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European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences    [12 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
     Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Study of magnetic properties and characterization of Ni/Cu multi-layer
           structures using in-situ high-temperature X-Ray diffraction (HT-XRD)
    • Authors: J. Nezamdost, A. Zolanvari, H. Sadeghi
      Abstract: In this paper, the results of magnetic and structural measurements of Ni/Cu multi-layers with different thicknesses of Cu and Ni grown on Si (100) substrate are presented. The Ni/Cu multi-layers nanostructure is analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) diagram at room temperature and X-ray diffraction in a vacuum at high temperature (HT-XRD). The periodic peaks in the XRD spectrum, the multilayer structure and thus, the superlattice structure of the films are confirmed. But the in-situ XRD spectrums at high temperature reveal that the increase of temperature and annealing time is associated with the decrease or disappearance of intensity of the multilayer peaks and periodic peaks. It means the increase of these two parameters is accompanied with the weakening of interface sharpness between the layers, and the samples' multilayer structures are inclined toward the alloy structure.
      PubDate: 2014-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Investigation of the relationship between organizational justice and
           employees’ self-management in Arak Municipality
    • Authors: Mojtaba Mastali
      Abstract: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational justice in three dimensions (i.e. distributive justice, policy justice and intercourse justice) and self-management. These procedures have been done by study in library and Internet sources. On the other hand, the study was a kind of practical research and collecting data has been done by descriptive and correlation method. The initial samples were 2500 employees who worked in Arak municipality, but total number of them was 350 employees. The instrument for collecting data was questionnaire and in statistical analysis section, in order to measure the normality of test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov has been used. Then for analyzing research hypotheses, Pearson correlation coefficient was used for measuring the amount of relationship between organizational justice and self-management. Obtained results of hypotheses indicated that three hypotheses were accepted and also there was positive and meaningful relationship between organizational justice and self-management
      PubDate: 2014-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Some similarities of Vâyu in the ancient Indian and Iranian religion
           books: A focus on Vedas and Avesta
    • Authors: Sayyed Hassan Alamdar Moghaddam, Soghra Ghasemi
      Abstract: The name of God Vâyu has been mentioned in the Vedas as well as Avesta Book. Vâyu in the Rig Veda is very often associated with Indra and is regarded equally with him, as representing or rulingover the atmosphere.  He won the race for the first draught of Soma Juice andat Indra’s request allowed him to have a quarter of it. The two worlds are said to have generated him for wealth.  He is once spoken of as the son in law of Tavshtri, though his wife’s name is not mentioned.  In the Purusa hymn he is said to have sprung from the breath of world giant.  Vâyu is rarely connected with the Maruts. He is however, once said to have generated them from the wombs of heaven and to be accompanied by them as well as by puşan and Vishvedevas.  His personal attributes are rather indefinite.  He is beautiful and with Indra is spoken of as touching sky, swift as thought, and thousand-eyed.  He is once said to have roaring velocity.  Vâyu has a shining car drawn by a team bya pair of red (rohita) or raddy (aruna) steeds. Vâyu in the Avesta Bookis Vayu (with the short vowel  a) and it is the god of wind.  This name has been also applied as Veyu, Vâyu, Vay and Andarvây in the pahlavi  Book. Vaya in Avesta is the name of wind element as well as god of wind.  In fact Vayuis beside of water, fire and earth to complete the four elements. One Yasht of Avesta Book namely Râm Yasht is in praise of Vayu. According to details of this Yashts, Vayu is the space which is connected to the paradise world fromabove and to the dark world from dawn, viz Vayu is the space which separates the creation of holy wisdom (Ahuramzda)from bad and dirty creation. Therefore, in Avest Book, there are two fold Vayu, first, a god, who protects the pure and useful air and The Second, the demon who is the source of impure and prejudicial air. In Avesta Book, on the top of worshippers first Ahuramazda and then many great persons among them kings, heroes, invoked the god Vayu, and offer up him a sacrifice and bagged some boons. He granted their boons. Sometimes some of the Ahriman creation also offers up a sacrifice for Vayu and bagged someboons but they are not granted by him. There are some similarity and difference between Vâyu in Vedas and Vayu in the Avesta book.
      PubDate: 2014-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Examining defense rights of the accused at the stage of preliminary
           investigation in Iran laws (with a human rights approach)
    • Authors: Fathollah Niaziatabay, Ehsan Pahlevani Fard, Alireza Hassni, Elahe Pahlevani Fard
      Abstract: Preliminary investigation is one of the most important stages in Criminal Procedure which has a major impact on process of verdict issuance. Carrying out an appropriate preliminary investigation may guarantee achieving criminal justice. Thus, the legal principles governing the preliminary investigation stage have a significant value and status; so that, states in their criminal procedure codes, dedicate special parts to it. In addition to national laws, international human rights documents also have specific attention to the accused rights in the face of judiciary authors. This is because; violating the individual rights at different stages of criminal trial is possible. As mentioned above, legislators of many states have recognized the legal principles governing on preliminary investigation stage. Iranian legislator is not an exception, too. This article tries to answer how the accused rights at the preliminary investigation stage are guaranteed'  In order to answering this question, present paper seeks to deduct legal principles from Iran’s domestic law that guarantees the rights of the accused at the stage of preliminary investigation. Furthermore, these principles have been evaluated in international human rights instruments, too.
      PubDate: 2014-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Investigation of the relationship between organizational health and
           organizational commitment with positive attitude toward change among
           primary school principals of Tehran city
    • Authors: Habibe Khatoon Nabipour, Hossein ZainallyPour, Mohammad Noor Rahmani
      Abstract: The present research aims at determining the relationship between organizational health and organizational commitment with positive view toward organizational change. Participants of the study include all principals of Tehran primary schools among which 386 teachers were selected by stratified sampling. Allen and Myer organizational health questionnaire was used to measure organizational commitment including emotional commitment, constant commitment and normative commitment and every dimension has 8 questions. To measure positive attitude, school organizational health questionnaire was used including institutional, official and technical dimensions. To measure the attitude toward organizational change, Donham questionnaire was used including 18 questions. This questionnaire has emotional, cognitive and behavioral indices and each index has 6 questions. Statistical analyses in this study include Pearson correlation, multi-variable regression (stepwise). The results showed that there is a relationship between organizational health and the attitude toward change among head  teachers of Tehran primary  schools. There is a relationship between sub-scales of organizational health and positive attitude toward change among head  teachers of Tehran primary schools. A relationship also was found between organizational commitment and the attitude  toward change among head  teachers of Tehran primary schools. Finally  there is a relationship between sub-scales of organizational commitment and sub-scales of attitude toward change among head  teachers of Tehran primary schools. Generally it is concluded that there is a  positive relationship between organizational health and organizational commitment with attitude toward change among principals.
      PubDate: 2014-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The effect of Islamic ideological dialogue on the legitimacy of the
           Islamic Republic of Iran
    • Authors: Jabbar Pour Hosseini, Mehdi Zakerian
      Abstract: The essence of the  present study is the notion of Islamic ideological dialogue that in otherwords is the impact of Islamic ideological dialogue on the legitimacy of the Islamic Republic regime from 1979 until 2011. In this context,  there are three main indices of Islamic ideological dialogue which have been recognized  from the researcher point of view in terms of concepts, community activism (community-oriented perspective) , sacred activism(sacred –oriented perspective) and radical otherness  creation. The impact of each issue on the legality or legitimacy of the Islamic Republic of Iran will be explored both in the medium and longterm so the purpose of Islamic ideological dialogue is the dominant dialogue which has been dominant after 1979  revolution in Iran and  has been formulated and applied by political system. First, Islamic ideology with an exclusive emphasison the Islamic culture in a form of community activism and lack of continuous process of nation building will lead a society to identity crisis in the medium term and in the long term will lead the government to a crisis of legitimacy. Second ,as the Islamic ideology is preserving guardianship of Islamic jurists from criticism in a different areas particularly in development with divinizing government and at its top giving the sanctity to their clerical status, In themedium term will lead  society to the crisis of rationality and  in the longterm will lead it to crisis of legitimacy. Finally, specific works of radical otherness creation in Islamic ideology resulted in dividing society into insiders and outsiders and with deepening these ideological gaps within ethnic groups and different social classes will lead society to crisis of integration and unity and crisis of legitimacy in long term.
      PubDate: 2014-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Investigation of the relationship between social intelligence &
           leadership style of high school managers at District 2 in Zahedan
    • Authors: Seyed Reza Balaghat, Leila Azizpour
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to consider the relationship between social intelligence and the method of leaderships at district 2 in Zahedan. The correlation method is used on this descriptive research. Statistical population of this research included all managers and teachers of high school at district 2 in Zahedan who have worked in the area in 92-91 school year. Statistical populations of managers are 60 and they have been chosen by stratified random sampling & 248 teachers were selected using stratified random sampling. In order to collect data, Tromso Social Intelligence questionnaire and leadership style of Luthans questionnaire have been used. In order to determine the reliability of questionnaire, Cronbach’s Alfa is used according to reliability of questionnaire, Social Intelligence was estimated 0/73 and reliability of questionnaire for leadership style was estimated 0.81. Data were analyzed, using Pearson's correlation, Stepwise regression, t independent test, analyzes of variance and Tukey test. The result of research concluded that: (1) social intelligence of managers is at average and also in the case of information processing is desirable, social skills are at average and social awareness is undesirable. (2) In the opinion of teachers, leadership styles of managers are more task-based oriented. (3) Between social intelligence and leadership style of relation-oriented managers there is a positive and significant relation. (4) Among the aspects of social intelligence, social skill is the only variable which had more prediction about relation-oriented leadership style. (5) Negative and significant relation observed between social intelligence and relation-oriented leadership style of leaders. (6)Among the aspects of social intelligence, social information processing is the only variable which had more prediction about task-based oriented leadership style. (7)There is no significant relation between the task-based oriented leadership style and relation-oriented leadership style of male and female managers.
      PubDate: 2014-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The effect of assertiveness training on self-efficacy among Iranian high
           school female students
    • Authors: Mitra Sadat Noghabaee, Mansooreh Nikoogoftar
      Abstract: The current study considers the effect of assertiveness on the first-grade high school female students’ self-efficacy. The research method is quasi-experimental and the design is pretest posttest with control group. The participants included all high school students of the second region in Tehran, including 22 schools. The selected sample is in concordance with the research method of the 3 individuals that  were selected with cluster sampling in several stages and among female high schools in the second region of Tehran. The instruments  used in this study were Hezbergru’s assertiveness questionnaire and The Morgan-Jinks Student Efficacy Scale (MJSES). Data analysis was done by using SPSS 21software. In order to describe the data, descriptive statistics including mean, frequency, and standard deviation and independent sample t-test was used for testing research hypotheses. The results revealed the effect of  assertiveness skills  training on enhancing self-efficacy and its application in education and training. Students need to be supplied with certain skills and abilities, especially self-efficacy for better operation.
      PubDate: 2014-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Teachers’ awareness of critical pedagogy: A case study of Iranian
           EFL teachers
    • Authors: Mohammad Aliakbari, Fatemeh Azimi Amoli
      Abstract: The concept of critical pedagogy (CP) has been around for some time in education. However, not much research has been conducted on implementing the basic tenets of CP into the ELT classrooms. Acknowledging the significant role of teachers as the cornerstone of education system in every context, the main reason behind this study was to examine the extent to which Iranian EFL instructors in English institutes in Iran apply approaches and principles of critical pedagogy. This study investigated 200 Iranian EFL instructors’ points of view in English Institutes. The questionnaire developed by Azimi (2007) which examined teacher’s attitude in critical pedagogy with reference to their age, gender, educational level and work experience. Results revealed that there is a significant difference between age, gender, educational level and work experience. Compared to males, females had better mean in responding to critical pedagogy items in this study. Also, responses to critical pedagogy items represent a positive relationship with respondents’ age. Additionally, the higher the educational level, the bigger the mean for the responses toward critical pedagogy items was reported. Finally, the teachers with less experience had a lower level of agreement with the principles of critical pedagogy. The results of this study can also be regarded as an implication for policy makers in the field of TEFL to revise their policies related to the ELT issues.
      PubDate: 2014-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The effects of swimming training program on psychological health: An
           experimental design
    • Authors: Korkmaz Yiğiter
      Abstract: The present experimental study was conducted to change the locus of control of university students in positive direction through their participation in a swimming training program as a group. For this purpose, 40 volunteer university students participated in the study and they were randomly assigned to experiment and control groups. Each group consisted of 20 students. The experiment group participated in the swimming training program which was conducted in three sessions, each lasting one hour a week. During this period, the control group did not participate in any regular physical activity program regarding swimming training. In this training program, series of freestyle swimming sessions were provided to the university students who had never received any formal swimming instruction before. Rotter’s Locus of Control was administered to the participants before and after the 10-week training period. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 Package Program. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test and paired samples t test were used to analyze the data. Level of significance was determined to be 0.05. There was a statistically significant difference between experiment group’s pre-test and post-test scores (p<0.05). There was not a significant difference between control group’s pre-test and post-test scores (p>0.05). Participants in the experiment group showed more changing in positive direction than those in the control group in terms of the internal locus of control.
      PubDate: 2014-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Instructional leadership levels of school principals under the context of
           constructivist primary curriculum- quantitative results
    • Authors: Ahmet KAYA, AHMET GÖÇEN
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine primary school principals’ levels of instructional leadership behaviors from the perspectives of school teachers under the context of constructivism applied in primary schools in Turkey. A scale related to constructivist school curriculum is developed and school principals’ instructional leadership behaviors and competencies are examined under three dimensions of the scale: “Constructing Systematic Instruction Environment’’, “Curriculum leadership and Guidance” and “Supporting Instruction and Shared Instructional Leadership’’. The universe of the study is determined to be 26 schools in the city borders of Şanlıurfa in the academic year 2011-2012 and the sample is composed of 382 primary school teachers, which were selected through stratified sampling. According to results of the study, school principals are seen to exhibit mostly behaviors “constructing systematic instruction environment” at good level; “curriculum leadership and guidance” at medium level and “supporting instruction and shared instructional leadership” at good level.
      PubDate: 2014-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • An analytic study on architectural decorations in early Islamic
    • Authors: Masoud Mohammadzadeh, Ali Hossein Pour Hajjar
      PubDate: 2014-03-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The role of green supply chain management on organizational productivity
           and excellence
    • Authors: Mohammad Khorasani Amoli, Foad Eshghi, Iman Valaei, Fateme Noori
      Abstract: Regarding the competitive market at present age and the importance of environmental problems, green supply chain management is converted into one of the problems for the organizations and companies. Green supply chain management will be useful in respect of the improvement of environmental performance of advantage (benefit) supply chain and will be followed by many benefits such as saving in energy resources, decreasing the pollutants, omission or decreasing the wastes, value creation (production) for the customers and ultimately, and finally improving productivity for the companies and organizations. This research addressed to supply chain and its effect on the organizational elevation and productivity. Statistical population of the present research consists of the staffs of Fooladin Zob Amol Company who are 28 persons. Some questions based on the questionnaire are available for the staff of this company and out of this number, 19 persons answered the questionnaire. The collected data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software and T-test was used for this reason. Research result represents that all of the components implemented in the questionnaire, have a direct relationship with the organizational excellence and productivity in Fooladin Zob Amol Company.
      PubDate: 2014-03-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Integrated and periodic relief logistics planning for reaction phase in
           uncertainty condition and model solving by particles swarm optimization
    • Authors: Siamak Ghiasvand, Babak Ejlaly
      Abstract: Disaster relief logistics is considered to be one of the major activities in disaster management. This research studies response phase of the disaster management cycle. To do so, a multi-purpose integrated model for a three-level relief cycle logistics is provided under an uncertainty condition and on a periodic basis. In this model, inventory transfer, vehicle routing, distribution and sending relief goods are modeled on a periodic basis. In addition, in order to solve the proposed mathematical model, ultra-initiative particles swarm algorithm in combination with variable neighborhood search based on Pareto archive is proposed. To prove the efficiency of the proposed particles swarm algorithm, several sample problems are randomly selected considering the solved problems in the literature and are solved by particles swarm algorithm. These problems are also solved by genetic algorithm and the results obtained from these two algorithms are compared in terms of quality, dispersion and integrity indices. The results show that compared to genetic algorithm, particles swarm algorithm is more capable of producing more integrated, qualified and dispersed responses. Moreover, the results show that the solution time of genetic algorithm is less than that of the proposed algorithm.
      PubDate: 2014-03-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Regionalisation of microclimate resources
    • Authors: P. Karing
      Abstract: There are a number of methods used to characterise the microclimate resources in constant flux and significantly affected by man. One of the most popular among them is mapping the differences of microclimate and estimating the climatic resources on the basis of those maps. In most general terms, the changeability of microclimate in a given territory is reflected on maps drawn for defining into regions of the microclimate. When estimating the microclimate resources, it makes sense to separately consider the global, meso- and microclimatic differences, which technique provides for more detailed description of the share of microclimate in formation of climatic resources of the landscape surveyed. In Estonia, the research of microclimate has been long in the order of the day. As a result of that work, original methods have been elaborated for mapping the microclimate with computers, and vital recommendations have been issued for use of the microclimate resources in practice.
      PubDate: 2014-02-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • An investigation of reading comprehension program at a University of
    • Authors: Ahmadreza Shoa Hasani, Ramin Rahimy, Masumeh Arjmandi
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the reading comprehension program at a University of Technology to understand whether the ESP course affects students' reading comprehension ability or not. To gather subjects, an OPT test was administered to 100 students bringing out 60 students in intermediate level of English proficiency. The participants were divided randomly into two groups of control and experimental. Then a pretest on reading comprehension was administered to insure the homogeneity of subjects and record what degree of implicit knowledge of comprehension they had. Next, 2 posttests were filled out by subjects after treatment process in which lasted for five sessions only for experimental group. The gathered data from subjects in both control and experimental groups were analyzed using independent samples t-test and ANCOVAs with the help of SPSS software. The data analysis revealed that the null hypothesis of the study is proved. Results indicated that learners who received reading comprehension strategies progress more in contrast to those who did not receive the strategies in control group. The progress in experimental group was significantly different from the control group.
      PubDate: 2014-02-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of chemical control of weeds on yield and yield components of
           rapeseed in Ahvaz region
    • Authors: Elham Badalzadeh aghdam, Mojtaba Kahkeshpour, Zohre Rezaei
      PubDate: 2014-02-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The study of the entrepreneurial spirit of home business cooperative among
           the members in Hamedan Province
    • Authors: Ahmad Yaghoubi Farani, Mehdi Mantashloo
      Abstract: The main purpose of this paper was to study the entrepreneurial spirit of cooperative Home Business' members in Hamedan province. There are 110 cooperatives engaged in Home Business in this province that according to stratified proportional random sampling, 70 persons (managers and members of cooperative) were selected for the study. The study was carried out through a survey method and by using a questionnaire with validity as the main tool for investigating. In order to describe and analyze the data and perform appropriate statistical tests, the statistical software SPSS was used. The findings indicated that the cooperative Home business members have some entrepreneurial characteristics like risk taking, flexibility, Trust on others and interesting to economic welfare. Also, the Results showed that there is a significant relationship between age and gender and entrepreneurial spirit of cooperative Home Business' members.
      PubDate: 2014-02-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The effect of audit firm size and age on the quality of audit work
    • Authors: Farzin Rezaei, Saeed Shabani
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of audit firm size and age on the quality of audit work. The sample of the study consists of 201 firms listed in Tehran Security Exchange whose data has been analyzed during 2006 to 2010. The results of regression tests showed that an increase in age and size of audit firms causes a reduction in the use of Accruals items, consequently, increases audit quality. Results suggest that two factors of establishing audit institutions and the number of auditing staffs to separate effects of each factor have significant effect on audit quality.
      PubDate: 2014-02-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Analysis of effective factors on stability of local development with urban
           stable development approach (Case study: Moziraj Range in Babol City)
    • Authors: Seyed Ali Hosseni, Seyed Mohsen Hosseinifar
      Abstract: The purpose of present research is the analysis of effective factors on stability of local development with urban stable development approach in Moziraj Range of Babol city. The kind of research is practical and the method of study is descriptive-analytic. Statistical society of research consists of 390 individuals from Moziraj Range of Babol’s citizens. For collecting data and information librarian-documentary study and distribution of questionnaires were used, and analysis of data was performed by SPSS20 software and its tests such as Chi-Square, KMO and Bartlett. The questionnaires were confirmed by related experts and its stability was confirmed by doing pre-test with Cronbach’s Alfa coefficient above 0.7 for all criteria. The results of research show that the sense of belonging criteria with coefficient 0.875 has the most effect and the availability of webs and services criteria with coefficient 0.491 has the least effect on stability of local development in Moziraj Range of Babol, and also there wasn’t a meaningful relationship between individual identifiers and criteria of local stability.
      PubDate: 2014-02-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Social, extra-curricular activities offered to students at low and high
           socio-economic status upper secondary schools in Turkey according to
           school principals’ views
    • Authors: Mustafa Ozmusul, Ahmet Kaya
      Abstract: Using PISA 2009 data, the purpose of this study is to analyze the social activities offered to students at low and high socio-economic status (SES) upper secondary schools in Turkey according to school principals’ views. In the study, descriptive analyses were made. Study group consisted of totally 100 school principals, at low and high SES upper secondary schools. The most activity offered by low and high SES schools to students is sporting team or sporting activities; and the least is collaboration with local newspapers at low SES, collaboration with local libraries at high SES. The percentage of high SES upper secondary schools offer following activities is significantly higher than the percentage of low SES schools: school play or school musical; school yearbook, newspaper or magazine; debating club or debating activities; school club or school competition for foreign language, math or science; lectures and/or seminars; collaboration with local newspapers. Additionally; although, the Regulation of Social Activities is designed ideally in terms of the dimensions such as functioning, rudiments, processes, tasks, monitoring and evaluation, the results of this study or the results of literature show that this design does not reflect on practice. In terms of social activities offered to students at all school, the index value of Turkey is, 0.38, higher than OECD average. But it is insufficient, when comparing, at least, with New Zealand, the United States, Korea and the United Kingdom, which show over 1.00 (one standard deviation) in index value.
      PubDate: 2014-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The study of the relationship between conservatism in financial reporting
           and stock liquidity
    • Authors: Ali Lalbar, Jalil Teymori, Akbar Nabilou, Hossein Arghavani
      Abstract: The main objective of the present research is to study the relationship between conservatism in financial reporting, and stock liquidity. In this study, conservatism in financial reporting is considered as the independent variable, and the 13 criteria of stock liquidity are used as the dependent variables. The study period is of 7 years, and includes the period between the beginning of 2003 until the end of 2010 in terms of the solar calendar (i.e. March 2003 to March 2010). The statistical sample includes 70 companies from various industries. The data are collected using the library method. A univariate regression model is used to test the study hypotheses, and the estimations are performed in the form of panel data. The results of hypothesis testing indicate that there is no significant relationship between conservatism in financial reporting, and stock liquidity indices.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • A study of relation between comparative advantage indices of wheat and
           support policies by using econometrics approach
    • Authors: Seyed Abolghasem Mortazavi, Foad eshghi, Elham Darbandi
      Abstract: Comparative advantage is a term used to describe a production capability with low level output price and minimum opportunity costs. This study was done to evaluate the importance of maintaining comparative advantage for a strategic crop such as wheat in terms of changes and contributing factors over time. In this study data has been calculated and investigated by comparative advantage indices such as Net Social Profit and Domestic Resource Cost for the period of 1984-2010 in Iran. Following a stationary test and an econometrics model the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) was applied to analyze the relation between guaranteed price policy, producer support estimate index and subsidies by comparative advantage indices. Results showed that as producer support is increased, comparative advantage decreased and the use of cheaper price inputs led to less competitiveness although the guaranteed price policy led to an improvement in scale advantage index, but had no positive effect on the efficiency advantage index. This study suggests that there is a need to perform investigations considering the relationship of cost and world market price and a change from direct support of the agricultural sector to indirect support in the form of structural support, and finally with the implementation of targeted subsidy policy, these multiple goals can be achieved
      PubDate: 2014-01-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Examination of effects of urban street configuration on the amount of
           commercial buildings establishment (according to natural movement theory),
           Case study: Hamedan
    • Authors: Kianoosh Zaker Haghighi, Nima Gheitarani, Mojtaba Khanian, Rana Taghadosi
      Abstract: The pattern of the urban layer is one of the factors that influence land use within the cities. Since the focus of this research is movement, accessibility, street network and urban form, the theory of Natural Movement is applied. This theory believes that movement is fundamentally a morphological issue in urbanism. It is a functional product of the intrinsic nature of the grid, and not a specialized aspect of it. In fact, spatial configuration is potentially a predictor of both pedestrians and vehicular traffic flows in urban environments. According to the theory of Natural Movement, the setting of uses and pedestrian’s movement are influenced by space configuration. Also, there exists a remarkable correlation between the density of setting uses which attract the populations and syntactic spatial variables. This research aims at verifying these relations in two trade regions adjacent to city center in Hamedan. The reason to choose Hamedan city is using unique situation of this city, for example symmetry in designing axes and accessibility spaces. To analyze the setting of trade uses adjacent to main axes and correlation ratio of these settings with spatial syntactic features of axes, we use correlation analysis. The rate of space legibility was also studied. It was known that where correlation variables, connectivity, control and local integration, regarded as spatial syntactic variables in Natural Movement Theory (Hillier),have greater values and their correlation with density of setting trade uses adjacent to main axis is greater, the commercial units are set more densely around this axis. This relationship was also verified by space intellilgibility. The main hypothesis of the research indicating the direct relationship between settings uses spatial syntactic variables. The application of Natural Movement Theory was investigated in this study.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Studying the effect of risk management on stock returns of companies
           listed in Tehran Stock Exchange
    • Authors: Maryam Akbari Moghadam Azad, Hossein Hasan Asl Behbahani
      Abstract: This study examines the relationship between risk management and stock returns of companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. To do this, 73 companies during the period of 2005 to 2010 were selected. The effects of different variables on risk management including working capital, current assets, and current liabilities (independent variables) on stock returns (the dependent variable) of companies were studied. The purpose of it is to know the following issues: 1. Studying the relationship between current assets changes and stock return changes 2. Studying the relationship between current liabilities changes and stock return changes 3. Studying the relationship between working capital changes and stock return changes 4. Studying the relationship between risk management approach and stock return changes. For the analysis, the Pearson correlation and regression are used. Also, by the use of security exchange site and Tadbir Pardaz Software, the raw data of companies were directly gathered from Tehran Stock Exchange and financial statements of companies, and EXCEL and SPSS Softwares were used for data analysis. The results demonstrate that there is no significant relationship between any of the risk management variables and stock returns of companies in Tehran Stock Exchange during the years 2005 to 2010.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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