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Journal Cover   European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
  [13 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
   Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The Effectiveness of Descriptive Evaluation Plan from the Point of View of
           Sixth Grade Teachers

    • Authors: Kobra Davoodi, Faeze Nateghi, Alirza Faghihi
      Abstract: The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of descriptive evaluation from the point of view of sixth grade teachers in Karaj city. The method of this study was descriptive-survey. The population consisted of all the sixth grade teachers in district four of Karaj city who had experience of teaching in all elementary grades under descriptive evaluation plan (total 500 individuals). For sampling, the size of the sample was determined with aid of Morgan table and they were selected randomly among the population members (total 215 individuals). One main question and three minor questions existed in this study and for answering them through the viewpoints of teachers a researcher-made questionnaire was used. The result of the answers to the questionnaire items using statistical tests indicated that the level of effectiveness of descriptive evaluation process is significantly effective on the level of teaching-learning, social education and mental health of students.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Labor Market and the Job Nationalization Policy: A Trajectory of
           Hospitality and Tourism Strategy in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Muhammad Asad Sadi
      Abstract: Saudi Arabia has a long history of dependence on foreign workers at all levels within their private sector economies. Saudi Arabia, along with Gulf states such as the UAE, are now pursuing active policies of nationalization within their labor markets in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign labor and engage the national population more actively in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to present the latest issues relating to job nationalization in the Saudi Arabian labor market. The Saudi Arabian government, in this context, acts to ensure that certain quotas of Saudi national employees are required of private businesses in accordance with the size of their workforce as well as their performance in the field of the economy where they are located. This paper attempts to review the strategy of job nationalization known as “Saudization” and elaborate on the “Nitaqat” scheme. The discussion addresses policy procedures and highlights various impediments that exist in their implementation process. This paper extends the work of other researchers by focusing on the job nationalization policy in Saudi Arabia, and especially on discussion of the “Saudization” policy and the “Nitaqat” scheme in the context of the hospitality and tourism sector.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Determinants of Life Expectancy at Birth in Iran: A modified Grossman
           Health Production Function

    • Authors: Lotfali Agheli, Sara Emamgholipour
      Abstract: Health as a prerequisite to perform other activities is considered as bothconsumption and capital commodity. Views on health production may differ.Sometimes, health is assumed as natural endowment, at times, it is generated bythe personal efforts, and sometimes physicians and other health providersprovide it. This paper aims to identify the factors affecting the production ofhealth. To analyze thedeterminants of health production, we focus on life expectancy at birth in Iranover the period 1980-2012, as a dependent variable; and take per capita income,immunization rate and share of expenditure on education( as percent of GDP) asexplanatory variables. Then, weestimate the determinants of life expectancy using Johansen-Juseliuscointegration method for the long-run and error correction model for the short-runin the Eviews.8 software environment. In the long-run, the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to per capitaincome is about 0.12. In addition, the elasticities of life expectancy withregard to the rate of vaccination against illnesses and education levelare 0.35 and 0.13, respectively. Accordingto error correction model, the coefficient of error correction term (ECT) isestimated at -0.022, which shows that the 2.2% of disequilibrium in lifeexpectancy is adjusted in each period and is approached to its long-runequilibrium. the healthier and longer life require policy-makers toadopt more efficient policies in order to raise purchasing power, to enhanceoverall education level and to invest on immunization people against infectiousand communicable diseases.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Oil-Polluted Water Treatment Using Nano Size Bagasse Optimized- Isotherm
           Study

    • Authors: Hamid Sarkheil, Javad Tavakoli
      Abstract: The preliminary studies were conducted in order to evaluate the ability and behavior of sugarcane bagasse (generated as waste material from sugar mill) to remove oil by-products from aqueous. In this work adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to obtain adsorption isotherms of oil by-product on sugarcane bagasse. The capacity of sugarcane bagasse to adsorb oil by-product from aqueous solutions was evaluated at different pH, adsorbent dose and initial concentration. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir isotherm equations. Compare the result and Langmuir isotherm shown that adsorption of oil by-product on a sugarcane bagasse is favorable. The concentration which was reviewed in this study was much closed to concentration in the industrial water disposal effluents and Langmuir isotherm did describe well the adsorption behavior obtained for these systems.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Investigating Change in Iranian EAP Learners’ Beliefs about Reading

    • Authors: Rajabali Rayati Damavandi, Javad Kia Heirati
      Abstract: Framed in Sociocultural Theory, this paper investigated changes in Iranian EAP (English for academic purposes) learners’ beliefs about reading as a result of instruction in an EAP course. Previous research has relied much on quantitative approaches in belief studies and assumed learners’ beliefs to be fairly stable; however, this study adopted a qualitative approach examining eight female learners’ belief change about reading as a result of instruction in an EAP course. The data were collected through diaries and think-aloud protocols and they were analyzed based on the grounded theory methodology. The findings showed that 1) there were substantial changes in the learners’ initial simplistic beliefs about reading during ten weeks of the term, and 2) learners’ changed beliefs about reading were to a large extent evidenced in their actions while reading a text and verbalizing their thought. The results suggested that belief changes were affected by the learning context in which learners interacted with and beliefs and actions were interwoven concerning the context of learners’ interaction.
      PubDate: 2015-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • The Role of Basic Beliefs in Predicting Life Management Strategies
           (Selection, Optimization, & Compensation)

    • Authors: Kianoosh Yaghoobi, Afsaneh Saeidi, Atoosa Kaki, Azadeh Tavana
      Abstract: Present research aimed at studying the role of believing in world meaningfulness and favorable self in prediction of life management strategies. This study was a kind of descriptive research which was done by correlation method. The population was all university students of Qouchan, Iran in which 467 of them (255 boys and 212 girls) were chosen by proportional stratified sampling. Their age range was from 28 to 50. In order to gather data Basic Belief Inventory (BBI) and selection, optimization, and compensation questionnaire (SOC) were used. To find the relationship among variables Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used by enter method. Findings revealed that believing in world meaningfulness and favorable-self have positive significant relationship with all components of life management strategies, in fact they can predict all components of life management strategies. Therefore people who consider their surrounding more meaningful, have more optimal beliefs in themselves, and use SOC strategies in their life management strategies more than others. In other words they can control their lives more successfully.
      PubDate: 2015-05-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • The Effect of Three Phase Approach on Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading
           Comprehension

    • Authors: Ghazaleh Tarshaei, Alireza Karbalaei
      Abstract: This research examined the strategies employed in the Three Phase Approach ( Pre-reading /During-reading / Post-reading ) stages of instruction language learning. This study aimed at determining the difference in the strategy use by each stage at Pre-Intermediate level. To fulfill the purpose of the study, a piloted sample Preliminary English Test (PET) was administered to a total number of 30 Iranian female teenage EFL learners at Kish Language School, Tehran. Then, the Homogeneity test was administered to a total number of 120 Iranian female teenage EFL learners and 80 learners were homogenized to pass the pre-test. The selected participants were then non-randomly assigned into three experimental groups: Pre-reading / During-reading / Post reading. In one of the groups, the pre-reading tasks, in the second group, the while-reading tasks and in the last group, the post-reading tasks were practiced through 10 sessions and at the end of the course, the participants in each group were given the reading section of another sample PET as a posttest to measure their reading comprehension. Subsequently, the mean score of all three groups and the control group on the posttest were compared which led to implying that the null hypothesis was supported. In other words, no significance Difference was found between the three experimental groups – pre, post and during reading – and the control group.
      PubDate: 2015-05-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Sustainability Check of Microfinance Institutions during Financial Crisis:
           Evidence from Pakistan

    • Authors: Syedah Shan E Ahmad, Kashif Naeem
      Abstract: The study scrutinizes the efficiency and sustainability of Microfinance Institutions in Pakistan during financial crisis era for 2008 and 2009. For this progression, firstly Data Envelopment Analysis is applied to quantify efficiency and then sustainability check is tested. The results reveal that due to macroeconomic shocks, portfolio quality has been affected. More microfinance activities are being done in Punjab and Sindh whereas such high concentration increases multiple borrowing in market.
      PubDate: 2015-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • The Impact of Assertiveness Training on High School Students'
           Emotional Quotient (EQ) in Tehran

    • Authors: Mitra Sadat Noghabaei, Zahra Abbaspoor Azar
      Abstract: The present research aimed at analysis of the impact of assertiveness training on emotional quotient of female freshman high school students of Tehran. The sample population includes 258 students who were randomly chosen and  were divided into control and experimental group, who were pre-tested by Shoot EQ and ASA assertiveness questionnaires. The experimental group was exposed to independent variable (assertiveness training) for 45 minutes per week (8 sessions altogether). Afterwards, both experimental and control group answered EQ and assertiveness questionnaires. This research is experimental (pre-test – post-test with control test) and data analysis with co-variance analysis method at the significance level (P<0.01) showed that training assertiveness significantly affects the increasing emotional quotient, increasing emotional perception, managing self-related emotions, emotional productivity. However, the results show that assertiveness training does not significantly impact others' emotion management at the significance level (P>0.05). Since the observed capability and the level of impact are high, we can confidently mention the impact of intervention in these variables.
      PubDate: 2015-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Internet Information-Seeking Behaviour of Students at the University of
           Medical Sciences in Zahedan Based on Kuhlthau Model

    • Authors: Reza Hakimi, Mohammad Ali Tabasi, Gholam Reza Samadzadeh, Zohre Sorinezami
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the information-seeking behaviour of students of General Medicine, odontology and post-graduate students of various fields of medicine who has admitted their theses in 2011-2012 based on Kuhlthau information-seeking behaviour. This study is an analytic survey. The studied group includes 210 theses admitted in the Research Committee of the University which were selected by census method. Crocker standardized questionnaire was used to assess the feelings and thoughts of the Kuhlthau six-stage information-seeking model using a five-choice Likert scale. The present study shows that the studied students pass the various stages of Kuhlthau model by slight differences in different stages of their theses. Their feelings and ideas are more or less similar to the learned pattern except that the fifth and sixth stages which are inconsistent with the model. The Chi-square test and exact Fisher test showed a significant relationship between male and female students in terms of feelings and ideas during different stages of Kuhlthau information seeking model.
      PubDate: 2015-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Farmers’ Behavior toward Membership in Water User Associations
           (WUAs) in Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    • Authors: Milad Taqiopur, Enayat Abbasi, Mohammad Chizari
      Abstract: In many countries today, irrigation systems have been transferred to the water users associations. This study aimed at analyzing farmers’ behavior toward membership in water users associations based on the theory of planned behavior. This research was designed as a descriptive-correlation survey. All farmers from the two villages, Lishter and Kheir Abad, the city of Gachsaran, Iran, who were under the cover of Lishter irrigation and drainage network (N=572) formed the population for this study. Using Krejcie and Morgan’s (1970) table and a proportional stratified random sampling technique 230 farmers was selected (n=230) from the population. The main research tool was a questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts of faculty members of Agricultural Extension and Education at Tarbiat-Modares University and Rural Development department at Yasuj University. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated at pre-test stage for different parts of the questionnaire ranging from 0.650-0.922. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS 19 software. Results revealed that two variables, tendency and perceived behavioral control, had direct and meaningful effect on the farmers’ behavior for membership in water users associations. The variables of tendency and subjective norms had the most direct and indirect effect on the farmer’s behavior, respectively. In sum, tendency, perceived behavioral control and subjective norms had the causal effect on the farmers’ behavior toward membership in water users associations. 
      PubDate: 2015-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Studying Effects of Different Levels of Organic and Phosphorus Fertilizer
           on Yield and Yield Components of Lentil (Lens culinaris) under Dry Farming
           Conditions and Amount of Plant Phosphor in Kohgiluye-IRAN

    • Authors: Mohamad Mehdi Rahimi, Ali Akbar Salahizadeh
      Abstract: In order to study the effects of different levels of organic and phosphorus fertilizer on Lentil dry farming performance and amount of plant's phosphor, an experiment on Factorial, random block-complete plan in 9 treatments was carried with 3 levels been repeated in kohgiluye & boyer ahmad-Iran during 2013- 2014. Treatments included three levels of animal fertilizer (0, 10, 20, ton per hectare) and different levels of super triple phosphate (0, 100, 200 kg per hectare). The results showed that the maximum amount of plant height in treatment D0P1 (nonuse of organic fertilizer with use of 100kg per hectare the triple super phosphate) attained the amount of 37.5cm, pod number in plant in treatment D0P1 (nonuse organic fertilizer with use of 100kg per hectare of triple super phosphate) attained the amount of 195.3, grain yield in treatment D0P1 (nonuse organic fertilizer with use of 100kg per hectare of triple super phosphate) attained the amount of 1404kg per hectare and the highest amount of harvest index in the treatment D1P2 (taking 10 tons per acre of livestock manure by consuming 200 kg of triple superphosphate per ha) was seen at a rate of 36.16%, grain protein was seen at a rate of 30.93% in the treatment D1 P1 (taking 20 tons of livestock manure per acre with the consumption of 100 kg triple superphosphate per ha) and the maximum amount of plant phosphorus was seen at a rate of 0.42% in the treatment P2 (with the consumption of 200 kg per ha of triple superphosphate).
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Factors Affecting Goods and Currency Smuggling in the Draft Bill to Combat
           Goods and Currency Smuggling

    • Authors: Hassan Heidari, Amin Shafiian
      Abstract: Goods and currency smuggling not only hurts government’s supporting objectives but also causes to lose the effects of government’s tariff and non-tariff policies. While the smugglers do not pay the government right, it leads to reducing investment in the industry, reducing the volume of manufacturing activities in the country and finally reducing the employment. Since the world customs, as the most important executives in foreign trade regulations and key ring of international trade supply chain, are the only organizations responsible to evaluate and monitor the movement of goods crossing the borders they play roles in the context of their objectives and assigned tasks. In order to facilitate foreign trade while applying control regulations, measures to harmonize the customs procedures and systems are essential and indispensable. Factors and processes affecting the customs functions, the atmosphere in which the customs work, and finally, the custom’s approach and interaction with these factors and conditions are the issues that form the investigation of operational environment. In a general classification, the causes of smuggling are divided into three economic, political, and cultural - social categories each of them having consequences and solutions to handle. Todays, the phenomenon of smuggling is so important that any government needs to make decisions for the effective monitoring of this phenomenon. Accordingly, some certain rules must be legislated in order to reduce any risk in this field and stop smugglers. In 1927 and perhaps earlier, in this field some rules have been legislated in Iran but always met the shortcomings. In order to overcome these shortcomings, the rules to combat goods and currency smuggling were legislated in 2013 and approved by Guardian Council. It is hoped to take serious steps to deal with smuggling by the rules.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Detection of Varicella Zoster Virus in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and its
           Comparison with a Control Group by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    • Authors: Saeideh Najafi, Masood Ghane
      Abstract: Multiple sclerosis is one of the chronic diseases of the central nervous system. This disease appears more among young adults and women. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is regarded as a multifactorial disease. One principal and significant probability is that viruses may stimulate the immune system and lead to the occurrence of MS in the persons who are susceptible to the disease. The purpose of the execution of this study is to detect varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the patients afflicted with multiple sclerosis and its comparison with a control group. Blood samples from 83 MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were collected from Northern areas of Iran. DNA extraction was executed from blood by the kit and according to the instruction of the company. In order to make sure of the accuracy of the extracted DNA, the amplification of human beta-globin gene was used. Specific primers produced by TAG Copenhagen (Denmark) were used to amplify the viruses’ gene. At the end, chi-square(x2) statistical test was used to study the frequency of these viruses in the samples of MS patients and the control group and their relationship with each other. The findings of this study showed that 21 individuals (25%) of patients with MS and 9 individuals (9%) of the control group were positive to VZV virus. Statistical analysis represents a significant relationship between frequency of VZV and MS. The role of viral infections including VZV in the affliction with MS has been confirmed for about a decade. A number of studies have been succeeded in identification of genome of this virus in MS patients, but still more researches are required to perceive the relationship between viral infections and MS disease.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Mental Health and Quality of Life of Drug Dependents Treated by Methadone
           Maintenance in Three-Month Period, Bandar Abbas, Iran

    • Authors: Azita Amirfakhraei, Soraya Naziri, Masoomeh Zakipoor
      Abstract: Drug dependence was one of the most common social damages in Iran. The main aim of study was the assessment of mental health and quality of life of addicts who were under methadone maintenance treatment in three-month period in Anar, Iran. 2013. This was a descriptive and causal-comparative study the statistical population is all of addict in Bandar Abbas, 100 drug dependents that were referred to the medical clinic and treated by methadone maintenance were selected by random sampling and they were measured with WHO-QOL-BREF, GHQ-28 questionnaire. The findings of this study indicate that there is a significant difference between mental health in the beginning of the treatment and after three months, and also there is a significant difference between the quality of the life scales in the beginning of the treatment and after the three months. Final analyze shows that the quality of life and mental health of addicts who is in treated by methadone maintenance will be improved after three months.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Political and Journalistic Translation Courses and the Market Demand in
           Iran

    • Authors: Hussein Molanazar, Samaneh Kamyab
      Abstract: Today world is the world of information exchange in a rapid manner. Keeping pace with such rapid world requires being informed of information. In addition, people need to be aware of international news. This is the task of translators to provide the countries with the latest news and information. Therefore, translation industry demands more attention in such environment. Its requirements are not satisfied just by experience; rather transjournalists should be equipped with translating knowledge and science so that they can meet demands of the market. Technical writing, editing, knowledge of information technology, writing summary and text analysis are among skills that now translators are suggested to be equipped with, especially in translating political and journalistic texts. Translator training programs at higher education should be in consistency with media market demands; as a result, such transjournalists would be trained in such a way that can survive in the market successfully. The aim of this paper was to investigate consistency between media market demand and courses related to translating political and journalistic texts in translator training programs at higher education level in Iran. By investigation of market demands and comparison of them with educational goals stated in related lesson plans for translator training classes it can be realized that whether there is consistency between what is needed by market and what is trained in reality in universities to translation students. Hypothesis of the research was as follows: courses related to translating political and journalistic texts in translator training program at higher education in Iran are not consistent with media market demands.
      PubDate: 2015-04-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Teleworking Implementation Process Model for Yebam (Elderly&Disabled
           Care, Research, Training and Implementation Center)/Konya-Turkey

    • Authors: H. Filiz Alkan Meshur
      Abstract: People with disabilities are facing many constraints when using urban interior and exterior spaces. At the same time, aging brings with physical losses. Because of these physical restrictions, the participation of disabled and elderly people in working life gets much harder. New solutions should be developed for elderly and disabled people in order to improve the employment of them. In this context, the information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide opportunities for people with disabilities in all areas of life.  These opportunities also have importance for people having different mobility disabilities. At this point, teleworking, as a new way of working provides an opportunity for employee to work anywhere and anytime through ICTs so daily trips could be decreased with teleworking. This paper aims to evaluate opportunities for the employment of elderly and disabled people. Firstly, the concept and forms of teleworking are defined. Then the importance of this new way of working for elderly and disabled people is discussed. In Turkey, there are many institutions that provide services to the elderly and people with disabilities. However, these institutions are not enough for these people so new solutions should be developed. For this purpose, Yebam (Elderly&Disabled Care, Research, Training and Implementation Center) will be established in Selcuk University Campus-Konya/Turkey. Educational services, living spaces, production and rehabilitation centers will be combined in one place. Finally, teleworking implementation process model proposed for Yebam has been discussed in the last part of the paper.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • An Investigation of Nezami's Works Translated in the West (France,
           England, and Germany)

    • Authors: Amir Esmaeil Azar, Mahnaz Najafi
      Abstract: European orientalists paid much attention to Nezami’s works in the middle of 1700s and tried to present his biography and extracts from his works to European readers. It was started by D’Herbelot, a French orientalist and was completed by Von Hammer Purgstall at the beginning of 19th century. In1710, Petis de Larcroix translated “Tourandokht Tale” from Nezami’s “Haft Paykar” into French, which underlain the works of Gozzi, Schiller, and Puccini. In 1786, in Calcutta, a book, entitled “Asiatic miscellany” was printed that included twenty tales (anecdotes) from Nezami’s Makhzan-Al- Asrar. This translation was done by Sir William Jones, the first author who introduced Nezami to the English. But the first familiarity of the German with Nezami backed to 1809. In this year, Von Hammer Purgstall wrote a play in two volumes, ‘Shirin’, adopted from Nezami‘s “Khosrow and Shirin”. In nineteenth century, a movement appeared in translating Nezami's works and Nezami's manzoomeheha (narratives in verse/ long poems) were introduced to the European. Consequently, Nezami’s works became a source of inspiration for some of the western poets, playwrights, and musicians.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Role of Psychological Sense of Community in Enhancing Employee’s
           Well-Being

    • Authors: Mahmood Ahmad Bodla, Talat Afza, Huma Ali, Basharat Naeem
      Abstract: Yearning for sense of community is in part fostered by decline of traditional place of community due to which people feel less satisfied at workplace. Thus drawing on psychological sense of community theory, this paper is going to focus on relationship between employee’s sense of community and life satisfaction; a critical, yet under research relationship. Using regression analysis, it was found that if employees are provided with sense of community at workplace, then they are satisfied with their life.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Spouse Maintenance according to the Law approved in Iran and England

    • Authors: Sayeed Mohammad Sadri, Mohammadyar Arshadi, Hassan Badini, Samin Abbasi
      Abstract: Cost of maintenances is one of the most important discussions in family law, which contains the essential factors for proper life. In this research, the above subject based on the comparison between the family right in Britain and Iran has been studied. There are many differences and similarities between these two systems, which are taken from habits, religions, and the government points of view in Iran and England. Regarding the criterion of cost of maintenance, some legislators emphasize the wives’ life before marriage while others pay attention to the conditions of life after marriage. In England the rights due to cost of maintenance have been changed noticeably since 1950. Regarding the comparison of cost of maintenance in Iran it is compulsory and it is not an agreement one but in England it is complementary and based on an agreement one. In this research, we can point to some important subjects such as the nature of wife right in cost of maintenance, the special features of cost of maintenance, the wife cost of maintenance after marriage dissolution, confirmation of cost of maintenance and its guaranty. The legislator in Iran’s right system has added some special conditions which, in comparison to other right systems of other countries, are unique.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
 
 
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