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Journal Cover   Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  [SJR: 0.571]   [H-I: 31]   [9 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1916-0216
   Published by Biomed Central Ltd. Homepage  [270 journals]
  • The Mcgill thyroid nodule score ¿ does it help with indeterminate
           thyroid nodules'

    • Authors: Rickul Varshney, Veronique-Isabelle Forest, Marco Mascarella, Faisal Zawawi, Louise Rochon, Michael Hier, Alex Mlynarek, Michael Tamilia, Richard Payne
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Background: Ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (USFNA) biopsy of thyroid nodules often gives a result of indeterminate pathology, placing thyroid specialists in difficult management situations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery and to correlate these results with the McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS). Methods: We performed a retrospective study comparing USFNA results, MTNS and histopathology of patients undergoing thyroid surgery between 2010 and 2012. Pre-operative USFNA results were divided into three subgroups: benign, indeterminate and suspicious for/malignant. The indeterminate USFNA subgroup comprised of Bethesda type III (atypia of undetermined significance) and Bethesda type IV (follicular neoplasms, including Hurthle cell neoplasms) lesions. Post-operative histopathology was divided into benign or malignant groups. Results: Of the 437 patient charts reviewed, 57.0% had an indeterminate USFNA biopsy. Within the indeterminate group, the malignancy rate was 39.8%. For indeterminate USFNA, the median MTNS was 7 (32% risk of malignancy) for benign nodules and 9 (63% risk of malignancy) for malignant nodules on post-operative histopathology (p 
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:2
      PubDate: 2015-02-03T12:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0058-6
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
  • A survey on pulmonary screening practices among otolaryngology-head &
           neck surgeons across Canada in the post treatment surveillance of head and
           neck squamous cell carcinoma

    • Authors: J Madana, Gregoire Morand, Luz Barona-Lleo, Martin Black, Alex Mlynarek, Michael Hier
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Background: Post treatment lung screening for head and neck cancer patients primarily focuses on the distant metastasis and a high rate of second primary can also be expected. The best screening tool and timing for this purpose is controversial. We sought out to assess the current practice and beliefs among Canadian Head and Neck Surgeons. Methods: After Ethical Board approval, a nationwide survey was conducted through the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology (CSO) among head and neck surgeons regarding their practices for pulmonary screening in HNSCC patients. Results: Our CSO survey among Otolaryngology-head and neck surgeons showed that 26 out of 32 respondents perform routine lung screen, out of which 23 (88%) feel that chest radiography should be preferred. The majority of respondents felt that lung screening could impact beneficially on mortality. For symptomatic patients, low-dose spiral CT was the preferred modality (48%), followed by PET/CT scan (14%) and sputum cytology (14%). In high-risk asymptomatic patients (current smoker, radiation exposure, family history and advanced HNSCC), 31% of respondents performed a CXR. The same percentage performed a low dose CT, while 19% relied on PET scan. A further 19% of respondents did not perform any screening in high-risk patients. Most respondents (77%) had more than 10'years practice since graduation from medical school and came from the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and Alberta. Conclusion: Chest radiography remains the preferred modality for lung screening and was believed to be impacting beneficially on lung mortality. The recent literature does not seem to be in agreement with those beliefs. Further studies to establish which modality is best and concurrent nation-wide education are warranted.
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:5
      PubDate: 2015-02-04T12:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0057-7
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
  • Reviewer acknowledgement 2014

    • Authors: Hadi Seikaly, Erin Wright
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Contributing reviewersThe Editors of Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 43 (2014).
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:6
      PubDate: 2015-02-11T12:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0054-x
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
  • Face and content validity of a novel, web-based otoscopy simulator for
           medical education

    • Authors: Brandon Wickens, Jordan Lewis, David Morris, Murad Husein, Hanif Ladak, Sumit Agrawal
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Background: Despite the fact that otoscopy is a widely used and taught diagnostic tool during medical training, errors in diagnosis are common. Physical otoscopy simulators have high fidelity, but they can be expensive and only a limited number of students can use them at a given time.Objectives1) To develop a purely web-based otoscopy simulator that can easily be distributed to students over the internet. 2) To assess face and content validity of the simulator by surveying experts in otoscopy. Methods: An otoscopy simulator, OtoTrain™, was developed at Western University using web-based programming and Unity 3D. Eleven experts from academic institutions in North America were recruited to test the simulator and respond to an online questionnaire. A 7-point Likert scale was used to answer questions related to face validity (realism of the simulator), content validity (expert evaluation of subject matter and test items), and applicability to medical training. Results: The mean responses for the face validity, content validity, and applicability to medical training portions of the questionnaire were all ≤3, falling between the “Agree”, “Mostly Agree”, and “Strongly Agree” categories. The responses suggest good face and content validity of the simulator. Open-ended questions revealed that the primary drawbacks of the simulator were the lack of a haptic arm for force feedback, a need for increased focus on pneumatic otoscopy, and few rare disorders shown on otoscopy. Conclusion: OtoTrain™ is a novel, web-based otoscopy simulator that can be easily distributed and used by students on a variety of platforms. Initial face and content validity was encouraging, and a skills transference study is planned following further modifications and improvements to the simulator.
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:7
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T00:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0060-z
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
  • Oncolytic activity of reovirus in HPV positive and negative head and neck
           squamous cell carcinoma

    • Authors: Timothy Cooper, Vincent Biron, David Fast, Raymond Tam, Thomas Carey, Maya Shmulevitz, Hadi Seikaly
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Background: The management of patients with advanced stages of head and neck cancer requires a multidisciplinary and multimodality treatment approach which includes a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. These toxic treatment protocols have significantly improved survival outcomes in a distinct population of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal cancer. HPV negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a challenge to treat because there is only a modest improvement in survival with the present treatment regimens, requiring innovative and new treatment approaches. Oncolytic viruses used as low toxicity adjunct cancer therapies are novel, potentially effective treatments for HNSCC. One such oncolytic virus is Respiratory Orphan Enteric virus or reovirus. Susceptibility of HNSCC cells towards reovirus infection and reovirus-induced cell death has been previously demonstrated but has not been compared in HPV positive and negative HNSCC cell lines.ObjectivesTo compare the infectivity and oncolytic activity of reovirus in HPV positive and negative HNSCC cell lines. Methods: Seven HNSCC cell lines were infected with serial dilutions of reovirus. Two cell lines (UM-SCC-47 and UM-SCC-104) were positive for type 16 HPV. Infectivity was measured using a cell-based ELISA assay 18 h after infection. Oncolytic activity was determined using an alamar blue viability assay 96 h after infection. Non-linear regression models were used to calculate the amounts of virus required to infect and to cause cell death in 50% of a given cell line (EC50). EC50 values were compared. Results: HPV negative cells were more susceptible to viral infection and oncolysis compared to HPV positive cell lines. EC50 for infectivity at 18 h ranged from multiplicity of infection (MOI) values (PFU/cell) of 18.6 (SCC-9) to 3133 (UM-SCC 104). EC50 for cell death at 96 h ranged from a MOI (PFU/cell) of 1.02x102 (UM-SCC-14A) to 3.19x108 (UM-SCC-47). There was a 3x106 fold difference between the least susceptible cell line (UM-SCC-47) and the most susceptible line (UM-SCC 14A) EC50 for cell death at 96 h. Conclusions: HPV negative HNSCC cell lines appear to demonstrate greater reovirus infectivity and virus-mediated oncolysis compared to HPV positive HNSCC. Reovirus shows promise as a novel therapy in HNSCC, and may be of particular benefit in HPV negative patients.
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:8
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0062-x
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
  • Unilateral isolated sphenoid sinusitis with contralateral abducens nerve
           palsy - A rare complication treated in a low-resource setting

    • Authors: Jennifer Siu, Sudhir Sharma, Leigh Sowerby
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Background: Unilateral isolated sphenoid sinus disease (ISSD) is a rare diagnosis of the paranasal sinuses that can be associated with complications involving vascular, neurologic, and optic structures in close proximity.Case presentationA 62 year old female presented to a hospital in Georgetown, Guyana with right lateral rectus palsy, diplopia, and a severe progressively worsening headache. CT scan revealed an opaque left sphenoid sinus consistent with unilateral ISSD. A transnasal sphenoidotomy was performed under local anesthetic in the absence of endoscopic guidance. There were no perioperative complications and headache resolved immediately after the surgery while the diplopia and lateral rectus palsy resolved completely after 6 weeks. Conclusion: We present a rare complication of ISSD, and highlight challenges associated with diagnosis and management of ISSD in a resource-limited setting. This is the second reported case of unilateral ISSD with contralateral lateral rectus palsy in the literature.
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:9
      PubDate: 2015-03-01T12:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0053-y
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
  • Olfactory testing in children using objective tools: comparison of
           Sniffin¿ Sticks and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification
           Test (UPSIT)

    • Authors: Sarah Hugh, Jennifer Siu, Thomas Hummel, Vito Forte, Paolo Campisi, Blake Papsin, Evan Propst
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background: Detection of olfactory dysfunction is important for fire and food safety. Clinical tests of olfaction have been developed for adults but their use in children has been limited because they were felt to be unreliable in children under six years of age. We therefore administered two olfactory tests to children and compared results across tests. Methods: Two olfactory tests (Sniffin’ Sticks and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were administered to 78 healthy children ages 3 to 12 years. Children were randomized to one of two groups: Group 1 performed the UPSIT first and Sniffin’ Sticks second, and Group 2 performed Sniffin’ Sticks first and UPSIT second. Results: All children were able to complete both olfactory tests. Performance on both tests was similar for children 5 and 6 years of age. There was an age-dependent increase in score on both tests (p 
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:10
      PubDate: 2015-03-01T12:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0061-y
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
  • Chronic rhinosinusitis: an under-researched epidemic

    • Authors: Luke Rudmik
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease with significant impacts on patient quality of life and daily productivity. Evaluating the volume of research on CRS, relative to similar chronic diseases, may provide insight into current disparities in research prioritization. Methods: A systematic review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE (R) (1970 – December 31st, 2014) to define the volume of research publications for CRS, asthma, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Primary outcomes were overall volume of research publications and volume of publications per year. A subgroup analysis was performed using chi-square (χ2) omnibus test with 2×3 contingency tables to identify significant differences in the proportion of total randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and economic evaluation publications between CRS, asthma, and DM groups. Results: There were substantial disparities in the volume of research published over the last 45 years for CRS (n = 7,962), asthma (n = 136,652), and DM (n = 337,411). Although the volume of research for CRS in increasing, the disparities in the annual publication volumes between CRS, asthma, and DM appeared consistent over the last 45 years. Conclusions: Outcomes from this review have demonstrated a large disparity in the volume of published research for CRS compared to asthma and DM. Given the similarities in prevalence rates, impact on quality of life and economic burden, the relative under supply of CRS research should prompt efforts to increase research prioritization for this chronic disease.
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:11
      PubDate: 2015-03-05T00:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0064-8
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
  • Thyroid Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: an evaluation of its utility in a
           community setting

    • Authors: Andre Le, Greg Thompson, Benjamin Hoyt
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Background: Thyroid cancer rates are on the rise worldwide with over 5000 new cases estimated in Canada in 2012. The American Thyroid Association recommends the use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) in the workup of thyroid nodules. Studies show that thyroid FNA accuracy may vary based on interpretation by cytopathologists in academic versus community centres. To date, there has been no literature published addressing the accuracy or utility of preoperative FNA in a Canadian community center. Our goals were to demonstrate the accuracy of thyroid FNA at our centre, and to compare our results to those published in the literature. Methods: Medical records for patients who underwent thyroidectomy performed by two otolaryngologists in Fredericton, NB, between September 2008 and February 2013 were reviewed. 125 patients with 197 FNAs were analyzed. Fisher’s Exact test was used to compare the malignancy rates in each FNA category, and Chi-Square test was used for FNA distribution comparison. Results: The distribution of all FNA diagnoses at our centre was as follows: 38 (19%) benign, 100 (51%) inconclusive, 8 (4%) suspicious for malignancy, 2 (1%) malignant, and 49 (25%) unsatisfactory. FNA distribution was significantly different between our centre and comparison centres (Chi-Square p 
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:12
      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0063-9
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
  • Postoperative abnormal response of C-reactive protein as an indicator for
           infectious complications after oral oncologic surgery with primary

    • Authors: Masaya Akashi, Shungo Furudoi, Kazunobu Hashikawa, Akiko Sakakibara, Takumi Hasegawa, Takashi Shigeta, Tsutomu Minamikawa, Takahide Komori
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) screening has been reported to be reliable for detection of infectious complications. Postoperative abnormal response of CRP can predict wound infection in colorectal surgery. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of CRP monitoring to detect infectious complications in oral oncologic surgery. Methods: One hundred patients who underwent oral cancer resection with primary reconstruction were enrolled. Postoperative kinetics of CRP were classified into a normal or abnormal response. Results: A normal CRP response after surgery was observed in 61 patients and an abnormal response was observed in 39. There were postoperative infectious complications in 21 patients, with surgical site infections in 13 patients (early onset in six and late onset in seven). Non-wound infections were found in nine patients. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value for abnormal CRP response as a predictor for early infectious complications were 100%, 70.1%, 35.9%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Postoperative serial CRP screening is a useful test as an indicator of infectious complications in oral oncologic surgery. Normal CRP responses can rule out almost all early infectious complications.
      Citation: Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2015, null:13
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T12:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1186/s40463-015-0066-6
      Issue No: Vol. ${item.volume} (2015)
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