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Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2038-324X - ISSN (Online) 2279-7084
     Published by PAGEPress Homepage  [64 journals]
  • Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles
           using Leucas aspera leaf extract against mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti
           and Anopheles stephensi

    • Authors: S. Sivapriyajothi, P. Mahesh Kumar, K. Kovendan, J. Subramaniam, K. Murugan
      Abstract: Mosquitoes are one of the most medically significant groups of vectors, having an ability to transmit parasites and pathogens that can have devastating impacts on humans. The development of reliable and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. In this study, we address the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Leucas aspera leaf extract, and evaluate its lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) values against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis. Larvae and pupae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extracts of synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The maximum mortality was observed from synthesized AgNPs, with LC50 values for I-IV instars and pupae ranging from 13.06 to 25.54, and LC90 values ranging from 24.11 to 47.34 for A. aegypti; for A. stephensi, the corresponding LC50 values ranged from 12.45 to 22.26, and the LC90 values ranged from 23.50 to 42.95. With methanol leaf extract of L. aspera against A. aegypti, the LC50 values ranged from 174.89 to 462.96 and the LC90 values ranged from 488.16 to 963.74; for A. stephensi, the corresponding LC50 values ranged from 148.93 to 417.07 and the LC90 values ranged from 449.72 to 912.94. The study suggests that nanoparticles could be a preferred alternative to the most hazardous existing chemical pesticides, contributing to a more healthy environment by providing an ideal ecological and user-friendly vector control strategy for managing malaria and dengue, and contributing to their eventual elimination in the near future.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 2 (2014)
       
  • The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from
           Iran

    • Authors: S. Khaghaninia, F. Kazerani
      Abstract: Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae) [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767) and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical distributions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 2 (2014)
       
  • Lobesia arzilae sp. n. and Willibaldiana culatrae sp. n. new species from
           Portugal (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae)

    • Authors: P. Trematerra
      Abstract: Lobesia arzilae sp. n. and Willibaldiana culatrae sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae) found in Portugal are described. The new species were collected respectively in Paúl de Arzila, a nature reserve located in central-west Portugal, close to the city of Coimbra and in Ilha da Culatra, which lies in the Parque Natural da Ria Formosa, in the region of Faro, situated in the extreme south of Portugal. L. arzilae differs from other species of the genus Lobesia by male genitalia; socius is lateral, developed extending upwards; sacculus has a group of long spines apically dentate and is armed with strong dorsal thorn. W. culatrae differs from other species of the genus Willibaldiana by genitalia: in male valva is simple, in female cingulum is long and developed. Images of the holotypes and the genitalia are provided.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 2 (2014)
       
  • Mosquito larvicidal and silver nanoparticles synthesis potential of plant
           latex

    • Authors: H.P. Borase, C.D. Patil, R.B. Salunkhe, C.P. Narkhede, R.K. Suryawanshi, B.K. Salunke, S.V. Patil
      Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the latex of the medicinally important plants Euphorbia milii, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa and Jatropha curcas. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, particle size, and zeta potential analysis. Potency of latex and latex-synthesized AgNPs was evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The lowest lethal concentration 50 (LC50) value among the different types of plant latex studied was observed for latex of E. milii (281.28±23.30 and 178.97±37.82 ppm, respectively) against 2nd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. E. milii latex-synthesised AgNPs showed a high reduction in LC50 compared with its latex; i.e., 8.76±0.46 and 8.67±0.47 ppm, respectively, for 2nd instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. LC50 values of AgNPs synthesized using the latex of E. hirta, F. racemosa and J. curcas were lower than those of the latex of the respective plants; i.e., 10.77±0.53, 9.81±0.52, 12.06±0.60 and 8.79±0.51, 9.83±0.52, 9.60±0.51 ppm, respectively, for 2nd instars of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. Similarly, as compared with the plant latex, lower LC50 values were reported for latex-synthesized AgNPs against 4th instars of Ae. aegypt and An. stephensi. Results showed that all the types of plant latex investigated have the potential to convert silver nitrate into AgNPs showing a spectrum of potent mosquito larvicidal effects, indicating the possibility of further exploration of the bioefficacy of latex and latex-synthesized AgNPs against vectors of public health concerns.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 2 (2014)
       
 
 
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