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Journal Cover European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1805-3602
   Published by European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The Effect of Job Crafting on Job Creativity through Job Engagement: A
           Case of Banking Sector of Vehari, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Rizwan, Asad Afzal Humayon, Ahmad Usman Shahid, Hafiza Sobia Tufail, Rizwan Qaiser Danish, Hafiz Muhammad Muneeb
      Abstract: This research was conducted to investigate the effect of job crafting upon job creativity and how job engagement intervenes this relationship. In this study, data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on LIKERT type scale from banking sector employees at district Vehari, Pakistan. In all, 300 survey questionnaires were circulated among which 271 were returned back yielding a useable response rate of 90%. The analysis of the data revealed that job crafting has significant positive impact on job creativity of employees working in banking sector of Vehari, Pakistan but this relationship is not only direct and job engagement plays the role of a mediator. Considering the importance of appreciations received by bankers management, policy makers should take necessary steps for improving the job engagement system and job crafting which will increase the job creativity of employees because their motivation to their profession will increase. Limitations and future guidelines have been discussed. 
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Dividend Policy and Corporate Governance Quality: An Empirical

    • Authors: M. Azeem, Talat Afza
      Abstract: The study intends to investigate the relationship between corporate governance quality and dividend policy in Pakistan. The sample of the study covers Karachi Stock Exchange 100 index listed companies from the period of 2008 to 2011. The results have confirmed the support of outcome model in Pakistan which confirms that firm’s dividend policy moves with the direction of corporate governance quality. Moreover, there are positive associations between size of the firms, profitability and dividend policy. Finally, investment opportunities and leverage are negatively related with dividend policy. These results, taken as a whole, indicate that better governed firms used to pay more dividends and it implies that firm-level corporate governance and country-level investor protections are complements to each other rather than substitution.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Monpa, the Early Settlers of Bhutan in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National
           Park and Conservation Strategy

    • Authors: Letro Letro, Sangay Wangchuk
      Abstract: Monpas are aboriginal Bhutanese who inhabited the forests around Black Mountains in Bhutan. They lived their lives gathering food and materials from the forests, however, their livelihood activities are now shifting towards modern economy with coming of new settlements. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered for three Monpa villages within the administrative boundary of the Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park in Bhutan. Modern education came very recently to the communities of Monpa and they still depend widely on agriculture, arts and crafts and on livestock farming. Such a practice of livelihood activities forms a perfect platform for conflict between the conservationist and communities. Recognizing the importance of communities in conservation efforts, Royal Government of Bhutan prioritized developmental initiatives for Monpas. Many Integrated Conservation Development Programs were initiated by the park to address some of the social issues and to garner support from communities for conservation. With the initiation of many conservation activities centered on the Monpas, they seem to have high regards to conservation, however they expect the park authorities to help them set-up electric fence around their fields to reduce conflicts with wild-life. We put on record that biodiversity conservation shall only be achieved if the conservation and developmental philosophies co-exists, thus understanding the drivers effecting biodiversity conservation forms the vital ingredients for any conservation efforts to be successful.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Effect of the Duration and Temperature of Infusion on the Heavy Metal
           Content of Green Tea

    • Authors: Sattar Jamshidpour, Elahe Faramarzi, Majid Mahmoudi, Kambiz Varmira
      Abstract: Tea is one of the most popular drinks in the world, which contains several important essential micro nutrients that are beneficial to human health. On the other hand, the contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose serious problems to human health. In this research, the concentration of toxic metals (Al, As, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni) and essential heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) in Iranian green tea (IGT) leaves and its infusion were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Additionally, the effect of the duration (10, 30 and 90 min) and temperature (80 and 100 ºC) of tea infusion on the content of heavy metals was studied. There was a significant difference between all samples at different time and temperatures. The concentrations range of heavy metals in IGT leaves was 1332-0.023 mg/kg. The highest and lowest metal content was observed for Al and Cd, respectively. The results showed that the heavy metal contents in IGT infusion varied between 11.7 mg/L for Al to 0.0002 mg/L for Cd. The highest and lowest percentage of metal extracted into IGT infusion was observed for Ni and Fe as 73.6 and 2.4, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-11-11
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Efectiveness of Retraining Programs as a Social Construction: A Critical
           Discourse Analysis

    • Authors: Martin Brezina
      Abstract: The research presented in this paper aims at identifying the ways in which officers in Labour Offices construct their interpretations of retraining programs effectiveness and how this understanding translates into their approaches to clients in labour offices. The epistemological position of the research is social constructionism. This perspective is combined with a critical approach. The research part of the thesis is based on critical discourse analysis methodology by Norman Fairclough. Data analysis is carried out using the tools of discourse analysis, developed by James P. Gee. Subsequently, four kinds of sub-discourses of retraining effectiveness are introduced: disciplining discourse, bureaucratic discourse, pragmatic discourse and allied discourse
      PubDate: 2016-11-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Determining the Role of Transformational Leadership on Firm Performance
           through Organizational Innovation and Technological Innovation

    • Authors: Rizwan Ali Khadim, Muhammad Asghar, Rafia Khan, Omer Farooq, Mehwish Afzal
      Abstract: This study aims to address the influential role of TL on FP through organizational innovation and technological capabilities innovation. The unit of analysis in study is individual employees working in software industry of Pakistan. The proposed research method for this study is Quantitative method. Research design of this study is administrative survey method. The current study is performed in the software marketplace which is incredibly energetic industry in Pakistan. Moreover, respondents are chosen randomly from different software companies for avoiding to any kind of biasness. A total of 395 survey questionnaire were collected from the software houses in Pakistan and 370 responses were completed. This study also uses statistically techniques such as reliability and structural equation model techniques for data analysis through AMOS and SPSS software. The empirical results show positive and significant influence of TL on FP. In addition, the findings of this study will help the firms to improve their business performance and improvements of new technological capabilities as well.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Critical Success Factors for Economic Development & Growth in Developing
           Countries: A Case Study of Pakistan

    • Authors: Saeed Siyal, Abdul Waheed Siyal, Muhammad Imran Rasheed, Mubeen Asif, Madad Ali, Amran Said Suleiman
      Abstract: Multiple economic indicators and tools are intensively discussed in the academic literature. In the current piece of art, the factors like FDI, Gross Domestic Productivity (GDP), Human development, literacy rate, youth and unemployment have been primarily analyzed to define the current economic situation in the country. Specifically the indicator of ‘Foreign Direct Investment’ (FDI) has been focused to define the economic growth of Pakistan. For the research secondary source of data has been gathered for the time duration of last 5 years. Findings show that, factors such as FDI, GDP and Human development are of significant importance for the economic growth and development of Pakistan, while the factors like literacy rate, youth and unemployment are relatively less important. The paper is of great importance. This study can play a vital role in compelling the government authorities to focus their intention towards the economic and growth indicators of high importance. The study can also be an effectual case for other countries facing alike economic situation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Emotional Exhaustion as Stressor agent for Job Stress in Call Centers:
           Empirical evidence from perspective of Job Satisfaction and Turnover
           Intention as Work Outcomes

    • Authors: Nadia Zubair Ahmad Khan, Asma Imran, Qasim Ali Nisar
      Abstract: The purpose of the study is to analyze job burnout component emotional exhaustion as a probable stressor agent that causes job stress and their impact on job satisfaction and turnover intention as work outcomes. The scales were adapted from that measure to analyze the effect of emotional exhaustion causing job stress, also highlights the evidence in support of the conceptual model. Data was collected by the survey that generated 220 respondents. The sample chosen for this research are employees working in telecommunication call centers of Lahore city region in Pakistan. SPSS regression analysis was employed for data analysis. The results showed that emotional exhaustion carried negative and significant relation with job satisfaction (β= -.354,p<.05) and significant positive relation with turnover intention (β= .290, p<.05) also significant relation between dependent variables followed by mediating effect of two dimensions of job stress analyzed by PROCESS procedure of bootstrapping technique contained no and full mediation between emotional exhaustion in relation with job satisfaction and turnover intention respectively. Outcome from the conducted study depicted that stress did not affected the level of satisfaction of employees as they are well trained and informed that job stress is the part of their work activities in call centers and the stress in organizations is needed to be dealt with.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Impact of Perceived Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment
           of Employees in the Education Sector of Pakistan

    • Authors: Chaudhry Abdul Khaliq, Ibne Abbas Ashraf, Muhammad Nasir Chattha, Arshad Haroon, Nauman Aslam
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the effect of perceived leadership behavior on organizational commitment of employees and the industry that this paper conducts the study in is the education sector of Pakistan. After a thorough review of the literature, research gap was identified and data was collected with the help of questionnaires. Out of 200 questionnaires that were handed out, 170 complete responses were received with a response rate of 85% as part of this self-administered questionnaire filling activity. These responses were obtained from the faculty members of different colleges and universities in Lahore, Pakistan. Random sampling was carried out for selection of the sample for this study. For analyzing the data Pearson’s product moment correlation and regression were used. This study found that there was a positive effect of participative and supportive leadership behavior and the organizational commitment of employees whereas there was a negative relationship between directive leadership and organizational commitment of employees. These findings are useful for managers to understand how they can increase organizational commitment amongst employees for greater organizational productivity. Limitations and future research possibilities have also been indicated.
      PubDate: 2016-10-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Physical Pattern of Urban Spaces and its Effects on Tourism
           Corridors’ Safety/Security (Case Study: Jolfa, Bazaar and Zayanderud
           corridors in Isfahan)

    • Authors: Morteza Babaii, Ahmad Shahivandi, Mohammad Mahmoodi
      Abstract: Today, tourism is one of the largest industries in the world. Security of tourists in tourism destinations is included in the most important factors of tourism development. It depends on many factors and among them is the physical environment of the location. Thus, the goal of present study is to identify physical indicators affecting tourists’ security in tourist paths of Isfahan and checking method that physical indicators influence the dimensions of tourists’ security. This study is a part of applied research and the method used to analyze the effect of physical indicators on tourists’ security consists of structural equation modeling technique. The results obtained from the structural equation modeling method, show that the various aspects of security were affected by the conditions of physical indicators at the tourist paths of Isfahan. Model outputs indicated that the values for the aspects of psychological security of tourists, economic security, social security and environmental security influenced by the physical indicators at the tourist paths of Isfahan were 88, 83, 27 and 82 percent respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-10-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy on Anxiety and
           Acute Stress in Adolescents Rescued from Earthquake in East Azerbaijan
           Province, Iran

    • Authors: Farideh Maleki Avarsin, Reza Pourhossein
      Abstract: The present study examines the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy on anxiety and acute stress in adolescents rescued from earthquake in city of Hariss, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Twenty of the adolescents rescued from earthquake in East Azerbaijan (city of Hariss) who met the inclusion criteria were randomly selected for the study. This is a quasi-experimental study using pre-test and post-test design with the control group. The participants were randomly divided into two groups after pre-test. In the experimental group, the cognitive behavior group therapy, they were trained by 8 sessions of two hours and the control group did not receive any intervention. The instrument used in this study was Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) to assess symptoms of anxiety and acute stress in adolescents rescued from earthquake in city of Hariss, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods (ANCOVA) were used. The results show a significant difference between experimental group and the control group after implementing the dependent variable and by a factor of 99% confidence; one can be considerd the cognitive-behavioral group therapy as positive in reducing symptoms of anxiety and stress in the experimental group. Further, the anxiety in the experimental group significantly decreased compared to the control group in pre-test and stress was significantly reduced in the experimental group and the control group in pre-test. There was a significant difference in reducing anxiety and stress of the experimental group. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents rescued from earthquake in East Azerbaijan (city of Hariss) has been effective in reducing anxiety and stress. The results indicated that the treatment had a significant effect on both gender. Therefore, this method can be used for both genders.
      Issue No: Vol. 5
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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