Journal Cover European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
   Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Examining the Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on
           Quality of Life in primary Infertile Women

    • Authors: Soheila Rahmani, Mohammad Ebrahim Hokmabadi, Sepideh Rezapoor, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Moshirian Farahi, Tahereh Haji Seyed Javadi, Shamim Razaghi Kashani
      Abstract: The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on quality of life in infertile women. Semi-experimental design, a randomized controlled trial with assessment in baseline, after intervention and two- month follow-up was conducted on participants of control group. A total of 24 female patients with primary infertility diagnosis among patients who referred to the Infertility Center of Shariati hospital in Tehran were selected as volunteers and were assigned randomly into the experimental (n=12) and control groups (n=12). All participants completed Infertile Couples’ Quality of Life Questionnaire in three phases of baseline, after treatment and follow-up. Data were analyzed using multivariate repeated measurement of variance analysis. Results showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy improve the quality of life in social and psychological components, depression, aggression and jealousy in participants of experimental group. Results of this study showed that mindfulness - based cognitive therapy can be effective in improving quality of life in infertile women.
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Competitiveness and Comparative Advantage of Pakistan in Leather and
           Leather Products Trade: Analysis and Trends

    • Authors: Shahid Maqbool, Sofia Anwar, Hafeez -ur-rehman
      Abstract: Livestock sector is considered the second key sector of agriculture through its share of more than half to value added and 11.8% to GDP and main source of raw material for leather industry of the country. This local availability of raw materials and low wage cost gives the country a competitive edge in the world market. This study is an effort to examine Pakistan's competitiveness of leather and leather products with a set of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Revealed Competitive Advantage index with respect to international trade. The study has utilized Balassa index, Vollrath index and Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage index for empirical analysis in Pakistan during the time span from 2003 to 2014. The findings of the study illustrate that Pakistan has a high degree of comparative advantage in this sector during period under analysis which indicates the potential of leather sector exports for foreign exchange earnings. The results of the study also show that the position of Leather sector lies in the “Competitive position product group” and “Threatened product group”. There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advantage in Leather sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders to attain the growth in livestock and agriculture sector and improve the income of related stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Epistolary Journalism in the Modern Media Space

    • Authors: Muratbek Toktagazin, Lazzat Adilbekova, Balziya Baesheva, Salima Kalkabayeva, Vera Abisheva
      Abstract: This article discusses the epistolary genre in modern journalism in media. It gives the definition of the presence and role of the epistolary genre in modern media space, as well as its genre and intrastructural characteristic. It also presents a ratio of changing volume of private letters to the journalistic epistolary in the historical development of the epistolary genre. Research was based on relevant examples of printed and electronic media of three countries – Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2010-2015. The paper provides the typology and systematization of epistolary journalism examples in modern print media in Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus in 2010-2015. It considers the peculiarities of the epistolary journalism in conjunction with the nature of the publication – general interest, popular science or entertainment. It also identifies common trends in the development of epistolary journalism in the modern media, characterizes the trends of changing the nature of epistolary journalism according to the characteristics of modern media space and means of communication. The typology of the epistolary genre and its sub-genres distinguishes the following letter types:  by recipient, content, genre, form.
      PubDate: 2018-03-11
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • A Comparative Study of Cloze Test and C-Test in Assessing Collocational
           Competence of Iranian EFL Learners

    • Authors: Mustapha Hajebi, SeddiQ Taheri, Hamid Allami
      Abstract: One of the dominant approaches to language testing is the integrative approach. This view of testing involves the testing of language in context. The present study aimed at shedding more lights into the effectiveness of the cloze test, C-test and open ended test in assessing Persian EFL learners' collocational competence. To this end, four hundred and twenty Persian EFL learners from Yazd and Shiraz universities were selected. They were from both intermediate and advanced proficiency groups. The participants were assigned into three groups of one hundred and forty learners and took each of the tests separately. The results yielded compelling reason to argue that advanced participants in all of these three tests performed much more efficiently compared to their intermediate peers and indicated more collocational competence. Moreover, the results did not provide support for the superiority of C-test over the other two tests which were mentioned. The study, suggested important implications for language learners, EFL instructors and materials developers.
      PubDate: 2018-03-10
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Tourism as a Significant Contributor to Economic Development: Evidence
           from South Asian Economies

    • Authors: Iram Kamal, Syed Asif Ali Naqvi
      Abstract: Tourism has become the world vibrant sector with its multidimensional impacts on the economies especially for developing nations. Study in hand was conducted by taking data of four South Asian economies i.e. Pakistan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, which have good potential for the tourism due to their diverse geography, culture and traditions. Time series data set for the years 1985 to 2015 were employed for analysis. It was observed that all selected variables were stationary on the first difference. The study findings revealed that the number of international tourist arrival in India is greater as compare to other three selected countries. The results of long run co integration indicated that variable, number of tourist arrival has significant effect on the GDP of all countries. Overall results of the study validate the hypothesis that tourism has positive impact on the economic development of a country.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Professional Innovation Policy in the System of Higher Music Education in
           the Republic of Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Gulzada Khussainova, Galiya Akparova, Nargiza Chsherbotayeva, Bekzat Akhmerov
      Abstract: Music education is an important part of spiritual and aesthetic personality development. However, the problem lies in the fact that outdated teaching methods cannot impart the whole complex of musicological knowledge. The article provides a view on the transition from the information education to professional innovation, carried out under the introduction of professionally innovation policies in future music teachers’ preparation in the university education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is conducted with the reflection of its elements: professional and creative personal fulfillment of the future music teacher; introduction features of dual education; application possibility of competency-based approach and musical computer technologies. There were used the method of analysis, system and acmeological approaches to achieve these objectives. The article provides generalization of domestic and foreign experience on the research issue. The article provides an innovative content of the learning process in the system of higher music education, updated innovation-oriented professional competency of the future music teacher that was developed for the first time in attach to teacher’s creative personal fulfillment in a professionally orientated training activity. There is also an emphasis on the necessity of introducing computer technologies in the music educational process, as they can significantly increase students’ interest in music, as well as give an opportunity to develop musical skills by modern Hi-Fi and sound-recording systems.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Impact of Supervision, Working condition and University policy on
           Work-Life balance of University Employees

    • Authors: Asad Afzal Humayon, Shoaib Raza, Nishat Kaleem, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Sajjad Hussain, Zafar Abbas
      Abstract: In Pakistan, university employees often find it difficult to keep a balance between their jobs in the workplace and their home tasks. Nowadays, Pakistani universities are equally in accordance with different nations to bring work life balance among employees by presenting flexible timings, child care, part time work, and children’s education facilities, like different nations. This research on work-life balance in Universities was done to study the level of work-life balance of employees. This study used a quantitative technique. A survey method was used to gather data from participants. The sample of 150 employees (87 males and 63 females) contained of academic and non-academic employees. This study examined the relationship between independent variables that comprised of supervision, working conditions, and university policy on the dependent variable which is work life balance. The outcomes of this study indicate the current situation of work life balance and the factors that impacting work life balance on employees of public sector universities in Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Gender Poverty Occupational Choice and Economic Growth Nexus in Poor and
           Non-Poor Households: An Empirical Analysis

    • Authors: Hina Ali, Asmat Naz, Urwa Andleeb
      Abstract: Our research is based on Gender Poverty and Occupational Choice in Poor and Non- Poor Household and the analysis is based upon the Household Survey of Pakistan. Poverty and Occupational choice has much importance in whole world especially in UDC’s it is most important issue. The connection between Gender Poverty and Occupational Choices and economic growth has been extensively validated. The research relevant to this study is incomplete because the poverty and occupational choice is an international issue for all economies of the world. In this study we use Time Series data from that time period 1973 to 2014 and this data shows the impact of poverty and occupational choice on economic growth. This data is collected from SBP (State Bank of Pakistan). In this study researcher has used IV(Investment) as dependent variable and others like RGDP(Real Gross Domestic Product), GFCF(Gross Fixed Capital Formation),  EDUEX (Education Expenditure), NNS(Net National Saving), POP(Population) CPI(Consumer Price Index) and POV(Poverty) are used as independent variables. In this study ARDL Technique is implied along with ADF Unit Root Test. Moreover, stationary is also checked by different coefficient of variables. Different tests are used to check the stationarirty of different variables, and stationary use for forecasting of variables. Stationary is also applied to achieve the objectives of our research. Our object is to enhance the intellectual’s living standard by giving good job opportunities as well as basic facilities to poor households to reduce poverty level in Pakistan.  The Time Series Data technique is applied to inspect this research. The different variables show the association with poverty, therefore, this study highlights the development in saving, investment and in livestock subdivision of Pakistan which will be helpful to reduce the poverty level and will be the cause of increasing source of the income.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Formation and Development of Natural Reservoirs in Deep-Water Areas of the
           South Caspian Depression

    • Authors: Askar Sharipov, Saken Abdibekov, Mansour Kantureev, Gulnara Baytaeva, Gulnara Tuleshova, Nurila Abdimanap
      Abstract: The article deals with the problems of an effective regional economic management mechanism of agro-industrial complex (hereinafter AIC), uniting all sectors of agricultural production, its processing and bringing to consumers. We analyzed the characteristics of food supply security of the country by 80-85% in key product requirements by means of domestic production. The assertion that the excess of imports by more than 20% entails the termination of the accumulation effect was identified and justified. That is why many countries take measures to protect domestic producers in order to ensure food supply safety. In this regard, there is the need for modernization of agro-industrial complex in Kazakhstan, based on the formation of high technologies, implementation of modern management systems and effective involvement of innovations in economic turnover that allows achieving an economic growth in a globalized economy. The study notes that economic market-based mechanism in AIC of Kazakhstan regions has been formed defectively. This had a negative impact on the development of agricultural production in the region. The main reasons for this are the weakening of the role of state regulation and support of agriculture, lack of scientific concept of reforming, crudity of agrarian reforms. Analysis of AIC management system of the region and its effectiveness showed that organizational framework is not consistent with international practice. Villages as market entities are not involved in the management system; consequently, their interests and existing problems hindering the innovative development of the agricultural sector are not taken into account. 
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Prioritization of Private Space Factors based on Experts and Users
           Opinions in Universities' Learning Environments

    • Authors: Hamidreza Azemati, Somayeh Pourbagher, Mona Mohammadi
      Abstract: Non-attention to users’ needs can insert physiological and mental harms to them, so environmental psychological knowledge can be used to help and promote quality of academic environments. According to the researches, there are main problems in academic spaces such as lack of private spaces and not having sense of belonging in students. Hence, this research tries to notice “personal space” conception which is one of mentioned meanings in environmental psychology and studies effective factors on “academic spaces”. Therefore, based on theories review and under experts’ ideas were extracted effective factors as: physical, mental, personal, and social factors in desirability of private spaces. The methodology of this paper consists of a quantitative and qualitative approach to hypothesis testing. For data collection written resources and half-structured interview by experts of this field were used, which was first analyzed by content analysis method and then classified. Then in order to clarifying importance of elements it was used the survey research. The survey method has been adopted to study the key objective of the research and to assess the level of correlation between variables. The sampling population of this study consisted mainly of experts and specialists groups. The sample size was determined through statistical methods. In order to assess the individual's point of view, In-depth interviews were done with experts and specialists in the field of study. Questionnaires have been distributed among targeted respondents. By using factor analysis, main factors were identified and prioritized. Comparison of the results from the experts and users questionnaire shows that about the important effective factors they have the same opinions but in priorities of physical and mental factors they have different ideas.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • The Effect of Internal Marketing Dimensions on Organizational Commitment
           of Employees: An Investigation among Private Banks

    • Authors: Aamir Abbas, Muhammad Tayyeb Riaz
      Abstract: The Employees are also the customers of company and they have ability to change the future of organization. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of internal marketing on organizational commitment of employees in private banks of Faisalabad. A model was made to examine the factors affecting organizational commitment and it was tested empirically using a sample of 109. All the respondents were employees of different private banks working on different ranks. The questionnaire strategy was used for this research. Descriptive statistics and regression was run to find the results. The paper found Job satisfaction, Understanding and differentiation and Inter-functional coordination and integration to be the most effective componentsof the internal marketing construct of the research model, making them key influencers of organizational commitment. This study is confined to two things one is organizational commitment “Affective commitment” and other is internal marketing. The branches of private banks in Faisalabad were chosen for this research so the research place of this study is private banks of Faisalabad. Microfinance banks, public sector banks and development finance institutions are not under the shadow of this research umbrella. The paper outlines ways to effectively use internal marketing for making employees committed to bank. A marketing manager or policy maker can follow these outlines for making policy for employees.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Students’ Spiritual and Moral Development in Extracurricular

    • Authors: Saule Sadykova, Aliya Yergazina, Zhaiyk Sultan, Valeriy Korvyakov, Valentina Ryndak
      Abstract: To reveal the scope of extracurricular activities in the student’s spiritual and moral development is the main idea of the article. Extracurricular activities possess a certain set of opportunities in the student’s spiritual and moral development as it is a) the integrated in the contents, technologies provide mutual enrichment of inner ethical standards of the subject; b) issues use of humanitarian technologies, initiation of a reflection of own activity of the subject on the basis of responsibility, conscience, honesty, mutual understanding, mercy; c) promotes inclusion of substantial aspects of spiritual and moral development of the personality at the level of the subjects mastered by the student. Presentation of the structurally functional model of extracurricular activities was designed by the author as a factor of the student’s spiritual and moral development. Also to prove its’ methodological, substantial characteristics and to elicit potentialities of extracurricular activities in the student’s spiritual and moral development is the main goal of the study. The revealed opportunities allow improving process of the spiritual and moral development of the students taking into account the requirements of modern science and practice.
      PubDate: 2018-01-28
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Ownership Structure and Microfinance Institutions’ Performance: A
           Case of Latin America

    • Authors: Waqas Amin, Fengming Qin, Fayyaz Ahmad, Abdul Rauf
      Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to determine how financial performance and social performance is influenced by ownership status of micro finance institutions (MFIs). For this purpose, data is collected from Latin American MFIs. As dependent variables are dichotomous including NGO-type MFIs and Bank-type MFIs, we used logit and probit model. The results show that NGO-type MFIs are negatively related with financial performance and Bank-type MFIs are negatively related with social performance. The results confirm the previous studies as well as logical relations. The study negates the presence of mission drift in case of NGO-type MFIs and Bank-type MFIs that may open up a new wave of discussion and encourage future researchers to highlight antecedents of such relations.
      PubDate: 2018-01-28
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • The Study of Structural-Mechanical Properties of Complex Oil-Water
           Emulsions of the Deposits in Western Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Max Bissengaliev, Ryskol Bayamirova, Karlygash Bissembayeva, Akshyryn Zholbassarova, Manshyk Sarbopeeva, Aliya Togasheva, Akmaral Koishina
      Abstract: Oil in the Caspian basin is characterized as viscous and heavy with a high content of metals, especially Vanadium and Nickel, which are associated in the oils with asphalt-resinous components. These properties of the oil reduce its recovery index. These properties and methods of oil production optimization were considered on the basis of the North Buzachi oil and gas region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The structural and mechanical properties of water-oil emulsions of crude oil were experimentally studied. Based on the measured in vitro parameters, the values of shear stress at wall shear rate were calculated, and then the flow curves were built for different temperatures and oil-water proportions. As a result, the regularities of the changes of rheological properties are determined depending on water content and temperature, and the resulting formula is obtained that allows determining the values of effective viscosity complex of oil-water emulsions. On the basis of the obtained results, the optimization of technological modes of crude oil preparation can be carried out in this field for further transportation and processing in the different operation periods.
      PubDate: 2018-01-27
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Study of the Impact of Isfahan Jame (Atiq) Mosque’s Milieu on Users’
           Behavior by Psychological Methods

    • Authors: Fateme Shahmoradi, Majid Salehinia
      Abstract: This research has endeavored to investigate popular locations in Isfahan’s Jame mosque (Atiq) for different groups of users and the means that they receive, by using a reverse process. The main research question to be answered by this study was ‘how the dominant physical and spatial features of the Jame (Atiq) Mosque impact the behavior of its users'’ The methodologies utilized in this study were library research and the psychological field studies. Data were collected through observation by technique of ‘Behavioral Map and List’ to study the users’ behaviors. Questionnaires were also distributed by employing two techniques, namely ‘differentiation meaning’ and ‘grasping the mental map’ which are used to study the meaning of the mosque from the viewpoints of its users. By employing the SPSS21 software, the results of the gathered data from the questionnaires were separately analyzed for different groups of users which were divided by “age”, “gender” and the “aim of being in mosque”. The results demonstrated that a relationship existed between the architectural features of Jame (Atiq) Mosque and the behavior of its users. In other words, the architectural features of this mosque created different perceptions in the users and thus led to the different behavior in them. Findings indicated that women and men selected different parts to stop in the yard. In spite of the tourists who paid attention to all parts of the mosque, the prayers paid attention to the ‘Kiblah’ direction and the southern veranda.
      PubDate: 2018-01-27
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Working Capital Management Efficiency and Corporate Governance in
           Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan

    • Authors: Basheer Ahmad, Ibrar Ahmed, Muhammad Mounas Samim
      Abstract: Efficiency in “Working Capital Management” (WCM) has been the key factor of many profitable firms. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of characteristics of corporate governance on the WCM efficiency of firms in context of Pakistan. A total of 40 firms listed at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX, previously known as Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE)) are selected for the period of 5 years which lead to a total of 200 observations. Cash conversion cycle and current ratio are the main measures of WCM efficiency whereas Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Tenure, CEO Duality, Audit Committee and Board Size are the main measure of corporate governance characteristics. The results state that governance characteristics have significant impact on WCM efficiency. Except CEO Duality, all other independent variables have significant role in explaining WCM efficiency. This paper suggests the management to set policies that favors maintaining the optimal level of working capital. Firms can create value for the shareholders by reducing the investments, however improving efficiency, in working capital. Keeping appropriate size of the board and audit committee, management can improve the WCM efficiency. The findings of this study are also beneficial to investors, company stake holders, and other key intermediaries.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • The Interrelationship between Money Supply, Inflation, Public Expenditure
           and Economic Growth

    • Authors: Muhammad Ijaz Hussain, Tasneem Zafar
      Abstract: This study examines the association between money supply, inflation, government expenditure, and economic growth in Pakistan from 1972 to 2015. “ARDL Bounds Testing Approach” for “Co-integration and ECM Technique” were applied to study the long and short run relationship among the above mentioned variables. “Granger Causality Test” was applied to find out the direction of causality. The results find a long run association between Economic Growth, Government Expenditure, and Inflation. The results of “ECM” show the short run relationship among the above mentioned variables; however, the speed of adjustment is slow which slightly less than 20% is. “Granger Causality” test reveals that “causality runs from Inflation to Economic Growth” while causality between Inflation and Government Expenditure. Inflation and Money Supply is bidirectional. It is concluded that both monetary and fiscal policies have an impact on economic growth.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • A Comparative Analysis of the Compulsory Education Systems in Turkic

    • Authors: Yücel Gelişli, Lyazzat Beisenbaeva
      Abstract: The purpose of the current study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the compulsory education processes in Turkic Republics. The current study is designed as a descriptive study in the survey model. The data of the study were collected from journals, books, relevant written sources and internet sites through the document analysis technique. In the study, it was found that in general the compulsory education systems in the Turkic Republics are organized at three levels, require the compulsory attendance of students aged at 6-18 years old and last for 11 or 12 years, and there are some differences in their applications. The first level of the compulsory education is elementary education covering a four-year period in the Turkic Republics investigated in the current study and the general objectives in this first level are to teach how to adapt to the society and life, reading and writing, and the basic skills of mathematics. The second and third levels of the compulsory education have a similar structure in the Turkic Republics, former parts of the Soviet Union, in that first level of the secondary education is five years and the second level of the secondary education is two years in general. On the other hand, in Turkey, each of the first and second levels of the secondary education lasts four years. It was found that in the general secondary education in all the Turkic Republics, it is aimed to give a general science education, to impart the general cultural characteristics of the society to students and to prepare them for higher education.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • The Relationship between Poverty, Income Inequality and Unemployment:
           Evidence from ARDL and Bound Testing Approach

    • Authors: Awais Anwar Muhammad, Qamar uz Zaman, Mehnoor Amir, Waqas Amin
      Abstract: The paper explores the impact of development expenditure, military expenditure, debt, political stability, foreign direct investment and inflation on poverty, income inequality and unemployment in the context of Pakistan. Time series uninterrupted data is used for the period 1980 to 2014. Income inequality is havoc by which income gap increases between rich and poor of society. Pakistan has an alarming situation of income inequality, poverty and unemployment rate as compared to other developing nations. The empirical findings confirm that increase in development expenditure causes a decrease in poverty and unemployment but inequality increases due to capitalism. There is a negative relationship between military expenditure inequality and unemployment. Foreign direct investment decreases inequality and unemployment. Results also show that political stability is responsible for increasing poverty and unemployment.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • How Financial Stability Affects Economic Development in South Asia: A
           Panel data Analysis

    • Authors: Samia Nasreen, Sofia Anwar
      Abstract: This study examines the relationships between economic development and financial stability in five South Asian economies, namely Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal over the period of 1980-2012. Human Development Index (HDI) is used to measure economic development calculated using the goalposts based on south Asian data. While financial stability is measured by constructing an aggregate financial stability index (AFSI) that combines various indicators relating to financial sector development, vulnerability and banking soundness. We employ Pedroni panel cointegration technique to examine long-run relationship between variables. Empirical evidence confirms the long-run relationship between selected variables. Results estimated by employing Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS) show that financial stability is an essential factor for improving the process of economic development in South Asian countries. Causality analysis indicates that economic development Granger cause financial stability in South Asia.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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