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Journal Cover Biomedical Journal
  [SJR: 0.793]   [H-I: 10]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2319-4170 - ISSN (Online) 2320-2890
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • For better or worse: Immune system involvement in Alzheimer's Disease

    • Authors: Emma L. Walton
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 1
      Author(s): Emma L. Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the key role of the immune system in the development of Alzheimer's disease. We also learn more about the link between two disorders related to metabolic imbalances, with findings that could help to inform future screening programs. Finally, we would like to highlight some big news for our journal: the Biomedical Journal will be indexed in the Science Citation Index and receive its first official impact factor from this year.

      PubDate: 2018-04-18T11:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2018.03.001
       
  • The discoveries of molecular mechanisms for the circadian rhythm: The 2017
           Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    • Authors: Rong-Chi Huang
      Pages: 5 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 1
      Author(s): Rong-Chi Huang
      Circadian clocks evolved to allow plants and animals to adapt their behaviors to the 24-hr change in the external environment due to the Earth's rotation. While the first scientific observation of circadian rhythm in the plant leaf movement may be dated back to the early 18th century, it took 200 years to realize that the leaf movement is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock. The cloning and characterization of the first Drosophila clock gene period in the early 1980s, independently by Jeffery C. Hall and Michael Rosbash at Brandeis University and Michael Young at Rockefeller University, paved the way for their further discoveries of additional genes and proteins, culminating in establishing the so-called transcriptional translational feedback loop (TTFL) model for the generation of autonomous oscillator with a period of ∼24 h. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to honor their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.

      PubDate: 2018-04-18T11:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2018.02.003
       
  • Complex role of chemokine mediators in animal models of Alzheimer's
           Disease

    • Authors: Elodie Martin; Cécile Delarasse
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 1
      Author(s): Elodie Martin, Cécile Delarasse
      Chemokines are a family of cytokines, first described to play a role in the immune system. However, neurons and glial cells also express chemokines and their receptors. In the central nervous system, chemokines are involved in several neural functions, in particular in the control of cell communications and neuronal activity. In pathological conditions, chemokines participate in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), chemokines play a role in the development of the two main lesions, amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, they contribute to the inflammatory response by recruiting T cells and controlling microglia/macrophages activation. Actually, targeting inflammatory pathways seems a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD patients. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the roles of chemokines in AD animal models and the underlying mechanisms in which they take part. Better knowledge of the role of chemokines and their cellular receptors in AD could open new therapeutic perspectives.

      PubDate: 2018-04-18T11:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2018.01.002
       
  • Antiulcer and hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Plantago
           ovata seed on indomethacin-ulcerated rats

    • Authors: Seyyed Majid Bagheri; Fatemeh Zare-Mohazabieh; Haniyeh Momeni-Asl; Maryam Yadegari; Aghdas Mirjalili; Morteza Anvari
      Pages: 41 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 1
      Author(s): Seyyed Majid Bagheri, Fatemeh Zare-Mohazabieh, Haniyeh Momeni-Asl, Maryam Yadegari, Aghdas Mirjalili, Morteza Anvari
      Background The objective of the study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extract of Plantago ovata seed (AEPOS) on peptic ulcer induced by indomethacin (IND) in rats. Methods Rats (250-300 g) were divided into three groups (5 rats in each group). Gastric ulcer was induced by a single oral gavage of 48 mg/kg IND. The first group received only 5% sodium bicarbonate orally (5 ml/kg) whereas the control (IND) group received only single oral dose of 48 mg/kg IND. The third group was pretreated with an extract (100 mg/kg) for 4 days. At the end of the 4th day, rats were kept fasted for 24 h before administration of IND 48 mg/kg. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after oral administration of IND and their stomach and liver were fixed in formalin (10%) and sections of 5 mm in diameter were prepared. Histological and morphological characteristics of stomach and liver were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results AEPOS (100 mg/kg) showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in microscopic and macroscopic ulcer index as compared to the IND group. Histological analysis indicated that AEPOS has hepatoprotective effect and can prevent mucosa damage in stomach. Conclusion Results revealed that AEPOS has anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects.

      PubDate: 2018-04-18T11:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2018.01.001
       
  • Fracture of cobalt chrome, fully-coat beaded femoral revision long stem, a
           clinical outcomes study

    • Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang; Po-Chun Lin; Cheng-Min Shih; Chun-Chieh Chen; Pang-Hsin Hsieh; Hsin-Nung Shih
      Pages: 46 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 1
      Author(s): Chih-Hsiang Chang, Po-Chun Lin, Cheng-Min Shih, Chun-Chieh Chen, Pang-Hsin Hsieh, Hsin-Nung Shih
      Background Femoral bone loss during revision total hip arthroplasty poses a challenging problem. Bypass fixation over the diaphysis has achieved clinical success in cases of proximal femoral bone loss. Fracture of cementless, fully bead-coated femoral stem is an uncommon complication. The purpose of this study is to analyze the patients with and without fracture stem and find out the possible risk factors. Methods From 2006 to 2012, a total of 251 revision long stems (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) were implanted. In the same period, 17 broken stems that underwent treatment were included for analysis. Patients' demographic data, pattern of femoral bone loss, stem size, medial calcar support in the proximal region of the stem, and the timing of stem breakage were collected and analyzed. Results The stem size in patients with a broken stem was smaller (p < 0.001), and medial calcar defect was 12.4% and 100% (p < 0.001), respectively. The bone defect was greater in broken group (p = 0.024). The mean duration between revision surgery and stem breakage was 58.07 ± 36.98 months. Smaller stem size, greater bone defect, and inadequate medial calcar bone support were major risk factors for stem breakage. Conclusions Bypass fixation in the distal diaphysis with a long stem prosthesis without adequate bone support over medial calcar area may cause stress concentration in the long stem and a fatigue fracture. Use of a smaller prosthesis is the major risk of stem broken. It is essential to repair the proximal femoral bone deficiency and implant selection for better metaphyseal engagement to prevent further stem complications. Level of evidence Level III, case control study.

      PubDate: 2018-04-18T11:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2018.02.001
       
  • Subclinical hypothyroidism and metabolic risk factors association: A
           health examination-based study in northern Taiwan

    • Authors: Feng-Hsuan Liu; Jawl-Shan Hwang; Chang-Fu Kuo; Yu-Shien Ko; Szu-Tah Chen; Jen-Der Lin
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 1
      Author(s): Feng-Hsuan Liu, Jawl-Shan Hwang, Chang-Fu Kuo, Yu-Shien Ko, Szu-Tah Chen, Jen-Der Lin
      Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as elevation in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels despite normal serum levels of free thyroxine. It remains controversial whether people with SCH have higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to normal-thyroid subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic risk factors for SCH. Methods Subjects were recruited from the health examination center of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011. This was a cross-sectional review of medical records. The subjects were ethnic Taiwanese residents without known thyroid disease at baseline. Results A total of 22,324 subjects received annual health examination at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2010 to 2011. Among them, 15,943 subjects were included as the normal thyroid group (NG), and 203 subjects (101 men and 102 women) met the criteria for SCH. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the NG was 26.2% in men and 18.7% in women, whereas that in the SCH group was 39.6% in men and 29.4% in women. Women in the SCH group showed significantly higher cholesterol, triglyceride, non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol/HDL levels than those in the NG (p < 0.05). Conclusion Because SCH is more prevalent in women and the risk increases with age, greater attention to the risk of MetS development is warranted. As for men, regardless of thyroid function, the risk of MetS development with age still warrants attention. Thus, our data suggest that national guidelines for screening for thyroid disease using serum TSH levels in the elderly are mandatory.

      PubDate: 2018-04-18T11:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2018.02.002
       
  • Thanks to our reviewers in 2017

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 40, Issue 6


      PubDate: 2018-03-18T21:12:16Z
       
  • Preliminary Asian experience of using perampanel in clinical practice

    • Authors: Hsing-I Chiang; Siew-Na Lim; Hsiang-Yao Hsieh; Mei-Yun Cheng; Chun-Wei Chang; Wei-En Johnny Tseng; Han-Tao Li; Chin-Yin Lin; Tony Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Hsing-I Chiang, Siew-Na Lim, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Mei-Yun Cheng, Chun-Wei Chang, Wei-En Johnny Tseng, Han-Tao Li, Chin-Yin Lin, Tony Wu
      Background To analyze the efficacy and safety of perampanel over a 3-month period in a sample of Asian people with epilepsy. Methods The efficacy and safety of perampanel as an adjunctive therapy for patients with epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Patients were categorized according to seizure type, concomitant antiepileptic drug usage, and perampanel dosage. Results A total of 210 patients were included in the study and 131 patients completed 3 months of perampanel treatment. The average dosage of perampanel was 5.31 mg/day, and the 50% responder rate (≥50% seizure frequency reduction) in all patients was 45.8%, with a 27.5% seizure-free rate. For focal seizures, focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, and primary generalized seizures, the 50% responder rates were respectively 29.4%, 49.5%, and 36.4%. In total, 39.5% of patients experienced adverse events within 3 months of observation period, and the rate of drug withdrawal due to adverse events was 8.6%. Dizziness, ataxia, irritability/aggression were the most common adverse events. Conclusions The efficacy and safety of perampanel in a real-world setting with Asian patients is comparable to that in clinical trials that have included fewer Asian patients.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T07:44:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.09.003
       
  • Microbes are off the menu: Defective macrophage phagocytosis in COPD

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how defective macrophage phagocytosis may lead to the build up of microbes and pollutants in inflamed lungs. We also focus on new findings that may take us a step closer to full automation in diagnostic bacteriology laboratories. Finally, we highlight the anti-tumor properties of microalgae and the application of algorithms to predict human emotion from electrocardiogram.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T07:44:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.12.002
       
  • Effect of Enzymatic pre-treatment of microalgae extracts on their
           anti-tumor activity

    • Authors: Asma Jabeen; Brandon Reeder; Soleiman Hisaindee; Salman Ashraf; Naeema Al Darmaki; Sinan Battah; Sulaiman Al-Zuhair
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Asma Jabeen, Brandon Reeder, Soleiman Hisaindee, Salman Ashraf, Naeema Al Darmaki, Sinan Battah, Sulaiman Al-Zuhair
      Background There is an increasing need to find natural bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical applications, because they have less harmful side effects compared to their chemical alternatives. Microalgae (MA) have been identified as a promising source for these bioactive compounds, and this work aimed to evaluate the anti-proliferative effects of semi-purified protein extracted from MA against several tumor cell lines. Methods Tested samples comprised MA cell extracts treated with cellulase and lysozyme, prior to extraction. The effect of dialysis, required to remove unnecessary small molecules, was also tested. The anti-cancer efficacies of the dialyzed and undialyzed extracts were determined by measuring cell viability after treating four human cancer cell lines, specifically A549 (human lung carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), MDA MB-435 (human melanoma), and LNCap (human prostate cancer cells derived from a metastatic site in the lymph node). This was compared to the effects of the agents on the human BPH-1 cell line (benign human prostate epithelial cells). The t-test was used to statistically analyze the results and determine the significance. Results Against LNCap and A549 cells, the performance of cellulase-treated extracts was better (with p-values < 0.05, as compared to the control) than that of lysozyme-treated preparations (with p-values mainly > 0.05, as compared to the control); however, they had similar effects against the other two tumor cell lines (with p-values mainly < 0.05, as compared to the control). Moreover, based on their effect on BPH-1 cells, extracts from lysozyme-treated MA cells were determined to be safer against the benign prostate hyperplasia cells, BPH-1 (with p-values mainly > 0.05, as compared to the control). After dialysis, the performance of MA extracts from lysozyme-treated cells was enhanced significantly (with p-values dropping to < 0.05, as compared to the control). Conclusions The results of this work provide important information and could provide the foundation for further research to incorporate MA constituents into pharmaceutical anti-cancer therapeutic formulations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T07:44:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.10.003
       
  • An accurate emotion recognition system using ECG and GSR signals and
           matching pursuit method

    • Authors: Atefeh Goshvarpour; Ataollah Abbasi; Ateke Goshvarpour
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Atefeh Goshvarpour, Ataollah Abbasi, Ateke Goshvarpour
      Background The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm in emotion recognition. Methods Electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin responses (GSR) of 11 healthy students were collected while subjects were listening to emotional music clips. Applying three dictionaries, including two wavelet packet dictionaries (Coiflet, and Daubechies) and discrete cosine transform, MP coefficients were extracted from ECG and GSR signals. Next, some statistical indices were calculated from the MP coefficients. Then, three dimensionality reduction methods, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis, and Kernel PCA were applied. The dimensionality reduced features were fed into the Probabilistic Neural Network in subject-dependent and subject-independent modes. Emotion classes were described by a two-dimensional emotion space, including four quadrants of valence and arousal plane, valence based, and arousal based emotional states. Results Using PCA, the highest recognition rate of 100% was achieved for sigma = 0.01 in all classification schemes. In addition, the classification performance of ECG features was evidently better than that of GSR features. Similar results were obtained for subject-dependent emotion classification mode. Conclusions An accurate emotion recognition system was proposed using MP algorithm and wavelet dictionaries.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T12:08:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.11.001
       
  • Multiresolution image registration for multimodal brain images and fusion
           for better neurosurgical planning

    • Authors: Siddeshappa Nandish; Gopalakrishna Prabhu; Kadavigere V. Rajagopal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Siddeshappa Nandish, Gopalakrishna Prabhu, Kadavigere V. Rajagopal
      Background Imaging modalities in medicine gives complementary information. Inadequacy in clinical information made single imaging modality insufficient. There is a need for computer-based system that permits rapid acquisition of digital medical images and performs multi-modality registration, segmentation and three-dimensional planning of minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. In this regard proposed article presents multimodal brain image registration and fusion for better neurosurgical planning. Methods In proposed work brain data is acquired from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) modalities. CT and MRI images are pre-processed and given for image registration. BSpline deformable registration and multiresolution image registration is performed on the CT and MRI sequence. CT is fixed image and MRI is moving image for registration. Later end result is fusion of CT and registered MRI sequences. Results BSpline deformable registration is performed on the slices gave promising results but on the sequences noise have been introduced in the resultant image because of multimodal and multiresolution input images. Then multiresolution registration technique is performed on the CT and MRI sequence of the brain which gave promising results. Conclusion The end resultant fused images are validated by the radiologists and mutual information measure is used to validate registration results. It is found that CT and MRI sequence with more number of slices gave promising results. Few cases with deformation during misregistrations recorded with low mutual information of about 0.3 and which is not acceptable and few recorded with 0.6 and above mutual information during registration gives promising results.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T03:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.09.002
       
  • Oxidative stress and diabetes: Glucose response in the cROSsfire

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Pages: 241 - 244
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal, Volume 40, Issue 5
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we discuss the emerging role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of insulin resistance and ultimately type 2 diabetes. We focus also on research investigating the outcome of in vitro fertilization after laproscopic surgery for ovarian endometriosis. Finally, we learn the results of a study on the hunt for new probiotic bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-11-29T08:57:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.10.001
       
  • Can cannibalizing cancer cells challenge classic cell death
           classification'

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Pages: 129 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about a novel are still largely mysterious mechanism of cell death that is challenging classification systems of cell death pathways and could have important implications for future cancer therapy. We also learn of a promising biomarker to stratify patients into risk groups after stroke. Finally, this issue also includes two studies investigating factors that influence outcome after heart surgery.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T19:56:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.001
       
  • Macrophage phagocytosis cracking the defect code in COPD

    • Authors: Jamil Jubrail; Nisha Kurian; Florence Niedergang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Jamil Jubrail, Nisha Kurian, Florence Niedergang
      In the normal non-diseased lung, various macrophage populations maintain homeostasis and sterility by ingesting and clearing inhaled particulates, pathogens and apoptotic cells from the local environment. This process of phagocytosis leads to the degradation of the internalized material, coordinated induction of gene expression, antigen presentation and cytokine production, implicating phagocytosis as a central regulator of innate immunity. Phagocytosis is extremely efficient and any perturbation of this function is deleterious. In inflammatory lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite their increased numbers, macrophages demonstrate significantly reduced phagocytic capacity of bacteria and apoptotic cells. This defect could play a role in dysbiosis of the lung microbiome contributing to disease pathophysiology. In this review, we will discuss lung macrophages, describe phagocytosis and its related downstream processes and the reported phagocytosis defects in COPD. Finally, we will briefly examine current strategies that focus on restoring the phagocytic capabilities of lung macrophages that may have utility in COPD.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T00:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.09.004
       
  • Towards automated detection, semi-quantification and identification of
           microbial growth in clinical bacteriology: A proof of concept

    • Authors: Antony Croxatto; Raphaël Marcelpoil; Cédrick Orny; Didier Morel; Guy Prod'hom; Gilbert Greub
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Antony Croxatto, Raphaël Marcelpoil, Cédrick Orny, Didier Morel, Guy Prod'hom, Gilbert Greub
      Background Automation in microbiology laboratories impacts management, workflow, productivity and quality. Further improvements will be driven by the development of intelligent image analysis allowing automated detection of microbial growth, release of sterile samples, identification and quantification of bacterial colonies and reading of AST disk diffusion assays. We investigated the potential benefit of intelligent imaging analysis by developing algorithms allowing automated detection, semi-quantification and identification of bacterial colonies. Methods Defined monomicrobial and clinical urine samples were inoculated by the BD Kiestra™ InoqulA™ BT module. Image acquisition of plates was performed with the BD Kiestra™ ImagA BT digital imaging module using the BD Kiestra™ Optis™ imaging software. The algorithms were developed and trained using defined data sets and their performance evaluated on both defined and clinical samples. Results The detection algorithms exhibited 97.1% sensitivity and 93.6% specificity for microbial growth detection. Moreover, quantification accuracy of 80.2% and of 98.6% when accepting a 1 log tolerance was obtained with both defined monomicrobial and clinical urine samples, despite the presence of multiple species in the clinical samples. Automated identification accuracy of microbial colonies growing on chromogenic agar from defined isolates or clinical urine samples ranged from 98.3% to 99.7%, depending on the bacterial species tested. Conclusion The development of intelligent algorithm represents a major innovation that has the potential to significantly increase laboratory quality and productivity while reducing turn-around-times. Further development and validation with larger numbers of defined and clinical samples should be performed before transferring intelligent imaging analysis into diagnostic laboratories.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T00:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.09.001
       
  • Gasdermin: A new player to the inflammasome game

    • Authors: Erivan S. Ramos-Junior; Ana Carolina Morandini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Erivan S. Ramos-Junior, Ana Carolina Morandini
      Pyroptosis is a lytic type of programmed cell death that was traditionally associated with the involvement of inflammatory caspases, such as caspase-1. These inflammatory caspases are activated within multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes that are assembled in response to invading pathogens and/or danger signals. Pyroptotic cell death was suggested to evolve via the formation of pores in the plasma membrane, but the exact mechanism underlying the formation of these pores remained unclear. Recently, gasdermin D, a member of the gasdermin protein family was identified as a caspase substrate and essential effector of pyroptosis, being identified as the protagonist of membrane pore formation. Gasdermins have emerged as a family of new class of cell death inducers, but many questions remain unanswered. Here, we present an overview of recent work being done in the area of programmed cell death and the latest evidence regarding the role and participation of gasdermin D as an effector of pyroptosis.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T00:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.10.002
       
  • Chang Gung Research Database: A multi-institutional database consisting of
           original medical records

    • Authors: Ming-Shao Tsai; Meng-Hung Lin; Chuan-Pin Lee; Yao-Hsu Yang; Wen-Cheng Chen; Geng-He Chang; Yao-Te Tsai; Pau-Chung Chen; Ying-Huang Tsai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Ming-Shao Tsai, Meng-Hung Lin, Chuan-Pin Lee, Yao-Hsu Yang, Wen-Cheng Chen, Geng-He Chang, Yao-Te Tsai, Pau-Chung Chen, Ying-Huang Tsai
      Background The Chang Gung Research Database (CGRD) is a de-identified database derived from original medical records of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH), which comprises seven medical institutes located from the northeast to southern regions of Taiwan. The volume of medical services performed in CGMH is large, and clinical and scientific studies based on the CGRD are reported to be of high quality. However, the CGRD as a useful database for research has not been analyzed before. The objective of the study was to analyze the CGRD with regard to its characteristics and coverage of Taiwan's population. Methods We performed a nationwide cohort study using population-based data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). All patients who had any medical record of outpatient visits or admission between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2010, were included, and the sex ratio, age distribution, socioeconomic status, urbanicity, severity of illness, prevalence of specific disease, and coverage of the CGRD were analyzed. Results The sex ratio, age distribution, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity of the population of the CGRD are different from those of Taiwan NHIRD and medical centers in Taiwan (all the pairwise p < 0.05). The severity of comorbidities, and prevalence of specific diseases of the population of the CGRD are significantly higher than those of Taiwan NHIRD and medical centers in Taiwan for both outpatient and inpatient samples (all the pairwise p < 0.05). The overall coverage of the CGRD was 21.2% for outpatients and 12.4% for inpatients. The disease-specific coverage of the CGRD was 27–34% for outpatients and 14–21% for inpatients. Conclusions The CGRD is a multi-institutional, original medical record-based research database with high overall and disease-specific coverage of Taiwan. The population of the CGRD has significantly higher severity of comorbidities, and prevalence of specific diseases than those of Taiwan NHIRD and medical centers in Taiwan.
      Teaser Condensed abstract: This study analyzed the Chang Gung Research Database (CGRD) with its characteristics and coverage of Taiwan's population. We performed a study using population-based data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We found the populations of CGRD, Taiwan NHIRD, and medical centers in Taiwan are different in sex ratio, age distribution, socioeconomic status and urbanicity, and severity and prevalence of comorbidities (all the pairwise p < 0.05). The overall coverage of the CGRD was 21.2% for outpatients and 12.4% for inpatients. We conclude the CGRD is a multi-institutional, original medical record-based research database with high overall and disease-specific coverage of Taiwan. The population of the CGRD has significantly higher severity of comorbidities, and prevalence of specific diseases than those of Taiwan NHIRD and medical centers in Taiwan.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T07:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.08.002
       
  • P2X4: A fast and sensitive purinergic receptor

    • Authors: Jaanus Suurväli; Pierre Boudinot; Jean Kanellopoulos; Sirje Rüütel Boudinot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Jaanus Suurväli, Pierre Boudinot, Jean Kanellopoulos, Sirje Rüütel Boudinot
      Extracellular nucleotides have been recognized as important mediators of activation, triggering multiple responses via plasma membrane receptors known as P2 receptors. P2 receptors comprise P2X ionotropic receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are expressed in many tissues, where they are involved in a number of functions including synaptic transmission, muscle contraction, platelet aggregation, inflammation, macrophage activation, differentiation and proliferation, neuropathic and inflammatory pain. P2X4 is one of the most sensitive purinergic receptors (at nanomolar ATP concentrations), about one thousand times more than the archetypal P2X7. P2X4 is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, in microglia, and also found in various epithelial tissues and endothelial cells. It localizes on the plasma membrane, but also in intracellular compartments. P2X4 is preferentially localized in lysosomes, where it is protected from proteolysis by its glycosylation. High ATP concentration in the lysosomes does not activate P2X4 at low pH; P2X4 gets activated by intra-lysosomal ATP only in its fully dissociated tetra-anionic form, when the pH increases to 7.4. Thus, P2X4 is functioning as a Ca2+-channel after the fusion of late endosomes and lysosomes. P2X4 modulates major neurotransmitter systems and regulates alcohol-induced responses in microglia. P2X4 is one of the key receptors mediating neuropathic pain. However, injury-induced upregulation of P2X4 expression is gender dependent and plays a key role in pain difference between males and females. P2X4 is also involved in inflammation. Extracellular ATP being a pro-inflammatory molecule, P2X4 can trigger inflammation in response to high ATP release. It is therefore involved in multiple pathologies, like post-ischemic inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, airways inflammation in asthma, neurodegenerative diseases and even metabolic syndrome. Although P2X4 remains poorly characterized, more studies are needed as it is likely to be a potential therapeutic target in these multiple pathologies.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T07:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.010
       
  • Probiotic potential of Lactobacilli with antagonistic activity against
           pathogenic strains: An in vitro validation for the production of
           inhibitory substances

    • Authors: Chidre Prabhurajeshwar; Revanasiddappa Kelmani Chandrakanth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chidre Prabhurajeshwar, Revanasiddappa Kelmani Chandrakanth
      Background Probiotics, live cells with different beneficiary characteristics, have been extensively studied and explored commercially in many different products in the world. Their benefits to human and animal health have proven in hundreds of scientific studies. Based on rich bibliographic material, Curd is the potential source of probiotic Lactobacilli. Method The aim of the present study was to observe Lactobacilli with probiotic potential activities from different curd samples for isolation, identification and characterization of Lactobacillus species. Results Among the samples, thirty lactic acid bacterial strains were isolated, sixteen (16/30) best Lactobacillus isolates were selected by preliminary screening as potential probiotic for acid and bile tolerance, further confirmed using 16s rRNA identification. All the selected Lactobacillus isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and antimicrobial activities against pathogens and aggregation studies. The results indicated that selected potential probiotic isolates (T2, T4 and T16) were screened and confirmed as Lactobacillus. The isolates produced positive tolerance to excited pH, NaCl and bile salts, also revealed noticeable antimicrobial activities against pathogens. All the Lactobacillus isolates were susceptible to clinical antibiotics used. Besides, T2 isolate was constituted to retain stronger auto and co-aggregation and cell surface hydrophobicity capacity. Conclusion Based on the drawn results, T2, T4 and T16 Lactobacillus isolates were recognised as ideal, potential in vitro antimicrobial probiotic isolates against pathogens and studies are needed further in-vivo assessment and human health benefits in their real-life situations.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T07:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.008
       
  • Bilaterality of ovarian endometriomas does not affect the outcome of
           in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection in infertile
           women after laparoscopic cystectomy

    • Authors: Hsing-Tse Yu; Hong-Yuan Huang; Hsiao-Jung Tseng; Chin-Jung Wang; Chyi-Long Lee; Yung-Kuei Soong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Hsing-Tse Yu, Hong-Yuan Huang, Hsiao-Jung Tseng, Chin-Jung Wang, Chyi-Long Lee, Yung-Kuei Soong
      Background To assess whether the unilateral or bilateral lesions can affect ovarian reserve and pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) in infertility patients underwent laparoscopic cystectomy. Methods A total of 148 IVF/ICSI cycle in patients who had undergone laparoscopic cystectomy for unilateral or bilateral endometriomas were reviewed retrospectively. There were 103 cycles where laparoscopic cystectomy had been carried out for unilateral endometriomas and 45 cycles after bilateral-side surgery. Primary outcome measures were ovarian reserve and ovarian response. Secondary outcome measures were the implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate. Results The number of dominant follicle on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (5.2 ± 3.1 vs. 4.2 ± 2.7; p = 0.048), and oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 6.9 vs. 7.6 ± 6.6; p = 0.047) were significantly lower in the bilateral-side group compare with the unilateral-side group. However, the mean number of antral follicle count, metaphase II oocytes, the doses of gonadotropin used, fertilization rate, the rate of good quality embryos transferred, implantation rate and clinical pregnancy, live-birth rate and miscarriage rate were similar between the two groups. Conclusion There were no associations among the bilaterality of ovarian endometriomas, ovarian reserve and pregnancy outcomes in IVF/ICSI cycles. However, bilateral ovarian endometriomas after laparoscopic cystectomy may impair ovarian response as compared to unilateral ovarian endometrioma.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T07:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.009
       
  • The etiology of oxidative stress in insulin resistance

    • Authors: Samantha Hurrle; Walter H. Hsu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Samantha Hurrle, Walter H. Hsu
      Insulin resistance is a prevalent syndrome in developed as well as developing countries. It is the predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the most common end stage development of metabolic syndrome in the United States. Previously, studies investigating type 2 diabetes have focused on beta cell dysfunction in the pancreas and insulin resistance, and developing ways to correct these dysfunctions. However, in recent years, there has been a profound interest in the role that oxidative stress in the peripheral tissues plays to induce insulin resistance. The objective of this review is to focus on the mechanism of oxidative species generation and its direct correlation to insulin resistance, to discuss the role of obesity in the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, and to explore the potential of antioxidants as treatments for metabolic dysfunction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T07:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.007
       
  • Thioredoxin promotes survival signaling events under nitrosative/oxidative
           stress associated with cancer development

    • Authors: Hugo P. Monteiro; Fernando T. Ogata; Arnold Stern
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Hugo P. Monteiro, Fernando T. Ogata, Arnold Stern
      Accumulating mutations may drive cells into the acquisition of abnormal phenotypes that are characteristic of cancer cells. Cancer cells feature profound alterations in proliferation programs that result in a new population of cells that overrides normal tissue construction and maintenance programs. To achieve this goal, cancer cells are endowed with up regulated survival signaling pathways. They also must counteract the cytotoxic effects of high levels of nitric oxide (NO) and of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are by products of cancer cell growth. Accumulating experimental evidence associates cancer cell survival with their capacity to up-regulate antioxidant systems. Elevated expression of the antioxidant protein thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) has been correlated with cancer development. Trx1 has been characterized as a multifunctional protein, playing different roles in different cell compartments. Trx1 migrates to the nucleus in cells exposed to nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions. Trx1 nuclear migration has been related to the activation of transcription factors associated with cell survival and cell proliferation. There is a direct association between the p21Ras-ERK1/2 MAP Kinases survival signaling pathway and Trx1 nuclear migration under nitrosative stress. The expression of the cytoplasmic protein, the thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), determines the change in Trx1 cellular compartmentalization. The anti-apoptotic actions of Trx1 and its denitrosylase activity occur in the cytoplasm and serve as important regulators of cell survival. Within this context, this review focuses on the participation of Trx1 in cells under nitrosative/oxidative stress in survival signaling pathways associated with cancer development.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.002
       
  • Macrophage biology plays a central role during ionizing radiation-elicited
           tumor response

    • Authors: Qiuji Wu; Awatef Allouch; Isabelle Martins; Nazanine Modjtahedi; Eric Deutsch; Jean-Luc Perfettini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Qiuji Wu, Awatef Allouch, Isabelle Martins, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Luc Perfettini
      Radiation therapy is one of the major therapeutic modalities for most solid tumors. The anti-tumor effect of radiation therapy consists of the direct tumor cell killing, as well as the modulation of tumor microenvironment and the activation of immune response against tumors. Radiation therapy has been shown to promote immunogenic cells death, activate dendritic cells and enhance tumor antigen presentation and anti-tumor T cell activation. Radiation therapy also programs innate immune cells such as macrophages that leads to either radiosensitization or radioresistance, according to different tumors and different radiation regimen studied. The mechanisms underlying radiation-induced macrophage activation remain largely elusive. Various molecular players such as NF-κB, MAPKs, p53, reactive oxygen species, inflammasomes have been involved in these processes. The skewing to a pro-inflammatory phenotype thus results in the activation of anti-tumor immune response and enhanced radiotherapy effect. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of radiation-induced macrophage activation and its role in tumor response to radiation therapy is crucial for the development of new therapeutic strategies to enhance radiation therapy efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.003
       
  • Understanding the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde nature of apoptosis-inducing
           factor: future perspectives

    • Authors: Giulio Preta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Giulio Preta
      Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is emerging as a key protein in regulation of basic physiological processes including phagocytosis, mitophagy and regulation of the redox state. Recent evidences suggest that the enzymatic activity of AIF may play an active role in tumor progression controlling energy metabolism and redox balance. The present manuscript briefly describes the story of this protein from its initial discovery as caspase-independent apoptotic protein, throughout its role in oxidative phosphorylation and lately involvement in tumor progression. Understanding the dualistic nature of AIF is a critical starting point to clarify its contribution in tumor metabolic balance and to develop new AIF-specific therapeutic strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.004
       
  • PET and MRI image fusion based on combination of 2-D Hilbert transform and
           IHS method

    • Authors: Mozhdeh Haddadpour; Sabalan Daneshavar; Hadi Seyedarabi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Mozhdeh Haddadpour, Sabalan Daneshavar, Hadi Seyedarabi
      Background The process of medical image fusion is combining two or more medical images such as Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and mapping them to a single image as fused image. So purpose of our study is assisting physicians to diagnose and treat the diseases in the least of the time. Methods We used Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) as input images, so fused them based on combination of two dimensional Hilbert transform (2-D HT) and Intensity Hue Saturation (IHS) method. Evaluation metrics that we apply are Discrepancy (Dk) as an assessing spectral features and Average Gradient (AGk) as an evaluating spatial features and also Overall Performance (O.P) to verify properly of the proposed method. Results In this paper we used three common evaluation metrics like Average Gradient (AGk) and the lowest Discrepancy (Dk) and Overall Performance (O.P) to evaluate the performance of our method. Simulated and numerical results represent the desired performance of proposed method. Conclusions Since that the main purpose of medical image fusion is preserving both spatial and spectral features of input images, so based on numerical results of evaluation metrics such as Average Gradient (AGk), Discrepancy (Dk) and Overall Performance (O.P) and also desired simulated results, it can be concluded that our proposed method can preserve both spatial and spectral features of input images.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.05.002
       
  • Mortality of severe septic patients between physician's high and low care
           volumes

    • Authors: Chun-Yao Lin; Jo-Chi Tseng; Chih-Yu Huang; Chien-Ming Chu; Huang-Pin Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chun-Yao Lin, Jo-Chi Tseng, Chih-Yu Huang, Chien-Ming Chu, Huang-Pin Wu
      Background Patients with severe sepsis frequently require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and different ICU care models may influence their outcomes. The mortality of severe septic patients between physician's high and low care volume remains unclear. Methods We analyzed the data from a three-year prospective observation study, which was performed in an adult medical ICU of Chung Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung. The data included initial bundle therapies based on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines for patients with severe sepsis. Results Clinical data of total 484 patients with severe sepsis were recorded. Cox regression model showed that physician's care volume was an independent factor for lowering mortality in ICU patients with severe sepsis (hazard ratio 0.708; 95% confidence interval 0.514–0.974; p = 0.034). Patients treated by high care volume physician had four out of nine bundle therapies that were significantly higher in percentage following the SSC guidelines. These four therapies were renal replacement therapy, administration of low-dose steroids for septic shock, prophylaxis of gastro-intestinal bleeding, and control of hyperglycemia. Conclusion High care volume physician may decrease mortality in ICU patients with severe sepsis through fitting bundle therapies for sepsis.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.06.005
       
  • Evaluation of the root and canal systems of maxillary molars in Taiwanese
           patients: A cone beam computed tomography study

    • Authors: Yu-Hua Lin; Hsiu-Na Lin; Chien-Chih Chen; May-Show Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Yu-Hua Lin, Hsiu-Na Lin, Chien-Chih Chen, May-Show Chen
      Background This study evaluated variations in root canal configuration in the maxillary permanent molars of Taiwanese patients by analyzing patients' cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Comparisons were made among these configurations and those previously reported. This information may serve as a basis for improving the success rate of endodontic treatment. Methods The root canal systems of 114 Taiwanese patients with bilateral maxillary first or second molars were examined using CBCT images. The number of roots, canals per root, and additional mesiobuccal (MB) canals, as well as the canal configuration were enumerated and recorded. Results Of the 196 maxillary first molars examined, three (1.5%) had a single root, two (1.0%) had two roots, and 191 (97.5%) had three separate roots. Out of all first molar roots examined, 44% of mesiobuccal (MB) roots had a single canal and the remainder had a second MB (MB2) canal. Of the 212 maxillary second molars examined, 16 (7.1%) had a single root, 51 (24.2%) had two roots, 143 (67.8%) had three roots, and two (0.9%) had four separate roots. For the MB roots, 92.3% of three-rooted maxillary second molars had a single canal and the remainder had an MB2 canal. In all three-rooted maxillary first and second molars, each of the distal and palatal roots had one canal. Conclusions The root canal configurations of the MB roots of maxillary molars were more varied than those of the distobuccal and palatal roots, and the root canal configurations of maxillary second molars were more varied than those of the first molars. These findings demonstrate CBCT as a useful clinical tool for endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T19:22:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.05.003
       
  • Radiotherapy and the tumor microenvironment: The “macro”
           picture

    • Authors: Emma L. Walton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma L. Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the inner workings of tumor-associated macrophages and seek to understand how these cells can boost or limit the efficacy of radiotherapy, depending on the context. We also highlight a study revealing that staffing patterns in the intensive care unit may affect the outcome of patients with severe sepsis. Finally, we learn how an advanced imaging technique can improve endodontic treatment planning.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T16:42:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.07.001
       
  • Impact of prior coronary stenting on the outcome of subsequent coronary
           artery bypass grafting

    • Authors: Yu-Ting Cheng; Shao-Wei Chen; Chih-Hsiang Chang; Pao-Hsien Chu; Dong-Yi Chen; Victor Chien-Chia Wu; Kuo-Sheng Liu; Yu-Yun Nan; Feng-Chun Tsai; Pyng-Jing Lin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Yu-Ting Cheng, Shao-Wei Chen, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Pao-Hsien Chu, Dong-Yi Chen, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Kuo-Sheng Liu, Yu-Yun Nan, Feng-Chun Tsai, Pyng-Jing Lin
      Background The percentage of patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) who have previously undergone percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) is increasing. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of patients who had received coronary stenting before CABG, and to examine the validity of a mortality risk stratification system in this patient group. Methods From 2010 to 2012, 439 patients who underwent isolated CABG at our medical center were reviewed. The patients were divided into two study groups: those who had previously received coronary artery stenting (97 patients, 24.7%), and those who had not (342 patients, 75.3%). The patients who received balloon angioplasty were excluded. Results There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The prior stenting group had a lower risk of mortality, although the difference was not significant. The prior stenting group had fewer graft anastomoses (p = 0.005), and hence a significantly shorter cardiopulmonary bypass time (p = 0.045) and shorter aortic cross-clamping time. Surgical mortality was similar between the two groups. The durations of intensive care unit stay and hospitalization were also similar. The discriminatory power of the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) was lower in both group. Conclusions Prior coronary stenting does not affect short-term mortality in patients subsequently undergoing CABG surgery. The EuroSCORE does not predict perioperative mortality well for the patients who undergo coronary stenting before CABG.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.005
       
  • Entosis: The emerging face of non-cell-autonomous type IV programmed death

    • Authors: Isabelle Martins; Syed Qasim Raza; Laurent Voisin; Haithem Dakhli; Frédéric Law; De Jong Dorine; Awatef Allouch; Maxime Thoreau; Catherine Brenner; Eric Deutsch; Jean-Luc Perfettini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Isabelle Martins, Syed Qasim Raza, Laurent Voisin, Haithem Dakhli, Frédéric Law, De Jong Dorine, Awatef Allouch, Maxime Thoreau, Catherine Brenner, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Luc Perfettini
      The present review summarizes recent experimental evidences about the existence of the non-cell-autonomous death entosis in physiological and pathophysiological contexts, discusses some aspects of this form of cell death, including morphological, biochemical and signaling pathways that distinguish non-cell-autonomous demises from other death modalities and propose to define this new modality of death as type IV programmed cell death.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.05.001
       
  • Gross motor function change after multilevel soft tissue release in
           children with cerebral palsy

    • Authors: Chia-Hsieh Chang; Yu-Ying Chen; Kuo-Kuang Yeh; Chia-Ling Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Chia-Hsieh Chang, Yu-Ying Chen, Kuo-Kuang Yeh, Chia-Ling Chen
      Background Improving motor function is a major goal of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, changes in motor function after orthopedic surgery for gait disorders are seldom discussed. This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative changes in gross motor function and to investigate the prognostic factors for such changes. Methods We prospectively studied 25 children with CP (4–12 years) who were gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) level II to IV and and underwent bilateral multilevel soft-tissue release for knee flexion gait. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months postoperatively for Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), range of motion, spasticity, and selective motor control. The associations between change in GMFM-66 score and possible factors were analyzed. Results 25 children with gross motor function level II to IV underwent surgery at a mean age of 8.6 years (range, 4–12 years). Mean GMFM-66 score decreased from 55.9 at baseline to 54.3 at 6-weeks postoperatively and increased to 57.5 at 6-months postoperatively (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed better gross motor function level and greater surgical reduction of spasticity were predictors for decreased GMFM-66 score at 6-weeks postoperatively. Younger age was a predictor for increased GMFM-66 score at 6-months postoperatively. Conclusion Reduction of contracture and spasticity and improvement of selective motor control were noted after surgery in children with CP. However, a down-and-up course of GMFM-66 score was noted. It is emphasized that deterioration of motor function in children with ambulatory ability and the improvement in young children after orthopedic surgery for gait disorders. Level of evidence case series, therapeutic study, level 4.
      Teaser Twenty-five children with cerebral palsy who underwent soft tissue release for knee flexion gait were studied prospectively for post-operative change. Surgical reduction of contracture and spasticity led to improved selective motor control. A significant down-and-up course of gross motor function was noted. Parents and medical professionals should understand the deterioration of motor function in children who have ambulatory ability and the improvement of motor function in young children after orthopedic surgery for gait disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.003
       
  • Thyroid functions and serum lipid profile in metabolic syndrome

    • Authors: Manish Gutch; Sumit Rungta; Sukriti Kumar; Avinash Agarwal; Annesh Bhattacharya; Syed Mohd Razi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Manish Gutch, Sumit Rungta, Sukriti Kumar, Avinash Agarwal, Annesh Bhattacharya, Syed Mohd Razi
      Background Thyroid hormones are known to affect energy metabolism. Many patients of metabolic syndrome have subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism and vice versa. To study the correlation of thyroid profile and serum lipid profile with metabolic syndrome. Method It is a hospital based cross sectional case-control study carried out in tertiary care health center, we studied thyroid functions test and serum lipid profile in 100 metabolic syndrome patients according to IDF criteria and a similar number of age, gender and ethnicity matched healthy controls. Result We found that serum HDL was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in cases (41.28 ± 8.81) as compared to controls (54.00 ± 6.31). It was also found that serum LDL, VLDL, triglyceride levels and total cholesterol were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cases than controls. Serum TSH levels of subjects in cases group (3.33 ± 0.78) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of controls (2.30 ± 0.91) and significantly lower levels of T4 (p < 0.001) in the patients of metabolic syndrome (117.45) than in controls (134.64) while higher levels of T3, although statistically insignificant in the patients of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Thyroid hormones up-regulate metabolic pathways relevant to resting energy expenditure, hence, obesity and thyroid functions are often correlated.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.12.006
       
  • Preventing coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease

    • Authors: Ho-Chang Kuo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Ho-Chang Kuo
      A form of systemic vasculitis that affects mostly small and medium-sized vessels, Kawasaki disease (KD) is most commonly found in children under the age of 5 years old. Though its etiology is unknown, KD has been the most frequent acquired heart disease in developing countries. Its incidence has increased over recent decades in many centuries, including Japan, Korea, and China. The most severe complications of KD are coronary artery lesions (CAL), including dilation, fistula, aneurysm, arterial remodeling, stenosis, and occlusion. Aneurysm formation has been observed in 20–25% of KD patients that do not receive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, and in 3–5% that do receive it. Coronary artery dilation has been found in about 30% of KD patients in the acute stage, although mostly in the transient form. Diminishing the occurrence and regression of CAL is a vital part of treating KD. In this review article, I demonstrate the clinical method to prevent CAL formation used at the Kawasaki Disease Center in Taiwan.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.04.002
       
  • No correlation between body mass index and 30-day prognostic outcome in
           Asians with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary
           coronary intervention

    • Authors: Po-Jui Hui-Ting; Wang Pei-Hsun Sung Meng-Shen Tong Cheng-Hsu Yang Chien-Jen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Po-Jui Wu, Hui-Ting Wang, Pei-Hsun Sung, Meng-Shen Tong, Cheng-Hsu Yang, Chien-Jen Chen, Cheng-Jei Lin, Shu-Kai Hsueh, Sheng-Ying Chung, Wen-Jung Chung, Chi-Ling Hang, Chiung-Jen Wu, Hon-Kan Yip
      Background This study investigated whether body mass index (BMI) was a risk factor predictive of 30-day prognostic outcome in Asians with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Material and methods Data regarding the impact of BMI on the prognostic outcome in Asian populations after acute STEMI is scarce. A number of 925 STEMI patients were divided into three groups according to the BMI: normal weight (<25 kg/m2), overweight (≥25.0 to <30.0 kg/m2) and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Results The obese group was significantly younger with significantly higher incidences of smoking and diabetes mellitus. The incidences of multi-vessel disease, final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI)-3 flow, advanced Killip score, advance congestive heart failure, 30-day mortality and combined 30-day major adverse clinical outcome (MACO) did not differ among the three groups. Multiple regression analysis showed the age, unsuccessful reperfusion and lower left ventricular ejection fraction were most significant and independent predictor of 30-day mortality. Conclusion BMI is not a predictor of 30-day prognostic outcome in Asians with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T03:54:00Z
       
  • Make immunological peace not war: Potential applications of tolerogenic
           dendritic cells

    • Authors: Emma Louise Walton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Emma Louise Walton
      In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the powerful immunosuppressive properties of tolerogenic dendritic cells and discuss their potential to bring about lifelong tolerance in transplantation and autoimmune disease. We also highlight an exciting new development in the field of malaria diagnosis that could facilitate early detection of the disease.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T21:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.04.001
       
  • Diagnosis of malarial infection using change in properties of optically
           trapped red blood cells

    • Authors: Apurba Paul; Ponnan Padmapriya; Vasant Natarajan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Apurba Paul, Ponnan Padmapriya, Vasant Natarajan
      Background In previous work studying the properties of red blood cells (RBCs) held in an optical tweezers trap, we observed an increase in the spectrum of Brownian fluctuations for RBCs from a Plasmodium falciparum culture—due to increased rigidity of the cells—compared to normal RBCs. We wanted to extend the study to patient samples, since the earlier work was done with cultures grown in the lab. Methods Individual RBCs were held in an optical-tweezers trap. Its position fluctuations were measured and the power spectrum determined. The corner frequency ( f c ) of the spectrum gave a quantitative measurement of the spectrum. Results The value of f c was 25 Hz for normal cells, which increased to 29 Hz for infected cells—both for P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. Conclusion The technique of measuring f c can be used as a screening tool for malaria in patients with fever, since RBCs not carrying the parasite will also show the change due to the bystander effect, irrespective of whether it is caused by P. falciparum or P. vivax.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T21:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.001
       
  • Noninvasive imaging analysis of biological tissue associated with laser
           thermal injury

    • Authors: Cheng-Jen Chang; De-Yi Yu; Yen-Chang Hsiao; Kuang-Hua Ho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Cheng-Jen Chang, De-Yi Yu, Yen-Chang Hsiao, Kuang-Hua Ho
      Background The purpose of our study is to use a noninvasive tomographic imaging technique with high spatial resolution to characterize and monitor biological tissue responses associated with laser thermal injury. Methods Optical doppler tomography (ODT) combines laser doppler flowmetry (LDF) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high resolution tomographic velocity and structural images of static and moving constituents in highly scattering biological tissues. A SurgiLase XJ150 carbon dioxide (CO2) laser using a continuous mode of 3 watts (W) was used to create first, second or third degree burns on anesthetized Sprague–Dawley rats. Additional parameters for laser thermal injury were assessed as well. Results The rationale for using ODT in the evaluation of laser thermal injury offers a means of constructing a high resolution tomographic image of the structure and perfusion of laser damaged skin. In the velocity images, the blood flow is coded at 1300 μm/s and 0 velocity, 1000 μm/s and 0 velocity, 700 μm/s and 0 velocity adjacent to the first, second, and third degree injuries, respectively. Conclusion ODT produces exceptional spatial resolution while having a non-invasive way of measurement, therefore, ODT is an accurate measuring method for high-resolution fluid flow velocity and structural images for biological tissue with laser thermal injury.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T19:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.10.004
       
  • Spinal cord regeneration by modulating bone marrow with neurotransmitters
           and Citicholine: Analysis at micromolecular level

    • Authors: C.S. Paulose; P.S. John; R. Chinthu; P.R. Akhilraj; T.R. Anju
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): C.S. Paulose, P.S. John, R. Chinthu, P.R. Akhilraj, T.R. Anju
      Background Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. Methods Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor. Gene expression studies were done using Real Time PCR analysis. Results Scatchard analysis of muscarinic M1 receptor showed significantly decreased Bmax (p < 0.001) and Kd (p < 0.01) compared to control and significant reversal (p < 0.001) in both the treatment groups (spinal cord injury treated with 5HT and GABA, and spinal cord injury treated with Citicholine). Muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in spinal cord injured group showed significant down regulation (p < 0.001) compared to control, and both the treatment groups significantly reversed (p < 0.001) these changes to near control when compared to spinal cord injured group. The confocal microscopic study using specific antibody of muscarinic M1 confirmed the gene expression studies. Conclusion Thus our results suggest that the neurotransmitters combination along with bone marrow or Citicholine with bone marrow can reverse the muscarinic receptor alterations in the spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats, which is a promising step towards a better therapeutic intervention for spinal cord injury because of the positive role of cholinergic system in regulation of both locomotor activity and synaptic plasticity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T19:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2016.11.006
       
  • Harnessing the properties of dendritic cells in the pursuit of
           immunological tolerance

    • Authors: Christopher Horton; Kumaran Shanmugarajah; Paul J. Fairchild
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Christopher Horton, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Paul J. Fairchild
      The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the “holy grail” of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases. Whilst various cell types exhibiting a tolerogenic phenotype have been proposed for such a task, tolerogenic dendritic cells (tol-DCs) are exquisitely adapted for antigen presentation and interact with many facets of the immune system: as such, they are attractive candidates for use in strategies for immune intervention. We review here our current understanding of tol-DC mediated induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance. Additionally, we discuss recent in vitro findings from animal models and clinical trials of tol-DC immunotherapy in the setting of transplantation, autoimmunity and allergy which highlight their promising therapeutic potential, and speculate how tol-DC therapy may be developed in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-04-28T17:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bj.2017.01.002
       
  • Horning cell self-digestion: Autophagy wins the 2016 Nobel Prize in
           Physiology or Medicine

    • Authors: Po-Yuan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Biomedical Journal
      Author(s): Po-Yuan Ke
      Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated. Additionally, autophagy has been implied to function in many aspects of biological processes, including maintenance of organelle integrity, protein quality control, regulation of the stress response, and immunity. In addition to maintain cell homeostasis, autophagy has recently been shown to be modulated and to participate in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as pathogen infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and tumor development. Overall, the breakthrough in autophagy research relies on the discovery of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) using a genetic screening approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was established by Yoshinori Ohsumi. This year the Nobel Committee has awarded Yoshinori Ohsumi the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his remarkable contribution to autophagy research.

      PubDate: 2017-03-30T06:20:29Z
       
 
 
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