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Journal Cover Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2038-324X - ISSN (Online) 2279-7084
   Published by PAGEPress Homepage  [76 journals]
  • Spatial distribution pattern and sequential sampling plans for Bactrocera
           oleae (Gmelin) (Dip: Tephritidae) in olive orchards

    • Authors: A. Arbab, F. Mirphakhar
      Pages: 23 - 28
      Abstract: The distribution of adult and larvae Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), a key pest of olive, was studied in olive orchards. The first objective was to analyze the dispersion of this insect on olive and the second was to develop sampling plans based on fixed levels of precision for estimating B. oleae populations. The Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s patchiness regression models were used to analyze the data. Our results document that Iwao’s patchiness provided a better description between variance and mean density. Taylor’s b and Iwao’s β were both significantly more than 1, indicating that adults and larvae had aggregated spatial distribution. This result was further supported by the calculated common k of 2.17 and 4.76 for adult and larvae, respectively. Iwao’s a for larvae was significantly less than 0, indicating that the basic distribution component of B. oleae is the individual insect. Optimal sample sizes for fixed precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 were estimated with Iwao’s patchiness coefficients. The optimum sample size for adult and larvae fluctuated throughout the seasons and depended upon the fly density and desired level of precision. For adult, this generally ranged from 2 to 11 and 7 to 15 traps to achieve precision levels of 0.25 and 0.10, respectively. With respect to optimum sample size, the developed fixed-precision sequential sampling plans was suitable for estimating flies density at a precision level of D=0.25. Sampling plans, presented here, should be a tool for research on pest management decisions of B. oleae.
      PubDate: 2016-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • The use of larvae and pupal exuviae to study the biodiversity of
           Chironomidae in Mediterranean streams

    • Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: A total of 100 larval and 101 pupal taxa were found belonging to 60 and 36 genera, respectively, in 25 river sites in Catalonia (NE Spain). If we correct for the total number of individuals examined (7629 larvae, 1589 pupal exuviae) the number of genera per 100 individuals is 0.84 for larvae and 2.26 for pupal exuviae and the number of taxa per 100 individuals 1.40 and 6.10, respectively. The following points explain why a similar number of taxa have been found for larvae and pupae (despite the large difference in the number of genera): i) difficulties in differentiating the larvae species, especially in some complex rich and frequent genera, such as Cricotopus-Orthocladius (only six taxa as larvae but 31 as pupae); ii) many (24) larval genera were not found as pupae (even two subfamilies) while only three genera where found only as pupal exuviae. This is because of the larger number of larvae examined, but also because not all the larvae present at one site had emerged at the time of sampling. Given the difficulties in classifying the larvae to species level, the collection of pupae remains a useful method to complement quantification of chironomid biodiversity in a region; until massive DNA-sequencing of field samples of such invertebrates will be possible and easily available to many researchers (especially those in low income countries).
      PubDate: 2016-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Predator or plant pest' Observations on Parascolothrips priesneri
           Mound (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Israeli apple orchards

    • Authors: T. Ben-David, L.A. Mound
      Pages: 37 - 39
      Abstract: Field and laboratory observations on Parascolothrips priesneri failed to confirm previous reports that this insect is a predator of mites, but instead demonstrated that it can cause severe feeding damage to the leaves of apple trees.
      PubDate: 2016-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • A review of Spinosyns, a derivative of biological acting substances as a
           class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect
           pests

    • Authors: L. Bacci, D. Lupi, S. Savoldelli, B. Rossaro
      Pages: 40 - 52
      Abstract: Spinosyns are a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests belonging to different orders, noxious to a wide variety of agricultural crops; spinosyns were also used against insects of sanitary interest. Spinosyns are derivative of biological active substances produced by soil Actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa; being of biological origin, they are considered to have a low environmental impact and they are not much aggressive against nontarget species. They act as allosteric activators of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; thanks to their mode of action the resistance phenomena are uncommon, even few cases of resistance were recently reported. For all these reasons at present they are one of the most interesting product to be used in fighting against agriculture pests.
      PubDate: 2016-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 1 (2016)
       
 
 
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