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Journal Cover Biomedical Journal
  [SJR: 0.793]   [H-I: 10]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2319-4170 - ISSN (Online) 2320-2890
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Can cannibalizing cancer cells challenge classic cell death
           classification'

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Pages: 129 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about a novel are still largely mysterious mechanism of cell death that is challenging classification systems of cell death pathways and could have important implications for future cancer therapy. We also learn of a promising biomarker to stratify patients into risk groups after stroke. Finally, this issue also includes two studies investigating factors that influence outcome after heart surgery.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T19:56:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Impact of prior coronary stenting on the outcome of subsequent coronary
           artery bypass grafting

    • Authors: Yu-Ting Cheng; Shao-Wei Chen; Chih-Hsiang Chang; Pao-Hsien Chu; Dong-Yi Chen; Victor Chien-Chia Wu; Kuo-Sheng Liu; Yu-Yun Nan; Feng-Chun Tsai; Pyng-Jing Lin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Yu-Ting Cheng, Shao-Wei Chen, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Pao-Hsien Chu, Dong-Yi Chen, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Kuo-Sheng Liu, Yu-Yun Nan, Feng-Chun Tsai, Pyng-Jing Lin
      Background The percentage of patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) who have previously undergone percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) is increasing. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of patients who had received coronary stenting before CABG, and to examine the validity of a mortality risk stratification system in this patient group. Methods From 2010 to 2012, 439 patients who underwent isolated CABG at our medical center were reviewed. The patients were divided into two study groups: those who had previously received coronary artery stenting (97 patients, 24.7%), and those who had not (342 patients, 75.3%). The patients who received balloon angioplasty were excluded. Results There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The prior stenting group had a lower risk of mortality, although the difference was not significant. The prior stenting group had fewer graft anastomoses (p = 0.005), and hence a significantly shorter cardiopulmonary bypass time (p = 0.045) and shorter aortic cross-clamping time. Surgical mortality was similar between the two groups. The durations of intensive care unit stay and hospitalization were also similar. The discriminatory power of the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) was lower in both group. Conclusions Prior coronary stenting does not affect short-term mortality in patients subsequently undergoing CABG surgery. The EuroSCORE does not predict perioperative mortality well for the patients who undergo coronary stenting before CABG.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.005
       
  • Entosis: The emerging face of non-cell-autonomous type IV programmed death

    • Authors: Isabelle Martins; Syed Qasim Raza; Laurent Voisin; Haithem Dakhli; Frédéric Law; De Jong Dorine; Awatef Allouch; Maxime Thoreau; Catherine Brenner; Eric Deutsch; Jean-Luc Perfettini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Isabelle Martins, Syed Qasim Raza, Laurent Voisin, Haithem Dakhli, Frédéric Law, De Jong Dorine, Awatef Allouch, Maxime Thoreau, Catherine Brenner, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Luc Perfettini
      The present review summarizes recent experimental evidences about the existence of the non-cell-autonomous death entosis in physiological and pathophysiological contexts, discusses some aspects of this form of cell death, including morphological, biochemical and signaling pathways that distinguish non-cell-autonomous demises from other death modalities and propose to define this new modality of death as type IV programmed cell death.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.05.001
       
  • Gross motor function change after multilevel soft tissue release in
           children with cerebral palsy

    • Authors: Chia-Hsieh Chang; Yu-Ying Chen; Kuo-Kuang Yeh; Chia-Ling Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chia-Hsieh Chang, Yu-Ying Chen, Kuo-Kuang Yeh, Chia-Ling Chen
      Background Improving motor function is a major goal of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, changes in motor function after orthopedic surgery for gait disorders are seldom discussed. This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative changes in gross motor function and to investigate the prognostic factors for such changes. Methods We prospectively studied 25 children with CP (4–12 years) who were gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level II to IV and and underwent bilateral multilevel soft-tissue release for knee flexion gait. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months postoperatively for Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), range of motion, spasticity, and selective motor control. The associations between change in GMFM-66 score and possible factors were analyzed. Results 25 children with gross motor function level II to IV underwent surgery at a mean age of 8.6 years (range, 4–12 years). Mean GMFM-66 score decreased from 55.9 at baseline to 54.3 at 6-weeks postoperatively and increased to 57.5 at 6-months postoperatively (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed better gross motor function level and greater surgical reduction of spasticity were predictors for decreased GMFM-66 score at 6-weeks postoperatively. Younger age was a predictor for increased GMFM-66 score at 6-months postoperatively. Conclusion Reduction of contracture and spasticity and improvement of selective motor control were noted after surgery in children with CP. However, a down-and-up course of GMFM-66 score was noted. It is emphasized that deterioration of motor function in children with ambulatory ability and the improvement in young children after orthopedic surgery for gait disorders. Level of evidence case series, therapeutic study, level 4.
      Teaser Twenty-five children with cerebral palsy who underwent soft tissue release for knee flexion gait were studied prospectively for post-operative change. Surgical reduction of contracture and spasticity led to improved selective motor control. A significant down-and-up course of gross motor function was noted. Parents and medical professionals should understand the deterioration of motor function in children who have ambulatory ability and the improvement of motor function in young children after orthopedic surgery for gait disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.003
       
  • Thyroid functions and serum lipid profile in metabolic syndrome

    • Authors: Manish Gutch; Sumit Rungta; Sukriti Kumar; Avinash Agarwal; Annesh Bhattacharya; Syed Mohd Razi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Manish Gutch, Sumit Rungta, Sukriti Kumar, Avinash Agarwal, Annesh Bhattacharya, Syed Mohd Razi
      Background Thyroid hormones are known to affect energy metabolism. Many patients of metabolic syndrome have subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism and vice versa. To study the correlation of thyroid profile and serum lipid profile with metabolic syndrome. Method It is a hospital based cross sectional case-control study carried out in tertiary care health center, we studied thyroid functions test and serum lipid profile in 100 metabolic syndrome patients according to IDF criteria and a similar number of age, gender and ethnicity matched healthy controls. Result We found that serum HDL was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in cases (41.28 ± 8.81) as compared to controls (54.00 ± 6.31). It was also found that serum LDL, VLDL, triglyceride levels and total cholesterol were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cases than controls. Serum TSH levels of subjects in cases group (3.33 ± 0.78) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of controls (2.30 ± 0.91) and significantly lower levels of T4 (p < 0.001) in the patients of metabolic syndrome (117.45) than in controls (134.64) while higher levels of T3, although statistically insignificant in the patients of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Thyroid hormones up-regulate metabolic pathways relevant to resting energy expenditure, hence, obesity and thyroid functions are often correlated.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.006
       
  • Preventing coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease

    • Authors: Ho-Chang Kuo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Ho-Chang Kuo
      A form of systemic vasculitis that affects mostly small and medium-sized vessels, Kawasaki disease (KD) is most commonly found in children under the age of 5 years old. Though its etiology is unknown, KD has been the most frequent acquired heart disease in developing countries. Its incidence has increased over recent decades in many centuries, including Japan, Korea, and China. The most severe complications of KD are coronary artery lesions (CAL), including dilation, fistula, aneurysm, arterial remodeling, stenosis, and occlusion. Aneurysm formation has been observed in 20–25% of KD patients that do not receive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, and in 3–5% that do receive it. Coronary artery dilation has been found in about 30% of KD patients in the acute stage, although mostly in the transient form. Diminishing the occurrence and regression of CAL is a vital part of treating KD. In this review article, I demonstrate the clinical method to prevent CAL formation used at the Kawasaki Disease Center in Taiwan.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.04.002
       
  • No correlation between body mass index and 30-day prognostic outcome in
           Asians with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary
           coronary intervention

    • Authors: Po-Jui Hui-Ting; Wang Pei-Hsun Sung Meng-Shen Tong Cheng-Hsu Yang Chien-Jen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Po-Jui Wu, Hui-Ting Wang, Pei-Hsun Sung, Meng-Shen Tong, Cheng-Hsu Yang, Chien-Jen Chen, Cheng-Jei Lin, Shu-Kai Hsueh, Sheng-Ying Chung, Wen-Jung Chung, Chi-Ling Hang, Chiung-Jen Wu, Hon-Kan Yip
      Background This study investigated whether body mass index (BMI) was a risk factor predictive of 30-day prognostic outcome in Asians with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Material and methods Data regarding the impact of BMI on the prognostic outcome in Asian populations after acute STEMI is scarce. A number of 925 STEMI patients were divided into three groups according to the BMI: normal weight (<25 kg/m2), overweight (≥25.0 to <30.0 kg/m2) and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Results The obese group was significantly younger with significantly higher incidences of smoking and diabetes mellitus. The incidences of multi-vessel disease, final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI)-3 flow, advanced Killip score, advance congestive heart failure, 30-day mortality and combined 30-day major adverse clinical outcome (MACO) did not differ among the three groups. Multiple regression analysis showed the age, unsuccessful reperfusion and lower left ventricular ejection fraction were most significant and independent predictor of 30-day mortality. Conclusion BMI is not a predictor of 30-day prognostic outcome in Asians with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T03:54:00Z
       
  • Make immunological peace not war: Potential applications of tolerogenic
           dendritic cells

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the powerful immunosuppressive properties of tolerogenic dendritic cells and discuss their potential to bring about lifelong tolerance in transplantation and autoimmune disease. We also highlight an exciting new development in the field of malaria diagnosis that could facilitate early detection of the disease.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T21:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.04.001
       
  • Diagnosis of malarial infection using change in properties of optically
           trapped red blood cells

    • Authors: Apurba Paul; Ponnan Padmapriya; Vasant Natarajan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Apurba Paul, Ponnan Padmapriya, Vasant Natarajan
      Background In previous work studying the properties of red blood cells (RBCs) held in an optical tweezers trap, we observed an increase in the spectrum of Brownian fluctuations for RBCs from a Plasmodium falciparum culture—due to increased rigidity of the cells—compared to normal RBCs. We wanted to extend the study to patient samples, since the earlier work was done with cultures grown in the lab. Methods Individual RBCs were held in an optical-tweezers trap. Its position fluctuations were measured and the power spectrum determined. The corner frequency ( f c ) of the spectrum gave a quantitative measurement of the spectrum. Results The value of f c was 25 Hz for normal cells, which increased to 29 Hz for infected cells—both for P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. Conclusion The technique of measuring f c can be used as a screening tool for malaria in patients with fever, since RBCs not carrying the parasite will also show the change due to the bystander effect, irrespective of whether it is caused by P. falciparum or P. vivax.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T21:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.001
       
  • Noninvasive imaging analysis of biological tissue associated with laser
           thermal injury

    • Authors: Cheng-Jen Chang; De-Yi Yu; Yen-Chang Hsiao; Kuang-Hua Ho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Cheng-Jen Chang, De-Yi Yu, Yen-Chang Hsiao, Kuang-Hua Ho
      Background The purpose of our study is to use a noninvasive tomographic imaging technique with high spatial resolution to characterize and monitor biological tissue responses associated with laser thermal injury. Methods Optical doppler tomography (ODT) combines laser doppler flowmetry (LDF) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high resolution tomographic velocity and structural images of static and moving constituents in highly scattering biological tissues. A SurgiLase XJ150 carbon dioxide (CO2) laser using a continuous mode of 3 watts (W) was used to create first, second or third degree burns on anesthetized Sprague–Dawley rats. Additional parameters for laser thermal injury were assessed as well. Results The rationale for using ODT in the evaluation of laser thermal injury offers a means of constructing a high resolution tomographic image of the structure and perfusion of laser damaged skin. In the velocity images, the blood flow is coded at 1300 μm/s and 0 velocity, 1000 μm/s and 0 velocity, 700 μm/s and 0 velocity adjacent to the first, second, and third degree injuries, respectively. Conclusion ODT produces exceptional spatial resolution while having a non-invasive way of measurement, therefore, ODT is an accurate measuring method for high-resolution fluid flow velocity and structural images for biological tissue with laser thermal injury.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T19:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.004
       
  • Spinal cord regeneration by modulating bone marrow with neurotransmitters
           and Citicholine: Analysis at micromolecular level

    • Authors: C.S. Paulose; P.S. John; R. Chinthu; P.R. Akhilraj; T.R. Anju
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): C.S. Paulose, P.S. John, R. Chinthu, P.R. Akhilraj, T.R. Anju
      Background Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. Methods Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor. Gene expression studies were done using Real Time PCR analysis. Results Scatchard analysis of muscarinic M1 receptor showed significantly decreased Bmax (p < 0.001) and Kd (p < 0.01) compared to control and significant reversal (p < 0.001) in both the treatment groups (spinal cord injury treated with 5HT and GABA, and spinal cord injury treated with Citicholine). Muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in spinal cord injured group showed significant down regulation (p < 0.001) compared to control, and both the treatment groups significantly reversed (p < 0.001) these changes to near control when compared to spinal cord injured group. The confocal microscopic study using specific antibody of muscarinic M1 confirmed the gene expression studies. Conclusion Thus our results suggest that the neurotransmitters combination along with bone marrow or Citicholine with bone marrow can reverse the muscarinic receptor alterations in the spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats, which is a promising step towards a better therapeutic intervention for spinal cord injury because of the positive role of cholinergic system in regulation of both locomotor activity and synaptic plasticity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T19:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.006
       
  • Harnessing the properties of dendritic cells in the pursuit of
           immunological tolerance

    • Authors: Christopher Horton; Kumaran Shanmugarajah; Paul J. Fairchild
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Christopher Horton, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Paul J. Fairchild
      The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the “holy grail” of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases. Whilst various cell types exhibiting a tolerogenic phenotype have been proposed for such a task, tolerogenic dendritic cells (tol-DCs) are exquisitely adapted for antigen presentation and interact with many facets of the immune system: as such, they are attractive candidates for use in strategies for immune intervention. We review here our current understanding of tol-DC mediated induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance. Additionally, we discuss recent in vitro findings from animal models and clinical trials of tol-DC immunotherapy in the setting of transplantation, autoimmunity and allergy which highlight their promising therapeutic potential, and speculate how tol-DC therapy may be developed in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-04-28T17:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.002
       
  • Horning cell self-digestion: Autophagy wins the 2016 Nobel Prize in
           Physiology or Medicine

    • Authors: Po-Yuan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Po-Yuan Ke
      Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated. Additionally, autophagy has been implied to function in many aspects of biological processes, including maintenance of organelle integrity, protein quality control, regulation of the stress response, and immunity. In addition to maintain cell homeostasis, autophagy has recently been shown to be modulated and to participate in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as pathogen infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and tumor development. Overall, the breakthrough in autophagy research relies on the discovery of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) using a genetic screening approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was established by Yoshinori Ohsumi. This year the Nobel Committee has awarded Yoshinori Ohsumi the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his remarkable contribution to autophagy research.

      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:20:29Z
       
  • Apicomplexan autophagy and modulation of autophagy in parasite-infected
           host cells

    • Authors: Perle Laté de Laté; Miguel Pineda; Margaret Harnett; William Harnett; Sébastien Besteiro; Gordon Langsley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Perle Laté de Laté, Miguel Pineda, Margaret Harnett, William Harnett, Sébastien Besteiro, Gordon Langsley
      Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for a number of important human pathologies. Obviously, as Eukaryotes they share a number of cellular features and pathways with their respective host cells. One of them is autophagy, a process involved in the degradation of the cell's own components. These intracellular parasites nonetheless seem to present a number of original features compared to their very evolutionarily distant host cells. In mammals and other metazoans, autophagy has been identified as an important contributor to the defence against microbial pathogens. Thus, host autophagy also likely plays a key role in the control of apicomplexan parasites, although its potential manipulation and subversion by intracellular parasites creates a complex interplay in the regulation of host and parasite autophagy. In this mini-review, we summarise current knowledge on autophagy in both parasites and their host cells, in the context of infection by three Apicomplexa: Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Theileria.

      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:20:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.001
       
  • In vitro induction effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on differentiation of hair
           follicle stem cell into keratinocyte

    • Authors: Sanaz Joulai Veijouyeh; Farhad Mashayekhi; Abazar Yari; Fatemeh Heidari; Nayereh Sajedi; Fatemeh Moghani Ghoroghi; Maliheh Nobakht
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Sanaz Joulai Veijouyeh, Farhad Mashayekhi, Abazar Yari, Fatemeh Heidari, Nayereh Sajedi, Fatemeh Moghani Ghoroghi, Maliheh Nobakht
      Background Stem cells are unique cell population characterized by self-renewal and differentiation capabilities, which make them an attractive option for regenerative treatments and plastic surgery. The bulge hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are pluripotent and able to convert to epithelial components after injury. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, plays important roles in this differentiation process. In the present study for the first time it has found that 1,25(OH)2D3 induces the HFSCs differentiation into keratinocyte. Methods HFSCs are isolated from rat whiskers and cultivated in DMEM medium. To isolate bulge stem cell population applicable to differentiated settings, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry using K15, CD34 and nestin biomarkers were performed. In order to accelerate the HFSCs differentiation into keratinocyte, HFSCs were treated with 10−12 M, 1,25(OH)2D3 every 48 h for a week. Results Immunocytochemistry results showed that cultured bulge stem cells are nestin and CD34 positive but K15 negative before differentiation. Subsequently flow cytometry results, showed that the expression of nestin, CD34 and K15 were 70.96%, 93.03% and 6.88% respectively. After differentiation, the immunocytochemical and flow cytometry results indicated that differentiated cells have positive reaction to K15 with 68.94% expression level. Conclusion It was concluded that 10−12 M, 1,25(OH)2D3 could induce the HFSCs differentiation into keratinocytes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T00:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.08.007
       
  • In-vitro generation of interleukin-10 secreting B-regulatory cells from
           donor adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells and recipient
           peripheral blood mononuclear cells for potential cell therapy

    • Authors: Kunal S. Gupte; Aruna V. Vanikar; Hargovind L. Trivedi; Chetan N. Patel; Jignesh V. Patel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Kunal S. Gupte, Aruna V. Vanikar, Hargovind L. Trivedi, Chetan N. Patel, Jignesh V. Patel
      Background Interleukin-10 secreting B-cells are a major subset of B-regulatory cells (B-regs), commonly recognized as CD19+/38hi/24hi/IL10+. They carry out immunomodulation by release of specific cytokines and/or cell-to-cell contact. We have generated B-regs in-vitro from donor adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and renal allograft recipient (RAR) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for potential cell therapy. Material and methods Mononuclear cells separated by density gradient centrifugation from 50 ml anti-coagulated blood of 15-RAR and respective donors were analysed for baseline B-regs using appropriate antibodies. Equal amount (20 × 106 cells/ml) of stimulator (irradiated at 7.45 Gy/min for 10 min) and responder (non-irradiated) cells were co-cultured with in-vitro generated AD-MSC (1 × 106 cells/ml) in proliferation medium containing lipopolysaccharide from E. coli K12 strain at 37 °C with 5% CO2. Cells were harvested on day-7 and analyzed for viability, sterility, quantity, morphology and phenotyping. In-vitro generated B-reg levels were compared with baseline B-regs. Results In-vitro generated B-reg count increased to 16.75% from baseline count of 3.35%. Conclusion B-regs can be successfully generated in-vitro from donor AD-MSC and RAR PBMC for potential cell therapy.
      Teaser Condensed abstract: Interleukin-10 secreting B-regs, recognized as CD19+/38hi/24hi/IL10+, cause immunomodulation by release of cytokines and/or cell-to-cell contact. We have generated B-regs in-vitro from donor adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and renal allograft recipient (RAR) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Mononuclear cells from blood of 15-RAR and respective donors were analyzed using antibodies and remaining cells were co-cultured with in-vitro generated AD-MSC in proliferation medium containing LPS-EK12 for 7 days. Mean B-reg count increased from 3.35% to 16.75%. Thus, B-regs can be successfully generated in-vitro from donor AD-MSC and RAR PBMC for potential cell therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T00:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.003
       
  • Risk factors for relapse of resectable pathologic N2 non small lung cancer
           and prediction model for time-to-progression

    • Authors: Chih-Tsung Wen; Jui-Ying Fu; Ching-Feng Wu; Yun-Hen Liu; Ching-Yang Wu; Ming-Ju Hsieh; Yi-Cheng Wu; Ying-Huang Tsai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chih-Tsung Wen, Jui-Ying Fu, Ching-Feng Wu, Yun-Hen Liu, Ching-Yang Wu, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Yi-Cheng Wu, Ying-Huang Tsai
      Background Pathologic N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was demonstrated with poor survival among literature. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed patients with pathologic N2 NSCLC and received anatomic resection (i.e. lobectomy) for further relapse risk factor analysis. The aim of this study is to identify the clinicopathologic factors related to relapse among resectable N2 NSCLC patients and to help clinicians in developing individualized follow up program and treatment plan. Method From January 2005 to July 2012, 90 diagnosed pathologic N2 NSCLC patients were enrolled into this study. We retrospectively reviewed medical records, image studies, and pathology reports to collect the patient clinico-pathologic factors. Result We identified that patients with visceral pleural invasion (p = 0.001) and skip metastases along mediastinal lymph node (p = 0.01) had a significant relationship to distant and disseminated metastases. Patients who had 2 or more risk factors for relapse demonstrated poor disease free survival than those who had less than 2 risk factors (p = 0.02). The number of involved metastatic area were significantly influential to the period of time-to-progression. The duration of time-to-progression was correlated with square of number of involved metastatic areas. (Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.29; p = 0.036). Conclusion Relapse risk factors of resectable pathologic N2 NSCLC patient after anatomic resection were visceral pleural invasion, skip mediastinal lymph node involvement, and the receipt of neoadjuvant therapy. The duration of time-to-progression was correlated with square of number of involved metastatic areas.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T00:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.005
       
  • Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat
           tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing

    • Authors: Yu-Cheng Yeh; Cheng-Chun Yang; Ching-Lung Tai; Tsung-Ting Tsai; Po-Liang Lai; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Chi-Chien Niu; Lih-Huei Chen; Wen-Jer Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Yu-Cheng Yeh, Cheng-Chun Yang, Ching-Lung Tai, Tsung-Ting Tsai, Po-Liang Lai, Tsai-Sheng Fu, Chi-Chien Niu, Lih-Huei Chen, Wen-Jer Chen
      Background Of the proposed animal interbody fusion models, rat caudal discs have gained popularity in disc research due to their strong resemblance to human discs with respect to geometry, composition and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible animal model of interbody fusion for future research into mechanical testing and graft materials. Methods Twelve 12-week-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats underwent caudal interbody fusion of the third and fourth coccygeal vertebrae of the tail. Serial radiological evaluation, and histological evaluation and manual palpation after sacrifice were performed to assess the fusion quality. Mechanical testing of functional units (FUs) of non-operated and operated segments was compared using a three-point bending test. Results At postoperative 12 weeks, callus formation was observed at the fusion sites in all rats, with the mean radiological evaluations of 2.75/3 according to the Bransford classification. Newly formed bone tissue was also observed in all rats with the mean histological score of 5.85/7, according to the Emery grading system. No palpable gaps and obvious change of bending stiffness was observed in the operated segments. The mean bending stiffness of the FUs was statistically higher than that of the control FUs (26.57 ± 6.71 N/mm vs. 12.45 ± 3.21 N/mm, p < 0.01). Conclusion The rat caudal disc interbody fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T07:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.07.002
       
  • Overexpression of MutL homolog 1 and MutS homolog 2 proteins have reversed
           prognostic implications for stage I–II colon cancer patients

    • Authors: Shih-Chiang Huang; Shiu-Feng Huang; Ya-Ting Chen; Yu Chang; Yu-Ting Chiu; Il-Chi Chang; Hong-Dar Isaac Wu; Jinn-Shiun Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Shih-Chiang Huang, Shiu-Feng Huang, Ya-Ting Chen, Yu Chang, Yu-Ting Chiu, Il-Chi Chang, Hong-Dar Isaac Wu, Jinn-Shiun Chen
      Background The outcome of colon cancer patients without lymph node metastasis is heterogeneous. Searching for new prognostic markers is warranted. Methods One hundred twenty stage I–II colon cancer patients who received complete surgical excision during 1995–2004 were selected for this biomarker study. Immunohistochemical method was used to assess p53, epidermal growth factor receptor, MLH1, and MSH2 status. KRAS mutation was examined by direct sequencing. Results Thirty three patients (27.5%) developed metachronous metastasis during follow up. By multivariate analysis, only female gender (p = 0.03), high serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (≧5 ng/ml) (p = 0.04), and MLH1 overexpression (p = 0.003) were associated with the metastasis group. The 5-year-survival rate were also significantly lower for female gender (71.7% versus 88.9%, p = 0.025), high CEA level (64.9% versus 92.4%, p < 0.001), and MLH1 overexpression (77.5% versus 94.4%, p = 0.039). In contrast, MSH2 overexpression was associated with better survival, 95.1% versus 75.5% (p = 0.024). Conclusions The reversed prognostic implications in the overexpression of MLH1 and MSH2 for stage I–II colon cancer patients is a novel finding and worthy of further confirmation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T07:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.004
       
  • Interference factors regarding the path of insertion of rotational-path
           removable partial dentures

    • Authors: Chan-Te Huang; Fang-Chun Liu; Kwing-Chi Luk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chan-Te Huang, Fang-Chun Liu, Kwing-Chi Luk
      Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the location of the rotational center and the morphology of teeth resulting in interference with the rotational path of insertion and to estimate when an interference test should be performed. Methods A total of 400 dental radiograms of maxillary and mandibular first and second molars (100 for each position) were selected. The radiograms were used to hand-sketch the outlines on tracing paper. Then, an interference test was simulated using calipers. Mesial long occlusal rest seats with three different lengths were designed. A curve-simulated rotational path was drawn on the tracing paper showing the outline of a molar. If the curve was intersected by the mesial outline, interference was occurred. A total of 1200 tests were performed. Results A significant number of interference cases (18.5%, N = 400) occurred when the rotational center was placed at the most distal margin of the occlusal surface. The interference was reduced (2.75%, N = 400) but still present at the distal fourth of the occlusal surface. At the distal one-third of the occlusal surface, interference did not occur (0%, N = 400). There was a significant difference between the results of the three rotational centers (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The interference test was not required for a rotational center at the distal third to half of the occlusal surface. However, if the length of the long occlusal rest extends beyond the distal third, an interference test is recommended before final impression.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T07:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.07.003
       
 
 
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