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Journal Cover Biomedical Journal
  [SJR: 0.793]   [H-I: 10]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2319-4170 - ISSN (Online) 2320-2890
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Pralidoxime and pesticide poisoning: A question of severity'

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Pages: 373 - 375
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we highlight new data supporting the use of pralidoxime in the treatment of cases of organophosphate poisoning, which also suggest that WHO treatment guidelines should be updated. We also learn about a modified surgical technique to repair severe spinal injuries, as well as new insight into the structure of human adenovirus that could inform vaccine development.

      PubDate: 2016-12-30T20:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.001
       
  • In silico structure analysis and epitope prediction of E3 CR1-beta
           protein of Human Adenovirus E for vaccine design

    • Authors: Noman Ibna Amin Patwary; Md. Saiful Islam; Md. Sohel; Ismot Ara; Mohd. Omar Faruk Sikder; Shah Md. Shahik
      Pages: 382 - 390
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Noman Ibna Amin Patwary, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Sohel, Ismot Ara, Mohd. Omar Faruk Sikder, Shah Md. Shahik
      Background Human Adenoviruses are divided into 7 species of Human Adenovirus A to G based on DNA genome homology. The Human Adenovirus E (HAdVs-E) genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA containing 38 protein-coding genes. Wild-type adenoviruses type E, are linked to a number of slight illnesses. The most important part of HAdVs-E is E3 CR1-beta protein which controls the host immune response and viral attachment. Method We use numerous bio-informatics and immuno-informatics implements comprising sequence and construction tools for construction of 3D model and epitope prediction for HAdVs-E. Results The 3D structure of E3 CR1-beta protein was generated and total of ten antigenic B cell epitopes, 6 MHC class I and 11 MHC class II binding peptides were predicted. Conclusion The study was carried out to predict antigenic determinants/epitopes of the E3 CR1-beta protein of Human Adenovirus E along with the 3D protein modeling. The study revealed potential T-cell and B-cell epitopes that can raise the desired immune response against E3 CR1-beta protein and useful in developing effective vaccines against HAdVs-E.

      PubDate: 2016-12-30T20:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.004
       
  • The effectiveness of patient-tailored treatment for acute organophosphate
           poisoning

    • Authors: Chih-Chuan Lin; Dong-Zong Hung; Hsien-Yi Chen; Kuang-Hung Hsu
      Pages: 391 - 399
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Chih-Chuan Lin, Dong-Zong Hung, Hsien-Yi Chen, Kuang-Hung Hsu
      Background To determine a new pralidoxime (PAM) treatment guideline based on the severity of acute organophosphate intoxication patients, APACHE II score, and dynamic changes in serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity. Methods This is a randomization trial. All patients received supportive care measurements and atropinization. Each enrolled patient was treated with 2 gm PAM intravenously as the loading dose. The control group was treated according to the WHO's recommended PAM regimen, and the experimental group was treated according to their APACHE II scores and dynamic changes in BuChE activity. If a patient's APACHE II score was ≧26 or there was no elevation in BuChE activity at the 12th hour when compared to the 6th, doses of 1 g/h PAM (i.e., doubled WHO's recommended PAM regimen) were given. The levels of the serum BuChE and red blood cells acetylcholinesterase and the serum PAM levels were also measured. Results Forty-six organophosphate poisoning patients were enrolled in this study. There were 24 patients in the control group and 22 patients in the experimental group. The hazard ratio of death in the control group to that of the experimental group was 111.51 (95% CI: 1.17–1.613.45; p = 0.04). The RBC acetylcholinesterase level was elevated in the experimental group but was not in the control group. The experimental group did not exhibit a higher PAM blood level than did the control group. Conclusion The use of PAM can be guided by patient severity. Thus, may help to improve the outcomes of organophosphate poisoning patients.

      PubDate: 2016-12-30T20:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.001
       
  • Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of tumor feeding artery before target
           tumor ablation may reduce local tumor progression in hepatocellular
           carcinoma

    • Authors: Ya-Ting Cheng; Wen-Juei Jeng; Chen-Chun Lin; Wei-Ting Chen; I-Shyan Sheen; Chun-Yen Lin; Shi-Ming Lin
      Pages: 400 - 406
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ya-Ting Cheng, Wen-Juei Jeng, Chen-Chun Lin, Wei-Ting Chen, I-Shyan Sheen, Chun-Yen Lin, Shi-Ming Lin
      Background Local tumor progression (LTP) in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) remains high. Tumor feeding artery ablation (FAA) before target tumor ablation was reported to reduce LTP in patients with HCC >3 cm. The aim of our study is to investigate whether FAA before target tumor ablation may reduce LTP in HCC <3 cm. Methods We retrospectively analysis the outcome of patients with HCC <3 cm undergoing FAA before target tumor ablation (N = 17) compared to direct RFA to target tumor alone (N = 35). Results FAA significantly reduces LTP (FAA vs. non-FAA: local tumor progression 17.6% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.038), but not in intrahepatic recurrence: 29.4% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.778; or in overall recurrence rate: 41.2% vs. 62.9%, p = 0.14). The cumulative 1-year and 2-year LTP rates in FAA group were 17.6% and 17.6%, while 11.4% and 42.9% in non-FAA group (p = 0.073), respectively. The cumulative overall recurrence rates at 1-year and 2-year were 29.4% and 35.3% in FAA group, while 14.3% and 57.1% in non-FAA group (p = 0.130), respectively. Conclusions FAA before target tumor ablation may decrease LTP in HCC <3 cm. Further randomized control study will be helpful for validation.

      PubDate: 2016-12-30T20:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.002
       
  • On the road to epigenetic therapy

    • Authors: Emma L. Walton
      Pages: 161 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma L. Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we examine how far the explosion of epigenetic studies in recent years has translated to benefits for patients in the clinic, and we highlight an original study suggesting that increased vegetable intake protects against osteoporotic fractures. We also hear several opinions on the use, or perhaps misuse, of Impact Factor and what the future should hold for this publication metric.

      PubDate: 2016-09-03T11:15:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.005
       
  • Great expectations – Epigenetics and the meandering path from bench
           to bedside

    • Authors: Sophia J. Häfner; Anders H. Lund
      Pages: 166 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Sophia J. Häfner, Anders H. Lund
      Making quick promises of major biomedical breakthroughs based on exciting discoveries at the bench is tempting. But the meandering path from fundamental science to life-saving clinical applications can be fraught with many hurdles. Epigenetics, the study of potentially heritable changes of gene function without modification of the underlying DNA sequence, has dominated the biological research field during the last decade and encountered a large public success. Driven by the unfolding of molecular biology and recent technological progress, the term has evolved significantly and shifted from a conceptual framework to a mechanistic understanding. This shift was accompanied by much hype and raised high hopes that epigenetics might hold both the key to deciphering the molecular underpinning of complex, non-Mendelian diseases and offer novel therapeutic approaches for a large panel of pathologies. However, while exciting reports of biological phenomena involving DNA methylation and histone modifications fill up the scientific literature, the realistic clinical applications of epigenetic medicines remain somewhat blurry. Here, we discuss the state of the art and speculate how epigenetics might contribute to prognostic and therapy approaches in the future.

      PubDate: 2016-08-14T06:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.01.008
       
  • Spectrum of neurosurgeon's role in epilepsy surgery

    • Authors: Eun-ik Son; Ji-Eun Kim
      Pages: 177 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Eun-ik Son, Ji-Eun Kim
      It is well known that there is high quality evidence of epilepsy surgery as an effective and safe option for patients with drug refractory epilepsy by advanced imaging technology and computerized electrophysiological facilities during recent three decades. However, it still remains debate regarding necessities of epilepsy surgery in terms of less satisfactory surgical outcome, especially in non-lesional neocortical epilepsies. This review is for the role of epileptic neurosurgeon rather than the role of epilepsy surgery, namely, the necessity of neurosurgeon's positive participation starting from the first visit of epilepsy patients followed by pertaining process by stages and its degree of contribution. All experienced epilepsy centers also need innovative or challenging trial absolutely through this kind of standpoint, because all of the present protocols and techniques are coming from the past. In any event, the interdepartmental and interpersonal cooperation is inevitable especially for improving patient's quality of life. Serious neurosurgical considerations are needed for patients with intractable epilepsies, especially in referred cases from other center for the purpose of double check, and incongruent cases with contrary opinions by epileptologist.

      PubDate: 2016-08-14T06:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.01.009
       
  • Alternative functions for the multifarious inflammasome

    • Authors: Jan Martel; Hsin-Chih Lai; Yun-Fei Ko; John D. Young; David M. Ojcius
      Pages: 183 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Jan Martel, Hsin-Chih Lai, Yun-Fei Ko, John D. Young, David M. Ojcius
      The inflammasome has been mainly studied in innate immune cells in which it senses microbes and cellular damage, and induces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This process induces an inflammatory response that is critical for the resolution of infections and repair of tissue damage following injury. Recent studies indicate that inflammasome complex formation also participates in many other cellular and physiological processes beyond modulation of inflammation, such as autophagy, metabolism, eicosanoids production, and phagosome maturation.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T00:12:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.06.001
       
  • A clinical score to predict dose reductions of antidiabetes medications
           with intentional weight loss: A retrospective cohort study

    • Authors: Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha; Anita Ashok Kumar; Vimal Ravi; Rohit C. Khanna; Scott Kahan; Lawrence J. Cheskin
      Pages: 188 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha, Anita Ashok Kumar, Vimal Ravi, Rohit C. Khanna, Scott Kahan, Lawrence J. Cheskin
      Background We assessed the predictive accuracy of an empirically-derived score (weight loss, insulin resistance, and glycemic control: “WIG”) to predict patients who will be successful in reducing diabetes mellitus (DM) medication use with weight loss. Methods Case records of 121 overweight and obese patients with DM at two outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. Results Mean period of follow-up was 12.5 ± 3.5 months. To derive the “WIG” scoring algorithm, one point each was assigned to “W” (loss of 5% of initial body weight within the first 3 months of attempting weight loss), “I” (triglyceride [TGL]/highdensity lipoprotein ratio >3 [marker of insulin resistance] at baseline), and “G” (glycosylated hemoglobin [A1c%] >8.5 at baseline). WIG score showed moderate accuracy in discriminating anti-DM dose reductions at baseline, and after 3 months of weight loss efforts (likelihood ratios [LR] + >1, LR− <1, and area under the curve >0.7), and demonstrated good reproducibility. Conclusions WIG score shows promise as a tool to predict success with dose reductions of antidiabetes medications.

      PubDate: 2016-08-14T06:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.06.002
       
  • Incidence and risk factors of poststroke depression in patients with acute
           ischemic stroke: A 1-year prospective study in Taiwan

    • Authors: Ching-Shu Tsai; Chen-Long Wu; Tai-Hsin Hung; Shih-Yong Chou; Jian-An Su
      Pages: 195 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Ching-Shu Tsai, Chen-Long Wu, Tai-Hsin Hung, Shih-Yong Chou, Jian-An Su
      Background Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the most frequent and devastating neuropsychiatric consequences of stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for PSD in a general hospital in Taiwan. Methods One hundred and one patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled initially, and 91 (90.1%) completed the 1-year study. Assessments were performed at baseline, and at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th month after enrolment. The definition of PSD was in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of major depressive episode in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV). Results The accumulated incidence rates of PSD at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 9th, month were 4%, 8%, 9%, and 10%, respectively, and the overall incidence at 1 year was 11%. In multivariate regression analysis, female gender, higher depression score, and severity of stroke were significant risk factors. In subgroup analysis, a higher depression score was significantly associated with PSD, regardless of gender; however, stroke severity was a risk factor only in the female group. Conclusion The 1-year incidence of PSD was 11%, based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. More attention should be paid to patients with more risk factors to enable earlier detection and intervention.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T03:14:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.10.004
       
  • A study of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis using computed
           tomographic imaging

    • Authors: F. Massilla Mani; S. Satha Sivasubramanian
      Pages: 201 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): F. Massilla Mani, S. Satha Sivasubramanian
      Background This study aimed to determine the various bony changes in osteoarthritis (OA) of elderly patients who are suffering from temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) and to find if all the changes manifesting in generalized OA were presented in temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Methods Thirty TMJs of fifteen elderly patients who were diagnosed with TMD were selected for the study. Patient with TMD were subjected to computerized tomographic (CT) imaging, and the various bony changes in the TMJ were recorded. Results CT study of TMJ showed that there is a positive evidence of joint involvement in 80% of the cases. In this study, female patients were more commonly affected by OA than the males. The condylar changes (69.93%) are more common than the changes in the articular eminence (6.6%) and condylar fossa (10%). About 56.6% of TMJ in the study was affected by the early manifestations of the OA. Conclusion CT study showed that there is a positive evidence of TMJ involvement in the elderly patients with TMD. The results show that condylar changes are more common than the changes in the articular eminence and condylar fossa. The study also shows that most of the patients are affected by early TMJ OA; hence, initiating treatment at early stages may prevent the disease progression.

      PubDate: 2016-09-03T11:15:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.06.003
       
  • A 2-year retrospective study of pediatric dental emergency visits at a
           hospital emergency center in Taiwan

    • Authors: Chia-Pei Jung; Aileen I. Tsai; Ching-Ming Chen
      Pages: 207 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chia-Pei Jung, Aileen I. Tsai, Ching-Ming Chen
      Background There is a paucity of information regarding pediatric dental emergencies in Taiwan. This study investigates the prevalence and characteristics of the pediatric dental emergency services provided at a medical center. Methods This study included a retrospective chart review of patients under 18 years of age with dental complaints who visited the Emergency Department (ED) of Linkou Medical Center of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. Information regarding age, gender, time/day/month of presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up was collected and analyzed. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test with the significance level set as p < 0.05. Results This study revealed that dental emergencies in the medical center ED were predominantly related to orodental trauma (47.1%) and pulpal pain (29.9%). Most patients were male (p < 0.001) and <5 years of age (p < 0.001). The most frequent orodental trauma was luxation, both in primary and permanent dentition. The major management for dental emergencies was prescribing medication for pulp-related problems and orodental trauma. The follow-up rate of orodental trauma was the highest (p < 0.001). Conclusions For children, trauma and toothache constituted the most common reasons for dental emergency visits at a hospital emergency center in Taiwan. While dental emergencies are sometimes unforeseeable or unavoidable, developing community awareness about proper at-home care as well as regular dental preventive measures can potentially reduce the number of emergency visits.

      PubDate: 2016-08-14T06:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.06.004
       
  • Low vegetable intake increases the risk of fall-related fragility fracture
           in postmenopausal Taiwanese women, a prospective pilot study in the
           community

    • Authors: Chu-Hsu Lin; Kai-Hua Chen; Chien-Min Chen; Chia-Hao Chang; Tung-Jung Huang; Hung-Chih Hsu; Shih-Yang Huang
      Pages: 214 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chu-Hsu Lin, Kai-Hua Chen, Chien-Min Chen, Chia-Hao Chang, Tung-Jung Huang, Hung-Chih Hsu, Shih-Yang Huang
      Background The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle factors including nutrition intake and the incidence of fall-related fragility fractures in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 1169 female volunteers were recruited from participants at the morning health examinations held at each local public health center in the West Chiayi County of Taiwan at the beginning of the study. Laboratory examinations, anthropometric measurements, and questionnaire interviews inquiring about lifestyle factors, including weekly nutrition intake, were performed. Subsequently, four follow-up telephone interviews at intervals of about 6–12 months were performed to inquire about instances of falls and fractures. Results Nine hundred and fifty-three subjects responded at least once to the four telephone interviews, and there were 183 postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 68.8 ± 8.3 (49–87) years, reporting falls. Of the 183 women, 25 had incurred new fractures from low-energy impacts. Statistical analysis revealed that older age and hypertension were associated with increased risks of falling. Intake of other deep-colored (nondark-green) vegetables and light-colored vegetables as well as total vegetable intake were associated with reduced risk of fall-related fragility fracture. Conclusion Among postmenopausal women, older age and the presence of hypertension were associated with increased risks of falls. Increased vegetable intake might be helpful to reduce the incidence of fall-related fragility fractures.

      PubDate: 2016-08-14T06:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.11.003
       
  • Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice

    • Authors: Arunava Kali
      Pages: 223 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Arunava Kali
      Intestinal microbial flora plays critical role in maintenance of health. Probiotic organisms have been recognized as an essential therapeutic component in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. Current research suggests their health benefits extends beyond intestinal disorders. The neuroactive molecules produced by the gut microbiota has been found to modulate neural signals which affect neurological and psychiatric parameters like sleep, appetite, mood and cognition. Use of these novel probiotics opens up the possibility of restructuring of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders.

      PubDate: 2016-08-14T06:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.11.004
       
  • Journal impact factor

    • Authors: Vagish Kumar L. Shanbhag
      First page: 225
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Vagish Kumar L. Shanbhag


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T06:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.12.001
       
  • Impact factor impacting our scientific research – Probable solutions

    • Authors: Jagadish Rao Padubidri; B. Suresh Kumar Shetty
      First page: 226
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Jagadish Rao Padubidri, B. Suresh Kumar Shetty


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T06:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.06.005
       
  • Journal impact factor – Handle with care

    • Authors: Tanuj Kanchan; Kewal Krishan
      First page: 227
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Tanuj Kanchan, Kewal Krishan


      PubDate: 2016-08-19T11:17:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.12.002
       
  • The dual role of ROS, antioxidants and autophagy in cancer

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Pages: 89 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we highlight a review revealing that the effect of autophagy, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidants in cancer may be a question of timing and context. We also discuss original research showing that the prevalence of cleft lip with or without palate in Taiwan has declined over the past 20 years, and what this might mean in terms of trends in abortion. Finally, we also learn about risk factors for recurrent hospital-acquired infection with multi-drug resistant bacteria, and the value of dental screening for patients with tinnitus.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.05.001
       
  • Honoring antiparasitics: The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    • Authors: Wei-June Chen
      Pages: 93 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Wei-June Chen
      Protozoa and helminths are the two main groups that cause parasitic diseases with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms. Protozoa are unicellular organisms like the malaria parasite Plasmodium, which is responsible for the majority of deaths associated with parasitic infections. Helminths are alternative parasites that can produce debilitating diseases in hosts, some of which result in chronic infections. The discovery of effective therapeutic drugs is the key to improving health in regions of poverty and poor sanitation where these parasites usually occur. It is very encouraging that the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Youyou Tu as well as William C. Campbell and Satoshi Õmura for their considerable contributions in discovering artemisinin and avermectin, respectively. Both drugs revolutionized therapies for filariasis and malaria, significantly reducing by large percentages their morbidity and mortality.

      PubDate: 2016-06-08T06:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.04.002
       
  • Metabolic, autophagic, and mitophagic activities in cancer initiation and
           progression

    • Authors: Anita Hjelmeland; Jianhua Zhang
      Pages: 98 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Anita Hjelmeland, Jianhua Zhang
      Cancer is a complex disease marked by uncontrolled cell growth and invasion. These processes are driven by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that promote cancer initiation and progression. Contributing to genome changes are the regulation of oxidative stress and reactive species-induced damage to molecules and organelles. Redox regulation, metabolic plasticity, autophagy, and mitophagy play important and interactive roles in cancer hallmarks including sustained proliferation, activated invasion, and replicative immortality. However, the impact of these processes can differ depending on the signaling pathways altered in cancer, tumor type, tumor stage, and/or the differentiation state. Here, we highlight some of the representative studies on the impact of oxidative and nitrosative activities, mitochondrial bioenergetics, metabolism, and autophagy and mitophagy in the context of tumorigenesis. We discuss the implications of these processes for cellular activities in cancer for anti-cancer-based therapeutics.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.10.002
       
  • Clinical applications of spectral domain optical coherence tomography in
           retinal diseases

    • Authors: R.K. Murthy; Shamim Haji; Kumar Sambhav; Sandeep Grover; K.V. Chalam
      Pages: 107 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): R.K. Murthy, Shamim Haji, Kumar Sambhav, Sandeep Grover, K.V. Chalam
      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced about two decades ago and has revolutionized ophthalmic practice in recent years. It is a noninvasive noncontact imaging modality that provides a high-resolution cross-sectional image of the cornea, retina, choroid and optic nerve head, analogous to that of the histological section. Advances in OCT technology in signal detection technique from time-domain (TD) to spectral-domain (SD) detection have given us the potential to study various retinal layers more precisely and in less time. SD-OCT better delineates structural changes and fine lesions in the individual retinal layers. Thus, we have gained substantial information about the pathologic and structural changes in ocular conditions with primary or secondary retinal involvement. This review we discuss the clinical application of currently available SD-OCT in various retinal pathologies. Furthermore, highlights the benefits of SD-OCT over TD. With the introduction of enhanced depth imaging and swept – source OCT visualization of the choroid and choriocapillaris has become possible. Therefore, OCT has become an indispensable ancillary test in the diagnosis and management of diseases involving the retina and/or the choroid. As OCT technology continues to develop further it will provide new insights into the retinal and choroidal structure and the pathogenesis of posterior segment of the eye.

      PubDate: 2016-06-23T21:06:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.04.003
       
  • Continuous epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor
           administration in primary lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring favorable
           mutations with controlled target lung tumors dose not hinder survival
           benefit despite small new lesions

    • Authors: Ping-Chih Hsu; Li-Chung Chiu; Shih-Hong Li; Chih-Hung Chen; Chih-Liang Wang; Kuo-Chin Kao; John Wen-Chang Chang; Chih-Wei Wang; Chih-Teng Yu; Fu-Tsai Chung; Cheng-Ta Yang; Chien-Ying Liu
      Pages: 121 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Ping-Chih Hsu, Li-Chung Chiu, Shih-Hong Li, Chih-Hung Chen, Chih-Liang Wang, Kuo-Chin Kao, John Wen-Chang Chang, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Teng Yu, Fu-Tsai Chung, Cheng-Ta Yang, Chien-Ying Liu
      Background In this study, we investigated the efficacy of continuous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) administration in lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring favorable mutations regarding the progressive disease (PD) status with appearance of indolent new lesions. Methods From June 2010 to October 2012, 102 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, harboring favorable EGFR mutations and treated with EGFR-TKI were analyzed. Definite new lesions were detected during EGFR-TKI therapy, even though the primary target tumors were controlled. Results Of the 102 patients, 57 continued and 45 discontinued EGFR-TKI therapy. The median overall survival was 529 days for the discontinuation group and 791 days for the continuation group (p = 0.0197). Median survival time after the discontinuation of EGFR-TKI was 181 days and 115 days in the discontinuation and continuation groups, respectively (p = 0.1776), whereas median survival time after the appearance of indolent new lesions was 204 days and 262 days, respectively (p = 0.0237). Conclusion Continuous EGFR-TKI administration in favorable EGFR-mutative lung adenocarcinoma patients with controlled primary tumors did not hinder the survival benefit, despite the appearance of new lesions.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.07.002
       
  • Risk factors of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii recurrence
           after successful eradication in ventilated patients

    • Authors: Chiung-Yu Lin; Yu-Mu Chen; Meng-Chih Lin; Yu-Ping Chang; Tung-Ying Chao; Chin-Chou Wang; Yuh-Chyn Tsai; Lien Shi Shen; Chin-Ling Li; An-Shen Lin
      Pages: 130 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chiung-Yu Lin, Yu-Mu Chen, Meng-Chih Lin, Yu-Ping Chang, Tung-Ying Chao, Chin-Chou Wang, Yuh-Chyn Tsai, Lien Shi Shen, Chin-Ling Li, An-Shen Lin
      Background Clinically, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) recurrence is found in some patients although identified as successfully eradicated. We aim to discover the characteristics of patients with MDR-AB recurrence in the respiratory tract. Methods We retrospectively collected 106 chronic respiratory failure patients with MDR-AB harvest in pulmonary secretion culture. Results MDR-AB was successfully eradicated in 69 patients. Diabetes mellitus (p = 0.030, odds ratio [OR]: 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–6.4) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.001, OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 1.8–12.7) reduce the MDR-AB eradication rate. Besides, a classification of colonization or infection was made beyond the 69 MDR-AB eradicated patients. In the colonization group, diabetes mellitus (p = 0.009; OR = 5.1, 95% CI: 1.5–17.6) is the only independent factor to increase the recurrence rate. Glycated hemoglobin level is also analyzed for each group to investigate diabetes control effect, but no significant difference found. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor of MDR-AB recurrence among MDR-AB-colonized patients; the impact of localized pneumonia patch in MDR-AB-infected patients requires further study to be clarified.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.07.001
       
  • The occlusal imaging and analysis system by T-scan III in tinnitus
           patients

    • Authors: Federica Di Berardino; Eliana Filipponi; Massimo Schiappadori; Stella Forti; Diego Zanetti; Antonio Cesarani
      Pages: 139 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Federica Di Berardino, Eliana Filipponi, Massimo Schiappadori, Stella Forti, Diego Zanetti, Antonio Cesarani
      Background Several studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in tinnitus patients ranges from 7% to 95%, and it is reported in literature that idiopathic tinnitus patients should be referred to a dentist to define whether or not the tinnitus is associated with TMD. However, the possible pathophysiological relation between TMDs and tinnitus is not generally investigated in clinical practice. Methods The patterns and forces of occlusal contacts have been studied by means of T-scan III in 47 tinnitus patients (23 suffering from idiopathic tinnitus and 24 affected by Ménière disease [MD]) and 13 healthy subjects. Results The center of force target was offset in the opposite direction in 15/23 idiopathic tinnitus and in 7/24 MD patients (p = 0.026). No significant variation was found in the occlusal force. Conclusions Our data suggest that a diagnostic screening method for occlusal stability in the intercuspidal position might be clinically useful in idiopathic tinnitus patients.

      PubDate: 2016-06-08T06:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.04.001
       
  • A comparison between the effects of propofol–fentanyl with
           propofol–ketamine for sedation in patients undergoing endoscopic
           retrograde cholangiopancreatography outside the operating room

    • Authors: Reza Akhondzadeh; Ali Ghomeishi; Sholeh Nesioonpour; Sanaz Nourizade
      Pages: 145 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Reza Akhondzadeh, Ali Ghomeishi, Sholeh Nesioonpour, Sanaz Nourizade
      Background The efficient and secure techniques of anesthesia and sedation have always been needed for. One of these procedures is endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), due to its painfulness and long duration, has high sensitivity. We compare the effects of propofol–fentanyl (PF) with propofol–ketamine (PK) to sedate patients undergoing ERCP. Methods In this clinical trial, patients were divided into two groups of 49 people. A group received a pharmaceutical combination of PK, and another group received a pharmaceutical combination of PF. Vital signs of patients, Ramsey Sedation Score, and pain of patients were assessed. The total dosage of used propofol was also recorded. Results There was no significant difference seen in the patients' hemodynamic characteristics in both groups. Pain at the end of surgery and an hour after it in the PK group was less that was not statistically significant. By Ramsey Sedation Score also significant differences were not seen between groups (p = 0.68). By using total dose of propofol used also a significant difference was not observed between the two groups (p = 0.36). Rate of apnea in PK group was 32% and in the PF group was 63%, which this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion A comparison between the two drugs combination shows that although in terms of hemodynamic and sedation criteria both groups were similar, but because of the lower amount of pain and apnea in the PK group, this combination may generally in the ERCP procedure is more efficient and safer.

      PubDate: 2016-06-23T21:06:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.11.002
       
  • Time trend of incidence rates of cleft lip/palate in Taiwan from 1994 to
           2013

    • Authors: Wei-Jung Chang; Lai-Chu See; Lun-Jou Lo
      Pages: 150 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Wei-Jung Chang, Lai-Chu See, Lun-Jou Lo
      Background This study was to estimate the incidence rate of cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) in Taiwan from 1994 to 2013, and to assess the time trend over these years. Methods Retrospective data analysis was performed on records of all newborns with CL/P treated at Chang Gung Craniofacial Center, the only treatment center for CL/P in Taiwan, from 1994 to 2013. Three-year moving average rates were computed and linear regression was used to explore the annual average percentage change. Results From 1994 to 2013, 7282 newborns with CL/P were identified, corresponding to an annual rate of 1.48‰ (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.45‰–1.52‰). There was a significant decline of rate of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) (−2.9% ± 0.2%, p < 0.0001) but slightly increase of rate of cleft palate (CP) only (+0.2% ± 0.07%, p = 0.004). Conclusion From 1994 to 2013, the annual rate of incidence of CL/P was 1.48‰ in Taiwan. The 2.9% annual decline of the rate was mainly from the CL ± P group, not the CP group.

      PubDate: 2016-06-08T06:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.10.003
       
  • Thanks to our Reviewers in 2016

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 39, Issue 6


      PubDate: 2016-12-30T20:24:34Z
       
  • Cysto-duodeno-colic ligament and its clinical relevance

    • Authors: Vishwajit Ravindra Deshmukh; Seema Singh; Ritu Sehgal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Vishwajit Ravindra Deshmukh, Seema Singh, Ritu Sehgal
      During a routine dissection class for the undergraduate students at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, a rare uncommon variation of the peritoneal ligament was found. Information regarding variation in such type of accessory peritoneal reflections is necessary for anatomists, surgeons, and radiologists. Normally there was no peritoneal reflection between gallbladder, duodenum and transverse colon, but in the present case report, it was present and termed as cysto-duodeno-colic ligament. Knowledge of such variation is necessary during gallbladder surgeries and liver transplantation surgeries.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T19:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.002
       
  • Antidiarrhoeal investigation of Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) by modulation
           of Na+K+ATPase, nitrous oxide and intestinal transit in rats

    • Authors: Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo; Rakesh Sagar; Anjan Kumar; Amrita Bhaiji; Subrat Kumar Bhattamishra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Rakesh Sagar, Anjan Kumar, Amrita Bhaiji, Subrat Kumar Bhattamishra
      Background Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) is an annual herb with traditional appreciation for various pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this herb is insufficient. The aim of the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate flavonoidal fraction of A. leptophyllum fruit (FFALF) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Methods The antidiarrhoeal study was conducted by castor oil induce diarrhoea, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling and intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. The rats were divided into five groups (six/group). Group I served as control and received orally 2% acacia suspension; Group II served as standard and received orally loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg); Group III, IV and V served as test groups and received the FFALF at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg orally, respectively. Results In castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the FFALF significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the frequency of diarrhoea, defecation and weight of faeces as well as increased the sodium–potassium ATPase (Na+K+ATPase) activity and decreased nitric oxide (NO) content in the small intestine. In prostaglandin induced enteropooling model, it significantly (p < 0.01) and dose dependently slowed the intestinal fluid accumulation by decreasing the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid where as in charcoal meal test, it decreased charcoal meal transit in gastrointestinal tract as compared with control. Conclusions The study reveals that the FFALF possess anti-diarrhoeal properties mediated through inhibition of hyper secretion and gastrointestinal motility which support the traditional use of the plant.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T19:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.003
       
  • Two additional augmenting screws with posterior short-segment
           instrumentation without fusion for unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture
           – Comparisons with transpedicular grafting techniques

    • Authors: Yu-Chih Lin; Kuo-Fon Fan; Jen-Chung Liao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Yu-Chih Lin, Kuo-Fon Fan, Jen-Chung Liao
      Background Transpedicular grafting techniques with posterior short-segment instrumentation have demonstrated to prevent high implant failure in unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures. We tested our hypothesis that short-segment instrumentation with two additional augmenting screws in the injured vertebra could provide stability and was similar to those of the transpedicular grafting technique. Methods Twenty patients belonged to group A; treated with short-segment pedicle screw fixation and reinforced by two augmenting screws at the fractured vertebra. Group B had thirty-one patients; the fractured vertebra was augmented with transpedicular autogenous bone graft. Group C had twenty patients; the injured vertebra was strengthened with calcium sulfate cement. Clinical outcome and radiographic parameters were compared. Results Group A had the least blood loss (101.7 ± 72.5 vs. 600 ± 403.1 vs. 247.5 ± 164.2 ml, p < 0.001) and the least operation time (142.0 ± 57.2 vs. 227.2 ± 43.6 vs. 161.6 ± 28.5 min, p < 0.001). However, group A had the highest collapsed rate of the body height at the 18-month follow-up (10.5 ± 7.0 vs. 4.6 ± 4.8 vs. 7.2 ± 8.5%, p = 0.002). The failure rate, include implant failure or loss of 10° or more of correction, group B had the lowest failure rate (10% vs. 3.2% vs. 10%, p = 0.542). The group A had the highest rate of return to their previous employment (50% vs. 38% vs. 35%, p = 0.265). Conclusions Compared with transpedicular grafting techniques, additional two “augmenting screws” in the fracture vertebra with short-segment instrumentation are sufficient for one-level thoracolumbar burst fracture.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T19:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.005
       
  • The inflammasome: Friend or foe in Chlamydia infection'

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we take a look at the still somewhat perplexing role of the inflammasome in Chlamydia infection. We also highlight findings suggesting a link between structural changes to arteries in the brain and the onset of depression. Finally, we learn about some of the implications of co-morbidity between diabetes and infectious diseases.

      PubDate: 2016-11-18T10:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.003
       
  • Profile of glycated-hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamin and cytokine levels in
           pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross sectional study at Pulmonary
           Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia

    • Authors: Praba Ginandjar; Lintang Dian Saraswati; Bagoes Widjanarko
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Praba Ginandjar, Lintang Dian Saraswati, Bagoes Widjanarko
      Background Uncontrolled blood glucose, which marked by high level of HbA1c, increases risk of pulmonary TB because of cellular immunity dysfunction. This study aimed to analyze profile of glycated hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamins status and cytokines levels in active pulmonary TB patients. Methods This was a cross sectional study, conducted at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia. Study subject consisted of 62 pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed with positive acid fast bacilli and chest X-ray. ELISA was used to measure IFN-γ and IL-12. Status of antioxidant vitamins was determined by concentration of vitamin A and E using HPLC. Blood glucose control was determined by HbA1c concentration (HbA1c ≥7% is considered as uncontrolled). Results A significant difference of age between pulmonary tuberculosis patients with normal and uncontrolled blood glucose (p = 0.000) was showed, while all other characteristics (sex, education, occupation) did not differ with p = 0.050, 0.280, 0.380 respectively. Mean HbA1c was 7.25 ± 2.70%. Prevalence of uncontrolled glucose among pulmonary TB patients was 29%. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 did not differ according to HbA1c concentration (p = 0.159 and p = 0.965 respectively). Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with uncontrolled blood glucose has higher vitamin E (p = 0.006), while vitamin A did not differ significantly (p = 0.478). Conclusions This study supports the importance of performing diabetes screening among pulmonary TB patients. Further study needs to be done to determine the feasibility of TB-DM co-management.

      PubDate: 2016-11-10T21:47:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.01.011
       
  • Histomorphometric study of basilar artery in normal and suicide persons

    • Authors: Suresh Kumar Parmar; V. Satya Prasad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Suresh Kumar Parmar, V. Satya Prasad
      Background Depression in association with cerebro-vascular risk factors and white matter lesions is increasingly referred to as ‘vascular depression’. There are several brain areas known for playing a role in patho-physiology of depression which may lead to suicidal tendencies, are fed by basilar artery. Therefore, the arterial histoarchitecture was studied in the normal and suicide individuals to establish a relationship between the vascular structural changes and depression. Methods 40 post-mortem samples (both sexes) of basilar artery have been collected and were grouped into normal and suicide groups. Samples were measured for arterial, lumen diameter and the thickness of tunica intima, media and adventitia using H & E stained sections. While, Orcein stained sections were used to estimate the volume fraction of elastic fibres, and Van Gieson stained sections to estimate the volume fraction of collagen fibres. Results The mean thickness of tunica media of basilar artery in suicide individuals (1.08 microns) showed a statistically significant decrease when compared to normal person (1.33 microns). Further, volume fraction of collagen (0.06 mm3/mm3) and elastic fibres (0.06 mm3/mm3) in suicide persons showed a statistically significant decrease when compared to normal person (collagen fibres 0.08 mm3/mm3; elastic fibres 0.09 mm3/mm3). Conclusions This study establishes a probable causative relationship between vascular structural abnormality and depression which may drive the individual to commit suicide.

      PubDate: 2016-11-10T21:47:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.12.005
       
  • Association of endothelial dysfunction and cytotoxin-associated gene
           A-positive Helicobacter pylori in patients with cardiac syndrome X

    • Authors: Yousef Rasmi; Hadi Rouhrazi; Ebrahim Khayati-Shal; Alireza Shirpoor; Ehsan Saboory
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Yousef Rasmi, Hadi Rouhrazi, Ebrahim Khayati-Shal, Alireza Shirpoor, Ehsan Saboory
      Background Existence of coronary endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). In addition, Helicobacter pylorus (H. pylori) has been associated with CSX. We aimed to assess the possible association of endothelial dysfunction and cytotoxin-associated gene A-positive H. pylori (CagA+) infection in CSX patients. Methods Fifty-six patients with CSX (23 male/33 female; age: 51.25 ± 8.86 years) who were anti-H. pylori IgG-positive [H. pylori(+)] and 24 CSX patients (7 male/17 female; age: 52.79 ± 9.88 years) who were H. pylori(−) were included. Also, anti-H. pylori IgG-positive patients were determined by the presence of IgG antibody to CagA. Levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured. Results Endothelial dysfunction biomarkers were higher in H. pylori(+) than in H. pylori(−) patients (ET-1: 54.60 ± 25.39 vs. 42.59 ± 18.37 pg/ml, p = 0.04; E-selectin: 42.68 ± 14.26 vs. 31.72 ± 8.26 ng/ml, p = 0.001; ICAM-1: 339.68 ± 135.8 vs. 266.51 ± 125.1 ng/ml, p = 0.02). Among H. pylori(+) subjects, 28 cases were CagA(+) and 28 cases were CagA(−). There were significant differences in measured levels of E-selectin between CagA(+) and CagA(−) groups (48.00 ± 16.37 vs. 37.37 ± 9.37 ng/ml, p = 0.004). For ET-1 and ICAM-1 levels, the difference between CagA(+) and CagA(−) was insignificant (p = 0.174 and p = 0.07, respectively). Conclusion High levels of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers are found in CSX patients with anti-CagA(+). These findings suggest the infection with CagA(+) H. pylori strain may play a role as a risk factor in development of CSX through provocation of endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, a long term follow up to investigate the outcomes of these patients is proposed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-10T21:47:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.01.010
       
  • Purinergic signaling in schistosomal infection

    • Authors: Claudia Lucia Martins Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Claudia Lucia Martins Silva
      Human schistosomiasis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by blood fluke worms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. Health metrics indicate that the disease is related to an elevated number of years lost-to-disability and years lost-to-life. Schistosomiasis is an intravascular disease that is related to a Th1 and Th2 immune response polarization, and the degree of polarization affects the outcome of the disease. The purinergic system is composed of adenosine and nucleotides acting as key messenger molecules. Moreover, nucleotide-transforming enzymes and cell-surface purinergic receptors are obligatory partners of this purinergic signaling. In mammalian cells, purinergic signaling modulates innate immune responses and inflammation among other functions; conversely purinergic signaling may also be modulated by inflammatory mediators. Moreover, schistosomes also express some enzymes of the purinergic system, and it is possible that worms modulate host purinergic signaling. Current data obtained in murine models of schistosomiasis support the notion that the host purinergic system is altered by the disease. The dysfunction of adenosine receptors, metabotropic P2Y and ionotropic P2X7 receptors, and NTPDases likely contributes to disease morbidity.

      PubDate: 2016-11-10T21:47:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.06.006
       
  • Purinergic signaling in infection and autoimmune disease

    • Authors: Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio; Robson Coutinho-Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Robson Coutinho-Silva
      Purinergic signaling plays a key role in inflammatory processes and modulates immune responses against a variety of bacterial and eukaryotic parasites. Here we highlight the role of purinergic receptor activation in infection and autoimmune diseases. Purinergic signaling and inflammasomes modulate the host immune response against chlamydial infections. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that purinergic signaling contributes to Schistosomiasis morbidity, a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic worms called schistosomes. Finally, the P2X7 receptor and NLRP3 inflammasome have been described to be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting that these signaling pathways as suitable therapeutic targets for management and treatment of different immune diseases.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T08:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.09.002
       
  • Danger signals, inflammasomes, and the intricate intracellular lives of
           chlamydiae

    • Authors: Matthew A. Pettengill; Ali Abdul-Sater; Robson Coutinho-Silva; David M. Ojcius
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Matthew A. Pettengill, Ali Abdul-Sater, Robson Coutinho-Silva, David M. Ojcius
      Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens, and as such are sensitive to alterations in the cellular physiology of their hosts. Chlamydial infections often cause pathologic consequences due to prolonged localized inflammation. Considerable advances have been made in the last few years regarding our understanding of how two key inflammation-associated signaling pathways influence the biology of Chlamydia infections: inflammation regulating purinergic signaling pathways significantly impact intracellular chlamydial development, and inflammasome activation modulates both chlamydial growth and infection mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We review here elements of both pathways, presenting the latest developments contributing to our understanding of how chlamydial infections are influenced by inflammasomes and purinergic signaling.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T08:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.07.001
       
  • Elevated adiponectin but varied response in circulating leptin levels to
           falciparum malaria in type 2 diabetics and non-diabetic controls

    • Authors: Samuel Acquah; Benjamin Ackon Eghan; Johnson Nyarko Boampong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Samuel Acquah, Benjamin Ackon Eghan, Johnson Nyarko Boampong
      Background To investigate effects of falciparum malaria on circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-diabetic controls in relation to measures of adiposity. Methods Levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured in 100 type 2 diabetics and 100 age-matched controls before and during falciparum malaria in a 2-year prospective study. Also, waist circumference (WC), weight, height and hip circumference were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. Results At baseline, diabetics had significantly (p < 0.05) higher WC and BMI but lower WHR, leptin and adiponectin levels. Baseline leptin correlated positively with WC (r = 0.633; p < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.63; p < 0.001) in diabetics but only BMI (0.562; p < 0.001) in non-diabetic controls. Baseline leptin and adiponectin correlated positively (r = 0.249; p = 0.029) in non-diabetic respondents only. Adiponectin correlated negatively with WC (r = −0.58; p = 0.006) in diabetic males only. During malaria, mean levels of leptin and adiponectin were comparable (p > 0.05) between diabetics and controls. However, compared to baseline levels, significant (p < 0.001) elevation of adiponectin was found in both study groups. In respect of leptin, significant (p < 0.001) rise but decline was observed in diabetics and controls respectively. Malaria-induced leptin correlated negatively with adiponectin (r = −0.694; p < 0.001) in non-diabetic controls only. Conclusion Diabetics and controls exhibited increased adiponectin levels due to falciparum malaria but differed in response in terms of leptin levels.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T08:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.09.003
       
  • Purinergic signalling in autoimmunity: A role for the P2X7R in systemic
           lupus erythematosus'

    • Authors: Francesco Di Virgilio; Anna Lisa Giuliani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Francesco Di Virgilio, Anna Lisa Giuliani
      Purinergic signalling plays a crucial role in immunity and autoimmunity. Among purinergic receptors, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has an undisputed role as it is expressed to high level by immune cells, triggers cytokine release and modulates immune cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on evidence supporting a possible role of the P2X7R in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T08:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.006
       
  • Radiographic outcome of necrotic immature teeth treated with two
           endodontic techniques: A retrospective analysis

    • Authors: Szu-Ju Chen; Li-Ping Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Szu-Ju Chen, Li-Ping Chen
      Background The endodontic treatment of teeth with immature root has always been a challenge. To achieve a better prognosis, regenerative endodontic treatment may become a treatment trend for teeth with apical periodontitis and immature roots. Methods Clinical and radiographic data were collected from 38 endodontic treated immature teeth (21 apexification and 17 regeneration). Measure the radiographic outcome by quantifying the apical lesion. Results There was no statistical difference between the two treatments regarding PAI scores at the 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (p > 0.05). In addition, different operators and the different stages of root development for both techniques showed no significant statistical difference on the final treatment results. Conclusions In this study, assessment of the radiographic outcomes indicated that regenerative endodontic treatment were identical to the apexification technique.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T08:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.12.006
       
  • Perturbing purinergic signaling: A pathogen's guidebook to counteracting
           inflammatory responses

    • Authors: Emma L. Walton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma L. Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn how bacteria and parasites alike counteract inflammatory signaling by manipulating purinergic signaling. We also focus on an original article shedding light on the role of an Epstein–Barr virus encoded gene in metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Finally, we learn about a possible link between Trichomonas vaginalis and recurrent urinary tract infection.

      PubDate: 2016-10-14T07:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.09.001
       
  • Spontaneous metastases in immunocompetent mice harboring a primary tumor
           driven by oncogene latent membrane protein 1 from Epstein–Barr virus

    • Authors: Pu-Yuan Chang; Yenlin Huang; Tzu-Yuan Hung; Kowit-Yu Chong; Yu-Sun Chang; Chuck C.-K. Chao; Kai-Ping N. Chow
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Pu-Yuan Chang, Yenlin Huang, Tzu-Yuan Hung, Kowit-Yu Chong, Yu-Sun Chang, Chuck C.-K. Chao, Kai-Ping N. Chow
      Background In vitro and clinical studies suggest that the oncogene LMP1 (latent membrane protein 1) encoded by Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) plays a role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the formation of metastases in immunocompetent individuals. However, whether LMP1 itself is sufficient to drive these events in immunocompetent hosts remains elusive due to the lack of appropriate experimental models. The aim of this study was to study LMP1-dependent tumorigenesis and metastasis in BALB/c mice inoculated with BALB/c-3T3 cells expressing N-LMP1 (a Taiwanese NPC variant). Methods Following cancer cell inoculation, metastasis formation was monitored over time using PCR analysis of LMP1 as tumor marker. We also used a luciferase (Luc)-containing N-LMP1 and bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to monitor metastasis formation in a non-invasive manner. Results N-LMP1 appeared early in draining lymph nodes and in various distant organs before the rapid growth of the primary tumor. Lung metastasis was observed by BLI and further confirmed by histological examination. Furthermore, we detected luciferase signals in the lungs, even before the animals were sacrificed. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the high metastatic character of N-LMP1 in immunocompetent hosts. Systemic tumor dissemination occurs even before aggressive tumor growth at the primary site, suggesting that early treatment of primary LMP1-associated tumors and distant micro-metastases is critical to achieve positive results.

      PubDate: 2016-10-07T07:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.12.003
       
  • Morphological changes evaluation of left atrial appendage in patients with
           ischaemic heart disease

    • Authors: Abdulwahab Abuderman; Mohammed Abbas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Abdulwahab Abuderman, Mohammed Abbas
      Background Since the majority of morphological changes evaluation of myocardium in ischaemic heart disease was in animal model, we detected the importance to evaluate such changes in human patients to gain insights into the targets of cellular damage and to reconcile or refine those experiments. Methods Tissue sections from left atrial appendage of the heart were carefully dissected from seventy five patients underwent conventional coronary artery bypass grafting at the cardiothoracic surgical department, Manchester Royal Infirmary. Tissue was fixed, sectioned, stained and six random sections were photographed and the images were assessed and quantified using Image Analyser Pro-Plus software, version 4.1. Arterioles, venules, intermediate sized vessels, and capillaries were directly counted within the highlighted area of myocardium under LM. Ultra-thin sections were imaged in a Tecnai 12 Biotwin transmission electron microscope at a magnification of ×4200 and photographed by a camera with a black and white film to quantify different structures of myocardium. Results The arteriole wall to lumen ratio was significantly increased in ischaemic heart disease patients 18.57 ± 2.89 compared to controls 8.3 ± 1.57, (P < 0.01). The regression analysis between vascular density and cardiomyocyte size demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between transverse cardiomyocyte diameter and arteriole, capillary and total vessel density (P < 0.01, 0.04, 0.02), respectively. Lumen area of the distal myocardial capillary was significantly reduced in IHD patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). Conclusion These results elucidate the morphological changes in the myocardial microvasculature of patients with ischaemic heart disease and its pathological magnitudes.

      PubDate: 2016-10-07T07:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.002
       
  • Non-imaging assisted insertion of un-cuffed, non-tunneled internal jugular
           

    • Authors: Manish Rathi; Venkata Siva Tez Pinnamaneni; Vinay Sakhuja
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Manish Rathi, Venkata Siva Tez Pinnamaneni, Vinay Sakhuja
      Background Absolute necessity in acute kidney injury (AKI) and ignorance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) make the use of un-cuffed, non-tunneled catheters an indispensable vascular access for hemodialysis. Although these catheters should be inserted under radiological guidance, it may not be feasible in certain circumstances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate safety and outcome of non-imaging assisted insertion of these catheters in internal jugular vein (IJV) for hemodialysis. Methods We analyzed 233 attempts of non-imaging assisted un-cuffed, non-tunneled IJV catheterization at our center. The immediate insertion complications, duration of use, rate and type of infection and other complications were assessed. Results Out of the 233 attempts, 223 (213-right, 10-left) were successful. The most common indication was AKI (n = 127, 54.5%), followed by CKD (n = 99, 42.5%). Successful catheterization at first attempt was achieved in 78.9%. Insertion complications were noted in 12.8% and included arterial puncture (5.2%), hematoma (3.0%) and malposition (2.1%). Amongst 219 catheters followed for 4825 days, the mean duration of use was 22 days. Catheter related infections occurred in 42 patients with an incidence of 8.7 per 1000 catheter days. Bacteraemia was present in 10/36 cases (27.7%), positive catheter tip cultures in 71.4% cases and staphylococcal species were the most common organism. Cumulative hazard analysis by Cox regression revealed a linear increase in the risk for infection with each week. Conclusion Non-imaging assisted insertion of uncuffed, non-tunneled catheters is associated with slightly higher rate of insertion complication but comparable outcome in terms of infection rate or days of use.

      PubDate: 2016-09-29T19:46:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.12.004
       
  • Purinergic signaling during Porphyromonas gingivalis infection

    • Authors: Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva; Ana Carolina Morandini; Henning Ulrich; David M. Ojcius; Robson Coutinho-Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Ana Carolina Morandini, Henning Ulrich, David M. Ojcius, Robson Coutinho-Silva
      Despite recent advances unraveling mechanisms of host–pathogen interactions in innate immunity, the participation of purinergic signaling in infection-driven inflammation remains an emerging research field with many unanswered questions. As one of the most-studied oral pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a keystone pathogen with a central role in development of periodontal disease. This pathogen needs to evade immune-mediated defense mechanisms and tolerate inflammation in order to survive in the host. In this review, we summarize evidence showing that purinergic signaling modulates P. gingivalis survival and cellular immune responses, and discuss the role played by inflammasome activation and cell death during P. gingivalis infection.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T10:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.003
       
  • Trichomoniasis immunity and the involvement of the purinergic signaling

    • Authors: Camila Braz Menezes; Tiana Tasca
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Camila Braz Menezes, Tiana Tasca
      Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In the urogenital tract, innate immunity is accomplished by a defense physical barrier constituted by epithelial cells, mucus, and acidic pH. During infection, immune cells, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines, and adaptive immunity evolve in the reproductive tract, and a proinflammatory response is generated to eliminate the invading extracellular pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. However, the parasite has developed complex evolutionary mechanisms to evade the host immune response through cysteine proteases, phenotypic variation, and molecular mimicry. The purinergic system constitutes a signaling cellular net where nucleotides and nucleosides, enzymes, purinoceptors and transporters are involved in almost all cells and tissues signaling pathways, especially in central and autonomic nervous systems, endocrine, respiratory, cardiac, reproductive, and immune systems, during physiological as well as pathological processes. The involvement of the purinergic system in T. vaginalis biology and infection has been demonstrated and this review highlights the participation of this signaling pathway in the parasite immune evasion strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T10:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.06.007
       
  • Purinergic signaling and infection by Leishmania: A new approach to
           evasion of the immune response

    • Authors: Amanda Braga de Figueiredo; Miriam Conceicao Souza-Testasicca; Luis Carlos Crocco Afonso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Amanda Braga de Figueiredo, Miriam Conceicao Souza-Testasicca, Luis Carlos Crocco Afonso
      Infection by protozoan parasites is part of the most common Tropical Neglected Diseases. In the case of leishmaniasis, several millions of people are at risk of contracting the disease. In spite of innumerous studies that elucidated the immune response capable of killing the parasite, the understanding of the evasion mechanisms utilized by the parasite to survive within the very cell responsible for its destruction is still incomplete. In this review, we offer a new approach to the control of the immune response against the parasite. The ability of the parasite to modulate the levels of extracellular ATP and adenosine either by directly acting on the levels of these molecules or by inducing the expression of CD39 and CD73 on the infected cell may influence the magnitude of the immune response against the parasite contributing to its growth and survival.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T10:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.004
       
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein and mRNA levels in patients with
           bipolar mania – A preliminary study

    • Authors: Chin-Chuen Lin; Chien-Te Lee; Ya-Ting Lo; Tiao-Lai Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chin-Chuen Lin, Chien-Te Lee, Ya-Ting Lo, Tiao-Lai Huang
      Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein or mRNA levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, the results were inconsistent. We aimed to simultaneously investigate the relationship of BDNF protein and mRNA levels in peripheral blood of patients with bipolar mania. Methods Patients with bipolar mania (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 30) were recruited during our one-year study. Psychiatric diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. The scores of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) of patients with bipolar mania were greater than 26. All participants had peripheral blood drawn to analyze the serum BDNF protein and mRNA levels. Results Using t-test, patients with bipolar mania had a lower BDNF protein and mRNA levels than did the healthy controls (p < 0.001 and 0.049, respectively), however, the statistical significances were lost after analysis of co-variance adjusted for age and body mass index. Twenty seven out of 30 patients with bipolar mania remained in the study after the 4 weeks of mood stabilizer treatment. Patients' BDNF protein and mRNA levels did not change significantly after 4-week treatment. Conclusions Our study found that serum BDNF protein and mRNA levels in patients with bipolar mania were lower than healthy controls, but a larger sample size will be needed to confirm this finding.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T10:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.001
       
  • Nasal gouty tophus: Report a rare case presenting as a nasal hump with
           nasal obstruction

    • Authors: John Chung-Han Wu; Pang-Yun Chou; Chih-Hao Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): John Chung-Han Wu, Pang-Yun Chou, Chih-Hao Chen
      Dorsal nasal gouty tophus are rare occurrences with limited documentation. Here we report a male patient who has a history of poorly controlled gouty arthritis. He had nasal obstruction with an enlarging mass over his left nasal ridge for the past three years. Image studies revealed a nasal bone defect underneath the nasal lesion. The firm mass was excised and confirmed to be of gouty origin. The nasal bone defect was repaired with a titanium mesh plate to prevent nasal depression. He has fully recovered with no more nasal obstruction or recurrence of nasal tophus. The case report illustrates a common illness, gout, with a rare clinical manifestation leading to a common symptom, nasal obstruction. It demonstrates the importance of a detailed history, a thorough physical examination and most important of all, an extensive differential diagnosis in our clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T10:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.05.002
       
  • A pilot study on Trichomonas vaginalis in women with recurrent urinary
           tract infections

    • Authors: Po-Chih Chang; Yu-Chao Hsu; Ming-Li Hsieh; Shih-Tsung Huang; Hsin-Chieh Huang; Yu Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2016
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Po-Chih Chang, Yu-Chao Hsu, Ming-Li Hsieh, Shih-Tsung Huang, Hsin-Chieh Huang, Yu Chen
      Background Trichomoniasis and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) shared similar risk factors, age distribution and overlapping symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) in women with recurrent UTIs, attending a urology clinic in a medical center, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Methods Women with recurrent UTIs, defined as the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency and urgency) and three positive urine cultures on voided urine specimens in the previous year, were enrolled prospectively from January 2013 to April 2014. Urine samples were collected for culture and tested for TV using immunochromatographic strip. Outpatient follow-up was arranged to diagnose any symptomatic UTI recurrence. Results Sixty-five women were recruited. Mean age was 57.4 ± 14.3 year-old and follow-up duration was 9.5 ± 4.0 months. The prevalence of TV was 16.9% (11/65). Eight women had UTI recurrence in the follow-up period. Recurrence rate did not differ in patients with and without concomitant TV infection. Conclusions Given the high prevalence of TV, we suggest that testing for TV should be considered in women with recurrent UTIs. Further larger studies are needed to evaluate the potential benefit of treating TV in this group of patients.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T18:52:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2015.11.005
       
 
 
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