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Journal Cover European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
   Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The Effect of Environmental Factors on Sociopetality of Urban Spaces

    • Authors: Fatemeh Naghiloo, Mohammad Sadegh Falahat
      Abstract: Sociopetality is an important multimodal concept, characterizing the interpersonal and social interactions of the inhabitants of a space. When designing a public space the concept of sociopetality becomes even more crucial since the promotion of social interaction is a primary goal. Sociopetal urban spaces can help revive the sociable atmosphere in cities and societies, which have become increasingly individualistic, and thereby respond to the social demands of citizens. In this paper, the sociopetality of urban space as an aspect of the most public places in the cities is studied. Considering the relevant literature, this research proposes a conceptual structure based on “human,” “environmental,” and “meaning and perceptual” aspects to describe sociopetality. Environmental factors, as the chief tools of designers and urban planners, are studied in particular. The characteristics of “location/context,” “physical/spatial,” and “function/usage” are introduced as the most basic environmental factors and analysed in the context of some successful urban spaces. Finally, the role of environmental parameters in the realization of the concept of sociopetality in these successful urban spaces is verified and practical ways to design sociopetal spaces are suggested.
      PubDate: 2016-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Proposing a Hybrid Approach to Predict, Schedule and Select the Most
           Robust Project Portfolio under Uncertainty

    • Authors: M.R. Ghodoosi, Ramin Maftahi, Vahidreza Yousefi
      Abstract: Suitable project portfolio selection in inconsistent economy that can reduce the portfolio risks and increasing utilities for investors has gained significant research attentions.   This article addresses the project portfolio selection in which conventional certain (1) prediction, (2) optimization and (3) clustering approaches cannot be used to face uncertainty. To predict the real value of affecting project risk parameters, neural network has been used; Then to determine the optimized sequences and procedures, the proposed model have been evaluated using the multi-objective shuffle frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) by robust optimization approach; To suggest different risk criteria, K-means algorithm utilized to categorize the candidate projects and differentiating the clusters.  As the proposed hybrid methodology is studied on 420 different construction projects in an Iranian construction company in two economic stable years and an instable year in Iran real estate market. The results show 96 percent prediction-optimization capability due to different desired criteria.
      PubDate: 2016-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • A Model to Determine the Contractors’ Claims of Construction

    • Authors: Majid Gholhaki, Ali Kheyroddin, Ali Ghorbani
      Abstract: Complexity, dynamicity and uniqueness of construction projects, in addition to high financial turnover and numerous human resources increase the possibility and potential of claim between involved parties of execution. So claim is common involved and possible matter of subject. As the financial, qualitative and time effects of claims are high, it is necessary to recognize the contractors’ claim accurately in order to take an appropriate decision. In this study, a new model is presented to recognize the contractors’ claim which included three parts: common frequent claims, causes, and origins. To codify and design the model, 140 common claims and 60 causes which are originated of 7 origins were recognized. The model is used as decisive, determining, and anticipating model.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Effects of Hypothyroidism on Proliferation and Programmed Cell-Death in
           Rat Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    • Authors: Mahmud Moghaddam-Dorafshani, Mahdi Jalali, Mohammad Raza Nikravesh, Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
      Abstract: Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease, after diabetes. Thyroid hormones are essential for genital organs function. In this study, we aimed to determine the apoptotic and cell proliferation indexes resulting from reduced thyroid hormones in rat ovarian follicles. For the purpose of this study, 20 female mature Wistar rats were divided into test and control groups. The test group underwent chemical thyroidectomy by receiving 500 mg/l propylthiouracil added to drinking water. The control group only received ordinary drinking water. After three weeks, the rats were sacrificed and their ovaries were removed and fixed for tissue preparation. Triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical techniques were applied to determine apoptosis and cell proliferation variations. Our findings revealed that apoptotic index significantly diminished in large antral follicles. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of primary and pre-antral follicles. No TUNEL-positive cell was noted in primordial follicles in the both groups. Cell proliferation index revealed a significant decrease in follicular growth of pre-antral to graafian follicles in the hypothyroid group. PCNA-positive cells were not observed in primordial follicles in the both groups. The results of the study suggested that reduced thyroid hormones lead to a wide range of hormonal changes, and factors existing in follicular fluid, especially in large antral follicles, undergo transformations that affect apoptotic and cell proliferation indexes. The process of follicular growth occurs by entrance of follicles to the next growth phase without inducing sufficient potentiality, and the produced ovules might be healthy or morphologically defected.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Impact of E-Services Quality on Customers E-Loyalty

    • Authors: Nooshin Hashemi
      Abstract: Nowadays, by introduction of computer to human lives along with development of internet, all governments  have paid specific attention to services according to the latest teaching and technical methods and scientific advances in the world; so that, the impact of these changes is more visible in everyday life of people. Regarding the importance of internet in presentation of services and products, governments have also turned toward widespread use of internet to offer better services. For this reason, the role of e-services and its quality is very important. This study aims to consider the effects of quality of e-services on e-loyalty of customers. To do this, a statistical random sample was selected including 170 customers of Digikala website, and data was gathered by means of questionnaire. SPSS18 and AMOS20 software were also used to analyze data and to test hypotheses. Results show that the quality of e-services has a positive and significant effect on e-loyalty of customers of Digikala.  
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Rewards Satisfaction, Perception about Social Status and Commitment of
           Nurses in Pakistan

    • Authors: Asif Mahmood, Saira Ghulam Hussan, Muddassar Sarfraz, Muhammad Ibrahim Abdullah, Muhammad Farhan Basheer
      Abstract: This research is undertaken to approve or reject the general perception of masses about commitment of employees and to identify those factors, which effect commitment of employees in general and of nurses in particular. In previous research of Allen and Myere (1990), the factor of social status was not addressed. In this study target audience is nurses. Whereas, it is a proven fact that psychological perception effects individual’s attitudes and behaviors, so to see that how satisfaction with rewards/ benefits and perception about social status effect commitment of employees, this research was undertaken. Satisfaction level varies from person to person. The empirical results have proved that commitment of employees is affected due to satisfaction with rewards/ benefits and perception about social status.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Relationship of Risk Premium with Expected Volatility and Unexpected
           Volatility in Developing and Developed Economies

    • Authors: Hafiz Asim Hussain, Maria Sultana, Naveed ul Hassan
      Abstract: After application of ARIMA model to monthly risk premium and Threshold GARCH-In-Mean (TGARCH-M) models to daily risk premium of developed economies i.e. USA, UK, Germany, France and Canada and developing economies i.e. Pakistan, India, Malaysia and China over a period from January 2000 to December 2014, this study reported that in monthly data relationship between risk premium and expected volatility is negative in Pakistan: positive in Indonesia and Canada while insignificant in all other countries. The relationship between risk premium and unexpected volatility is negative in all the countries except Pakistan and China where it is insignificant while positive in USA. By the application of asymmetric volatility model on daily data for the same span, the relationship between risk premium and expected volatility is negative and significant in UK and France while this relationship is insignificant in all other countries. The study also indicates that the arrival of bad news has a greater impact on conditional volatility than the arrival of good news in all the economies whether developing or developed.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Determining the Strategic Status for I.R. of Iran Triathlon Federation

    • Authors: Mahdi Goudarzi, Jasem Manouchehri
      Abstract: Today, sports organizations like non-sports organizations are exposed to environmental and global changes and are involved in their own issues. Sport departments cope with problems like environmental changing especially in sport services’ department. So, in this world which is changing in a high speed, organisations must frequently monitor domestic and foreign events to adapt themselves essentially to the changes in a good time, and the managers, relying on the long-term plans, must organize future guidelines in a way that is proportionate to future positions. In general, organizations confront different external environmental changes such as political, economic, social and technological factors, competitors, stakeholders, governmental institutions, financial mediators, unions, suppliers and also internal factors such as managerial, financial, marketing, services, research, development and computer information system and organizational, technical and individual variables. So, it seems to be important for triathlon federation to recognise strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to achieve a better position in international level, to do its responsibilities and duties effectively and optimally and to develop student sports’ principals and objectives by maximum using of its strengths and opportunities and removing weaknesses and threats. The purpose of this study was to determine the strategic status for I.R. of Iran Triathlon Federation. The relevant literatures were reviewed and also the survey and PEST SCAN (Cronbach Alpha = 0.91) questionnaires and SWOT analysis were used for data collection. 78 former and current managers and experts together in triathlon federation were selected to complete the questionnaires. By Delphi method, meetings and several strategic analyzing steps, 11 strengths, 10 weaknesses, 8 opportunities and 13 threats were recognized and ranked based on Friedman test. Moreover, the strategic status for the federation was determined in WT by matrixes of internal and external evaluation factors.
      PubDate: 2016-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Starch-Protein Extraction and Separation it from Green Pea

    • Authors: Hedieh Alavi Talab
      Abstract: Legume is important food in healthy nutrition as a source of complex carbohydrates, proteins and dietary fibre, having significant amounts of vitamins and minerals, and high energetic value. It contains high amount of slowly digestible starches (SDS), and legumes have relatively low glycemic index (GI ~ 30). There are many varieties of pea with different properties and composition, smooth or wrinkled seeded. Pea starch contains more amylose than commonly used starches therefore it is suitable material for producing biodegradable packages, paper and corrugated boards. Garden (green) pea, cultivar Kashan (Kashan green pea), was tested for starch and protein extraction in laboratory. Hulled pea contained 31.2 % of starch with high content of amylose, 32.3 % of proteins and 2.0 % of lipids in dry matter. The results were obtained with 8 experiments coming from dehulled and unhulled pea. At first the seeds were either milled (and the flour was sieved in some experiments) and then mixed with water or a liquidizer was used to disintegrate the seeds in water. After that, proteins were dissolved at pH 9.0 adjusted using 1M NaOH solution. Starch and fibre were separated using a laboratory centrifuge. The procedure was repeated 2x. The dissolved proteins were acidified at the isoeletric point pH 4.5 and the precipitate was re-dispersed using 1M NaOH solution and then again precipitated by an acid. As expected, the isolated starch coming from dehulled seeds was of a higher purity compared with the unhulled ones. The best purity - 78% of starch in dry matter with the lowest content of proteins (3.7 %) and lipids (0.35 %) in dry matter was detected when using soft fraction of flour from dehulled seeds. Higher yield of proteins was obtained from the fraction of flour retained on a sieve.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Effect of Job Crafting on Job Creativity through Job Engagement: A
           Case of Banking Sector of Vehari, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Rizwan, Asad Afzal Humayon, Ahmad Usman Shahid, Hafiza Sobia Tufail, Rizwan Qaiser Danish, Hafiz Muhammad Muneeb
      Abstract: This research was conducted to investigate the effect of job crafting upon job creativity and how job engagement intervenes this relationship. In this study, data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on LIKERT type scale from banking sector employees at district Vehari, Pakistan. In all, 300 survey questionnaires were circulated among which 271 were returned back yielding a useable response rate of 90%. The analysis of the data revealed that job crafting has significant positive impact on job creativity of employees working in banking sector of Vehari, Pakistan but this relationship is not only direct and job engagement plays the role of a mediator. Considering the importance of appreciations received by bankers management, policy makers should take necessary steps for improving the job engagement system and job crafting which will increase the job creativity of employees because their motivation to their profession will increase. Limitations and future guidelines have been discussed. 
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Dividend Policy and Corporate Governance Quality: An Empirical

    • Authors: M. Azeem, Talat Afza
      Abstract: The study intends to investigate the relationship between corporate governance quality and dividend policy in Pakistan. The sample of the study covers Karachi Stock Exchange 100 index listed companies from the period of 2008 to 2011. The results have confirmed the support of outcome model in Pakistan which confirms that firm’s dividend policy moves with the direction of corporate governance quality. Moreover, there are positive associations between size of the firms, profitability and dividend policy. Finally, investment opportunities and leverage are negatively related with dividend policy. These results, taken as a whole, indicate that better governed firms used to pay more dividends and it implies that firm-level corporate governance and country-level investor protections are complements to each other rather than substitution.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Monpa, the Early Settlers of Bhutan in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National
           Park and Conservation Strategy

    • Authors: Letro Letro, Sangay Wangchuk
      Abstract: Monpas are aboriginal Bhutanese who inhabited the forests around Black Mountains in Bhutan. They lived their lives gathering food and materials from the forests, however, their livelihood activities are now shifting towards modern economy with coming of new settlements. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered for three Monpa villages within the administrative boundary of the Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park in Bhutan. Modern education came very recently to the communities of Monpa and they still depend widely on agriculture, arts and crafts and on livestock farming. Such a practice of livelihood activities forms a perfect platform for conflict between the conservationist and communities. Recognizing the importance of communities in conservation efforts, Royal Government of Bhutan prioritized developmental initiatives for Monpas. Many Integrated Conservation Development Programs were initiated by the park to address some of the social issues and to garner support from communities for conservation. With the initiation of many conservation activities centered on the Monpas, they seem to have high regards to conservation, however they expect the park authorities to help them set-up electric fence around their fields to reduce conflicts with wild-life. We put on record that biodiversity conservation shall only be achieved if the conservation and developmental philosophies co-exists, thus understanding the drivers effecting biodiversity conservation forms the vital ingredients for any conservation efforts to be successful.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Effect of the Duration and Temperature of Infusion on the Heavy Metal
           Content of Green Tea

    • Authors: Sattar Jamshidpour, Elahe Faramarzi, Majid Mahmoudi, Kambiz Varmira
      Abstract: Tea is one of the most popular drinks in the world, which contains several important essential micro nutrients that are beneficial to human health. On the other hand, the contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose serious problems to human health. In this research, the concentration of toxic metals (Al, As, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni) and essential heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) in Iranian green tea (IGT) leaves and its infusion were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Additionally, the effect of the duration (10, 30 and 90 min) and temperature (80 and 100 ºC) of tea infusion on the content of heavy metals was studied. There was a significant difference between all samples at different time and temperatures. The concentrations range of heavy metals in IGT leaves was 1332-0.023 mg/kg. The highest and lowest metal content was observed for Al and Cd, respectively. The results showed that the heavy metal contents in IGT infusion varied between 11.7 mg/L for Al to 0.0002 mg/L for Cd. The highest and lowest percentage of metal extracted into IGT infusion was observed for Ni and Fe as 73.6 and 2.4, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Efectiveness of Retraining Programs as a Social Construction: A Critical
           Discourse Analysis

    • Authors: Martin Brezina
      Abstract: The research presented in this paper aims at identifying the ways in which officers in Labour Offices construct their interpretations of retraining programs effectiveness and how this understanding translates into their approaches to clients in labour offices. The epistemological position of the research is social constructionism. This perspective is combined with a critical approach. The research part of the thesis is based on critical discourse analysis methodology by Norman Fairclough. Data analysis is carried out using the tools of discourse analysis, developed by James P. Gee. Subsequently, four kinds of sub-discourses of retraining effectiveness are introduced: disciplining discourse, bureaucratic discourse, pragmatic discourse and allied discourse
      PubDate: 2016-11-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Determining the Role of Transformational Leadership on Firm Performance
           through Organizational Innovation and Technological Innovation

    • Authors: Rizwan Ali Khadim, Muhammad Asghar, Rafia Khan, Omer Farooq, Mehwish Afzal
      Abstract: This study aims to address the influential role of TL on FP through organizational innovation and technological capabilities innovation. The unit of analysis in study is individual employees working in software industry of Pakistan. The proposed research method for this study is Quantitative method. Research design of this study is administrative survey method. The current study is performed in the software marketplace which is incredibly energetic industry in Pakistan. Moreover, respondents are chosen randomly from different software companies for avoiding to any kind of biasness. A total of 395 survey questionnaire were collected from the software houses in Pakistan and 370 responses were completed. This study also uses statistically techniques such as reliability and structural equation model techniques for data analysis through AMOS and SPSS software. The empirical results show positive and significant influence of TL on FP. In addition, the findings of this study will help the firms to improve their business performance and improvements of new technological capabilities as well.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Critical Success Factors for Economic Development & Growth in Developing
           Countries: A Case Study of Pakistan

    • Authors: Saeed Siyal, Abdul Waheed Siyal, Muhammad Imran Rasheed, Mubeen Asif, Madad Ali, Amran Said Suleiman
      Abstract: Multiple economic indicators and tools are intensively discussed in the academic literature. In the current piece of art, the factors like FDI, Gross Domestic Productivity (GDP), Human development, literacy rate, youth and unemployment have been primarily analyzed to define the current economic situation in the country. Specifically the indicator of ‘Foreign Direct Investment’ (FDI) has been focused to define the economic growth of Pakistan. For the research secondary source of data has been gathered for the time duration of last 5 years. Findings show that, factors such as FDI, GDP and Human development are of significant importance for the economic growth and development of Pakistan, while the factors like literacy rate, youth and unemployment are relatively less important. The paper is of great importance. This study can play a vital role in compelling the government authorities to focus their intention towards the economic and growth indicators of high importance. The study can also be an effectual case for other countries facing alike economic situation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Emotional Exhaustion as Stressor agent for Job Stress in Call Centers:
           Empirical evidence from perspective of Job Satisfaction and Turnover
           Intention as Work Outcomes

    • Authors: Nadia Zubair Ahmad Khan, Asma Imran, Qasim Ali Nisar
      Abstract: The purpose of the study is to analyze job burnout component emotional exhaustion as a probable stressor agent that causes job stress and their impact on job satisfaction and turnover intention as work outcomes. The scales were adapted from that measure to analyze the effect of emotional exhaustion causing job stress, also highlights the evidence in support of the conceptual model. Data was collected by the survey that generated 220 respondents. The sample chosen for this research are employees working in telecommunication call centers of Lahore city region in Pakistan. SPSS regression analysis was employed for data analysis. The results showed that emotional exhaustion carried negative and significant relation with job satisfaction (β= -.354,p<.05) and significant positive relation with turnover intention (β= .290, p<.05) also significant relation between dependent variables followed by mediating effect of two dimensions of job stress analyzed by PROCESS procedure of bootstrapping technique contained no and full mediation between emotional exhaustion in relation with job satisfaction and turnover intention respectively. Outcome from the conducted study depicted that stress did not affected the level of satisfaction of employees as they are well trained and informed that job stress is the part of their work activities in call centers and the stress in organizations is needed to be dealt with.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Impact of Perceived Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment
           of Employees in the Education Sector of Pakistan

    • Authors: Chaudhry Abdul Khaliq, Ibne Abbas Ashraf, Muhammad Nasir Chattha, Arshad Haroon, Nauman Aslam
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the effect of perceived leadership behavior on organizational commitment of employees and the industry that this paper conducts the study in is the education sector of Pakistan. After a thorough review of the literature, research gap was identified and data was collected with the help of questionnaires. Out of 200 questionnaires that were handed out, 170 complete responses were received with a response rate of 85% as part of this self-administered questionnaire filling activity. These responses were obtained from the faculty members of different colleges and universities in Lahore, Pakistan. Random sampling was carried out for selection of the sample for this study. For analyzing the data Pearson’s product moment correlation and regression were used. This study found that there was a positive effect of participative and supportive leadership behavior and the organizational commitment of employees whereas there was a negative relationship between directive leadership and organizational commitment of employees. These findings are useful for managers to understand how they can increase organizational commitment amongst employees for greater organizational productivity. Limitations and future research possibilities have also been indicated.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Physical Pattern of Urban Spaces and its Effects on Tourism
           Corridors’ Safety/Security (Case Study: Jolfa, Bazaar and Zayanderud
           corridors in Isfahan)

    • Authors: Morteza Babaii, Ahmad Shahivandi, Mohammad Mahmoodi
      Abstract: Today, tourism is one of the largest industries in the world. Security of tourists in tourism destinations is included in the most important factors of tourism development. It depends on many factors and among them is the physical environment of the location. Thus, the goal of present study is to identify physical indicators affecting tourists’ security in tourist paths of Isfahan and checking method that physical indicators influence the dimensions of tourists’ security. This study is a part of applied research and the method used to analyze the effect of physical indicators on tourists’ security consists of structural equation modeling technique. The results obtained from the structural equation modeling method, show that the various aspects of security were affected by the conditions of physical indicators at the tourist paths of Isfahan. Model outputs indicated that the values for the aspects of psychological security of tourists, economic security, social security and environmental security influenced by the physical indicators at the tourist paths of Isfahan were 88, 83, 27 and 82 percent respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-10-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy on Anxiety and
           Acute Stress in Adolescents Rescued from Earthquake in East Azerbaijan
           Province, Iran

    • Authors: Farideh Maleki Avarsin, Reza Pourhossein
      Abstract: The present study examines the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy on anxiety and acute stress in adolescents rescued from earthquake in city of Hariss, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Twenty of the adolescents rescued from earthquake in East Azerbaijan (city of Hariss) who met the inclusion criteria were randomly selected for the study. This is a quasi-experimental study using pre-test and post-test design with the control group. The participants were randomly divided into two groups after pre-test. In the experimental group, the cognitive behavior group therapy, they were trained by 8 sessions of two hours and the control group did not receive any intervention. The instrument used in this study was Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) to assess symptoms of anxiety and acute stress in adolescents rescued from earthquake in city of Hariss, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods (ANCOVA) were used. The results show a significant difference between experimental group and the control group after implementing the dependent variable and by a factor of 99% confidence; one can be considerd the cognitive-behavioral group therapy as positive in reducing symptoms of anxiety and stress in the experimental group. Further, the anxiety in the experimental group significantly decreased compared to the control group in pre-test and stress was significantly reduced in the experimental group and the control group in pre-test. There was a significant difference in reducing anxiety and stress of the experimental group. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents rescued from earthquake in East Azerbaijan (city of Hariss) has been effective in reducing anxiety and stress. The results indicated that the treatment had a significant effect on both gender. Therefore, this method can be used for both genders.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
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