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Journal Cover European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
  [10 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
   Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Effects of Growth Stages on Forage Quality of Specific Halophytes
           (Limonium Iranicum & Reaumuria Fruticosa) in the Bajestan Desert of
           Korasan Province, Iran

    • Authors: Mohamad Taghi - Kashki, Ehsan Zandi Esfahan, Mohamad Mohamadi, Majid Ranjbar
      Abstract: Limited water resources, increased salinity, and lack of food sources in arid areas affect livestock productivity. Thus, the production potential of halophytes in saline habitats as an alternative source is of particular importance. In addition, forage quality is one of the factors determining the nutritional requirements of livestock and subsequently the grazing capacity of rangelands, and it needs to be evaluated in line with introducing the halophytes as livestock forage. In the present study, the two dominant halophytes, Limonium iranicum and Reaumuria fruticosa, were selected in the Bajestan Desrt and forage quality traits were measured at vegetative growth, flowering, and seed maturity stages. Forage quality traits including DMD, CP, CF, WSC, ASH, and ADF were measured by NIR. Data were analyzed using a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with SAS software. Mean comparisons were conducted using Duncan's Multiple Range test. According to the obtained results, forage quality traits showed significant differences at three phenological stages (P<0.01). Limonium iranicum showed the highest value of crude protein at vegetative growth stage, while for Reaumuria fruticosa, the highest value of CP was recorded at flowering and seed maturity stages, indicating a higher forage quality. Our results clearly showed that the forage quality of the halophytes studied here differed, depending on species composition and growth stage which should be considered for livestock feed management.
      PubDate: 2016-08-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Environmental Disaster in the Volga-Akhtuba Floodplain in the Context of
           Global Climate Change: Legal Approaches and Methods to Decrease the
           Gravity of the Problem

    • Authors: A. P. Anisimov, A. J. Ryzhenkov
      Abstract: Based on the specific practical material related to one of the regions of Russia, the article examines the negative consequences for the environment and population caused by the global climate change. Mitigation and adaptation are two models of the national environmental policy which can be considered as the countermeasures. There are more possibilities to mitigate the consequences of climate change at the international and national levels; as well the governmental authorities of the federal entities are able to implement effectively the adaptation strategies. The solution of this task will require some efforts from the representatives of the whole scientific society, from biological and technical sciences to social and humanitarian ones. It can be explained by the complexity of this new challenge to the humankind of XXI century, which can be met only if the public morality is changed and the environmental ignorance is eliminated. With regard to Russia it is urgently required to develop new approaches to the organization of the economic mechanism in order to counteract the consequences of climate change, to reform the existing model of federalism, to develop new concepts and methods to compensate for any damages caused by global climate change, to keep the development of the theory of environmental disaster zones.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Entrepreneurship in the Context of Organizational Culture

    • Authors: Ali Rohani, Goli Amani
      Abstract: The importance of entrepreneurship and citizenship behavior is obvious. To achieve development, organizations should pave the way for development of these two items in their human resources. These two factors in development of economic and social issues are the cheapest tools with the highest efficiency. In order to discuss the importance of organizational culture for the growth of these two concepts, culture plays the role of mother womb for fetus growth (entrepreneurship and citizenship behavior). The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between organizational culture with entrepreneurship and organizational citizenship behavior in Telecommunication Company of Golestan province. The study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-correlation in terms of method.  The study population is 400; its 200 people sample is extracted by simple random sampling method. In statistical analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, Kolmogrov-Smirnov, Spearman correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test are used.  The results show that there is a direct and significant association between organizational culture and entrepreneurship and organizational citizenship behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Impact of Structural Capital on the Innovation Performance in Syrian
           Universities: A Field Study in Tishreen University

    • Authors: Kinda A. Deeb, Maher M. Merhej
      Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the relationship between the Structural capital and innovation performance in Tishreen University. It applies the theoretical concepts. the researcher relied survey methodology, and distribution the questionnaire to 360 individual of the members of the Teaching Staff in Tishreen University, and then make a Field Study to show this relationship, the main result of this study is that there is a positive significant relationship between the Structural capital and innovation performance. We have provided a summary of the most important results that we have accessed with the presentation of some of the proposals and recommendations to improve the relationship in order to enhance innovation performance to the members of the Teaching Staff in Tishreen University.
      PubDate: 2016-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Contribution of Activity Based Costing: A Case Study of Tunisian Company
           ‘CPG Gafsa’

    • Authors: Samira Benelifa
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to show how the ABC method is more relevant than the traditional methods of calculation of the costs. We conducted a case study of the ‘Gafsa phosphate company’ as it is the operator of sector-based phosphate which occupies a place of extreme importance in the strategy of economic development in Tunisia. Empirical results gave a clarification on the reliability and relevance of the ABC method compared to the conventional methods of calculating cost of returns. On the other hand they highlighted the formal applicability of this innovative method and maintained the full cost method as a reference in the strategic decision making. Our research restricts the generalization, as the case of the Gafsa phosphate company cannot be invoked to represent all Tunisian companies. Also results are restricted to financial role of ABC approach. In a positive sense, our research provides an overview on the integration of the accounting practices of innovative management within developing countries
      PubDate: 2016-07-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Identifying the Most Important Organizational barriers of Participation in
           Keshavarzi Bank in View of Staff of Branches: Case Study of Tehran City

    • Authors: Amir Abachi
      Abstract: System of offers follows main goal of human resource development. In fact, presenting system of offers is considered as a way for growth of human resource and optimum utilization of resources, and consequently development of organization. At this level, most appropriate ideas are sparked in the mind. The human can be idea-creator just when his mind is deeply involved with the problem, and this mental challenge is applicable just with deep sense of responsibility. In this regard, the current study is aimed at identifying the most important organizational barriers of participation in Keshavarzi bank in view of staff of branches; also, the methodology used is of descriptive-survey type. Generally, the research findings indicate that set up of this system is influential in Keshavarzi bank, and the staff are not much satisfied with its implementation.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Role of Foreign Aid in the Development of Pakistan’s Education
           Sector: A Time-Lag Analysis

    • Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Omer Farooq, Naheed Sultana, Mariam Farooq
      Abstract: This study examines the role of foreign aid in the development of Pakistan’s education sector by using the time series data of foreign aid and educational outcomes (number of schools, students, teachers and literacy rates) from 1967 to 2010. Time lag analysis shows, the foreign aid of the current year (T) has no impact on educational outcomes. However, foreign aid of the previous year (T-1) had a significant positive effect on all educational outcomes. Similarly, financial aid received by the country two years previous (T-2) also established a positive relationship with all the education development indicators, except literacy rates.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Strategic Planning for Spatial Development in the Historical Tissue of
           Yazd City with a Tourism Approach

    • Authors: ALI ADIB, FARAH HABIB
      Abstract: Due to unplanned interventions to preserve, restore or renovate Yazd historical tissue and / or because of lack of sufficient attention, some adverse effects have damaged physical, social and cultural tissue of Yazd city. Therefore, it cannot attract the Iranian and foreign tourists, as well as it is appropriate to visit and use all valuable spaces in this historical tissue and as a results, it has­ greatly reduced the attractions of this city specifically tourist attractions. Strategic planning for spatial development is a kind of planning that has been used in this study to develop touristic spaces in Yazd. This planning creates the best environments for the harmonious development and decentralization of attractions specially tourist attractions by using analytical and descriptive method and by presenting the appropriate strategies. Therefore, data collection was done through using questionnaires and the statistical population was determined by application of Cochran formula and then swot analytic model as well as weighting model was used to analyze the obtained results. This planning approach analyzed the factors influencing the spatial development of tourism in Yazd in form of internal and external factors which realize the goals such as developing touristic attractions in all valuable areas of historical tissue, distributing and using facilities and services, using external facilities of the area and improving the quantitative and qualitative levels of touristic places. The most important result of this study is to provide four strategies including; defensive, conservative, aggressive and competitive strategies to develop tourism in Yazd as the first adobe and the second historical city in the world. It has been predicted possible to a high percentage and to create a stable unity in all places of Yazd historical tissue to attract more tourists to Yazd. Besides, by using an appropriate strategic planning and spatial development, and using all available  potentials  in historical tissue, many shortcomings can be removed to meet the tourists' needs and to optimize Yazd touristic spaces

      PubDate: 2016-07-06
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Fluctuations in the Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Nettle
           (Urtica dioica L.) Drink in Refrigerated Storage

    • Authors: Aziz Homayouni Rad, Mahboob Nemati, Zeinab Rahimzadeh Sani, Hossein Servat, Farnaz Hajieghrari
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of refrigerated nettle drinks stored at 4°C for 3 months. The antioxidant properties determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and total phenolic contents of the nettle drinks were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu method. In addition, correlations between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were assessed. The results showed a significant increase for the refrigerated nettle drinks (p<0.05) in the case of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in two months. It was concluded that the nettle drink should be treated as a short shelf-life product (2-month).
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Effect of Mass Media on Crimes of Children and Adolescents

    • Authors: Zahra Gharibi
      Abstract: Many of the researchers, thinkers and reformers identify the current age with different names such as Technique Age, Communication Age, Global Village and Remote Leadership. Indeed, remote leadership is not only true for satellites and spacecrafts, but it is also true for remote leadership by mass media for human. Findings of this survey show that if Television’s programs are guided towards human’s excellence, it can be one of the effective factors in preventing crimes in children and adolescents. But programs which do not pay attention to such purposes may issue violent crime in imitating actors, and make coexistence with adults and real world difficult and the adolescents show social repugnance against the instilled ideas. Most of the films create sweet dreams for children and sound superior than real. When films are not consistent with religious beliefs, local traditions, culture’s level, ethics and specially age category, they will cause crime and stroke victims. Regarding the superior importance of the wide role that media play in today’s life this article aims to investigate the role of media in crime of children and adolescents.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • A Review of Manpower Crises in the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) Tourism

    • Authors: Muhammad Asad Sadi
      Abstract: There is a serious shortage of trained personnel in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries’ tourism industry, and the major challenges that this region faces are lack of training and manpower development. The tourism industry in the GCC region has grown at an unprecedented rate and the economies of this region have grown continuously too. Training and manpower development, however, have not kept pace with the situation. While various measures have been suggested to develop manpower capabilities in the tourism industry in this region, not enough has been done to meet the challenges. This paper will review the manpower shortage in the tourism industry in the region. It will also suggest ways to address this issue. The manpower shortage issue will be analyzed in terms of review of the economic significance of the region, key components of growth in its tourist industry, conditions that restrain this industry, and strategies to meet the challenge.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Investigating the Factors Affecting the Implementation of Knowledge
           Management in Aghajari Oil and Gas Exploitation Company

    • Authors: Abolghasem Sheikhi, Nasser Molaei
      Abstract: Knowledge management is one way to improve the survival of organization. Therefore, the identification and study of factors affecting the deployment of knowledge management can help organizations to implement and enforce it better. When factors affecting the deployment of knowledge management to be identified and analyzed previously and an appropriate platform to be provided for its deployment, knowledge management is successfully implemented in organizations. Because the management of the existing knowledge of organization is a humanistic matter and is completely related to human resources, organizations to deploy successful knowledge management should provide appropriate organizational culture, strategic thinking, right staff training and suitable technology and act accordingly. Aghajari Oil and Gas Exploitation Company with respect to the determined objectives and policies of the ministry and more emphasis on the issue of knowledge-based operation process of oil and gas resources and according to its task at oil exploitation, production and sending and protection of the facilities and oil tanks as well as rapid advances in technology and increasing employees' level of education, considers knowledge management. This research is conducted in line with the goals and policies set by the Ministry of Petroleum. For this purpose, one main hypothesis, four sub-hypotheses and two side-hypotheses are developed. The results of hypotheses testing implied the endorsement of main hypothesis namely, it was found that organizational factors influence the management deployment in Aghajari Oil and Gas Exploitation Company. Four research hypotheses were confirmed as well thus, it became clear that organizational factors (including organizational culture, strategic thinking, employees’ training and technology) affect the management deployment in Aghajari Oil and Gas Exploitation Company. Also according to the results, the first side-hypothesis that "The different education level of employees has different effects on the implementation of knowledge management in Aghajari Oil and Gas Exploitation Company" was confirmed. But the second side-hypothesis that "different professions (technical and non-technical) have different effect on the deployment of knowledge management in Aghajari Oil and Gas Exploitation Company" was rejected.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • The Effect of Different Levels of Raw and Soaked Bitter Vetch (Vicia
           Ervilia) on Fattening Performance of Lori Lambs

    • Authors: Ali Hasan Farajzade
      Abstract: This study was done in one of the semi-industrial sheep business in Doroud city to evaluate the effect of raw and soaked Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed consumption on growth and carcass characteristics of fattening lambs on 49 weaned Lori ram lambs, with an average initial weight of 23 ± 0.75 kg and in the form of a completely randomized design with 7 treatments including control treatments and different levels of raw and soaked Bitter Vetch (15, 21, 27% of diet) by replacing soybean meal for 105 days. Diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Growth characteristics such as daily weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and carcass characteristics including lean meat, fat and bone breakdown in the body parts were examined and recorded. Obtained information was recorded in Foxpro database and was analyzed by SAS software and GLM method. The independent means compare plan (orthogonal) was used to achieve the presence or absence of a difference between the use of raw and soaked Bitter Vetch and Duncan test was used to compare the treatments. The test results showed that the average weight and characteristics’ percentage like carcass loss, hot carcass, cold carcass, final live weight, lean meat, bone, fat, subcutaneous fat, inter-muscle fat, carcass yield, and LDM muscle area in control treatment (Soybean Meal) showed no significant difference in relation to treatments containing dried and soaked bitter vetch with 15% and 21% levels but compared to the 27% dried and soaked bitter vetch showed significant gain. The amount of visceral fat lambs of control group was significantly higher than other treatments. The weight of liver, kidneys and spleen in lambs fed with diets containing bitter vetch was significantly higher compared to control treatment but the weight of heart and lungs in lambs that are fed in control treatment was not significantly different from other treatments. The comparison of orthogonal of the effects of using dried bitter vetch compared to soaked bitter vetch showed no significant difference. Growth performance of lambs in the group containing 27% dried and soaked bitter vetch compared to other levels of bitter vetch and control diet showed significant reduction. These results suggest that bitter vetch can be used as a protein supplement up to 21% of the total diet without negative effects on growth performance of lambs.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • A Study on the Plan of Human Resource Organization and Management in the
           Ministry of Tducation in Iran

    • Authors: Kewmars Fallahi, Ali Saberi
      Abstract: Providing the plan for human resource organization and management is one of the acts done over the recent years in order to improve human resource condition in the ministry of education. In this research, the assessment of organization plan in different aspects and regarding its main performers’ opinions- the general managers of the provinces and the heads of educational regions- has been done. The statistical sample of the plan includes 31 general managers of the education of the provinces, and 330 heads of educational regions consisting of developed regions, semi-developed regions, and underdeveloped regions.  The descriptive and inferential indices have been applied as the statistical indices for analyzing the research data. The instrument used is the questionnaire. The research indicates that the general managers and heads of educational regions of the provinces are useful for the organization plan. 22.9% of the managers did not have any problem for performing the plan, however, only 20.8 of then found the assessment valuable. Determining managerial policies for allocating human resource and integrated performance of it for all the regions has been one of the most important strengths of the plan regarding the educational regions heads’ opinions.  The general managers of the education department of provinces believed that not paying enough attention to the regional differences are considered as the most important weakness of the plan for human resource organization and management. Then, lack of coordination with provinces for providing the manual of style is considered as the second weakness of the research. They believe that the most important weaknesses of the plan include instability of the plan and weak observation of its performance, not defining the tasks for the human resources, inflexibility of the plan context, reduction of educational quality resulted from high density of classes, low authority of educational regions, and ignoring the needs for human needs.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • The Effect of the Combined Chemical, Bio and Vermicomposting Fertilizers
           on Yield and Yield Components of Vicia Faba L.

    • Authors: Kamran Mansoorghanaie Pashaki, Gholam Reza Mohsenabadi, Haddad Boroumand, Majid Majidian
      Abstract: In order to evaluate the effect of combined of chemical, bio and vermicomposting fertilizers on faba bean yield in Gilan province, a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in the city of Rasht in 2013. Treatments nitrogen fertilizer in three levels (zero, 50 and 100 kg per hectare), phosphorus fertilizer in three levels (zero, 50 and 100 kg per hectare), bio-fertilizer combination of Bacillus and Pseudomonas and without application of vermicomposting with two levels including Zero and 7 tons per hectare were considered for the study. The results showed that grain protein percentage was significantly affected by the interaction of nitrogen fertilizers × phosphor × vermicomposting× organic fertilizer and other traits affected by the interaction of biological nitrogen ×fertilizer × phosphorus and nitrogen. Means comparison showed that 100 kg of nitrogen per hectare, 100 kg phosphorus with the use of bio-fertilizer and vermicomposting increased grain yield and yield components. The  seed yield of 100 kg N ha interaction was the highest in 100 kg of phosphorus per hectare (6243 kg/h) and the lowest in control (507 kg/h). Also, in interaction at phosphorus fertilizer bio-fertilizer, the seed yield of 100 kg of phosphorus by using bio-fertilizer (5497 kg/h) was observed and the interaction N × vermicomposting was observed at the highest grain yield at 100 kg nitrogen by the use of vermicomposting (5455 kg/h). The highest amounts of protein in treatment were in 100 kg N, 100 kg of phosphorus fertilizer with organic fertilizer usage and application of vermicomposting 7 tons per hectare (31.43 percent). In general, the results can be expected that the use of bio-fertilizers and vermicomposting can provide part of the required plant food.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Application of Neoformalism for Analysis of two Iranian Distinguished

    • Authors: Mehdi Purrezaian, Alireza Khoshnevis, Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi, Shahab Esfandiary, Habibollah Ayatollahi
      Abstract: Neoformalism is one of the recent film criticism approaches which appeared in the 1980s and 1990s. This approach uses a new strategy in addition to achievements gained using prior methods. In this article, the specifications of this approach are studied on the basis of works of founders of neoformalism including David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson and issues such as definition of form and narration, differentiation of plot and story, principles of form, definition of device, function and motivation are expressed. According to the definition given by neoformalist, form is the overall system of relations between the elements in the whole film and narration is the plot's way of distributing story information in order to achieve specific effects. The set of all the events in a narrative, both those presented explicitly and those inferred by the viewer, constitutes the story and the term plot is used to describe everything visibly and audibly present in the film before us. A large number of Iranian filmmakers and critics believe that too much attention to content and lack of attention to form is one of the most important problems of Iranian cinema that has emerged in recent years. Also, neoformalism emphasizes the importance of analysis of form and aesthetical principles of cinema. Therefore, this approach is appropriate for studying contemporary Iranian films. Then. this approach has been used for analyzing of two important films of Majid Majidi including Children of Heaven and Baran as two distinguished Iranian contemporary films. These two films awarded the best film prize from Fajr festival in 1997 and 2001. Majidi has yet to achieve this prize again. Results of this neo-formalistic analysis show that in these two films, the form is developed to present main themes including family affection, dedication and love. Majidi in Children of Heaven has presented an attractive narration with sufficient rise and fall. He has used some devices such as overhead shot, slow motion and sound design and has applied form principles in order to represent the theme of dedication. In Baran he has taken a step further and has created a form that is consonant to theme of film, by using appropriate devices and form principles. Due to this film he rose up from ordinary form of Iranian cinema. In Baran, theme of love has been expressed with a mystic and spiritual aspect and Majidi has used Iranian mysticism and Sufism and especially has used Rumi’s works for expression of romantic story of film. Therefore, through directing of these two films Majidi gained more knowledge about cinematic form and expression and obtained more strength and ability for creating consonant form to themes of his films.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • The Improvement of Automatic Skin Cancer Detection Algorithm Based on CVQ

    • Authors: Arman Mehrbakhsh, Mohammad Misagh javaherian Hamedani, Mohammad Hossein Shams Saryazdi, Ramin Lamani poor
      Abstract: Nowadays, by increasing the number of deaths related to skin cancer, this kind of cancer has been converted as one of the important issues in humans' life. However, the main key is early detection of skin cancer in order to save the life of people. By considering this fact that there is a near similarity between cancer moles and normal ones, attention to artificial systems with the ability of distinguishing between these kinds of moles can be very important, undoubtedly. The accuracy of this kind of system must be considered in order to find better results, especially in the cases which are related to human‘s life. In this paper, with regard to the fact that the raising of a kind of skin cancer, Melanoma, has increasing, we have employed neural networks in the aim of function improvement of an approach based on compressed image technique, namely, Classified Vector Quantization (CVQ) technique. This suggested method has been examined on some images and the results show that this method is a proper way in order to automatic skin cancer detection.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Representative Confession Effect in Iranian Civil Proceedings

    • Authors: Esmaeil Amiri
      Abstract: In criminal affairs of the law of most countries, including Iran, representation confession all is seen with skepticism. However, the countries that do not accept confession in criminal matters in any way, believe that confession is always to the detriment of the accused and the representative with his confession creates effortlessly further ado for the accused. But it is not always the case, because sometimes the lawyer may provide him the exemptions and the commutation of the sentence with his original confession to committing the crime. In article 205 of General and Revolutionary Courts Procedure Code (Civil Affairs) adopted in 2001, Conclusive confession has been appointed non-substitution. Conclusive confession is the one that a confessor accepts a demand that is asked in the column or it is the subject of the petition. Conclusive confession is against the confession of dispute proof preliminaries. Confession to the premises of the lawsuit will not end and will not accompany by accepting the claim. Basic reasons for this decision are: The original confessor, non-harmful confession against the other, the necessity of observing the interest of the client, the consensus of jurists etc., but none of these reasons can justify impossibility substitution of confession. Therefore, the article aforementioned was critical and its reformation is proposed. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of confession in civil proceedings in Iran; the research in this paper is organized as a library and survey method and it is based on analytical methods. First, the literature of the research is described and as a result, according to analytical findings, fundamental recommendations are proposed.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • The Effect of the Emotional Expression Through Writing on Reducing the
           Fear and Anxiety in Adolescent Students Saved from Death Quake in East

    • Authors: Azita Daryayelal, Reza Pourhossein
      Abstract: Natural disasters such as earthquakes can have a destructive impact on the mental health and development of children and adolescents and may lead to the disruption of their development path. The effect of expressing feelings through writing on the physical and prognosis of chronic diseases has been investigated but so far its impact on trauma has not been studied in Iran. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention for emotional expression through writing in reducing the fear of death and the anxiety in the adolescent’s survivors of the earthquake of August 2012 in East Azerbaijan. The present research was conducted in the form of a quasi-experimental design for 80 male and female adolescents diagnosed with the symptoms of anxiety and fear of death Living in villages in quake-hit city of Harris using the random sampling based on accessibility that were assigned into two experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental attended with complete satisfaction in 3 sessions of writing in 3 consecutive days. Members of the control group received no intervention.  Research instruments were the DASS-21 and TEMPLER which were completed by the participants at a pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Then, the data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and independent t-test. The results showed that anxiety index significantly reduced after performing independent variable in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, this method was not effective in reducing the symptoms of fear of death and also, independent t-test results showed that gender does not make a significant difference on the effects of intervention in relation to both variables (Symptoms of anxiety and fear of death). Treatment of emotional expression through writing was effective on reducing anxiety of young survivors of natural disasters and this method can be a self-help and inexpensive and available method in both genders. However, it needs to be investigated further in reducing the fear of death needs.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
  • Examining the Relationship between Organizational Learning Culture, and
           Customer Satisfaction in Insurance Industry

    • Authors: Alireza Maleki
      Abstract: Today, insurance industry as one of the most important and most vital community service systems is run with competitive surprising changes. In such circumstances, paying attention to organizational learning culture, job satisfaction and customer satisfaction is very important for managers and they consider it as a competitive advantage which changes the performance of this industry. Based on researcher’s observations, it seems that in this industry organizational learning culture, job satisfaction and customer satisfaction are not desirable. Therefore, it can be argued that the major concern of the researcher, which is also the reason for choosing this issue, is that whether there is a significant relationship among the organizational learning culture, job satisfaction and customer satisfaction in the insurance industry' For this purpose, a sample of 384 people was selected and hypotheses of the research were examined. The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational learning culture; there is also a significant relationship between organizational learning culture and customer satisfaction in the insurance industry; Besides, there is a significant relationship between organizational learning culture and customer satisfaction through mediator variable of job satisfaction in the insurance industry; and finally there is also a significant relationship between job satisfaction and customer satisfaction in the insurance industry.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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