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Journal Cover Biomedical Journal
  [SJR: 0.793]   [H-I: 10]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2319-4170 - ISSN (Online) 2320-2890
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Can cannibalizing cancer cells challenge classic cell death
           classification'

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Pages: 129 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about a novel are still largely mysterious mechanism of cell death that is challenging classification systems of cell death pathways and could have important implications for future cancer therapy. We also learn of a promising biomarker to stratify patients into risk groups after stroke. Finally, this issue also includes two studies investigating factors that influence outcome after heart surgery.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T19:56:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Higher neutrophil counts and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predict
           prognostic outcomes in patients after non-atrial fibrillation-caused
           ischemic stroke

    • Authors: Yen-Nan Fang; Meng-Shen Tong; Pei-Hsun Sung; Yung-Lung Chen; Chih-Hung Chen; Nei-Wen Tsai; Chih-Jen Huang; Ya-Ting Chang; Shu-Fang Chen; Wen-Neng Chang; Cheng-Hsien Lu; Hon-Kan Yip
      Pages: 154 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 40, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yen-Nan Fang, Meng-Shen Tong, Pei-Hsun Sung, Yung-Lung Chen, Chih-Hung Chen, Nei-Wen Tsai, Chih-Jen Huang, Ya-Ting Chang, Shu-Fang Chen, Wen-Neng Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Hon-Kan Yip
      Background We aimed to determine whether higher neutrophil counts (NC) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were independently predictive of worse in-hospital outcome in patients after acute ischemic stroke (IS). Methods A retrospective observational study with prospective manner of IS registration. Between April 2012 and August 2014, a total number of 1731 patients with post-IS were consecutively enrolled in the study. Blood samples were drawn upon admission. Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Secondary endpoint was severe stroke (≥16 NIHSS). Results The NC progressively increased from mild (NIHSS ≤ 5) to moderate (NIHSS ≥ 6 < 16) and severe (NIHSS ≥ 16) stroke (p = 0.006). NLR was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (p = 0.002). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that NC (p = 0.001) and NLR (p = 0.002) were independently predictive of higher NIHSS. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that NC was independently associated with severe stroke (p < 0.0001). The best discriminating factor for in-hospital mortality with respect to NLR was ≥3.20 (sensitivity 62.7%, specificity 60.3%, likelihood ratio: 12.2). Patients with NLR ≥3.20 had a 2.55-fold increased risk for in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.49–4.37) compared to patients with NLR <3.20. The best discriminating factor for severe stroke (≥16 NIHSS) with respect to NC was ≥74% (sensitivity 47.1%, specificity 74.0%, likelihood ratio: 29.0). Patients with NC >74% had a 2.54-fold increased risk of severe stroke (OR = 1.82–3.54) compared to patients with NC <74%. Conclusion NLR was independently associated with in-hospital mortality and higher NC was independently predictive of severe stroke.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.03.002
       
  • Differences between the sexes in motorcycle-related injuries and
           fatalities at a Taiwanese level I trauma center

    • Authors: Ching-Hua Hsieh; Shiun-Yuan Hsu; Hsiao-Yun Hsieh; Yi-Chun Chen
      Pages: 113 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 40, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ching-Hua Hsieh, Shiun-Yuan Hsu, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Yi-Chun Chen
      Background Female patients present with unique physiological and behavioral characteristics compared to male patients. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury patterns, injury characteristics, and mortality of male and female patients hospitalized for treatment of motorcycle accident-related trauma in a level I trauma center. Methods Retrospective analysis of motorcycle-related injuries from the Trauma Registry System was performed to identify and compare 4028 male and 2919 female patients hospitalized for treatment between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Results The female patients were younger, less often drunken, more often wore helmets, were transported by emergency medical services, and arrived at the emergency department between 7 a.m. and 5 p.m. compared to male patients. Analysis of Abbreviated Injury Scale scores revealed that female patients sustained significantly higher rates of injuries to the extremities, but lower rates of injuries to the head/neck, face, and thorax than male patients did. Female patients had a significant lower Injury Severity Score (ISS) and adjusted odds ratio of in-hospital mortality (AOR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.83–0.86) after adjustment by ISS. However, the logistic regression analysis of propensity score-matched patients with adjusted confounders including helmet-wearing status and alcohol intoxication revealed that the gender did not significantly influence mortality (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.47–1.43; p = 0.475), implying the an associated risky behaviors may attribute to the difference of odds of mortality between the male and female patients. In addition, a significantly fewer female patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and female patients had a significantly shorter hospital and ICU length of stay. Conclusion Female motorcycle riders have different injury characteristics, lower ISS and in-hospital mortality, and present with a bodily injury pattern that differs from that of male motorcycle riders. Level of evidence Epidemiologic study, level III.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.005
       
  • Motorcycle-related hospitalizations of the elderly

    • Authors: Ching-Hua Hsieh; Hang-Tsung Liu; Shiun-Yuan Hsu; Hsiao-Yun Hsieh; Yi-Chun Chen
      Pages: 121 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 40, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ching-Hua Hsieh, Hang-Tsung Liu, Shiun-Yuan Hsu, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Yi-Chun Chen
      Background To investigate the injury pattern, mechanisms, severity, and mortality of the elderly hospitalized for treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents. Methods Motorcycle-related hospitalization of 994 elderly and 5078 adult patients from the 16,548 hospitalized patients registered in the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Results The motorcycle-related elderly trauma patients had higher injury severity, less favorable outcomes, higher proportion of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), prolonged hospital and ICU stays and higher mortality than those adult motorcycle riders. It also revealed that a significant percentage of elderly motorcycle riders do not wear a helmet. Compared to patients who had worn a helmet, patients who had not worn a helmet had a lower first Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and a greater percentage presented with unconscious status (GCS score ≤8), had sustained subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral contusion, severe injury (injury severity score 16–24 and ≥25), had longer hospital stay and higher mortality, and had required admission to the ICU. Conclusions Elderly motorcycle riders tend to present with a higher injury severity, worse outcome, and a bodily injury pattern differing from that of adult motorcycle riders, indicating the need to emphasize use of protective equipment, especially helmets, to reduce their rate and severity of injury.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.006
       
  • Food for thought: Autophagy researcher wins 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology
           or Medicine

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 40, Issue 1
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      This special edition of the Biomedical Journal honors the awarding of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Yoshinori Ohsumi for his pioneering work on elucidating the mechanisms of autophagy. We also highlight a study reporting a new and simple animal model for a widespread surgical technique called interbody spinal fusion. Finally, this issue also includes two articles reporting protocols that could produce specific cell types for cell based therapies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.03.001
       
  • From Christian de Duve to Yoshinori Ohsumi: More to autophagy than
           just dining at home

    • Authors: Margaret M. Harnett; Miguel A. Pineda; Perle Latré de Laté; Russell J. Eason; Sébastien Besteiro; William Harnett; Gordon Langsley
      Pages: 9 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 40, Issue 1
      Author(s): Margaret M. Harnett, Miguel A. Pineda, Perle Latré de Laté, Russell J. Eason, Sébastien Besteiro, William Harnett, Gordon Langsley
      Christian de Duve first coined the expression “autophagy” during his seminal work on the discovery of lysosomes, which led to him being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974. The term was adopted to distinguish degradation of intracellular components from the uptake and degradation of extracellular substances that he called “heterophagy”. Studies until the 1990s were largely observational/morphological-based until in 1993 Yoshinori Oshumi described a genetic screen in yeast undergoing nitrogen deprivation that led to the isolation of autophagy-defective mutants now better known as ATG (AuTophaGy-related) genes. The screen identified mutants that fell into 15 complementation groups implying that at least 15 genes were involved in the regulation of autophagy in yeast undergoing nutrient deprivation, but today, 41 yeast ATG genes have been described and many (though not all) have orthologues in humans. Attempts to identify the genetic basis of autophagy led to an explosion in its research and it's not surprising that in 2016 Yoshinori Oshumi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Our aim here is not to exhaustively review the ever-expanding autophagy literature (>60 papers per week), but to celebrate Yoshinori Oshumi's Nobel Prize by highlighting just a few aspects that are not normally extensively covered. In an accompanying mini-review we address the role of autophagy in early-diverging eukaryote parasites that like yeast, lack lysosomes and so use a digestive vacuole to degrade autophagosome cargo and also discuss how parasitized host cells react to infection by subverting regulation of autophagy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.004
       
  • Pralidoxime and pesticide poisoning: A question of severity'

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Pages: 373 - 375
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we highlight new data supporting the use of pralidoxime in the treatment of cases of organophosphate poisoning, which also suggest that WHO treatment guidelines should be updated. We also learn about a modified surgical technique to repair severe spinal injuries, as well as new insight into the structure of human adenovirus that could inform vaccine development.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.001
       
  • Antidiarrhoeal investigation of Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) by modulation
           of Na+K+ATPase, nitrous oxide and intestinal transit in rats

    • Authors: Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo; Rakesh Sagar; Anjan Kumar; Amrita Bhaiji; Subrat Kumar Bhattamishra
      Pages: 376 - 381
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Rakesh Sagar, Anjan Kumar, Amrita Bhaiji, Subrat Kumar Bhattamishra
      Background Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) is an annual herb with traditional appreciation for various pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this herb is insufficient. The aim of the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate flavonoidal fraction of A. leptophyllum fruit (FFALF) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Methods The antidiarrhoeal study was conducted by castor oil induce diarrhoea, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling and intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. The rats were divided into five groups (six/group). Group I served as control and received orally 2% acacia suspension; Group II served as standard and received orally loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg); Group III, IV and V served as test groups and received the FFALF at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg orally, respectively. Results In castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the FFALF significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the frequency of diarrhoea, defecation and weight of faeces as well as increased the sodium–potassium ATPase (Na+K+ATPase) activity and decreased nitric oxide (NO) content in the small intestine. In prostaglandin induced enteropooling model, it significantly (p < 0.01) and dose dependently slowed the intestinal fluid accumulation by decreasing the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid where as in charcoal meal test, it decreased charcoal meal transit in gastrointestinal tract as compared with control. Conclusions The study reveals that the FFALF possess anti-diarrhoeal properties mediated through inhibition of hyper secretion and gastrointestinal motility which support the traditional use of the plant.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.003
       
  • In silico structure analysis and epitope prediction of E3 CR1-beta
           protein of Human Adenovirus E for vaccine design

    • Authors: Noman Ibna Amin Patwary; Md. Saiful Islam; Md. Sohel; Ismot Ara; Mohd. Omar Faruk Sikder; Shah Md. Shahik
      Pages: 382 - 390
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Noman Ibna Amin Patwary, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Sohel, Ismot Ara, Mohd. Omar Faruk Sikder, Shah Md. Shahik
      Background Human Adenoviruses are divided into 7 species of Human Adenovirus A to G based on DNA genome homology. The Human Adenovirus E (HAdVs-E) genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA containing 38 protein-coding genes. Wild-type adenoviruses type E, are linked to a number of slight illnesses. The most important part of HAdVs-E is E3 CR1-beta protein which controls the host immune response and viral attachment. Method We use numerous bio-informatics and immuno-informatics implements comprising sequence and construction tools for construction of 3D model and epitope prediction for HAdVs-E. Results The 3D structure of E3 CR1-beta protein was generated and total of ten antigenic B cell epitopes, 6 MHC class I and 11 MHC class II binding peptides were predicted. Conclusion The study was carried out to predict antigenic determinants/epitopes of the E3 CR1-beta protein of Human Adenovirus E along with the 3D protein modeling. The study revealed potential T-cell and B-cell epitopes that can raise the desired immune response against E3 CR1-beta protein and useful in developing effective vaccines against HAdVs-E.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.004
       
  • The effectiveness of patient-tailored treatment for acute organophosphate
           poisoning

    • Authors: Chih-Chuan Lin; Dong-Zong Hung; Hsien-Yi Chen; Kuang-Hung Hsu
      Pages: 391 - 399
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Chih-Chuan Lin, Dong-Zong Hung, Hsien-Yi Chen, Kuang-Hung Hsu
      Background To determine a new pralidoxime (PAM) treatment guideline based on the severity of acute organophosphate intoxication patients, APACHE II score, and dynamic changes in serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity. Methods This is a randomization trial. All patients received supportive care measurements and atropinization. Each enrolled patient was treated with 2 gm PAM intravenously as the loading dose. The control group was treated according to the WHO's recommended PAM regimen, and the experimental group was treated according to their APACHE II scores and dynamic changes in BuChE activity. If a patient's APACHE II score was ≧26 or there was no elevation in BuChE activity at the 12th hour when compared to the 6th, doses of 1 g/h PAM (i.e., doubled WHO's recommended PAM regimen) were given. The levels of the serum BuChE and red blood cells acetylcholinesterase and the serum PAM levels were also measured. Results Forty-six organophosphate poisoning patients were enrolled in this study. There were 24 patients in the control group and 22 patients in the experimental group. The hazard ratio of death in the control group to that of the experimental group was 111.51 (95% CI: 1.17–1.613.45; p = 0.04). The RBC acetylcholinesterase level was elevated in the experimental group but was not in the control group. The experimental group did not exhibit a higher PAM blood level than did the control group. Conclusion The use of PAM can be guided by patient severity. Thus, may help to improve the outcomes of organophosphate poisoning patients.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.001
       
  • Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of tumor feeding artery before target
           tumor ablation may reduce local tumor progression in hepatocellular
           carcinoma

    • Authors: Ya-Ting Cheng; Wen-Juei Jeng; Chen-Chun Lin; Wei-Ting Chen; I-Shyan Sheen; Chun-Yen Lin; Shi-Ming Lin
      Pages: 400 - 406
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ya-Ting Cheng, Wen-Juei Jeng, Chen-Chun Lin, Wei-Ting Chen, I-Shyan Sheen, Chun-Yen Lin, Shi-Ming Lin
      Background Local tumor progression (LTP) in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) remains high. Tumor feeding artery ablation (FAA) before target tumor ablation was reported to reduce LTP in patients with HCC >3 cm. The aim of our study is to investigate whether FAA before target tumor ablation may reduce LTP in HCC <3 cm. Methods We retrospectively analysis the outcome of patients with HCC <3 cm undergoing FAA before target tumor ablation (N = 17) compared to direct RFA to target tumor alone (N = 35). Results FAA significantly reduces LTP (FAA vs. non-FAA: local tumor progression 17.6% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.038), but not in intrahepatic recurrence: 29.4% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.778; or in overall recurrence rate: 41.2% vs. 62.9%, p = 0.14). The cumulative 1-year and 2-year LTP rates in FAA group were 17.6% and 17.6%, while 11.4% and 42.9% in non-FAA group (p = 0.073), respectively. The cumulative overall recurrence rates at 1-year and 2-year were 29.4% and 35.3% in FAA group, while 14.3% and 57.1% in non-FAA group (p = 0.130), respectively. Conclusions FAA before target tumor ablation may decrease LTP in HCC <3 cm. Further randomized control study will be helpful for validation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.002
       
  • Two additional augmenting screws with posterior short-segment
           instrumentation without fusion for unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture
           – Comparisons with transpedicular grafting techniques

    • Authors: Yu-Chih Lin; Kuo-Fon Fan; Jen-Chung Liao
      Pages: 407 - 413
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Yu-Chih Lin, Kuo-Fon Fan, Jen-Chung Liao
      Background Transpedicular grafting techniques with posterior short-segment instrumentation have demonstrated to prevent high implant failure in unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures. We tested our hypothesis that short-segment instrumentation with two additional augmenting screws in the injured vertebra could provide stability and was similar to those of the transpedicular grafting technique. Methods Twenty patients belonged to group A; treated with short-segment pedicle screw fixation and reinforced by two augmenting screws at the fractured vertebra. Group B had thirty-one patients; the fractured vertebra was augmented with transpedicular autogenous bone graft. Group C had twenty patients; the injured vertebra was strengthened with calcium sulfate cement. Clinical outcome and radiographic parameters were compared. Results Group A had the least blood loss (101.7 ± 72.5 vs. 600 ± 403.1 vs. 247.5 ± 164.2 ml, p < 0.001) and the least operation time (142.0 ± 57.2 vs. 227.2 ± 43.6 vs. 161.6 ± 28.5 min, p < 0.001). However, group A had the highest collapsed rate of the body height at the 18-month follow-up (10.5 ± 7.0 vs. 4.6 ± 4.8 vs. 7.2 ± 8.5%, p = 0.002). The failure rate, include implant failure or loss of 10° or more of correction, group B had the lowest failure rate (10% vs. 3.2% vs. 10%, p = 0.542). The group A had the highest rate of return to their previous employment (50% vs. 38% vs. 35%, p = 0.265). Conclusions Compared with transpedicular grafting techniques, additional two “augmenting screws” in the fracture vertebra with short-segment instrumentation are sufficient for one-level thoracolumbar burst fracture.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.005
       
  • Cysto-duodeno-colic ligament and its clinical relevance

    • Authors: Vishwajit Ravindra Deshmukh; Seema Singh; Ritu Sehgal
      Pages: 414 - 416
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Vishwajit Ravindra Deshmukh, Seema Singh, Ritu Sehgal
      During a routine dissection class for the undergraduate students at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, a rare uncommon variation of the peritoneal ligament was found. Information regarding variation in such type of accessory peritoneal reflections is necessary for anatomists, surgeons, and radiologists. Normally there was no peritoneal reflection between gallbladder, duodenum and transverse colon, but in the present case report, it was present and termed as cysto-duodeno-colic ligament. Knowledge of such variation is necessary during gallbladder surgeries and liver transplantation surgeries.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.002
       
  • The inflammasome: Friend or foe in Chlamydia infection'

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Pages: 299 - 303
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 5
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we take a look at the still somewhat perplexing role of the inflammasome in Chlamydia infection. We also highlight findings suggesting a link between structural changes to arteries in the brain and the onset of depression. Finally, we learn about some of the implications of co-morbidity between diabetes and infectious diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.003
       
  • Purinergic signaling in infection and autoimmune disease

    • Authors: Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio; Robson Coutinho-Silva
      Pages: 304 - 305
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 5
      Author(s): Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Robson Coutinho-Silva
      Purinergic signaling plays a key role in inflammatory processes and modulates immune responses against a variety of bacterial and eukaryotic parasites. Here we highlight the role of purinergic receptor activation in infection and autoimmune diseases. Purinergic signaling and inflammasomes modulate the host immune response against chlamydial infections. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that purinergic signaling contributes to Schistosomiasis morbidity, a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic worms called schistosomes. Finally, the P2X7 receptor and NLRP3 inflammasome have been described to be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting that these signaling pathways as suitable therapeutic targets for management and treatment of different immune diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.09.002
       
  • Danger signals, inflammasomes, and the intricate intracellular lives of
           chlamydiae

    • Authors: Matthew A. Pettengill; Ali Abdul-Sater; Robson Coutinho-Silva; David M. Ojcius
      Pages: 306 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 5
      Author(s): Matthew A. Pettengill, Ali Abdul-Sater, Robson Coutinho-Silva, David M. Ojcius
      Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens, and as such are sensitive to alterations in the cellular physiology of their hosts. Chlamydial infections often cause pathologic consequences due to prolonged localized inflammation. Considerable advances have been made in the last few years regarding our understanding of how two key inflammation-associated signaling pathways influence the biology of Chlamydia infections: inflammation regulating purinergic signaling pathways significantly impact intracellular chlamydial development, and inflammasome activation modulates both chlamydial growth and infection mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We review here elements of both pathways, presenting the latest developments contributing to our understanding of how chlamydial infections are influenced by inflammasomes and purinergic signaling.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.07.001
       
  • Purinergic signaling in schistosomal infection

    • Authors: Claudia Lucia Martins Silva
      Pages: 316 - 325
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 5
      Author(s): Claudia Lucia Martins Silva
      Human schistosomiasis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by blood fluke worms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. Health metrics indicate that the disease is related to an elevated number of years lost-to-disability and years lost-to-life. Schistosomiasis is an intravascular disease that is related to a Th1 and Th2 immune response polarization, and the degree of polarization affects the outcome of the disease. The purinergic system is composed of adenosine and nucleotides acting as key messenger molecules. Moreover, nucleotide-transforming enzymes and cell-surface purinergic receptors are obligatory partners of this purinergic signaling. In mammalian cells, purinergic signaling modulates innate immune responses and inflammation among other functions; conversely purinergic signaling may also be modulated by inflammatory mediators. Moreover, schistosomes also express some enzymes of the purinergic system, and it is possible that worms modulate host purinergic signaling. Current data obtained in murine models of schistosomiasis support the notion that the host purinergic system is altered by the disease. The dysfunction of adenosine receptors, metabotropic P2Y and ionotropic P2X7 receptors, and NTPDases likely contributes to disease morbidity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.06.006
       
  • Purinergic signalling in autoimmunity: A role for the P2X7R in systemic
           lupus erythematosus'

    • Authors: Francesco Di Virgilio; Anna Lisa Giuliani
      Pages: 326 - 338
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 5
      Author(s): Francesco Di Virgilio, Anna Lisa Giuliani
      Purinergic signalling plays a crucial role in immunity and autoimmunity. Among purinergic receptors, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has an undisputed role as it is expressed to high level by immune cells, triggers cytokine release and modulates immune cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on evidence supporting a possible role of the P2X7R in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.006
       
  • Association of endothelial dysfunction and cytotoxin-associated gene
           A-positive Helicobacter pylori in patients with cardiac syndrome X

    • Authors: Yousef Rasmi; Hadi Rouhrazi; Ebrahim Khayati-Shal; Alireza Shirpoor; Ehsan Saboory
      Pages: 339 - 345
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 5
      Author(s): Yousef Rasmi, Hadi Rouhrazi, Ebrahim Khayati-Shal, Alireza Shirpoor, Ehsan Saboory
      Background Existence of coronary endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). In addition, Helicobacter pylorus (H. pylori) has been associated with CSX. We aimed to assess the possible association of endothelial dysfunction and cytotoxin-associated gene A-positive H. pylori (CagA+) infection in CSX patients. Methods Fifty-six patients with CSX (23 male/33 female; age: 51.25 ± 8.86 years) who were anti-H. pylori IgG-positive [H. pylori(+)] and 24 CSX patients (7 male/17 female; age: 52.79 ± 9.88 years) who were H. pylori(−) were included. Also, anti-H. pylori IgG-positive patients were determined by the presence of IgG antibody to CagA. Levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured. Results Endothelial dysfunction biomarkers were higher in H. pylori(+) than in H. pylori(−) patients (ET-1: 54.60 ± 25.39 vs. 42.59 ± 18.37 pg/ml, p = 0.04; E-selectin: 42.68 ± 14.26 vs. 31.72 ± 8.26 ng/ml, p = 0.001; ICAM-1: 339.68 ± 135.8 vs. 266.51 ± 125.1 ng/ml, p = 0.02). Among H. pylori(+) subjects, 28 cases were CagA(+) and 28 cases were CagA(−). There were significant differences in measured levels of E-selectin between CagA(+) and CagA(−) groups (48.00 ± 16.37 vs. 37.37 ± 9.37 ng/ml, p = 0.004). For ET-1 and ICAM-1 levels, the difference between CagA(+) and CagA(−) was insignificant (p = 0.174 and p = 0.07, respectively). Conclusion High levels of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers are found in CSX patients with anti-CagA(+). These findings suggest the infection with CagA(+) H. pylori strain may play a role as a risk factor in development of CSX through provocation of endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, a long term follow up to investigate the outcomes of these patients is proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.01.010
       
  • Elevated adiponectin but varied response in circulating leptin levels to
           falciparum malaria in type 2 diabetics and non-diabetic controls

    • Authors: Samuel Acquah; Benjamin Ackon Eghan; Johnson Nyarko Boampong
      Pages: 346 - 353
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 5
      Author(s): Samuel Acquah, Benjamin Ackon Eghan, Johnson Nyarko Boampong
      Background To investigate effects of falciparum malaria on circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-diabetic controls in relation to measures of adiposity. Methods Levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured in 100 type 2 diabetics and 100 age-matched controls before and during falciparum malaria in a 2-year prospective study. Also, waist circumference (WC), weight, height and hip circumference were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. Results At baseline, diabetics had significantly (p < 0.05) higher WC and BMI but lower WHR, leptin and adiponectin levels. Baseline leptin correlated positively with WC (r = 0.633; p < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.63; p < 0.001) in diabetics but only BMI (0.562; p < 0.001) in non-diabetic controls. Baseline leptin and adiponectin correlated positively (r = 0.249; p = 0.029) in non-diabetic respondents only. Adiponectin correlated negatively with WC (r = −0.58; p = 0.006) in diabetic males only. During malaria, mean levels of leptin and adiponectin were comparable (p > 0.05) between diabetics and controls. However, compared to baseline levels, significant (p < 0.001) elevation of adiponectin was found in both study groups. In respect of leptin, significant (p < 0.001) rise but decline was observed in diabetics and controls respectively. Malaria-induced leptin correlated negatively with adiponectin (r = −0.694; p < 0.001) in non-diabetic controls only. Conclusion Diabetics and controls exhibited increased adiponectin levels due to falciparum malaria but differed in response in terms of leptin levels.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.09.003
       
  • Profile of glycated-hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamin and cytokine levels in
           pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross sectional study at Pulmonary
           Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia

    • Authors: Praba Ginandjar; Lintang Dian Saraswati; Bagoes Widjanarko
      Pages: 354 - 360
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 5
      Author(s): Praba Ginandjar, Lintang Dian Saraswati, Bagoes Widjanarko
      Background Uncontrolled blood glucose, which marked by high level of HbA1c, increases risk of pulmonary TB because of cellular immunity dysfunction. This study aimed to analyze profile of glycated hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamins status and cytokines levels in active pulmonary TB patients. Methods This was a cross sectional study, conducted at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia. Study subject consisted of 62 pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed with positive acid fast bacilli and chest X-ray. ELISA was used to measure IFN-γ and IL-12. Status of antioxidant vitamins was determined by concentration of vitamin A and E using HPLC. Blood glucose control was determined by HbA1c concentration (HbA1c ≥7% is considered as uncontrolled). Results A significant difference of age between pulmonary tuberculosis patients with normal and uncontrolled blood glucose (p = 0.000) was showed, while all other characteristics (sex, education, occupation) did not differ with p = 0.050, 0.280, 0.380 respectively. Mean HbA1c was 7.25 ± 2.70%. Prevalence of uncontrolled glucose among pulmonary TB patients was 29%. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 did not differ according to HbA1c concentration (p = 0.159 and p = 0.965 respectively). Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with uncontrolled blood glucose has higher vitamin E (p = 0.006), while vitamin A did not differ significantly (p = 0.478). Conclusions This study supports the importance of performing diabetes screening among pulmonary TB patients. Further study needs to be done to determine the feasibility of TB-DM co-management.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.01.011
       
  • Histomorphometric study of basilar artery in normal and suicide persons

    • Authors: Suresh Kumar Parmar; V. Satya Prasad
      Pages: 361 - 365
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 5
      Author(s): Suresh Kumar Parmar, V. Satya Prasad
      Background Depression in association with cerebro-vascular risk factors and white matter lesions is increasingly referred to as ‘vascular depression’. There are several brain areas known for playing a role in patho-physiology of depression which may lead to suicidal tendencies, are fed by basilar artery. Therefore, the arterial histoarchitecture was studied in the normal and suicide individuals to establish a relationship between the vascular structural changes and depression. Methods 40 post-mortem samples (both sexes) of basilar artery have been collected and were grouped into normal and suicide groups. Samples were measured for arterial, lumen diameter and the thickness of tunica intima, media and adventitia using H & E stained sections. While, Orcein stained sections were used to estimate the volume fraction of elastic fibres, and Van Gieson stained sections to estimate the volume fraction of collagen fibres. Results The mean thickness of tunica media of basilar artery in suicide individuals (1.08 microns) showed a statistically significant decrease when compared to normal person (1.33 microns). Further, volume fraction of collagen (0.06 mm3/mm3) and elastic fibres (0.06 mm3/mm3) in suicide persons showed a statistically significant decrease when compared to normal person (collagen fibres 0.08 mm3/mm3; elastic fibres 0.09 mm3/mm3). Conclusions This study establishes a probable causative relationship between vascular structural abnormality and depression which may drive the individual to commit suicide.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.12.005
       
  • Thioredoxin promotes survival signaling events under nitrosative/oxidative
           stress associated with cancer development

    • Authors: Hugo P. Monteiro; Fernando T. Ogata; Arnold Stern
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Hugo P. Monteiro, Fernando T. Ogata, Arnold Stern
      Accumulating mutations may drive cells into the acquisition of abnormal phenotypes that are characteristic of cancer cells. Cancer cells feature profound alterations in proliferation programs that result in a new population of cells that overrides normal tissue construction and maintenance programs. To achieve this goal, cancer cells are endowed with up regulated survival signaling pathways. They also must counteract the cytotoxic effects of high levels of nitric oxide (NO) and of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are by products of cancer cell growth. Accumulating experimental evidence associates cancer cell survival with their capacity to up-regulate antioxidant systems. Elevated expression of the antioxidant protein thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) has been correlated with cancer development. Trx1 has been characterized as a multifunctional protein, playing different roles in different cell compartments. Trx1 migrates to the nucleus in cells exposed to nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions. Trx1 nuclear migration has been related to the activation of transcription factors associated with cell survival and cell proliferation. There is a direct association between the p21Ras-ERK1/2 MAP Kinases survival signaling pathway and Trx1 nuclear migration under nitrosative stress. The expression of the cytoplasmic protein, the thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), determines the change in Trx1 cellular compartmentalization. The anti-apoptotic actions of Trx1 and its denitrosylase activity occur in the cytoplasm and serve as important regulators of cell survival. Within this context, this review focuses on the participation of Trx1 in cells under nitrosative/oxidative stress in survival signaling pathways associated with cancer development.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.002
       
  • Macrophage biology plays a central role during ionizing radiation-elicited
           tumor response

    • Authors: Qiuji Wu; Awatef Allouch; Isabelle Martins; Nazanine Modjtahedi; Eric Deutsch; Jean-Luc Perfettini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Qiuji Wu, Awatef Allouch, Isabelle Martins, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Luc Perfettini
      Radiation therapy is one of the major therapeutic modalities for most solid tumors. The anti-tumor effect of radiation therapy consists of the direct tumor cell killing, as well as the modulation of tumor microenvironment and the activation of immune response against tumors. Radiation therapy has been shown to promote immunogenic cells death, activate dendritic cells and enhance tumor antigen presentation and anti-tumor T cell activation. Radiation therapy also programs innate immune cells such as macrophages that leads to either radiosensitization or radioresistance, according to different tumors and different radiation regimen studied. The mechanisms underlying radiation-induced macrophage activation remain largely elusive. Various molecular players such as NF-κB, MAPKs, p53, reactive oxygen species, inflammasomes have been involved in these processes. The skewing to a pro-inflammatory phenotype thus results in the activation of anti-tumor immune response and enhanced radiotherapy effect. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of radiation-induced macrophage activation and its role in tumor response to radiation therapy is crucial for the development of new therapeutic strategies to enhance radiation therapy efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.003
       
  • Understanding the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde nature of apoptosis-inducing
           factor: future perspectives

    • Authors: Giulio Preta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Giulio Preta
      Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is emerging as a key protein in regulation of basic physiological processes including phagocytosis, mitophagy and regulation of the redox state. Recent evidences suggest that the enzymatic activity of AIF may play an active role in tumor progression controlling energy metabolism and redox balance. The present manuscript briefly describes the story of this protein from its initial discovery as caspase-independent apoptotic protein, throughout its role in oxidative phosphorylation and lately involvement in tumor progression. Understanding the dualistic nature of AIF is a critical starting point to clarify its contribution in tumor metabolic balance and to develop new AIF-specific therapeutic strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.004
       
  • PET and MRI image fusion based on combination of 2-D Hilbert transform and
           IHS method

    • Authors: Mozhdeh Haddadpour; Sabalan Daneshavar; Hadi Seyedarabi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Mozhdeh Haddadpour, Sabalan Daneshavar, Hadi Seyedarabi
      Background The process of medical image fusion is combining two or more medical images such as Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and mapping them to a single image as fused image. So purpose of our study is assisting physicians to diagnose and treat the diseases in the least of the time. Methods We used Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) as input images, so fused them based on combination of two dimensional Hilbert transform (2-D HT) and Intensity Hue Saturation (IHS) method. Evaluation metrics that we apply are Discrepancy (Dk) as an assessing spectral features and Average Gradient (AGk) as an evaluating spatial features and also Overall Performance (O.P) to verify properly of the proposed method. Results In this paper we used three common evaluation metrics like Average Gradient (AGk) and the lowest Discrepancy (Dk) and Overall Performance (O.P) to evaluate the performance of our method. Simulated and numerical results represent the desired performance of proposed method. Conclusions Since that the main purpose of medical image fusion is preserving both spatial and spectral features of input images, so based on numerical results of evaluation metrics such as Average Gradient (AGk), Discrepancy (Dk) and Overall Performance (O.P) and also desired simulated results, it can be concluded that our proposed method can preserve both spatial and spectral features of input images.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.05.002
       
  • Progesterone analogues reduce plasma Epstein–Barr virus DNA load and
           improve pain control in recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma
           patients under supportive care

    • Authors: Chia-Yen Hung; Tung-Liang Lin; Yung-Chia Kuo; Chia-Hsun Hsieh; Hung-Ming Wang; Cheng-Lung Hsu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chia-Yen Hung, Tung-Liang Lin, Yung-Chia Kuo, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Hung-Ming Wang, Cheng-Lung Hsu
      Background Progesterone analogues, such as megestrol acetate (MA) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA), have been used for the palliative care of cancer cachexia for decades and have proven to increase body weight and improve quality of life and performance status. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of progesterone analogue use on quality of life in terms of pain control, performance status, body weight gain, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) DNA load in recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Methods We retrospectively enrolled 41 patients with locally recurrent or metastatic NPC who received MA or MPA for cachexia management between January 2007 and February 2014. Patients who underwent aggressive treatment with intravenous chemotherapy were excluded. Body weight, performance status, pain score, and plasma EBV DNA load were used to assess quality of life before and after MA/MPA treatment. Results Of the 41 patients, 33 patients (80.5%) experienced body weight gain after progesterone analogue intervention. A significant reduction in plasma EBV DNA load was noted after progesterone analogue use (p < 0.001). In addition, median pain and Karnofsky performance scores were also significantly improved in progesterone analogue responders compared with non-responders (4 vs. 1 and 70 vs. 80, respectively; p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Progesterone analogues improve quality of life in terms of performance status, pain control, and plasma EBV DNA load in patients with locally recurrent/metastatic NPC under palliative care.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.006
       
  • Mortality of severe septic patients between physician's high and low care
           volumes

    • Authors: Chun-Yao Lin; Jo-Chi Tseng; Chih-Yu Huang; Chien-Ming Chu; Huang-Pin Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chun-Yao Lin, Jo-Chi Tseng, Chih-Yu Huang, Chien-Ming Chu, Huang-Pin Wu
      Background Patients with severe sepsis frequently require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and different ICU care models may influence their outcomes. The mortality of severe septic patients between physician's high and low care volume remains unclear. Methods We analyzed the data from a three-year prospective observation study, which was performed in an adult medical ICU of Chung Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung. The data included initial bundle therapies based on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines for patients with severe sepsis. Results Clinical data of total 484 patients with severe sepsis were recorded. Cox regression model showed that physician's care volume was an independent factor for lowering mortality in ICU patients with severe sepsis (hazard ratio 0.708; 95% confidence interval 0.514–0.974; p = 0.034). Patients treated by high care volume physician had four out of nine bundle therapies that were significantly higher in percentage following the SSC guidelines. These four therapies were renal replacement therapy, administration of low-dose steroids for septic shock, prophylaxis of gastro-intestinal bleeding, and control of hyperglycemia. Conclusion High care volume physician may decrease mortality in ICU patients with severe sepsis through fitting bundle therapies for sepsis.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.005
       
  • Evaluation of the root and canal systems of maxillary molars in Taiwanese
           patients: A cone beam computed tomography study

    • Authors: Yu-Hua Lin; Hsiu-Na Lin; Chien-Chih Chen; May-Show Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Yu-Hua Lin, Hsiu-Na Lin, Chien-Chih Chen, May-Show Chen
      Background This study evaluated variations in root canal configuration in the maxillary permanent molars of Taiwanese patients by analyzing patients' cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Comparisons were made among these configurations and those previously reported. This information may serve as a basis for improving the success rate of endodontic treatment. Methods The root canal systems of 114 Taiwanese patients with bilateral maxillary first or second molars were examined using CBCT images. The number of roots, canals per root, and additional mesiobuccal (MB) canals, as well as the canal configuration were enumerated and recorded. Results Of the 196 maxillary first molars examined, three (1.5%) had a single root, two (1.0%) had two roots, and 191 (97.5%) had three separate roots. Out of all first molar roots examined, 44% of mesiobuccal (MB) roots had a single canal and the remainder had a second MB (MB2) canal. Of the 212 maxillary second molars examined, 16 (7.1%) had a single root, 51 (24.2%) had two roots, 143 (67.8%) had three roots, and two (0.9%) had four separate roots. For the MB roots, 92.3% of three-rooted maxillary second molars had a single canal and the remainder had an MB2 canal. In all three-rooted maxillary first and second molars, each of the distal and palatal roots had one canal. Conclusions The root canal configurations of the MB roots of maxillary molars were more varied than those of the distobuccal and palatal roots, and the root canal configurations of maxillary second molars were more varied than those of the first molars. These findings demonstrate CBCT as a useful clinical tool for endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.05.003
       
  • Radiotherapy and the tumor microenvironment: The “macro”
           picture

    • Authors: Emma L. Walton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma L. Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the inner workings of tumor-associated macrophages and seek to understand how these cells can boost or limit the efficacy of radiotherapy, depending on the context. We also highlight a study revealing that staffing patterns in the intensive care unit may affect the outcome of patients with severe sepsis. Finally, we learn how an advanced imaging technique can improve endodontic treatment planning.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T16:42:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.07.001
       
  • Thanks to our Reviewers in 2016

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6


      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:17:05Z
       
  • Impact of prior coronary stenting on the outcome of subsequent coronary
           artery bypass grafting

    • Authors: Yu-Ting Cheng; Shao-Wei Chen; Chih-Hsiang Chang; Pao-Hsien Chu; Dong-Yi Chen; Victor Chien-Chia Wu; Kuo-Sheng Liu; Yu-Yun Nan; Feng-Chun Tsai; Pyng-Jing Lin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Yu-Ting Cheng, Shao-Wei Chen, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Pao-Hsien Chu, Dong-Yi Chen, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Kuo-Sheng Liu, Yu-Yun Nan, Feng-Chun Tsai, Pyng-Jing Lin
      Background The percentage of patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) who have previously undergone percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) is increasing. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of patients who had received coronary stenting before CABG, and to examine the validity of a mortality risk stratification system in this patient group. Methods From 2010 to 2012, 439 patients who underwent isolated CABG at our medical center were reviewed. The patients were divided into two study groups: those who had previously received coronary artery stenting (97 patients, 24.7%), and those who had not (342 patients, 75.3%). The patients who received balloon angioplasty were excluded. Results There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The prior stenting group had a lower risk of mortality, although the difference was not significant. The prior stenting group had fewer graft anastomoses (p = 0.005), and hence a significantly shorter cardiopulmonary bypass time (p = 0.045) and shorter aortic cross-clamping time. Surgical mortality was similar between the two groups. The durations of intensive care unit stay and hospitalization were also similar. The discriminatory power of the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) was lower in both group. Conclusions Prior coronary stenting does not affect short-term mortality in patients subsequently undergoing CABG surgery. The EuroSCORE does not predict perioperative mortality well for the patients who undergo coronary stenting before CABG.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.005
       
  • Entosis: The emerging face of non-cell-autonomous type IV programmed death

    • Authors: Isabelle Martins; Syed Qasim Raza; Laurent Voisin; Haithem Dakhli; Frédéric Law; De Jong Dorine; Awatef Allouch; Maxime Thoreau; Catherine Brenner; Eric Deutsch; Jean-Luc Perfettini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Isabelle Martins, Syed Qasim Raza, Laurent Voisin, Haithem Dakhli, Frédéric Law, De Jong Dorine, Awatef Allouch, Maxime Thoreau, Catherine Brenner, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Luc Perfettini
      The present review summarizes recent experimental evidences about the existence of the non-cell-autonomous death entosis in physiological and pathophysiological contexts, discusses some aspects of this form of cell death, including morphological, biochemical and signaling pathways that distinguish non-cell-autonomous demises from other death modalities and propose to define this new modality of death as type IV programmed cell death.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.05.001
       
  • Gross motor function change after multilevel soft tissue release in
           children with cerebral palsy

    • Authors: Chia-Hsieh Chang; Yu-Ying Chen; Kuo-Kuang Yeh; Chia-Ling Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chia-Hsieh Chang, Yu-Ying Chen, Kuo-Kuang Yeh, Chia-Ling Chen
      Background Improving motor function is a major goal of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, changes in motor function after orthopedic surgery for gait disorders are seldom discussed. This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative changes in gross motor function and to investigate the prognostic factors for such changes. Methods We prospectively studied 25 children with CP (4–12 years) who were gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level II to IV and and underwent bilateral multilevel soft-tissue release for knee flexion gait. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months postoperatively for Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), range of motion, spasticity, and selective motor control. The associations between change in GMFM-66 score and possible factors were analyzed. Results 25 children with gross motor function level II to IV underwent surgery at a mean age of 8.6 years (range, 4–12 years). Mean GMFM-66 score decreased from 55.9 at baseline to 54.3 at 6-weeks postoperatively and increased to 57.5 at 6-months postoperatively (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed better gross motor function level and greater surgical reduction of spasticity were predictors for decreased GMFM-66 score at 6-weeks postoperatively. Younger age was a predictor for increased GMFM-66 score at 6-months postoperatively. Conclusion Reduction of contracture and spasticity and improvement of selective motor control were noted after surgery in children with CP. However, a down-and-up course of GMFM-66 score was noted. It is emphasized that deterioration of motor function in children with ambulatory ability and the improvement in young children after orthopedic surgery for gait disorders. Level of evidence case series, therapeutic study, level 4.
      Teaser Twenty-five children with cerebral palsy who underwent soft tissue release for knee flexion gait were studied prospectively for post-operative change. Surgical reduction of contracture and spasticity led to improved selective motor control. A significant down-and-up course of gross motor function was noted. Parents and medical professionals should understand the deterioration of motor function in children who have ambulatory ability and the improvement of motor function in young children after orthopedic surgery for gait disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.003
       
  • Thyroid functions and serum lipid profile in metabolic syndrome

    • Authors: Manish Gutch; Sumit Rungta; Sukriti Kumar; Avinash Agarwal; Annesh Bhattacharya; Syed Mohd Razi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Manish Gutch, Sumit Rungta, Sukriti Kumar, Avinash Agarwal, Annesh Bhattacharya, Syed Mohd Razi
      Background Thyroid hormones are known to affect energy metabolism. Many patients of metabolic syndrome have subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism and vice versa. To study the correlation of thyroid profile and serum lipid profile with metabolic syndrome. Method It is a hospital based cross sectional case-control study carried out in tertiary care health center, we studied thyroid functions test and serum lipid profile in 100 metabolic syndrome patients according to IDF criteria and a similar number of age, gender and ethnicity matched healthy controls. Result We found that serum HDL was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in cases (41.28 ± 8.81) as compared to controls (54.00 ± 6.31). It was also found that serum LDL, VLDL, triglyceride levels and total cholesterol were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cases than controls. Serum TSH levels of subjects in cases group (3.33 ± 0.78) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of controls (2.30 ± 0.91) and significantly lower levels of T4 (p < 0.001) in the patients of metabolic syndrome (117.45) than in controls (134.64) while higher levels of T3, although statistically insignificant in the patients of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Thyroid hormones up-regulate metabolic pathways relevant to resting energy expenditure, hence, obesity and thyroid functions are often correlated.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.006
       
  • Preventing coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease

    • Authors: Ho-Chang Kuo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Ho-Chang Kuo
      A form of systemic vasculitis that affects mostly small and medium-sized vessels, Kawasaki disease (KD) is most commonly found in children under the age of 5 years old. Though its etiology is unknown, KD has been the most frequent acquired heart disease in developing countries. Its incidence has increased over recent decades in many centuries, including Japan, Korea, and China. The most severe complications of KD are coronary artery lesions (CAL), including dilation, fistula, aneurysm, arterial remodeling, stenosis, and occlusion. Aneurysm formation has been observed in 20–25% of KD patients that do not receive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, and in 3–5% that do receive it. Coronary artery dilation has been found in about 30% of KD patients in the acute stage, although mostly in the transient form. Diminishing the occurrence and regression of CAL is a vital part of treating KD. In this review article, I demonstrate the clinical method to prevent CAL formation used at the Kawasaki Disease Center in Taiwan.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.04.002
       
  • No correlation between body mass index and 30-day prognostic outcome in
           Asians with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary
           coronary intervention

    • Authors: Po-Jui Hui-Ting; Wang Pei-Hsun Sung Meng-Shen Tong Cheng-Hsu Yang Chien-Jen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Po-Jui Wu, Hui-Ting Wang, Pei-Hsun Sung, Meng-Shen Tong, Cheng-Hsu Yang, Chien-Jen Chen, Cheng-Jei Lin, Shu-Kai Hsueh, Sheng-Ying Chung, Wen-Jung Chung, Chi-Ling Hang, Chiung-Jen Wu, Hon-Kan Yip
      Background This study investigated whether body mass index (BMI) was a risk factor predictive of 30-day prognostic outcome in Asians with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Material and methods Data regarding the impact of BMI on the prognostic outcome in Asian populations after acute STEMI is scarce. A number of 925 STEMI patients were divided into three groups according to the BMI: normal weight (<25 kg/m2), overweight (≥25.0 to <30.0 kg/m2) and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Results The obese group was significantly younger with significantly higher incidences of smoking and diabetes mellitus. The incidences of multi-vessel disease, final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI)-3 flow, advanced Killip score, advance congestive heart failure, 30-day mortality and combined 30-day major adverse clinical outcome (MACO) did not differ among the three groups. Multiple regression analysis showed the age, unsuccessful reperfusion and lower left ventricular ejection fraction were most significant and independent predictor of 30-day mortality. Conclusion BMI is not a predictor of 30-day prognostic outcome in Asians with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T03:54:00Z
       
  • Make immunological peace not war: Potential applications of tolerogenic
           dendritic cells

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the powerful immunosuppressive properties of tolerogenic dendritic cells and discuss their potential to bring about lifelong tolerance in transplantation and autoimmune disease. We also highlight an exciting new development in the field of malaria diagnosis that could facilitate early detection of the disease.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T21:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.04.001
       
  • Diagnosis of malarial infection using change in properties of optically
           trapped red blood cells

    • Authors: Apurba Paul; Ponnan Padmapriya; Vasant Natarajan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Apurba Paul, Ponnan Padmapriya, Vasant Natarajan
      Background In previous work studying the properties of red blood cells (RBCs) held in an optical tweezers trap, we observed an increase in the spectrum of Brownian fluctuations for RBCs from a Plasmodium falciparum culture—due to increased rigidity of the cells—compared to normal RBCs. We wanted to extend the study to patient samples, since the earlier work was done with cultures grown in the lab. Methods Individual RBCs were held in an optical-tweezers trap. Its position fluctuations were measured and the power spectrum determined. The corner frequency ( f c ) of the spectrum gave a quantitative measurement of the spectrum. Results The value of f c was 25 Hz for normal cells, which increased to 29 Hz for infected cells—both for P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. Conclusion The technique of measuring f c can be used as a screening tool for malaria in patients with fever, since RBCs not carrying the parasite will also show the change due to the bystander effect, irrespective of whether it is caused by P. falciparum or P. vivax.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T21:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.001
       
  • Noninvasive imaging analysis of biological tissue associated with laser
           thermal injury

    • Authors: Cheng-Jen Chang; De-Yi Yu; Yen-Chang Hsiao; Kuang-Hua Ho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Cheng-Jen Chang, De-Yi Yu, Yen-Chang Hsiao, Kuang-Hua Ho
      Background The purpose of our study is to use a noninvasive tomographic imaging technique with high spatial resolution to characterize and monitor biological tissue responses associated with laser thermal injury. Methods Optical doppler tomography (ODT) combines laser doppler flowmetry (LDF) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high resolution tomographic velocity and structural images of static and moving constituents in highly scattering biological tissues. A SurgiLase XJ150 carbon dioxide (CO2) laser using a continuous mode of 3 watts (W) was used to create first, second or third degree burns on anesthetized Sprague–Dawley rats. Additional parameters for laser thermal injury were assessed as well. Results The rationale for using ODT in the evaluation of laser thermal injury offers a means of constructing a high resolution tomographic image of the structure and perfusion of laser damaged skin. In the velocity images, the blood flow is coded at 1300 μm/s and 0 velocity, 1000 μm/s and 0 velocity, 700 μm/s and 0 velocity adjacent to the first, second, and third degree injuries, respectively. Conclusion ODT produces exceptional spatial resolution while having a non-invasive way of measurement, therefore, ODT is an accurate measuring method for high-resolution fluid flow velocity and structural images for biological tissue with laser thermal injury.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T19:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.004
       
  • Spinal cord regeneration by modulating bone marrow with neurotransmitters
           and Citicholine: Analysis at micromolecular level

    • Authors: C.S. Paulose; P.S. John; R. Chinthu; P.R. Akhilraj; T.R. Anju
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): C.S. Paulose, P.S. John, R. Chinthu, P.R. Akhilraj, T.R. Anju
      Background Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. Methods Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor. Gene expression studies were done using Real Time PCR analysis. Results Scatchard analysis of muscarinic M1 receptor showed significantly decreased Bmax (p < 0.001) and Kd (p < 0.01) compared to control and significant reversal (p < 0.001) in both the treatment groups (spinal cord injury treated with 5HT and GABA, and spinal cord injury treated with Citicholine). Muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in spinal cord injured group showed significant down regulation (p < 0.001) compared to control, and both the treatment groups significantly reversed (p < 0.001) these changes to near control when compared to spinal cord injured group. The confocal microscopic study using specific antibody of muscarinic M1 confirmed the gene expression studies. Conclusion Thus our results suggest that the neurotransmitters combination along with bone marrow or Citicholine with bone marrow can reverse the muscarinic receptor alterations in the spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats, which is a promising step towards a better therapeutic intervention for spinal cord injury because of the positive role of cholinergic system in regulation of both locomotor activity and synaptic plasticity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T19:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.006
       
  • Harnessing the properties of dendritic cells in the pursuit of
           immunological tolerance

    • Authors: Christopher Horton; Kumaran Shanmugarajah; Paul J. Fairchild
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Christopher Horton, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Paul J. Fairchild
      The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the “holy grail” of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases. Whilst various cell types exhibiting a tolerogenic phenotype have been proposed for such a task, tolerogenic dendritic cells (tol-DCs) are exquisitely adapted for antigen presentation and interact with many facets of the immune system: as such, they are attractive candidates for use in strategies for immune intervention. We review here our current understanding of tol-DC mediated induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance. Additionally, we discuss recent in vitro findings from animal models and clinical trials of tol-DC immunotherapy in the setting of transplantation, autoimmunity and allergy which highlight their promising therapeutic potential, and speculate how tol-DC therapy may be developed in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-04-28T17:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.002
       
  • Horning cell self-digestion: Autophagy wins the 2016 Nobel Prize in
           Physiology or Medicine

    • Authors: Po-Yuan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Po-Yuan Ke
      Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated. Additionally, autophagy has been implied to function in many aspects of biological processes, including maintenance of organelle integrity, protein quality control, regulation of the stress response, and immunity. In addition to maintain cell homeostasis, autophagy has recently been shown to be modulated and to participate in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as pathogen infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and tumor development. Overall, the breakthrough in autophagy research relies on the discovery of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) using a genetic screening approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was established by Yoshinori Ohsumi. This year the Nobel Committee has awarded Yoshinori Ohsumi the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his remarkable contribution to autophagy research.

      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:20:29Z
       
  • Apicomplexan autophagy and modulation of autophagy in parasite-infected
           host cells

    • Authors: Perle Laté de Laté; Miguel Pineda; Margaret Harnett; William Harnett; Sébastien Besteiro; Gordon Langsley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Perle Laté de Laté, Miguel Pineda, Margaret Harnett, William Harnett, Sébastien Besteiro, Gordon Langsley
      Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for a number of important human pathologies. Obviously, as Eukaryotes they share a number of cellular features and pathways with their respective host cells. One of them is autophagy, a process involved in the degradation of the cell's own components. These intracellular parasites nonetheless seem to present a number of original features compared to their very evolutionarily distant host cells. In mammals and other metazoans, autophagy has been identified as an important contributor to the defence against microbial pathogens. Thus, host autophagy also likely plays a key role in the control of apicomplexan parasites, although its potential manipulation and subversion by intracellular parasites creates a complex interplay in the regulation of host and parasite autophagy. In this mini-review, we summarise current knowledge on autophagy in both parasites and their host cells, in the context of infection by three Apicomplexa: Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Theileria.

      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:20:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.001
       
  • In vitro induction effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on differentiation of hair
           follicle stem cell into keratinocyte

    • Authors: Sanaz Joulai Veijouyeh; Farhad Mashayekhi; Abazar Yari; Fatemeh Heidari; Nayereh Sajedi; Fatemeh Moghani Ghoroghi; Maliheh Nobakht
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Sanaz Joulai Veijouyeh, Farhad Mashayekhi, Abazar Yari, Fatemeh Heidari, Nayereh Sajedi, Fatemeh Moghani Ghoroghi, Maliheh Nobakht
      Background Stem cells are unique cell population characterized by self-renewal and differentiation capabilities, which make them an attractive option for regenerative treatments and plastic surgery. The bulge hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are pluripotent and able to convert to epithelial components after injury. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, plays important roles in this differentiation process. In the present study for the first time it has found that 1,25(OH)2D3 induces the HFSCs differentiation into keratinocyte. Methods HFSCs are isolated from rat whiskers and cultivated in DMEM medium. To isolate bulge stem cell population applicable to differentiated settings, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry using K15, CD34 and nestin biomarkers were performed. In order to accelerate the HFSCs differentiation into keratinocyte, HFSCs were treated with 10−12 M, 1,25(OH)2D3 every 48 h for a week. Results Immunocytochemistry results showed that cultured bulge stem cells are nestin and CD34 positive but K15 negative before differentiation. Subsequently flow cytometry results, showed that the expression of nestin, CD34 and K15 were 70.96%, 93.03% and 6.88% respectively. After differentiation, the immunocytochemical and flow cytometry results indicated that differentiated cells have positive reaction to K15 with 68.94% expression level. Conclusion It was concluded that 10−12 M, 1,25(OH)2D3 could induce the HFSCs differentiation into keratinocytes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T00:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.007
       
  • In-vitro generation of interleukin-10 secreting B-regulatory cells from
           donor adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells and recipient
           peripheral blood mononuclear cells for potential cell therapy

    • Authors: Kunal S. Gupte; Aruna V. Vanikar; Hargovind L. Trivedi; Chetan N. Patel; Jignesh V. Patel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Kunal S. Gupte, Aruna V. Vanikar, Hargovind L. Trivedi, Chetan N. Patel, Jignesh V. Patel
      Background Interleukin-10 secreting B-cells are a major subset of B-regulatory cells (B-regs), commonly recognized as CD19+/38hi/24hi/IL10+. They carry out immunomodulation by release of specific cytokines and/or cell-to-cell contact. We have generated B-regs in-vitro from donor adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and renal allograft recipient (RAR) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for potential cell therapy. Material and methods Mononuclear cells separated by density gradient centrifugation from 50 ml anti-coagulated blood of 15-RAR and respective donors were analysed for baseline B-regs using appropriate antibodies. Equal amount (20 × 106 cells/ml) of stimulator (irradiated at 7.45 Gy/min for 10 min) and responder (non-irradiated) cells were co-cultured with in-vitro generated AD-MSC (1 × 106 cells/ml) in proliferation medium containing lipopolysaccharide from E. coli K12 strain at 37 °C with 5% CO2. Cells were harvested on day-7 and analyzed for viability, sterility, quantity, morphology and phenotyping. In-vitro generated B-reg levels were compared with baseline B-regs. Results In-vitro generated B-reg count increased to 16.75% from baseline count of 3.35%. Conclusion B-regs can be successfully generated in-vitro from donor AD-MSC and RAR PBMC for potential cell therapy.
      Teaser Condensed abstract: Interleukin-10 secreting B-regs, recognized as CD19+/38hi/24hi/IL10+, cause immunomodulation by release of cytokines and/or cell-to-cell contact. We have generated B-regs in-vitro from donor adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and renal allograft recipient (RAR) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Mononuclear cells from blood of 15-RAR and respective donors were analyzed using antibodies and remaining cells were co-cultured with in-vitro generated AD-MSC in proliferation medium containing LPS-EK12 for 7 days. Mean B-reg count increased from 3.35% to 16.75%. Thus, B-regs can be successfully generated in-vitro from donor AD-MSC and RAR PBMC for potential cell therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T00:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.003
       
  • Risk factors for relapse of resectable pathologic N2 non small lung cancer
           and prediction model for time-to-progression

    • Authors: Chih-Tsung Wen; Jui-Ying Fu; Ching-Feng Wu; Yun-Hen Liu; Ching-Yang Wu; Ming-Ju Hsieh; Yi-Cheng Wu; Ying-Huang Tsai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chih-Tsung Wen, Jui-Ying Fu, Ching-Feng Wu, Yun-Hen Liu, Ching-Yang Wu, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Yi-Cheng Wu, Ying-Huang Tsai
      Background Pathologic N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was demonstrated with poor survival among literature. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed patients with pathologic N2 NSCLC and received anatomic resection (i.e. lobectomy) for further relapse risk factor analysis. The aim of this study is to identify the clinicopathologic factors related to relapse among resectable N2 NSCLC patients and to help clinicians in developing individualized follow up program and treatment plan. Method From January 2005 to July 2012, 90 diagnosed pathologic N2 NSCLC patients were enrolled into this study. We retrospectively reviewed medical records, image studies, and pathology reports to collect the patient clinico-pathologic factors. Result We identified that patients with visceral pleural invasion (p = 0.001) and skip metastases along mediastinal lymph node (p = 0.01) had a significant relationship to distant and disseminated metastases. Patients who had 2 or more risk factors for relapse demonstrated poor disease free survival than those who had less than 2 risk factors (p = 0.02). The number of involved metastatic area were significantly influential to the period of time-to-progression. The duration of time-to-progression was correlated with square of number of involved metastatic areas. (Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.29; p = 0.036). Conclusion Relapse risk factors of resectable pathologic N2 NSCLC patient after anatomic resection were visceral pleural invasion, skip mediastinal lymph node involvement, and the receipt of neoadjuvant therapy. The duration of time-to-progression was correlated with square of number of involved metastatic areas.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T00:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.005
       
  • Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat
           tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing

    • Authors: Yu-Cheng Yeh; Cheng-Chun Yang; Ching-Lung Tai; Tsung-Ting Tsai; Po-Liang Lai; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Chi-Chien Niu; Lih-Huei Chen; Wen-Jer Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Yu-Cheng Yeh, Cheng-Chun Yang, Ching-Lung Tai, Tsung-Ting Tsai, Po-Liang Lai, Tsai-Sheng Fu, Chi-Chien Niu, Lih-Huei Chen, Wen-Jer Chen
      Background Of the proposed animal interbody fusion models, rat caudal discs have gained popularity in disc research due to their strong resemblance to human discs with respect to geometry, composition and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible animal model of interbody fusion for future research into mechanical testing and graft materials. Methods Twelve 12-week-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats underwent caudal interbody fusion of the third and fourth coccygeal vertebrae of the tail. Serial radiological evaluation, and histological evaluation and manual palpation after sacrifice were performed to assess the fusion quality. Mechanical testing of functional units (FUs) of non-operated and operated segments was compared using a three-point bending test. Results At postoperative 12 weeks, callus formation was observed at the fusion sites in all rats, with the mean radiological evaluations of 2.75/3 according to the Bransford classification. Newly formed bone tissue was also observed in all rats with the mean histological score of 5.85/7, according to the Emery grading system. No palpable gaps and obvious change of bending stiffness was observed in the operated segments. The mean bending stiffness of the FUs was statistically higher than that of the control FUs (26.57 ± 6.71 N/mm vs. 12.45 ± 3.21 N/mm, p < 0.01). Conclusion The rat caudal disc interbody fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T07:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.07.002
       
  • Overexpression of MutL homolog 1 and MutS homolog 2 proteins have reversed
           prognostic implications for stage I–II colon cancer patients

    • Authors: Shih-Chiang Huang; Shiu-Feng Huang; Ya-Ting Chen; Yu Chang; Yu-Ting Chiu; Il-Chi Chang; Hong-Dar Isaac Wu; Jinn-Shiun Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Shih-Chiang Huang, Shiu-Feng Huang, Ya-Ting Chen, Yu Chang, Yu-Ting Chiu, Il-Chi Chang, Hong-Dar Isaac Wu, Jinn-Shiun Chen
      Background The outcome of colon cancer patients without lymph node metastasis is heterogeneous. Searching for new prognostic markers is warranted. Methods One hundred twenty stage I–II colon cancer patients who received complete surgical excision during 1995–2004 were selected for this biomarker study. Immunohistochemical method was used to assess p53, epidermal growth factor receptor, MLH1, and MSH2 status. KRAS mutation was examined by direct sequencing. Results Thirty three patients (27.5%) developed metachronous metastasis during follow up. By multivariate analysis, only female gender (p = 0.03), high serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (≧5 ng/ml) (p = 0.04), and MLH1 overexpression (p = 0.003) were associated with the metastasis group. The 5-year-survival rate were also significantly lower for female gender (71.7% versus 88.9%, p = 0.025), high CEA level (64.9% versus 92.4%, p < 0.001), and MLH1 overexpression (77.5% versus 94.4%, p = 0.039). In contrast, MSH2 overexpression was associated with better survival, 95.1% versus 75.5% (p = 0.024). Conclusions The reversed prognostic implications in the overexpression of MLH1 and MSH2 for stage I–II colon cancer patients is a novel finding and worthy of further confirmation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T07:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.004
       
  • Interference factors regarding the path of insertion of rotational-path
           removable partial dentures

    • Authors: Chan-Te Huang; Fang-Chun Liu; Kwing-Chi Luk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chan-Te Huang, Fang-Chun Liu, Kwing-Chi Luk
      Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the location of the rotational center and the morphology of teeth resulting in interference with the rotational path of insertion and to estimate when an interference test should be performed. Methods A total of 400 dental radiograms of maxillary and mandibular first and second molars (100 for each position) were selected. The radiograms were used to hand-sketch the outlines on tracing paper. Then, an interference test was simulated using calipers. Mesial long occlusal rest seats with three different lengths were designed. A curve-simulated rotational path was drawn on the tracing paper showing the outline of a molar. If the curve was intersected by the mesial outline, interference was occurred. A total of 1200 tests were performed. Results A significant number of interference cases (18.5%, N = 400) occurred when the rotational center was placed at the most distal margin of the occlusal surface. The interference was reduced (2.75%, N = 400) but still present at the distal fourth of the occlusal surface. At the distal one-third of the occlusal surface, interference did not occur (0%, N = 400). There was a significant difference between the results of the three rotational centers (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The interference test was not required for a rotational center at the distal third to half of the occlusal surface. However, if the length of the long occlusal rest extends beyond the distal third, an interference test is recommended before final impression.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T07:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.07.003
       
 
 
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