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European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
   [13 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
     Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • An Investigation into the Role of Nano-Silica in Improving Strength of
           Lightweight Concrete

    • Authors: Hamed Hasehmpour, Keivan Mohammadi Atashgah, Morteza Karbalaei Rezaei
      Abstract: Development of technology and human’s access to nanotechnology brings about the necessity to use nanotechnology in the concrete industry. Since the decrease of particles size leads to new properties, and unusual mechanical, electrical, and magnetic properties which are inaccessible in usual state, nanotechnology is highly considered. The emergence of nanotechnology in concrete industry has made great changes in many of the concrete properties. Dead load resulted from weight of ceilings and separation walls is one of the fundamental problems in seismic design and structures implementation especially in tall buildings. Obviously, using the lightweight materials could decrease the dead load, weight of beams, columns, and foundation. However, low compressive resistance of lightweight concrete mostly has a direct ratio with the specific gravity of it. Lightweight concrete has a low resistance as a result of its low specific weight. Silica nanoparticles (SNs) have a high surface energy as a result of their high specific surface.  Therefore, they are supposed to have a high pozzolanic reaction and they accelerate hydration reactions. Since the increase of concrete compressive strength is highly noticeable in the new technology, the increase of effective materials with the purpose of increasing compressive strength of concrete could increase the life circle of concrete structures. The present paper intends to investigate the effect of silica nanoparticles on compressive strength, tensile strength, bending strength, contraction of lightweight concrete, and concrete microstructure.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • A Content Analysis of the “Peyman Yazd” and “Besharat
           Nou” Newspapers in the First Three Months of 2012

    • Authors: Mahmoudreza Mortazavi, Javad Azarnegar, Masoud Hadjizadeh Meimandi
      Abstract: The present study has been conducted with the aim of analyzing the contents of two newspapers of Peyman and Besharat Nou. The method used in this study is of content analysis type. The research population includes all the Circulation published of these two newspapers in the first 6 months of the year of 2012. There are 79 news from Peyman Yazd newspaper and 166 news from Besharat Nou newspaper. The research data were collected by using Reverse questionnaire which has been prepared based on Categorization and were analyzed by using SPSS software version 16. The results indicated that the most important source of news for both of the newspapers is News Agencies. Besharat Nou newspaper has published more criticizing news than Peyman-e Yazd newspaper. Using pictures beside news in Peyman-e Yazd newspaper is significantly more than in Besharat Nou newspaper. In terms of writing style, type of news title and news source, there is no significant difference between these two newspapers and the news topics in both the newspapers are somehow similar, which are mainly social and economic news. In Peyman newspaper, Government officials are in most of the headlines.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • ELT Textbook Evaluation in Iran, New Insights

    • Authors: Behrouz Jamalvandi
      Abstract: Textbooks hold a paramount status as an indispensible ingredient of language teaching profession; therefore, appraising and evaluating them seems to be imperative to assure their efficiency and consistency with the objectives defined and expected of the course. The current study was an attempt to evaluate suitability of the English textbook developed by Iranian Education Ministry for pre-university course. To this end, a modified version of World Language Standard Book Evaluation Form developed by Indiana Department of Education (2007) was utilized. The questionnaire was passed out among 30 male and female English teachers in pre-university centers. The form extracted teachers' outlooks on seven major criteria including gender representation, communication, culture, connections, comparisons, communities, and general elements pertaining to areas like skills, language components, attraction of the activities, and the like. The findings showed the moderate level of complacency with the textbook with reference to teachers' perspectives. Neverthless, the salient drawback with the book was its inadequacy in culture presentation. Further, t.test computed for male and female EFL teachers' attitudes indicated that gender played no significant role in this regard. The study ends with some suggestion to improve on the textbook.  
      PubDate: 2014-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • A Survey of Perceptions and Expectations of Citizens from Improvement of
           Villages to City and Its Effect on the Quality of Urban Services

    • Authors: Hossein Amozad Mahdiraji, Mehdi Moradi Koochi
      Abstract: One of the most important factors that citizens are faced after turning a village to a city is the quality of presented services from urban management. The present study aimed to obtain an exact description of the distance between perceptions and expectations of citizens of Fazel Abad of the quality of urban services.  The study is descriptive-survey by field method. Study population is all citizens of Fazel Abad city using urban services and the sample size based on Cochran’s formula is 375 and they were studied by simple random method. The study findings showed that there was a significant difference between perceptions and expectations of citizens to presenting urban services and the highest gap mean (-3.31) of social indices and the lowest gap mean (-1.21) were dedicated to environmental indices.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • An Examination of the Personality of Dick Prosser, the Protagonist in
           Thomas Wolfe’s the Child by Tiger, as a Byronic Hero

    • Authors: Mehdi Khoshkalampour
      Abstract: Thomas Wolfe (1900-38), theAmerican novelist, has composed one of his most renowned short stories, TheChild By Tiger, in such a manner that we can trace an eye catching and transparentproximity between its protagonist, Dick Prosser, and a sort of hero having beenpresented to the world of literature by romantic poet and writer, Gorge GordonByron (1788-1824) during the 19th century. Dick Prosser, a callowand astonishing protagonist, who at times can be considered an anti-hero,demonstrates some traits and characteristics that emphatically correspond towhat a Byronic hero is anticipated to do when confronting difficulties. Thesense of rebel, torment from an internalized agony and grandiose passionsaccompanied by an interminable escape from an unknown traumatic past haveprevailed throughout the story, and cast an unshakable spell on Dick Prosser.The affinity between Dick Prosser the coined Byronic hero becomes morediaphanous when he gets notoriously unorthodox and untamed toward thesocially-confirmed laws and disciplines peculiar to his time. Dick Prosserrepresents some reactions that strengthen the hypothesis alluding to hisinsanity and savagery. However, when elaborated from the Byronic hero’s pointof view, the personality he has chosen against his community inclines to bemore justifiable. This essay has on its horizon the aim to show the propinquitybetween Dick Prosser and the standards having been set to fit the Byronic hero.It also endeavors to delineate the historical path through which the Byronichero has emerged and sustained to come to the present time. The traits Byronichero should possess will be recounted, and an attempt will be made to portraithow Dick matches his counterpart, the Byronic hero.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Intellectual Capital and Investment Opportunity Set

    • Authors: hamidreza jafaridehkordi, Ruzita Abdul Rahim
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to investigate empirically the effect of intellectual capital on investment opportunity set in Malaysia for the period of 2006-2011. This study examined the relationship via a panel data and fixed effect regression models. Pulic’s Value Added Intellectual ‎Coefficient (VAIC™) method is used as the measure to assess the  performance of intellectual capital while factor analysis is used to construct the index of investment opportunity set (IOS). The findings showed that intellectual capital performance as the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC), Intellectual Capital Efficiency (ICE), Human Capital Efficiency (HCE) Structural Capital Efficiency (SCE), Capital Employed Efficiency (CEE) have a significant positive effect on investment opportunity set. Since investing on intellectual capital can increase investment opportunities as a result of market value in any company, the outcomes of the current  study are significant for managers aiming to increase the market value of their respective companies.
      PubDate: 2014-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Comparison of Conception of Space-Time between Dysgraphic Children and
           Normal Children of Ilam Province, Iran

    • Authors: Abdolabbas Mohammadi, Mahshid Darabeigi, Zahra Gholamhosein Ajili
      Abstract: Dictation is one of prevalent topics in relation to learning disabilities which is considered by the experts and psychologists in the current century. Dysgraphia or disorder in dictation is a major written disorder. The applied studies demonstrate that this disability causes students’ fatigue and losing their interest and finally will result in academic failure. The present study was applied with the objective of comparing the conception of space-time between dysgraphic children and normal children in Ilam Province within academic year 91-92 (2012-13). This research according to the nature of question and objectives is causal-comparative study. The data was collected using Wechsler intelligence scale for children revised (WISC-R), Wechsler cube subtest for children and teacher-made distraction test. Fifty students were selected among the boy and girl students of first and second grades of primary school, by random cluster sampling.  Summary of results indicated that space and time concept are understood by dysgraphic children later than normal children. According to the results of this study, it is concluded that the dysgraphic students have problem with space and time elements construction. Summary of results indicates that space and time concepts are perceived by children infected with dysgraphia later than normal children, thus it may be used in preschool children for readiness for reading and writing i.e. focus on perceiving the orientation concepts (up-down, far-near, left-right) as well as attention to physical  design and physical  space.

      PubDate: 2014-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Nurse Caring Behaviors from Patients’ and Nurses’ Perspective:
           A Comparative Study

    • Authors: Mohammad Esmaiel Hajinezhad, Parviz Azodi
      Abstract: Caring is a complex concept but nevertheless with many definitions of it, unfortunately there is not agreement among researchers about the definitions of caring. As patients are the recipients of care, it is important to identify their perceptions of caring. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare nurse caring behaviors from patient's and nurse's perspective. The sample consisted of 150 patients hospitalized in Boushehr hospitals and 50 nurses caring for their patients. Data were collected using a quota sampling method and Caring Behaviors Inventory (CBI). Findings showed that, there were significant differences between patients and nurses perspective in subscales including Assurance of human presence and Attentiveness to other's experience. Moreover, there was a significant difference in total scale of nurse caring behaviors between patient's and nurse's perspective (t=2.559, P=0.011). Significant difference in nurse caring behaviors between nurse and patient satisfaction implies, howbeit nurses believe that they care for patients but can't to make an estimate of their expectations. To reduce this Gap, nurses should attend to human caring and inform patients to real caring.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Position of Transaction Cause in the Iranian Law

    • Authors: Alireza Haji Ahmadi, Mohammad Roshan, Noshafarin Rezai
      Abstract: In the Iranian law, commitment cause has not been mentioned as one of the main conditions of contract and instead it has referred to "transaction cause" in Article 190 of Civil Law and has regarded legitimacy of transaction cause as among main conditions of contract accuracy. This paper is aimed at studying commitment cause in bilateral contracts that justifies commitments correlation principle, and in the unilateral or consent contracts. Finally by focusing on "legitimacy of transaction cause", it explains different states and suggests a logical path with a legal approach for the conflict of will sovereignty and contracts' stability principles with the legitimacy of the transaction cause.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Pathology in Advertising Graphics (Designer, Customer and Audience)

    • Authors: Niloufar Ariaei Monfared
      Abstract: Today advertising graphics in Iran lacks innovation and creativity which can cause change and practical creation as well as beauty and novelty and attractiveness. These works not only are not creative, but also lacks Iranian identity and no track of Iranian great artistic heritage can be observed in these graphic works. With a look at Iran’s traditional graphics with such examples as blank designs, tiles, calligraphy, paintings on dishes, clothing, illustration in booksand etc. it is found that Iran's current graphics has lost its link to the past and it is in weakness and decline state compared to the past works. Graphics is a triangle with designer, customer and audience as its heads. Creative designers have perfect and accurate look at all aspects. They put value on their artistic sense of discovery and artistic intuition, and at the same time, they are aware of importance of the customer as well as the audience and viewer. Taking these points into account and paying attention to principles for constructing a graphic work and creativity process in designing play crucial role in creating creative and novel works. Some studies have been conducted on investigating relationship between graphics and advertisement; however, pathology of graphics in advertisement and reasons for lack of appropriate influence of advertisement on audience has been understudied. Thus, current work aims at investigating pathology of graphics in advertisement. In other words, the factors which influence failure or low influence of advertisement on the audience will be studied with reliance on three factors, i.e. customer, designer and audience, and finally some solutions will be proposed to overcome these factors.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Influence of Social, Economic and Cultural Factors on the Level of
           Religiosity of Youths with an Average Age of 25 to 29 (A Case Study in

    • Authors: Gelareh Kohzadi, Tahmours Shiri
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of social, economic and cultural factors on the level of religiosity of youths in city of Ilam in 2013-2014 (solar years of 92-93). In this research, subjects were 438 youths with an average age of 25 to 29 whom were selected by random cluster sampling. Variables measured in this study include: the degree of religiosity, age, social status, housing conditions, educational level, monthly income, father and mother’s jobs, the way individuals spend their time at their leisure, the type of communication (including TV, satellite, Internet, listening to the radio (foreign and domestic). In order to analyze the data, descriptive statistics method was used while for analyzing the hypotheses test, inferential statistics including (ANOVA - Linear and Non-linear Regression, T- test, Pearson, Spearman test and Path analysis were used. The results obtained from the descriptive data indicated that the degree of religiosity among youths is in a moderate status. To elucidate the reasons of youth’s tendency for religiosity, the present research shows these facts: a) cultural factors and the literacy rate played the most significant role in the degree of religiosity of youths. b) Fathers’ job was the second significant variable that had a positive effect on the degree of religiosity. c) After examining both female and male respondents, the research showed that the degree of religiosity amongst the girls was greater than the boys. D) It also showed that the more was the age of respondents, the less was the degree of religiosity amongst them. The most important conclusion reached from the influence of effective variables on the degree of religiosity of youths was that: The amount of income had the greatest impact on the reduction of religiosity and two factors including father’s monthly income and father’s occupational status had indirect impact on the degree of religiosity of youths.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Factors Impeding Online Shopping: An Arab World Perspective

    • Authors: M. Sadiq Sohail
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that impede online shopping in the Arab region. This region has witnessed a fast growth in internet usage and offers a lot of potential for online retailing. The study is conducted in Saudi Arabia, which is the largest market in the Arab region. This study investigates the barriers to online shopping in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Empirical research is used to determine the difference in the barriers to online shopping by the shoppers and non-shoppers. Results based on a survey indicate that the major factors that impede online shopping are digital concerns, financial security concerns and online store barriers.  Non-shoppers express more profound concerns than online shoppers. The paper discusses the implications of these and makes recommendations. The study provides valuable insights into online shopping in Saudi Arabia that has not been previously investigated. From a practical point, findings of this study will be particularly useful to online retailers, shoppers, financial institutions and telecommunication service providers.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effectiveness of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression and HbA1C
           in Diabetics type II

    • Authors: Bakhtiar Moslemi, Zolikha Gholizadeh, Ahmad Sohrabi
      Abstract: Behavioral activation is the principal non-pharmacologic method for the management of depression, but its usefulness for depressed patients with diabetes remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of behavioral activation therapy (BA) for depression in patients with diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes and major depression (n = 29) were randomized to 16 sessions of behavioral activation (n = 15) and control group (n = 14). All patients participated in a diabetes education program to control for the effects of supportive attention and the possible influence of enhanced diabetes control on mood. The main outcome was depression, measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) assessed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 4 months, and the glycemic control was measured by using hemoglobin A1C levels, Outcomes were assessed immediately after treatment and 4 months after treatment.  The percentage of patients achieving remission of depression (Beck Depression Inventory score < 9) was greater in the BA group than in the control group: post-treatment 75% of patients in the BA group (9 of 12) compared with 14.2% of controls (2 of 14) achieved remission (difference, 60.8 percentage points (P < 0.01); at follow-up 66.6% of patients in the BA group (8 of 12) compared with 15.3% of controls(2 of 13) achieved remission (P = 0.03). Post-treatment HbA1C levels were not different in the two groups, but follow-up mean HbA1C levels were significantly better in the BA group than in the control group (9.5% compared with 10.9%; P = 0.03). The combination of Behavioral activation and supportive diabetes education is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for major depression in patients with type 2 diabetes. It can successfully be disseminated into routine practice settings in Iran and it may also be associated with improved glycemic control.

      PubDate: 2014-11-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Antimicrobial Effect of Dill Seed Oil Essence on Growth of Staphylococcus
           Aureus in Hamburgers

    • Authors: Mahsa Derakhshan, Fatemeh Zaaboli, Niloofar Qasempour
      Abstract: In the present study, antimicrobial effect of dill seed’s oil in 6 levels (0.003-0.006-0.0125-0.025-0.05-0.1 percents) and 4 time period of 10, 20, 30, and 40 days on the growth of staphylococcus aures and total amount of microorganisms in preserved hamburger at the temperature of -18±1 °C was considered. Also, to find out about the effect of dill seed essence addition to hamburger on sensuous characteristics of the product, sensuous evaluation based on a 5-point hedonic scale was performed in three sections of taste, odor, and total reception. Results obtained from microbial experiments showed reduced staphylococcus aureus amount and total amounting, and these changes were significant in concentrations over 0.0125 (P<0.05). Among essence concentration levels, the least and most effects were determined to be those of 0.003 and 0.1, respectively. Sensuous evaluation results revealed that as dill essence concentration increased to 0.0125 percent, it had a positive effect on sensuous characteristics of hamburger. In higher concentration, however, it reduced sensuous characteristics of the product. These variations were significant in the concentration of 0.1 compared with other treatments (P<0.05). According to obtained results, dill seed’s oil essence had a harnessing and lethal impact on staphylococcus of hamburger, and it can be used as a natural preserver in meat products especially hamburger.
      PubDate: 2014-11-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Effect of Student Team-Achievement Division (STAD) on Language
           Achievement of Iranian EFL Students across Gender

    • Authors: farahnaz Rimani Nikou, Alireza Bonyadi, Khatereh Ebrahimi
      Abstract: The present investigation is a quasi-experimental research which has used the two group pre-test post-test design. A total of 80 female and male (48 females and 32 males) EFL students at the intermediate level of English proficiency studying in Jahad Daneshgahi Language Institute in Urmia, Iran, were chosen and assigned to two groups based on the placement test results. The sample was divided into two groups of experimental group (n=40) and control group (n=40). The results of the study showed that there was a statistical significant difference at the level of 0.05 between the means of the performance of the experimental and control groups on the achievement test for the benefit of the experimental group. Hence, STAD can effectively be implemented to improve the learners’ language proficiency. The results indicated that there were no gender differences in students’ language achievement after their being taught through STAD. Hence, ultimate result of the study indicated that STAD (Student Team Achievement Division) was more effective instructional paradigm for English as compared to the traditional method of teaching. Due to its provision for higher learning engagement, it proved to be an active learning strategy.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • A Study on Metal Objects of the Iron Age in Masjed-e-Kabud Located in

    • Authors: Fakhrolsadat Bassampour
      Abstract: Excavation of the archaeological site of Masjed-e-Kabud (blue mosque) is important regarding time. It is related to a time period which is more ambiguous than other time periods in the whole archaeological period of Iran and the Middle East. The present paper attempts to compare the metal objects found in the archaeological site of Masjed-e-Kabud with those of regions such as Hasanlu, Dinkhah Tepe, Lorestan (first millennium), Qaleh Kuti I of Deylaman, Talish, and Jamshid abad in order to determine their cultural relations. Moreover, understanding the method of making metal objects dating back to the late second-early first millennium could clarify the history and civilization of this period.  The research follows library studies and it has acquired information on the archaeological sites of Masjed-e-Kabud and other contemporary sites.  The metal objects found during five periods of Masjed-e-Kabud excavation have also been studies, categorized, and compared with the metal objects found in the present sites.
      PubDate: 2014-11-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Auditor Style and Comparability of Financial Statements: a Comparison of
           Audit Style in Iran and U.S.A.

    • Authors: Abdolreza Mohseni, Fereydoon rahnamay roodposhti, Hashem Nikomaram, Hamidreza Vakili Fard, Fazllolah Lak
      Abstract: The term auditor style is used to determine a unique set of internal working rules each audit firm employs to perform audit standards and application generally accepted accounting principles between their clients. Audit style implies that two companies audited by the same auditor, subject to the same audit style, are more likely to have comparable earnings than two firms audited by two different audit firms with different styles. The sample consists of 63 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange for the period 2002 to 2013. The tests are based on pairs of firms and a total of 4344 pairs of firms as observations are used. In the present study correlation method and multiple regression are used and the means for comparing hypothesis test are performed. The findings show that the audit style of audit firms in the U.S leads to more similar in total accruals and discretionary accruals for their clients than to clients of audit firms in Iran. In other words, the comparability of financial statements of U.S companies with Iranian ones indicates more similarity in accruals and earnings structure.
      PubDate: 2014-11-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Legal - Juridical Nature of the Insurer and the Insured Commitments, and
           their Incompatibility with General Conditions of Law in Comprehensive Car

    • Authors: Soghra Chehrehnejhad, Bashoukouh Mozaffar, Hanifehzadeh Latif
      Abstract: This paper aims to study legal - juridical foundation of comprehensive car insurances, approved by High Council of Insurance in 1937, and their incompatibility with general conditions. According to investigations, it was found that there is a contradiction between article 8 of the general conditions in regulations of comprehensive car insurance and article 19 of the Insurance Act. Since a regulation does not violate the law, it is necessary to revise the regulation. In addition, regarding the juridical rights and laws reveals that insurance contracts are consensual contracts, and once the agreement is signed between the parties, it is valid and both parties (insured and insurer) bound to respect conditions of the contract. Therefore, refusing to pay fees at a specific maturity by insured and refusing to pay compensations by the insurer damage the legal nature of comprehensive car insurances. Failure to pay compensations in such cases is contrary to the juridical principles, but the requirements of the contract are in accordance to the requirements of Civil Law.
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Analysis of the Effects of Relative Price Changes as Supply Shocks on
           Inflation in Iran

    • Authors: Akbar Komijani, Majid Ahmadlu, Kambiz Hozhabr Kiani, Farhad Ghaffari
      Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of relative price changes dispersion and skewness as aggregate supply shocks on inflation in iran. For this purpose, we used total and state urban price index, for period 2004-2012 and arellano and bover (1995), Blundell and Bond (1998) method. The results show that relative price changes dispersion and skewness have positive and significant effect on inflation. In addition, the interaction between the dispersion and skewness has negative effect on inflation.
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • A Survey on Antecedents of Brand Preference (A Case of Samsung on Audio
           and Video Products)

    • Authors: Zahra Kashanizadeh, Mohammad Rahim Esfidani
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the factors influencing brand preference. Samsung audio and video products have been chosen as case study. This study is based on practical approach. Data collection methods is descriptive branch of the covariance matrix or correlation analysis. After gathering information through questionnaires, exploratory factor analysis was conducted by LISREL software. As a result, the overall factors affecting customer preferences in the form factor of 7 were determined. Each of these factors were determined as general hypothesis of the study. These assumptions were studied through confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. The results showed that brand awareness, advertising, features of value and characteristics of customer, effect on Samsung brand preference.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • A Study on the Explicit and Implicit Memory Bias among People with Social
           Anxiety Disorder and Normal Participants

    • Authors: Ali Farhadi, Yazdan Movahedi, Mohammad Almasian, Abdolkhalegh Minashiri, Galavizh Karimi Javan, Soheila Khazaee
      Abstract: Anxiety disorders, especially social phobia, are among the most important disorders among university students, which need particular attention. The present research was carried out to compare explicit and implicit memory among people with social phobia and normal subjects. In the present study which is of the causal-comparative type, the research subjects consisted of 50 individuals suffering from social anxiety disorder and 50 normal individuals, who were selected via screening from among the students of the University of Tabriz. Data collection was performed using the social anxiety scale, word stem completion task, and cued recall test. The collected data were analyzed using the multivariate analysis of variance method. The results of the study showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups in implicit memory when remembering positive and negative words, but no significant difference was observed between the two groups in explicit memory.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Rotating Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    • Authors: Sara Dastan, Ali Farokhtabar, Mohammad Ali Ganjali, Bahare Hosseini
      Abstract: It is a long time since the motion of astronomical objects has been explained in the framework of Newtonian gravity. The great success of Newton’s law of universal gravitation in planetary motion persuaded astronomers to use this regime as a viable framework in the larger scales. Meanwhile, whenever a deviation of observed motions from expected ones were observed, the immediate question came up: should such anomalies be considered as incompleteness of laws of gravitation or as indication of the existence of unseen objects? In following we explain rotating black holes and solving this metric’s black hole with conformal gravity. Firstly explain problem with DM then introduce conformal transformation and conformal gravity, in the last step we solving a metric for rotating black hole in the presence and absence of matter.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Correlation between Dimensions of Perfectionism and Defense Mechanisms
           with Narcissism in Students of Islamic Azad University-Tonekabon Branch

    • Authors: ahmad shamsaldini, mohammadreza zarbakhsh, Abdolali Yaghoubi
      Abstract: The current research has been conducted with the aim of determining the correlation between aspects of perfectionism and defense mechanisms with narcissism in university students. The currents research method is correlative. The population includes all of the university students of Islamic Azad University-Tonekabon Branch in academic year 2012 - 2013 and among them 223 individuals were chosen by cluster random sampling as samples. NPI-16, Hall (1979), dimensions of Hewitt and Felt perfectionism (1991) and defense style questionnaire (DSQ-40) Andrews et al, (1993) were used for data collection. Data were analyzed through the use of Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression in two arranged series simultaneously by the use of SPSS software. Results showed that a positive and significant correlation exists between dimensions of perfectionism (self-oriented, other- oriented, community-oriented) and defense mechanisms (immature and neurotic) with narcissism in university students and a negative significant correlation exists between the defense mechanism (mature) and the narcissism in university students. Also in these two set of series 18% of variance related to narcissism was explained.
      PubDate: 2014-10-18
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Strategic Planning for Reaching the Stable Urban Safety in the Unsafe

    • Authors: Fatemehalsadat Afsahhosseini
      Abstract: Urban un-safety is one of the serious challenges in the societies that is considered by many experts. Achieving stable urban safety and increasing it in the big cities is one of the most important issues especially in capital.  Dimensions of urban safety are complicate with extension of Tehran daily, therefore representing appropriate strategies to improve the urban safety is necessary. Strategic planning is considered as an effective method to solve the complicated and variable problems of modern cities by researchers. Khalazir district of region 19 was selected to study by this method and documents of strategic planning were established in a three-stage process. Questionnaires were applied in the descriptive-analytical method for this study. Statistical society was conducted from 37 residents and 10 leaders from district. The aim of this study is providing safety for cities of Iran by identifying and removing the threats of urban threats dimensions (commercial, social, cultural, environmental and management rules) by participation of the public and private sectors and the main organization that is responsible for urban safety cooperation (it is necessary to be constituted) and then making more secure urban districts.
      PubDate: 2014-10-18
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Effect of Visual Mnemonic Support Practice on the Reading
           Comprehension of Psychology Texts

    • Authors: Zahra Kordjazi
      Abstract: Iranian psychology students often face difficulties in understanding psychology texts in English. This can have an adverse effect on their opportunities of academic success. To help them overcome those difficulties, the current study investigated the effect of visual mnemonic support practice on students' reading comprehension. The participants of the present study were 55 Iranian psychology seniors chosen out of 71 students based on their PET language proficiency test scores. They were divided into two homogenous groups of experimental and control. The experimental group benefited from visual mnemonic techniques, including pictures and visualization. Open-ended questioning was used as a measure of reading comprehension. Results of Independent Samples T-test revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group. Pedagogical implications of visual mnemonic aids are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Studying the Role of Habits and Achievement Motivation in Improving
           Students’ Academic Performance

    • Authors: Kambiz Yazdani, Varsha Sane Godbole
      Abstract: The purpose of the research was to study the relation of achievement motivation and study habits to academic performance in high school student in Hyderabad. A sample of 400 students consisting of boys and girls were selected from 7th and 8th grade. The tools used in the present study to collect data were study habits inventory by M. N. Palsane (1989) and achievement motivation scale by Deo.mohan (1992). The data were collected in small groups. Later the data were analyzed by using mean score, standard deviation, Pearson’s correlation and regression. The result indicated that there was significant positive relationship of achievement motivation and study habits to academic performance. The result also showed the extent of contribution of achievement motivation and study habits to academic performance. Therefore it can be concluded that achievement motivation and study habits have proved to be effective on academic performance of students and helped them for better performance and academic achievement.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Examining the Effects of Behavior Variables (Skill, Attitude and

    • Authors: Mahshid Sherafati, Roohollah Mohammadi
      Abstract: In this research, the role of behavioral variables (skill, attitude, and personality) was considered on employee empowerment in Karafarin bank. In order to research in this particular subject, some questionnaire provided and distributed among 120 employees and managers in Karafarin bank. Each of behavioral variables 'effectiveness on employee empowerment considered with utilizing stepwise regression after information gathered. Results of research indicated that behavioral variables (skill, attitude, and personality) have positive and significant effectiveness on employee empowerment, and personality among considered behavioral variables is most effective item on employee empowerment.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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