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Journal Cover European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
   Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Investigating the Relationship between Alexithymia and Early Maladaptive
           Schema among University Students in Tabriz

    • Authors: Karim Abdolmohammadi, Mikaeil Hosseinzadeh, Farhad Ghadiri Sourman Abadi, Mahsa Khaleghi
      Abstract: Alexithymia is a problem that shows itself in the emotional and cognitive functioning level and is known as the in ability or failure to explain or understand the emotions This study examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and alexithymia in a sample student. This study is descriptive corelational. Sample of 220 undergraduate students of Tabriz University were selected by stratified random sampling and they were administered by questionnaire Toronto alexithymia (TAS-20), and early maladaptive schemas Yang Short Form (YSQ-SF). Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and simultaneous regression analysis. The results showed that the components of early maladaptive schemas, disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance, impaired Limits, directedness, and vigilance/inhibition have a significant positive relationship with alexithymia. Also, the findings of the regression analysis show that impaired autonomy and performance, over  vigilance/inhibition, are predictors of alexithymia . Therefore, it is essential to predict early maladaptive schemas and treat people with alexithymia.
      PubDate: 2016-05-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Evaluation of Solubility of Gypsum-bearing Piles and the Role of Water in
           its Leakage off the Pile in Fifty-year Return Period: Special Case of
           Marash Dam

    • Authors: Alireza Moazzami, Mohammad Reza Emam
      Abstract: Gypsum and anhydrite in circumstances of fast water flux and high permeability is a manufacturing concern in the fifties. Experiences show that in low water flux zones, the solubility is less probable and it decreases if the environment is such that the water is saturated before getting in contact with gypsum-containing area. Hence evaluation of these materials towards the mentioned factors seems to be necessary. In current study the solubility of gypsum is measured in three solutions including distilled water, Marash Dam water, and distilled water plus 1% NaCl. Consequently, the values of solubility constant are measured and calculated using circulation analysis in the three solutions. Finally, the extent of fracture width during fifty years has been calculated and the amount of water leakage is assessed with high precision according to this value, regarding the water downfall (hydraulic gradient) in the dam’s body and gypsum-bearing zones. Results of circulation analysis (with constant hydraulic gradient) show that the progress of fracture’s radius decreases from the input towards the output. Additionally, along the water flow path, the growth of radius is more considerable in zones having purer gypsum in comparison with surrounding points.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Survey of Toxoplasma Gondii in Livestocks’ Meat (Sheep, Goat,
           Camel), Using Nested PCR Method in Sabzavar District

    • Authors: Jalal Aliabadi, Pro.Naser Ziaali
      Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic zoonosis in the world which led to loss of life and property in the countries annually. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan disease. It is estimated that about a third of the world's population are infected with the parasite. Parasites is transmitted in various ways such as contaminated water containing oocytes shed of cats, eating undercooked or raw meat or through congenital infection. This study was conducted in Sabzevar, in which a sample of animals in slaughters in Sabzevar were selected including livestock such as sheep, goats, camels, which were collected and investigated for toxoplasmosis. In this study, DNA of these samples (heart and diaphragm) including 40 sheep, 40 goats, 40 camels were collected and then were examined using B1 marker. The PCR results showed  60% of sheep infected to toxoplasmosis and infection rate in diaphragm and heart samples were 37.5% and 25.5%. Also frequency rate for toxoplasma in goat and camels were obtained 52.5% and 65% and infectivity rate of diaphragm and heart were 35% and 17.5% for goat, 45% and 20% for camels samples. The results showed that infectivity rate of toxoplasmosis in sheep and goats in Sabzavar is more dangerous than other cities. It seems that infection rate was influenced by examination tests, ecological condition, way of growth and feeding and agony of livestock and others factors. Toxoplasmosis were seen more in female sheep. We did not obtain any difference for infectivity in goat and camel gender and related to growing factors. In this study, toxoplasmosis was reported in camels of Iran for first time. The RFLP results showed genotypes of II and III for toxoplasma and it needs to modified studies in this field.
      PubDate: 2016-05-15
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The End of Modernism and the Reflection of Human Condition in Figurative

    • Authors: Narges Haririan, Rima Eslam Maslak
      Abstract: This descriptive-analytical paper aimed at analyzing contemporary human condition in figurative sculpture during the end of modernism. It aims at identifying the origins of major and recurrent patterns in the works of contemporary figurative sculptors. The major patterns stem from feeling of being lost and the gap in personal identity, which in turn, stem from the unrepeatable events during the decades of late 20th century; challenges, such as the hasty life in the age of technology, forests and expeditions, illness, poverty, and so on. Unlike bygone artists, contemporary artists no longer see human beings as a beautiful, powerful, and different creature. Rather they consider him as a product of pain, suffering, and personal and social wounds. Since works of art reflect the zeitgeist and dominant thoughts of an era, this paper briefly reviews the elements affecting earlier figurative works of art, such as mythology and religion, which also appeared in the humanism of modernity. Then, it analyzes and criticizes the founding concepts of contemporary figurative sculpture as one of the various expressions of modern art
      PubDate: 2016-05-15
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • A Sociological Study on the Impacts of Iran's Oil Revenues with an
           Emphasis on Consumer Life Style

    • Authors: Hossein Dehqan, Marzie Takbiri
      Abstract: Investigating the subject of consumption from the theoretical aspect has turned into an important subject in sociology. The popularity and constancy of consumerism have caused waste of resources and lack of flourishing and in the long run, it can lead to undesirable political, economic and social consequences. Therefore, because of the importance of the consumer life style and the fluctuations in the oil revenues in recent years, this paper aims to investigate the social impacts of oil revenues in Iran, emphasizing consumer life style. To do this, in the theoretical basis section, the opinions of Simmel, Keynes and Rentier state theory from interpretations by Hazem Al Beblawi, Luciani and Mahdavy and also the Dutch disease theory are used.  This is a descriptive-explanatory study that is done using scaling based on secondary data analysis and the data were collected by referring to the Central Bank website and statistics yearbooks of different years. According to the study's descriptive findings, oil revenues and consumer life style had a generally rising trend during the years 1971 to 2012 and with the increase in oil revenues, consumerism has also increased. The only falling trends took place during the governments after the revolution and the time of the war. According to evidences, governments during these years are categorized as Rentier states.  Based on the study's explanatory findings, the urbanism coefficient, Rentier state and the government's consumptive policies were excluded from the regression equation and the two coefficients of oil revenues and imports cover all the coefficients.
      PubDate: 2016-05-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Investigation of Performance Management Behaviors in Educational Managers
           of Iran University of Medical Sciences

    • Authors: Zahra Zarei Haji Abadi, Zohreh Sohrabi
      Abstract: Performance management supports the power of knowledge in the academic system and makes this knowledge a comparative advantage. The amount of performance management behavior expressed by managers affects their assessment and ability to improve. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the performance management behaviors expressed by the educational managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive-analytic study. The population under study includes the educational managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences. A census was applied as the sampling method. Performance Management Behavior Questionnaire (PMBQ) was applied as the data collection instrument. After evaluating the validity and reliability of this instrument, data would be analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Of all distributed questionnaires, 144 were filled and recollected. The obtained means were average or higher for all aspects. The average score of male and female managers was respectively equal to 89.58 and 86.77. The total average score was 83.58 with the standard deviation of 6.4224. In no aspect, the difference between average scores of male and female managers was statistically significant. As to the performance expectations, there was a significant difference in behavior of managers with different management experiences (p=0.014). According to the results, the educational managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences have all evaluated their performance management behaviors to be generally desirable.
      PubDate: 2016-05-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Effect of Different Concentrations of the Thinner Globaryll100 on
           Chemical Characteristics of Gala Apples

    • Authors: Iraj Ghorbanian, Azar Seyde
      Abstract: Apple (Malusdomestica) is a plant in the form of short shrub or tree with branches lacking thorns and simple oval obular leaves and small and short head. Apple buds include vegetative or simple buds producing branches and its fertile buds are plain mixed generative buds and produce five flowers and 7-8 leaves when waking up. Apple is of great importance in the world so that in 2011, 75.5 million tons of apples were produced and consumed in the world according to the FAO. It has a lot of properties such as maintaining healthy skin, preventing cancer, and so on. The thinner Globaryll100 at concentrations of 150, 250 and 350 mg were used in the Gala apple varieties with the aim of resolving the problem of alternate fruiting and making coarse and high quality fruits and then traits such as pH, acidity, dry matter content, sugar content, total soluble solids were measured. Globaryll was used when the fruit was 10 mm. Globaryll at a concentration of 350 mg per liter has achieved the first place of Duncan in terms of sugar content, soluble solids, pH, and percentage of dry matter. The results showed that the effect of treatments on all traits was significant except acidity, and also high concentration of both hormones could reduce fruiting percentage compared to the control.
      PubDate: 2016-05-13
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Effect of Social Relationships on the Innovative Behavior of Employees
           Mediated by Psychological Wellbeing in Pharmaceutical Industry of Pakistan

    • Authors: Ahmad usman shahid, Rizwan Qaiser Danish, Muhammad Mazhar Bhutta, Asad Afzal Humayon, Jawad Shahid, Muhammad Imran
      Abstract: The primary purpose of this research is to recognize the impact of capacities of high quality relationship or social relationships on the innovative or creative work behavior of employees within an organization in the pharmaceutical sector of Islamabad, Pakistan. So, the present study contributes to the existing literature because these are the concepts which are relevant to every organization and its part of every working environment. In September, 2015 about 250 questionnaires were circulated and only 230 were completely filled with a response rate of 92 %. The sample was adequate for analysis and SPSS 16 and AMOS 22 were used to analyze the data the results concluded that capacities of high quality of relationships are correlated with innovative behavior of employees and psychological wellbeing have the ability to mediate this relationship. Employees feel psychologically relaxed when they have the emotional carrying capacity, tensility and connectivity to work innovatively for the organization. Research questionnaires were used to record the responses and the study was quantitative in nature but qualitative research on this topic can be done. This study also has some limitations while some suggestions are also provided to improve the context.
      PubDate: 2016-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Status of Attorney-Ship in Crime Prevention

    • Authors: Seyed Mohamamd Hussieni, Abass Shafei Ardestani
      Abstract: Nowadays, crime prevention has achieved an important status in criminal laws so that it has become a priority for communities to fight against delinquency. This important issue which is the result of efforts by criminologists, jurists and other connoisseurs of social issues has been always emanated from this thinking that prevention is better than treatment. Crime prevention not only prevents crimes and victimization but also improves social security and helps sustainable development of nations. Effective responsible crime prevention promotes citizens’ life quality and it requires the participation and contribution by all levels of the government in order to pave the way and develop an ambience in which public organizations and all sectors of social society including lawyers could play their ole in crime prevention better and to mitigate the risk of crime occurrence as well as its potential impacts on individuals and societies through influencing over different factors. Attorney ship is a special job with distinguished social status and numerous civil, legal and professional responsibilities. Anyone is aware of the importance and necessity of attorney ship, its effectiveness and its explicit and implicit roles in defending the rights of people and citizens as well as the selection of judiciary attorneys among people with scientific and specialized competencies. In this vein, attorney ship entity in Iran and the world is based on approved international documents, legal norms and law enforcements recipes and its legal aspects should be developed over time commensurate to social needs and requirements as well as the rights of people and this profession.
      PubDate: 2016-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Metalanguage and Learning Grammar among Iranian EFL Learners

    • Authors: Anita Roshan, Ali Elhami
      Abstract: This research was conducted on Iranian EFL learners in Tehran Institute of Technology (The West Branch) to examine the effect of teachers’ metalanguage on learners’ learning of grammatical points. In each level of elementary and intermediate, two groups were chosen, an experimental and a control group. In the experimental group, the teachers used metalanguage to teach grammar points. However, in control group the teachers used examples to teach grammar points. The result indicated that the metalanguage had impacted the learners’ learning of grammatical points. The effect was more obvious with regard to the learning of grammatical points where the intermediate learners remarkably did better than the elementary ones.
      PubDate: 2016-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Effectiveness of Group Counselling on Improvement of Marital Relationship
           in Infidelity-Affected Mothers of Students in Tehran City

    • Authors: Zahra Shahbazi Nezhad, Bahar Alian, Fatemeh Hashemi Golpayegani
      Abstract:  Disclosure of infidelity may have destructive effects both on couples and children. Given the fact that children’s physical and psychological health depends on their parents’ healthy mutual relationship, attending improvement of couples’ relationships after infidelity disclosure seems necessary. The present study aimed to determine effectiveness of group counselling on improvement of marital relationship in infidelity-affected mothers. This applied study used quasi-experimental design with pre-posttest approach. Of the study population comprising all infidelity-affected mothers of students in Tehran city who had referred to counselling centers of Department of Education, 16 mothers were selected and randomly divided into the experimental and control groups.  Vaughan’s Spouse Infidelity Questionnaire and scholar-made Improvement of Marital Relations Questionnaire were used. The experimental group received 20 sessions of group counselling twice weekly. Data were analyzed via covariance and multivariable variance analysis. The results confirmed positive effects of group counselling on improvement of marital relationships (F = 11/10, p<. 0.05 ) and verbal communication skills (F=12.188, P<0.05) in infidelity-affected mothers, but it was not effective for enhancing security feeling of students growing up in these families (F=1. 139, p<0.05).
      PubDate: 2016-05-06
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Polyvinyl Sulfuric Acid: A Novel Solid Acid Catalyst for Preparation of
           Symmetrical Ethers and Theoretical Calculation

    • Authors: Roya Moeinzadeh, Halimeh Rajabzadeh, Ali Reza Kiasat, Fatemeh Mohammad Taheri
      Abstract: In this paper, polyvinyl sulfuric acid as a novel solid acid was easily prepared by simple mixing of polyvinyl alcohol with chlorosulfonic acid at room temperature. The facile procedure for conversion of benzylic alcohols to the corresponding symmetrical ethers in the presence of this solid acid under solvent free conditions was investigated. Results showed that the solid acid was an appropriate catalytic agent for this condensation reaction. It also showed its ability to produce the products in short reaction times while having high isolated yields.Also theoretical calculation by DFT method with B3LYP using 6-31G** basis sets was done. Based on the calculation, Transition state is a primary carbocation that the positive charge is dispersed by the benzene ring. The dipole moment of transition state is 0.2226D and the total energy of produced carbonation is more than symmetrical ether and alcohol, as the results the produced carbocation via SN1 is an appropriate transition state.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • How Knowledge and Financial Self-Efficacy Moderate the Relationship
           between Money Attitudes and Personal Financial Management Behavior

    • Authors: Muhammad Ali Jibran Qamar, Muhammad Asif Nadeem Khemta, Hassan Jamil
      Abstract: This study finds the impact of money attitudes on the personal financial management behavior and check the moderating effect of financial knowledge and financial self-efficacy on their relationship. The sample for this research was young adults (University students) who were also employed. From five universities where two universities were from the public sector  and three were from private sector 500 respondents were selected through purposive sampling. Hierarchal Regression and factor analysis were employed to derive the results. The following are the results which are generated from this research study. Money attitudes and Financial Knowledge have a significant positive impact on the personal financial management behavior of young adults, and financial knowledge has a positive moderating impact on the relationship of money attitudes & personal financial management behavior. It was found that 20.9% Personal Financial Management Behavior is explained by money attitudes at significance level of 5 %. Financial Self-efficacy has a positive impact on the personal financial management behavior and it has positive moderating impact on the relationship of money attitudes & personal financial management behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • From a Building to an Architectural Artifact: The impact of
           Architect’s Worldview on the Status of an Architectural Artifact

    • Authors: Sepide Abbasi Yusefabad, Behnaz Aminzade, Mohammad Naghizade
      Abstract: Architecture is to design a space by human-architect for human-user; hence in addition to the physical and environmental factors, architect’s worldview is deemed to be as an initiative and a directing factor for the architectural designing process which is of high significance. An architect’s perception of human and human needs has a great impact on design process and the way designing is directed, it also architect’s worldview determines the domains from which the required data should be obtained and for which purpose they should be processed. The present study is aimed at exploring the issue of how the status of an architectural product as the tangible result of the designing process might be influenced by the architect’s worldview. Hence, by examining the relations between the existential fields of architecture and the existential realms of human beings, which is the resultant of the architect's worldview, a range of products starting from buildings and continuing to architectural products are investigated. Based on the nature of issues studied in this paper, a descriptive-analytical research method and deductive approach were used and the related data were collected through library method.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Antecedents of Dividend Policy: Empirical Evidence from Banking Sector of

    • Authors: Rizwan Hamid, Muhammad Shahbaz Yaqub, Muhammad Mubashir Hussain Awan
      Abstract: This paper explores the determinants of dividend policy of commercial banks operating in Pakistan. Dividend decision of any bank primarily depends upon its profitability, retained earnings, cash flows, corporate taxes and leverage. This study is an attempt to find out key determinants and their impact on cash payout and total payout ratios. It also aims to test the implication of dividend theories on Pakistani banks using data for a period of 8 years ranging from 2006 to 2013. Balanced panel data regression with fixed effects model has been used in this study. All independent variables - PAT, SLACK, EPS, CTA and TD[1] reported significant results. We found significant role of profitability theory, packing order theory, free cash flow theory and agency cost theory in determining dividend policies whereas, tax effect and financial slack has no effect in banking sector of Pakistan.
      [1] Profitability, retained earnings, earnings per share, cash flows, and leverage
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Calculation of Asymmetry factor using the Solution of Equilibrium Problem

    • Authors: Muhammad Asif
      Abstract: In this work we presented a theoretical calculation of the asymmetry factor (Shafranov parameter) by solving the simplest Grad–Shafranov Equation (GSE) with the  Solove’v assumption for a low-beta and large-aspect-ratio tokamak with a circular cross section.  In this paper we calculated the current-independent relation for the asymmetry factor (Shafranov  parameter).
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Comparing Export and Import Sport Goods in Iran in 2014 to Implement
           Resistive Economic

    • Authors: Reza Bagheri, Hamidreza Booali, Karamat Avazpour, Hamed Alizadeh Pahlevani, Karim Deris
      Abstract: The purpose of the research was to compare export and import sport goods in Iran in 2014 to implement the Resistive Economic. There was used laboratory and past vision method in the research. The registered comprehensive statics in official website of Chamber of Commerce, industries, mines and agriculture of Tehran were used to collect data. Its population included all registered export and import goods in Iran; among them, export and import sport equipments in Iran in 2014 were considered as the research sample. Goods exporter and importer countries to Iran were classified in 14 and 7 categories respectively. Then sport goods were 10 categories homogenously. Ranking export and import of sport goods was measured according to commercial partners and their dollar worth. The goods were compared by considering their Rial worth. The descriptive test and independent t-test were used to analyze data. Meanwhile, α= 0.05 was considered as significant level. The research findings showed 64% of importers of sport goods to Iran were China (36%), UAE (21%) and Turkey (7%). The imported sport goods were prioritized according to their Rial worth as follows: toys (56%), treadmill (24%), various rockets (5%), various balls (3%) and game facilities in open air (3%). In contrast, in terms of Rial worth, Iran exported sport goods to Iraq (70%), Turkmenistan (8%) and Afghanistan (7%). However, 100% exported sport goods included toys, treadmill and game facilities in open air. Finally, the research final findings showed no significant relationship between export and import sport equipments in Iran in 2014, in terms of their Rial worth. Now, it is suggested to explain necessary facilities to establish workshops and manufacturer factories based on ranking the imported goods within Iran. However, the imports should be controlled to support new established firms. It results in job creation and reduces foreign currency exit. Consequently, we should export sport goods and find consumer countries. Finally, free business policy should be considered to improve quality of the goods. As a result, we can satisfy consumer and control prices. In this way, we can improve Iran’s commercial balance and implement the Resistive Economic.
      PubDate: 2016-04-13
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
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