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Journal Cover Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Membrane Transport and Signaling
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Online) 2190-4618
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]
  • Issue information
    • PubDate: 2014-04-21T14:33:12.737418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/wmts.107
       
  • The challenge of determining the role of Rh glycoproteins in transport of
           NH3 and NH4+
    • Authors: Nazih L. Nakhoul; L. Lee Hamm
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The mammalian Rh glycoproteins belong to the solute transporter family SLC42 and include the erythroid Rh‐associated glycoprotein (RhAG) and two epithelial membrane molecules Rhbg (human RhBG) and Rhcg (RhCG). Mammalian Rh glycoproteins are closely related to the ammonium transporters of the yeast (MEP proteins) and bacteria (Amt). Rhbg and Rhcg are expressed in several mammalian tissues including liver, kidney, skin, lung, and GI tract. In the kidney they are expressed in α‐intercalated cells and principal cells of the collecting duct. Whereas Rhbg is strictly present in the basolateral membrane; Rhcg is reported to be at both apical membrane and basolateral membranes. Recent functional studies strongly support a role of Rh glycoproteins in NH4+ transport. Other studies indicate that they mediate transport of CO2 and NH3. This review highlights the progress in determining the properties of Rh glycoproteins and the challenging questions that continue to hinder understanding their function and their physiological role. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
      PubDate: 2014-03-24T13:53:18.900146-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/wmts.105
       
  • Monitoring of intra‐ER free Ca2+
    • Authors: Julia V. Gerasimenko; Ole H. Petersen, Oleg V. Gerasimenko
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The importance of calcium signaling in cell health and disease is the major driving force in current research of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other calcium stores seems to be the crucial factor in the activation of many cellular functions. Significant changes in ER Ca2+ content and dynamics have been implicated in the activation of the ER stress response, abnormal autophagy, and cell death which leads to a variety of pathological conditions. For example, in acute pancreatitis, an inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas caused primarily by bile stones or alcohol, excessive intracellular calcium overload due to Ca2+ release from internal stores followed by store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) leads to the premature activation of digestive proenzymes within pancreatic acinar cells. Recent data show that SOCE channel blockers are capable of substantially reducing the intracellular Ca2+ overload and subsequent cell necrosis without major alteration of ER Ca2+ content. We also demonstrate here that indirect ER measurements can be misleading and only direct intra‐ER Ca2+ monitoring offers reliable conclusions. In this respect, it is essential to summarize the methods available and provide examples of direct measurements of free Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+] in the ER lumen in pancreatic acinar cells. This article is aimed at highlighting the major techniques for monitoring ER Ca2+ with reference to their advantages, limitations, and views for future improvements. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
      PubDate: 2014-04-15T08:12:42.877581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/wmts.106
       
 
 
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