salt man footwear is of splitcalf and cow leather type and had been tannered with ‘lime and salt’. The threads used in this work are of the ‘sheep intestine’ type. The ‘size of the historical footwear, according to the technical report of the Research Center for Conservation of Cultural Relics and through the accordance done with the modern day technical rules of sizing, has been determined to be 42. The ergonomic comparative study not only makes possible the fabrication of a similar prototype, but also reveals that the technology for the fabrication of such kinds of footwear had existed 1700 years ago in Iran.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • How Tense and Aspect are Sequenced by EFL Learners

    • Authors: Keivan Mahmoodi, Mansoor Koosha, Ahmad Reza Lotfi
      Abstract: The objective of the present research is to check how Iranian EFL learners use tense and aspect morphology with different verb classes. The participants of the study were 128 EFL learners from five grades of Iranian junior high school and senior high school. Iranian high school students start learning English from the first grade. A test of 40 items was developed for each grade aimed to tap their knowledge of English tenses presented in their school textbooks. 40 verbs were chosen being from state, activity, achievement, and accomplishment types. The corpus data (5120 tokens) showed, in L2 learners’ test performance, there was indeed a strong correlation between the use of tense-aspect markings and lexical aspect, thus confirming the prediction of the Aspect Hypothesis. But, regarding the sequence of the verb tenses, the findings were not in line with the sequence of the verb tenses emerged in the learners’ performance with the simple present tense, especially at early grades.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Protecting the Vulnerable: The Case of IDPs in Pakistan

    • Authors: Rafi Amir-ud-Din, Summaira Malik
      Abstract: Vulnerability as a measure of human deprivations is a more comprehensive and value-laden term than poverty. While the poverty analysis provides a profile of the characteristics of the poor people, vulnerability analysis explains, among other factors, the role of risk in creating the dynamics that contribute to the observed poverty level. Social protection is an important concept in the policy dialogue on the vulnerabilities of the people and is aimed at finding ways to help the vulnerable people in managing the risks and becoming less susceptible to the welfare losses. Vulnerability takes a number of forms and requires different types of social protection mechanisms. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Pakistan and identifies the social protection delivered by various government and non-government stakeholders. The paper also reviews the literature on the vulnerabilities of the IDPs in different parts of the world to explore the best practices in providing social protection to IDPs
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Correlation between Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences and the
           Problem-solving Styles and their Role in the Academic Performance
           Achievement of High School Students

    • Authors: Yaghoob Raissi Ahvan, Hossein Zainalipour, Mahin Jamri, Fatemh Mahmoodi
      Abstract: The present study attempts to investigate the correlation between Gardner's multiple intelligences and problem-solving styles and their role in the academic performance achievement levels of high school students of Bandar abbas. This was a descriptive correlation study .To accomplish this purpose, 270 students of  high school of Bandar Abbas were selected by clustering random sampling, and all of them filled the Gardner’s multiple intelligences, the Cassidy and Long’s questionnaires. For analysis of collected data, descriptive statistics including  mean, standard deviation, Pearson coefficients of correlation, regression, spss19 and statistical soft were used. Findings of this study revealed that the helplessness and the control styles have a significant positive relationship with the intrapersonal intelligence. The logical-mathematical intelligence, visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, musical and naturalist intelligence have a significant relationship with the creative and confidence styles. The verbal-linguistic, musical, bodily-kinesthetic showed a significant correlation-weighted with the avoidance style. The approach style showed a significant correlation with the verbal-linguistic intelligence. The results showed that all multiple intelligences including visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, natural, interpersonal have a positive correlation with academic performance achievement. The regression of analysis showed that the multiple intelligences such as visual-spatial intelligence, interpersonal and verbal-linguistic intelligence were statistically significant and could positively predict academic performance achievement ( p<05), whereas the musical intelligence was a tunable negative predictor for academic achievement of students.
      PubDate: 2016-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Effects of Zingiber officinale as Feed Additive on the Common Carp Body

    • Authors: Hodeis Abbasi Ghadikolaei, Abolghasem Kamali, Mehdi Soltani, Mansour Sharifian
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the use of ginger powder in diet of common carp, Cyprinus capio (27±3 gr). Different levels of the plant powder (0,, 1 and 2 gr / per 100gr food) were spread on commercial diet. The feed was offered by 8 weeks. Results showed that fish fed experimental diets had no significant difference (P>0.05) in amount of NFE, but have significant difference in protein, lipid, ash, moisture percent and kcal energy from different diet (p<0.05) while in kruskal-wallis test illustrated significant difference in amount of carbohydrate and body fiber (p<0.05). So, the best results in amount of protein, lipid, and energy shown in maximum dosage of ginger powder in carp commercial diet  and low amount of them shown in control group.  There were high amount of carbohydrate and low amount of fiber in control group. There was the lack of fiber in control group and upper level of ash in the third treatment. So, this study presents that; to be improving the body composition of common carp we use the herbal medicine like Ginger powder in their commercial diets.
      PubDate: 2016-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Gender Quality and Phenomena of Glass Ceiling in the Hierarchal Structure
           of an Organization: An Empirical Study of Umeå University

    • Authors: Ammar Arshad, Muhammad Waqas, Shariq Zia, Shahzad Ahmad
      Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between gender equality and glass ceiling and its existence in the hierarchal structure of an organization. The study has used qualitative approach to deduce a hypothesis by choosing an ontological position namely “constructivism”. The research is based on primary and secondary data. The primary data was compiled by making several interviews with equality administrators at the four faculties of Umeå University. Each equality administrator was interviewed and policy documents were reviewed that were provided by the University. The interviewing was semi-structured in the sense that the questions were flexible and open ended and allowed the interviewees to elaborate their answers, gave a more accurate view and relevant answers to the investigation. The gathering of secondary data was made through the equality administrators at the different faculties at Umeå University. This empirical study revealed that Umeå University is working towards a more equal gender division in its hierarchical structure by giving the faculties a set of policies to reduce gender discrimination. However gender discrimination is observed at higher levels. Affirmative actions are suggested to eliminate the existing gender division.
      PubDate: 2016-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Assay with Colorimetric Method and
           Microplate Reading Format and Comparison with Chemiluminescence Method

    • Authors: Fatemeh Sedaghatfard, S. Adeleh Razavi, Mehdi Hedayati, Nematollah Razmi, Amirhossein Rahnama
      Abstract: Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) has a key role in the protection of organisms from oxidative damage. Many diseases and disorders are associated with changes in GPX activity. Therefore, its activity assay can be crucial in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of them. Several companies produce GPX activity assay kit but it is being imported to Iran which is expensive and time-consuming. This research has been done to investigate a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for GPX activity assay. In this study, GPX reduced cumene hydroperoxide while oxidized glutathione (GSH) to GSSG. The generated GSSG was reduced to GSH with consumption of NADPH by glutathione reductase. The decrease of NADPH absorption which was proportional to GPX activity measured at 340 nm with microplate reading format. Sensitivity, precision and accuracy have been examined. The results obtained by the colorimetric method compared with chemiluminescence method and correlation coefficient has been determined. Sensitivity of this method was 15 mU/ml. The coefficient of variation percent for intra and inter assay was less than 9.7 %. According to parallelism and recovery tests, ratio % and recovery %  ranged from 91% to 112% and correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.9898 (n=60). Data from this study showed that the method has an acceptable sensitivity, precision and accuracy and can be suitable for both clinical and research studies. Indeed, this study is the first step of domestic commercial kit production purpose.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Foreign Currency Derivatives and Firm Value

    • Authors: Atia Hassan, Talat Afza
      Abstract: The corporations, all over the world, are using derivative instruments to hedge their Exchange Rate exposure arises from increased globalization and market determined Exchange Rates. Despite of this, most of the studies explore the impact of Foreign Currency Derivative (FCD) usage and extent of such usage on firm value in developing countries, whereas very few examines this relationship in developing countries. Current study, therefore, attempts to examine the relationship between FCD instruments and firm value by using the data of 181 Pakistani non-financial firms for the period 2004-2010. Controlling firm specific variables, empirical findings support value increasing effects of usage and extent of such derivative usage. Detailed analysis indicates that corporations with exchange rate exposure, measured by Foreign Sales, can enhance their firm value by using FCD instruments. The findings remain same for alternative specifications like endogeneity and self-selection problem, that use of FCD instruments gives value premium effects on Pakistani firms.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
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