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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [SJR: 0.513]   [H-I: 9]   [17 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Eccentric vs. concentric muscle contraction: That is the question

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Pages: 128 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Walter Herzog

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.006
  • Mechanism of hamstring muscle strain injury in sprinting

    • Authors: Bing Yu; Hui Liu; William E. Garrett
      Pages: 130 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Bing Yu, Hui Liu, William E. Garrett

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.02.002
  • The late swing and early stance of sprinting are most hazardous for
           hamstring injuries

    • Authors: Yu Liu; Yuliang Sun; Wenfei Zhu; Jiabin Yu
      Pages: 133 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yu Liu, Yuliang Sun, Wenfei Zhu, Jiabin Yu

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.011
  • Comment on “The late swing and early stance of sprinting are most
           hazardous for hamstring injuries” by Liu et al.

    • Authors: Bing Yu; Hui Liu; William E. Garrett
      Pages: 137 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Bing Yu, Hui Liu, William E. Garrett

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.02.003
  • Comments to “Mechanism of hamstring muscle strain injury in
           sprinting” by Yu et al.

    • Authors: Yu Liu; Yuliang Sun; Wenfei Zhu; Jiabin Yu
      Pages: 139 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yu Liu, Yuliang Sun, Wenfei Zhu, Jiabin Yu

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.012
  • Is changing footstrike pattern beneficial to runners'

    • Authors: Joseph Hamill; Allison H. Gruber
      Pages: 146 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Joseph Hamill, Allison H. Gruber
      Some researchers, running instructors, and coaches have suggested that the “optimal” footstrike pattern to improve performance and reduce running injuries is to land using a mid- or forefoot strike. Thus, it has been recommended that runners who use a rearfoot strike would benefit by changing their footstrike although there is little scientific evidence for suggesting such a change. The rearfoot strike is clearly more prevalent. The major reasons often given for changing to a mid- or forefoot strike are (1) it is more economical; (2) there is a reduction in the impact peak and loading rate of the vertical component of the ground reaction force; and (3) there is a reduction in the risk of a running-related injuries. In this paper, we critique these 3 suggestions and provide alternate explanations that may provide contradictory evidence for altering one's footstrike pattern. We have concluded, based on examining the research literature, that changing to a mid- or forefoot strike does not improve running economy, does not eliminate an impact at the foot-ground contact, and does not reduce the risk of running-related injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.02.004
  • Considerations when using the activPAL monitor in field-based research
           with adult populations

    • Authors: Charlotte L. Edwardson; Elisabeth A.H. Winkler; Danielle H. Bodicoat; Tom Yates; Melanie J. Davies; David W. Dunstan; Genevieve N. Healy
      Pages: 162 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Charlotte L. Edwardson, Elisabeth A.H. Winkler, Danielle H. Bodicoat, Tom Yates, Melanie J. Davies, David W. Dunstan, Genevieve N. Healy
      Research indicates that high levels of sedentary behavior (sitting or lying with low energy expenditure) are adversely associated with health. A key factor in improving our understanding of the impact of sedentary behavior (and patterns of sedentary time accumulation) on health is the use of objective measurement tools that collect date and time-stamped activity information. One such tool is the activPAL monitor. This thigh-worn device uses accelerometer-derived information about thigh position to determine the start and end of each period spent sitting/lying, standing, and stepping, as well as stepping speed, step counts, and postural transitions. The activPAL is increasingly being used within field-based research for its ability to measure sitting/lying via posture. We summarise key issues to consider when using the activPAL in physical activity and sedentary behavior field-based research with adult populations. It is intended that the findings and discussion points be informative for researchers who are currently using activPAL monitors or are intending to use them. Pre-data collection decisions, monitor preparation and distribution, data collection considerations, and manual and automated data processing possibilities are presented using examples from current literature and experiences from 2 research groups from the UK and Australia.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.02.002
  • Endurance exercise and gut microbiota: A review

    • Authors: Núria Mach; Dolors Fuster-Botella
      Pages: 179 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Núria Mach, Dolors Fuster-Botella
      Background The physiological and biochemical demands of intense exercise elicit both muscle-based and systemic responses. The main adaptations to endurance exercise include the correction of electrolyte imbalance, a decrease in glycogen storage and the increase of oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, muscle damage, and systemic inflammatory response. Adaptations to exercise might be influenced by the gut microbiota, which plays an important role in the production, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from the diet as well as in inflammation, redox reactions, and hydration status. Methods A systematic and comprehensive search of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, Scopus,, ScienceDirect, Springer Link, and EMBASE was done. The search process was completed using the keywords: “endurance”, “exercise”, “immune response”, “microbiota”, “nutrition”, and “probiotics”. Results Reviewed literature supports the hypothesis that intestinal microbiota might be able to provide a measureable, effective marker of an athlete's immune function and that microbial composition analysis might also be sensitive enough to detect exercise-induced stress and metabolic disorders. The review also supports the hypothesis that modifying the microbiota through the use of probiotics could be an important therapeutic tool to improve athletes' overall general health, performance, and energy availability while controlling inflammation and redox levels. Conclusion The present review provides a comprehensive overview of how gut microbiota may have a key role in controlling the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses as well as improving metabolism and energy expenditure during intense exercise.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.05.001
  • Energy expenditure and muscular activation patterns through active sitting
           on compliant surfaces

    • Authors: D. Clark Dickin; Rachel K. Surowiec; Henry Wang
      Pages: 207 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): D. Clark Dickin, Rachel K. Surowiec, Henry Wang
      Purpose To test the effectiveness of sitting surfaces with varied amounts of stability on muscle activity and energy expenditure. Methods Using a within-participants repeated measures design, 11 healthy young-adult females (age = 20.0 ± 1.8 years) were measured using indirect calorimetry to assess energy expenditure, and electromyography to assess muscular activation in trunk and leg musculature under 3 different sitting surfaces: flat-firm surface, air-filled cushion, and a stability ball. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with follow-up pairwise contrasts used to determine the specific effects of sitting surface on muscle activation and energy expenditure. Results Significantly greater energy expenditure was recorded for the stability ball (p = 0.01) and the cushion (p = 0.03) over the flat surface (10.4% and 9.6% greater, respectively), with no differences between the ball and the cushion. Both the ball and the cushion produced higher tibialis anterior activation over the flat surface (1.09 and 0.63 root-mean-square millivolts (RMSmv), respectively), while the stability ball produced higher soleus activity over both cushion and flat surfaces (3.97 and 4.24 RMSmv, respectively). Additionally, the cushion elicited higher adductor longus activity over the ball and flat surfaces (1.76 and 1.81 RMSmv, respectively), but no trunk musculature differences were revealed. Conclusion Compliant surfaces resulted in higher levels of muscular activation in the lower extremities facilitating increased caloric expenditure. Given the increasing trends in sedentary careers and the increases in obesity, this is an important finding to validate the merits of active sitting facilitating increased caloric expenditure and muscle activation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.10.004
  • Influence of different sports on fat mass and lean mass in growing girls

    • Authors: Esther Ubago-Guisado; Esmeralda Mata; Javier Sánchez-Sánchez; María Plaza-Carmona; María Martín-García; Leonor Gallardo
      Pages: 213 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Esther Ubago-Guisado, Esmeralda Mata, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, María Plaza-Carmona, María Martín-García, Leonor Gallardo
      Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the effects of different sports (swimming, football, basketball, and handball) on fat mass and lean mass in prepubertal and pubertal girls. Methods Two hundred girls (10.6 ± 1.5 years old, Tanner stages I–III) participated in the study and were divided into 5 groups: 40 swimmers, 40 football players, 40 basketball players, 40 handball players, and 40 controls. Fat and lean masses at whole body, arms, trunk, and legs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Pubertal status was determined using Tanner test. Effects of different sports on fat and lean masses were assessed through analysis of covariance with height as covariates. Analyses were performed separately in 2 groups depending on the Tanner stage (prepubertal and pubertal). Results The girls of the control group had less lean mass and more fat mass compared to the girls who play sports (p < 0.05). There were differences in body fat between sports. The swimmers and football players had less body fat (p < 0.05). On the other hand, handball players showed the highest values in lean mass (p < 0.05). Conclusion Impact sports (football, basketball, and handball) and low-impact sports (swimming) provide an appropriate development of lean mass in growing girls. We can conclude that people practicing sports at early ages ensure a lower fat mass and higher lean mass compared to those who do not practice. These results may be useful as a preventive method of adult obesity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.06.001
  • Immersible ergocycle prescription as a function of relative exercise

    • Authors: Mauricio Garzon; Mathieu Gayda; Anil Nigam; Alain-Steve Comtois; Martin Juneau
      Pages: 219 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mauricio Garzon, Mathieu Gayda, Anil Nigam, Alain-Steve Comtois, Martin Juneau
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between various expressions of relative exercise intensity percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max), percentage of maximal heart rate (%HRmax), %VO2 reserve (%VO2R), and %HR reserve (%HRR)) in order to obtain the more appropriate method for exercise intensity prescription when using an immersible ergocycle (IE) and to propose a prediction equation to estimate oxygen consumption (VO2) based on IE pedaling rate (rpm) for an individualized exercise training prescription. Methods Thirty-three healthy participants performed incremental exercise tests on IE and dryland ergocycle (DE) at equal external power output (Pext). Exercise on IE began at 40 rpm and was increased by 10 rpm until exhaustion. Exercise on DE began with an initial load of 25 W and increased by 25 W/min until exhaustion. VO2 was measured with a portable gas analyzer (COSMED K4b2) during both incremental tests. On IE and DE, %VO2R, %HRmax, and %HRR at equal Pext did not differ (p > 0.05). Results The %HRR vs. %VO2R regression for both IE and DE did not differ from the identity line %VO2R IE = 0.99 × HRR IE (%) + 0.01 (r 2 = 0.91, SEE = 11%); %VO2R DE = 0.94 × HRR DE (%) + 0.01 (r 2 = 0.94, SEE = 8%). Similar mean values for %HRmax, %VO2R, and %HRR at equal Pext were observed on IE and DE. Predicted VO2 obtained according to rpm on IE is represented by: VO2 (L/min) = 0.000542 × rpm2 − 0.026 × rpm + 0.739 (r = 0.91, SEE = 0.319 L/min). Conclusion The %HRR–%VO2R relationship appears to be the most accurate for exercise training prescription on IE. This study offers new tools to better prescribe, control, and individualize exercise intensity on IE.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.004
  • Obesity promotes oxidative stress and exacerbates blood-brain barrier
           disruption after high-intensity exercise

    • Authors: Hee-Tae Roh; Su-Youn Cho; Wi-Young So
      Pages: 225 - 230
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and high-intensity acute exercise on oxidant-antioxidant status, neurotrophic factor expression, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Methods Twenty-four healthy, untrained men (12 non-obese (mean 14.9% body fat) and 12 obese subjects (mean 29.8% body fat)) performed 20 min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise at 85% maximal oxygen consumption. Blood sampling was performed to examine the oxidant-antioxidant status (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)), and BBB disruption (S100β and neuron-specific enolase) before and after acute exercise. Results The obese group showed significantly higher pre-exercise serum ROS levels and significantly lower pre-exercise serum SOD levels than the non-obese group (p < 0.05). Serum ROS, SOD, BDNF, NGF, and S100β levels were significantly increased post-exercise compared with pre-exercise levels in both the non-obese and the obese groups (p < 0.05). The obese group showed significantly higher serum ROS, BDNF, NGF, and S100β levels post-exercise compared to the non-obese group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our study suggests that episodic vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress and blood neurotrophic factor levels and induce disruption of the BBB. Moreover, high levels of neurotrophic factor in the blood after exercise in the obese group may be due to BBB disruption, and it is assumed that oxidative stress was the main cause of this BBB disruption.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.005
  • Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment (CAMSA): Validity,
           objectivity, and reliability evidence for children 8–12 years of age

    • Authors: Patricia E. Longmuir; Charles Boyer; Meghann Lloyd; Michael M. Borghese; Emily Knight; Travis J. Saunders; Elena Boiarskaia; Weimo Zhu; Mark S. Tremblay
      Pages: 231 - 240
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Patricia E. Longmuir, Charles Boyer, Meghann Lloyd, Michael M. Borghese, Emily Knight, Travis J. Saunders, Elena Boiarskaia, Weimo Zhu, Mark S. Tremblay
      Purpose The primary aim of this study was to develop an assessment of the fundamental, combined, and complex movement skills required to support childhood physical literacy. The secondary aim was to establish the feasibility, objectivity, and reliability evidence for the assessment. Methods An expert advisory group recommended a course format for the assessment that would require children to complete a series of dynamic movement skills. Criterion-referenced skill performance and completion time were the recommended forms of evaluation. Children, 8–12 years of age, self-reported their age and gender and then completed the study assessments while attending local schools or day camps. Face validity was previously established through a Delphi expert (n = 19, 21% female) review process. Convergent validity was evaluated by age and gender associations with assessment performance. Inter- and intra-rater (n = 53, 34% female) objectivity and test–retest (n = 60, 47% female) reliability were assessed through repeated test administration. Results Median total score was 21 of 28 points (range 5–28). Median completion time was 17 s. Total scores were feasible for all 995 children who self-reported age and gender. Total score did not differ between inside and outside environments (95% confidence interval (CI) of difference: −0.7 to 0.6; p = 0.91) or with/without footwear (95%CI of difference: −2.5 to 1.9; p = 0.77). Older age (p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.15) and male gender (p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.02) were associated with a higher total score. Inter-rater objectivity evidence was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.99) for completion time and substantial for skill score (ICC = 0.69) for 104 attempts by 53 children (34% female). Intra-rater objectivity was moderate (ICC = 0.52) for skill score and excellent for completion time (ICC = 0.99). Reliability was excellent for completion time over a short (2–4 days; ICC = 0.84) or long (8–14 days; ICC = 0.82) interval. Skill score reliability was moderate (ICC = 0.46) over a short interval, and substantial (ICC = 0.74) over a long interval. Conclusion The Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment is a feasible measure of selected fundamental, complex and combined movement skills, which are an important building block for childhood physical literacy. Moderate-to-excellent objectivity was demonstrated for children 8–12 years of age. Test–retest reliability has been established over an interval of at least 1 week. The time and skill scores can be accurately estimated by 1 trained examiner.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.11.004
  • Self-perceptions and social–emotional classroom engagement following
           structured physical activity among preschoolers: A feasibility study

    • Authors: Spyridoula Vazou; Constantine Mantis; Gayle Luze; Jacqueline S. Krogh
      Pages: 241 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Spyridoula Vazou, Constantine Mantis, Gayle Luze, Jacqueline S. Krogh
      Background The well-rounded development of the child, including physical, cognitive, emotional, and social health, may be the most efficient route to well-being and academic success. The primary goal was to investigate the feasibility of implementing a 12-week structured program of physical activity (PA) incorporating cognitive, social, and emotional elements in preschool. Additionally, this study, using a within-subject design, examined the acute effects of a PA session on classroom engagement and changes on perceived competence and peer acceptance from the first to the last week of the program. Methods Twenty-seven preschoolers (mean age = 4.2 years) completed the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children before and after a twice-weekly PA program. Unobtrusive classroom observations were conducted for verbal, social, and affective engagement during the first and last week of the program, both following a structured PA session (experimental day) and on a day without PA (control day). Treatment fidelity was monitored to ensure that the intervention was delivered as designed. Results The children exhibited longer periods of verbal and social engagement during classroom periods that followed PA sessions than on non-PA days. Children also expressed more positive affect following PA sessions during the last week of the PA program. Despite high baseline scores, perceptions of general competence increased meaningfully (η 2 = 0.15, p = 0.05), driven by increase in perceptions of cognitive competence (η 2 = 0.15, p = 0.06). Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of providing structured PA program to preschoolers. Moreover, these initial findings suggest that purposely designed, structured PA may help advance the social–emotional engagement and perceived competence of preschool children.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.006
  • Physical activity guidelines for Chinese children and adolescents: The
           next essential step

    • Authors: Jincheng Xu; Can Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jincheng Xu, Can Gao

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.07.001
  • Exercise vs. high altitude therapy

    • Authors: Francesco Misiti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Francesco Misiti

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.07.002
  • Application of the neuromuscular fatigue threshold treadmill test to
           muscles of the quadriceps and hamstrings

    • Authors: Clayton L. Camic; Attila J. Kovacs; Trisha A. VanDusseldorp; Ethan C. Hill; Evan A. Enquist
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Clayton L. Camic, Attila J. Kovacs, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Ethan C. Hill, Evan A. Enquist
      Purpose The purposes of the present study were: (1) to determine if the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT) model that has been used for estimating the onset of neuromuscular fatigue in the vastus lateralis (VL) during incremental treadmill running could also be applied to the vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles; and (2) if applicable, to compare the running velocities associated with the PWCFT among these muscles. Methods Eleven subjects (age 21.7 ± 1.8 years) performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion with electromyographic signals recorded from the VL, VM, BF, and ST. Results The results indicated there were no significant (p > 0.05) mean differences in the running velocities associated with the PWCFT for the VL (14.4 ± 2.0 km/h), VM (14.3 ± 1.9 km/h), BF (13.8 ± 1.8 km/h), and ST (14.7 ± 2.3 km/h). In addition, there were significant inter-correlations (r = 0.68 – 0.88) among running velocities associated with the PWCFT of each muscle. Individual results also indicated that 9 of the 11 subjects exhibited identical PWCFT values for at least 3 of the 4 muscles, but there were no uniform patterns for any intra-individual differences. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggested that the PWCFT test is a viable method to identify neuromuscular fatigue in the quadriceps and hamstrings during incremental treadmill exercise, and results in consistent PWCFT values among these muscles.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T13:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.06.002
  • Validity of long-term and short-term recall of occupational sitting time
           in finnish and chinese office workers

    • Authors: Ying Gao; Neil J. Cronin; Nina Nevala; Taija Finni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ying Gao, Neil J. Cronin, Nina Nevala, Taija Finni
      Background As sedentary behavior is a global health issue, there is a need for methods of self-reported sitting assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these methods should also be tested in various populations and different cultural contexts. This study examined the validity of long-term and short-term recall of occupational sitting time in Finnish and Chinese subgroups. Methods Two cohort groups of office-based workers (58.6% female, age range 22−67 years) participated: a Finnish group (FIN, n = 34) and a Chinese group (CHI, n = 36). Long-term (past 3-month sitting) and short-term (daily sitting assessed on 5 consecutive days) single-item measures were used to assess self-reported occupational sitting time. Values from each participant were compared to objectively measured occupational sitting time that was assessed via thigh-mounted accelerometers, with Spearman's rho (ρ) used to assess validity and the Bland-Altman method used to evaluate agreement. Coefficients of variation depicted day-to-day variability of time spent on sitting at work. Results In the total study sample, the results showed that both long-term and short-term recall correlated with accelerometer-derived sitting time (ρ = 0.532, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.336 to 0.684, p < 0.001; ρ = 0.533, 95%CI: 0.449 to 0.607, p < 0.001, respectively). Compared to objectively measured sitting time, self-reported occupational sitting time was 2.4% (95%CI: –0.5% to 5.3%, p = 0.091) and 2.2% (95%CI: 0.7% to 3.6%, p = 0.005) greater for long-term and short-term recall, respectively. The agreement level was within the range –21.2% to 25.9% for long-term recall, and –24.2% to 28.5% for short-term recall. During a 5 day work week, day-to-day variation of sitting time was 9.4% ± 11.4% according to short-term recall and 10.4% ± 8.4% according to accelerometry-derived occupational sitting time. Conclusion Overall, both long-term and short-term self-reported instruments provide acceptable measures of occupational sitting time in an office-based workplace, but their utility at the individual level is limited due to large variability.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T13:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.06.003
  • Research in prevention and rehabilitation of hamstring muscle strain

    • Authors: Bing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Bing Yu, Li Li

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T12:51:58Z
  • Denervated muscle extract promotes recovery of muscle atrophy through
           activation of satellite cells. An experimental study

    • Authors: Eduardo Agüera; Salvador Castilla; Evelio Luque; Ignacio Jimena; Ignacio Ruz-Caracuel; Fernando Leiva-Cepas; José Peña
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Eduardo Agüera, Salvador Castilla, Evelio Luque, Ignacio Jimena, Ignacio Ruz-Caracuel, Fernando Leiva-Cepas, José Peña
      Background The objective of the present study was to determine whether a denervated muscle extract (DmEx) could stimulate satellite cell response in denervated muscle. Methods Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: normal rats, normal rats treated with DmEx, denervated rats, and denervated rats treated with DmEx. The soleus muscles were examined using immunohistochemical techniques for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), desmin and myogenic differentiation antigen (MyoD), and electron microscopy for analysis of the satellite cells. Results The results indicate that while denervation causes activation of satellite cells, DmEx also induces myogenic differentiation of cells localized in the interstitial space and the formation of new muscle fibers. Although DmEx had a similar effect, in nature, on innervated and denervated muscles, this response was of greater magnitude in denervated vs. intact muscles. Conclusion Our study shows that treatment of denervated rats with DmEx potentiates the myogenic response in atrophic denervated muscles.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T09:23:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.007
  • Sport participation and vigilance in children: Influence of different
           sport expertise

    • Authors: Rafael Ballester; Florentino Huertas; Enrique Molina; Daniel Sanabria
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rafael Ballester, Florentino Huertas, Enrique Molina, Daniel Sanabria
      Purpose The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between different types of sport expertise (externally-paced vs. self-paced sports) and vigilance performance in children, evaluating the cardiovascular fitness level of the participants. Methods Three groups of children (11.0 ± 0.2 years) differentiated in terms of their regular sport participation (football players, n = 20; track and field athletes, n = 20; non-athletic controls, n = 20) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In another session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance under 2 conditions of velocity demands (normal vs. speed). Results The results revealed that both groups of sport practitioners had higher cardiovascular fitness than non-athlete controls. In contrast, no significant differences in the performance PVT were found between track and field athletes and controls. Crucially, football players showed better performance in the PVT than track and field athletes and controls. These between-group differences were not modulated by the speed demands of the task. Conclusion The major novel finding of this research points to a positive relationship between sport participation and vigilance performance during childhood. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between regular exercise and cognitive functioning: the “cardiovascular fitness” and the “cognitive component skills” hypotheses.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T09:23:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.008
  • “Excessive muscle strain as the direct cause of injury” should not be
           generalized to hamstring muscle strain injury in sprinting

    • Authors: Mianfang Ruan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mianfang Ruan

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T09:20:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.006
  • An Analysis of the Size and Direction of the Association between Mental
           Toughness and Olympic Distance Personal Best Triathlon Times

    • Authors: Martin I. Jones; John K. Parker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Martin I. Jones, John K. Parker
      Background Athletes, coaches, sport psychology practitioners, and researchers suggest that mental toughness represents an important construct that is associated with athletic performance. Unfortunately, the absence of real-world performance as a dependent variable has limited our ability to substantiate this claim. The concern of a lack of ecologically valid measures of sports performance might be addressed by examining the relationship between mental toughness and sports performance using a standardized measure of personal best (PB) triathlon time and a validated unidimensional measure of mental toughness. Methods Three hundred and sixteen triathletes completed the 8-item mental toughness index (MTI), reported their age, and provided a PB Olympic distance triathlon time and the total number of triathlons they had completed to date. Given that males are typically quicker than females, a standardized time was calculated by dividing the PB by the current Olympic record for gender; we also hypothesized that more experienced triathletes would report quicker PB times because of greater frequency and duration of training. Once we had controlled for gender and experience, we predicted that mental toughness would be negatively associated with triathlon time and the size of the relationship would be of a moderate magnitude. Results Results revealed small to moderate sized negative relationships between both completed number of triathlons and mental toughness with standardized PB time. Conclusion The hierarchical regression analysis showed that mental toughness provided a unique contribution to the variability in standardized Olympic triathlon PB after controlling for the total number of triathlons completed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T19:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.005
  • Catherine Dunnington Ennis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T19:25:13Z
  • Sociodemographic, biological, and psychosocial correlates of light-and
           moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity during school time,
           recesses, and physical education classes

    • Authors: Bruno G G da Costa; Kelly S da Silva; Jaqueline A da Silva; Giseli Minatto; Luiz R A de Lima; Édio L Petroski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Bruno G G da Costa, Kelly S da Silva, Jaqueline A da Silva, Giseli Minatto, Luiz R A de Lima, Édio L Petroski
      Background Identifying factors associated with physical activity (PA) is useful in planning interventions and policies. The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic, biological, and psychosocial factors associated with PA performed in school settings. Methods Data retrieved for the present study included gender, age, socioeconomic status, body fat, aerobic fitness, self-efficacy, attitudes, peer and parental support, and perception of school environment. Dependent variables were light-intensity PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) performed during school time, recesses, and physical education (PE) classes. Multiple regression analyses were performed. Results Participating adolescents (n = 567, 53% female, 12.9 ± 5.3 years) spent 5% of school time in MVPA and 27% in LPA, 15% of recesses in MVPA and 44% in LPA, and 16% of PE classes in MVPA and 41% in LPA. Boys engaged in more MVPA in all categories. Age was inversely related with MVPA and LPA in all periods, whereas body fat was inversely related with MVPA in school time and PE classes. Attitude was inversely related with MVPA in all periods and with LPA in recesses. Considering PA to be good and enjoyable was positively associated with MVPA in school time. Conclusion Adolescents spent little time in PA during school. Future interventions should implement enjoyable activities at school.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T19:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.002
  • Erratum to “A systematic review of active video games on rehabilitative
           outcomes among older patients” [J Sport Health Sci 6 (2017) 33–43]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T19:23:10Z
  • Erratum to “Children's expectancy beliefs and subjective task values
           through two years of school-based program and associated links to physical
           education enjoyment and physical activity” [J Sport Health Sci 5 (2016)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T19:23:10Z
  • Erratum to “Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during
           high-intensity exercise” [J Sport Health Sci 6 (2017) 81–88]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T19:23:10Z
  • Visual function, performance and processing of basketball players versus
           sedentary individuals

    • Authors: Jesús Vera; Raimundo Jiménez; David Cárdenas; Beatriz Redondo; José Antonio García
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jesús Vera, Raimundo Jiménez, David Cárdenas, Beatriz Redondo, José Antonio García
      Background Athletes tend to have better visuo-motor performance than do sedentary individuals. However, several basic visual-function and perceptual parameters remain unexplored to date. In this study, we investigate whether differences exist in visual function, performance, and processing between basketball players and individuals without a sport-involvement background. Methods A total of 33 healthy men with no visual impairment or pathology were divided into 2 groups depending on the involvement in sport (semi-professional basketball players and sedentary individuals). We tested their baseline heart-rate variability (HRV) in the resting position apart from subjective questionnaires to determine their physical fitness level, and checked their visual function, performance, and processing through an extended battery of optometric tests. Results The 2 groups differed in resting HRV parameters (p < 0.001), confirming their dissimilarities in regular time practising sports per week. The basketball players showed a closer breakpoint and recovery near point of convergence (NPC), higher fusional-vergence rate, better discriminability halos, and eye-hand coordination (all p values < 0.05). Conclusion These results evidence that athletes, basketball players in this case, exhibit better performance in several visual abilities in comparison with a group of individuals without sporting backgrounds, suggesting an improvement due to the systematic involvement of those skills during basketball practice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T19:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.001
  • Responses to oral glucose challenge differ by physical activity volume and
           intensity: a pilot study

    • Authors: Trevor N. Simper; Cecile Morris; Anthony Lynn; Ciara O'Hagan; Karen Kilner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Trevor N. Simper, Cecile Morris, Anthony Lynn, Ciara O'Hagan, Karen Kilner
      Background One hour postprandial hyperglycaemia is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity (PA) has short-term beneficial effects on post-meal glucose response. This study compared the oral glucose tolerance test results of 3 groups of people with habitually different levels of PA. Methods Thirty-one adults without diabetes (age 25.9 ± 6.6 years; body mass index (BMI) 23.8 ± 3.8 kg/m) were recruited into 3 groups based on self-reported PA volume and intensity: low activity < 30 min/day of moderate-intensity activity (n = 11), moderately active ≥ 30 min/day of moderate-intensity PA (n = 10), and very active ≥ 60 min/day of intense-PA (n = 10). Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (50 g glucose) with capillary blood samples obtained at baseline, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min post-ingestion. Results There were no significant differences between groups for age or percentage body fat or glycated haemoglobin (p > 0.05). The groups were significantly different in terms of baseline glucose, gender, and BMI and this was accounted for in the analysis. There was a statistically significant effect of PA on the 1 h postprandial glucose results (p = 0.029), with differences between very active and low activity groups (p = 0.008) but not between the moderately active and low activity groups (p = 0.360), even when baseline glucose and gender differences were accounted for. For incremental area under the curve there was no significant effect of activity group once gender and percentage body fat had been accounted for. Those in the low activity group took an average 13.2 min (95% confidence interval: 2.8 – 23.5) longer to reach peak glucose level than those in the very active group and this was significant (p = 0.015). Conclusion The results suggest that high levels of PA have a beneficial effect on postprandial blood glucose profiles when compared to low and moderate levels of activity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T18:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.010
  • Time for a paradigm shift in the classification of muscle injuries

    • Authors: Bruce Hamilton; Juan-Manual Alonso; Thomas M. Best
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Bruce Hamilton, Juan-Manual Alonso, Thomas M. Best
      Muscle injuries remain one of the most common injuries in sport, yet despite this there is little consensus on how to either effectively describe, or determine the prognosis of a specific muscle injury. Numerous approaches to muscle classification and grading have been applied over the last century of medicine, but over the last decade the limitations of historic approaches have been recognised. As a consequence in the past 10 years, clinical research groups have begun to question the historic approaches and reconsider the way muscle injuries are classified and described. Using a narrative approach, this manuscript describes several of the most recent attempts to classify and grade muscle injuries, highlighting the relative strengths and weaknesses of each system. While each of the new classification and grading systems have strengths, there remains little consensus on a system which is both comprehensive and evidence based. Few of the currently identified features within the grading systems have relevance to accurately determining prognosis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T18:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.011
  • PM2.5: A barrier to fitness and health promotion in China

    • Authors: Jincheng Xu; Can Gao; Jason Kai Wei Lee; Jiexiu Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jincheng Xu, Can Gao, Jason Kai Wei Lee, Jiexiu Zhao

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.010
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of an ankle instability
           questionnaire for use in chinese-speaking population

    • Authors: Yumeng Li; Li Guan; Jupil Ko; Shuqi Zhang; Cathleen N. Brown; Kathy J. Simpson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yumeng Li, Li Guan, Jupil Ko, Shuqi Zhang, Cathleen N. Brown, Kathy J. Simpson
      Background The Identification of Functional Ankle Instability (IdFAI) is a valid and reliable tool to identify chronic ankle instability; however, it was developed in English, thus limiting its usage only to those who can read/write in English. The objectives of our study were to (1) cross-culturally adapt a Chinese (Mandarin) version of the IdFAI; and (2) determine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version IdFAI. Methods The cross-cultural adaptation procedures used by the investigators and/or translators followed previously published guidelines and included 6 stages:(1) initial translation, (2) synthesis of the translations, (3) back translation, (4) developing the pre-final version for field testing, (5) testing the pre-final version, and (6) finalizing the Chinese IdFAI (IdFAI-C). Five psychometric properties of the IdFAI-C were assessed from results of 2 participant groups: bilingual (n = 20) and Chinese (n = 625). Results A high degree of agreement was found between the English and IdFAI-C (ICC2,1 = 0.995). An excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.89), test–retest reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.970) and construct validity (r (625)= 0.67) was also found for the IdFAI-C. In addition, the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that ankle instability was the only construct measured from the IdFAI. Conclusion the IdFAI-C is a highly reliable and valid self-report questionnaire that can be used to assess ankle instability. Therefore, we suggest that it can be used to effectively and accurately assess chronic ankle instability in clinical settings for Chinese-speaking individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.003
  • Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    • Authors: Lauren N. Erickson; Marc A. Sherry
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lauren N. Erickson, Marc A. Sherry
      Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present a challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T23:49:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.001
  • Construct and correlates of basic motor competencies in primary
           school-aged children

    • Authors: Christian Herrmann; Christopher Heim; Harald Seelig
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Christian Herrmann, Christopher Heim, Harald Seelig
      Purpose A central aim of physical education is the promotion of basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen; MOBAK), which are prerequisites for children's active participation in sports culture. This article introduces the MOBAK-1 test instrument for 6- to 8-year-old children and determines the construct validity of this test instrument. In addition, the relationship between MOBAK and motor ability (i.e. strength) as well as body mass index (BMI), sex, and age is investigated. Method We analyzed data of 923 first and second graders (422 girls, 501 boys, age = 6.80±0.44 years, mean ± SD). The children's basic motor competencies were assessed by the MOBAK-1 test instrument. Besides analyses of frequency, correlation, and variance, 3 confirmatory factor analyses with covariates were performed. Results We found 2 MOBAK factors consisting of 4 items each. The first factor, locomotion, included the items balancing, rolling, jumping, and side stepping; the second factor, object control, included the items throwing, catching, bouncing, and dribbling. The motor ability strength had a significant influence on the factors locomotion (β = 0.60) and object control (β = 0.50). Older pupils achieved better results than younger pupils on object control (β = 0.29). Boys performed better on object control (β = −0.44), whereas girls achieved better results in locomotion (β = 0.07). Pupils with a high BMI achieved lower performance only on the factor locomotion (β = −0.28). Conclusion The MOBAK-1 test instrument developed for this study meets psychometric validity demands and is suitable to evaluate effects of sports and physical education.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T23:49:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.002
  • Waist circumference thresholds and cardiorespiratory fitness

    • Authors: Sindre M. Dyrstad; Elisabeth Edvardsen; Bjørge H. Hansen; Sigmund A. Anderssen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sindre M. Dyrstad, Elisabeth Edvardsen, Bjørge H. Hansen, Sigmund A. Anderssen
      Purpose The study's purpose was to examine whether established risk categories of waist circumference (WC); normal, high risk, and very high health risk, reflected significant differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) level. CRF was directly measured as maximal oxygen uptake during a progressive graded treadmill test to exhaustion in 722 individuals (349 women) aged 20–85 years. Methods WC was measured between the lower rib and the iliac crest. Objectively measured PA was assessed using accelerometer. Results Men in the normal risk group (WC < 94 cm) had a 31% higher CRF and 43% higher level of moderate to vigorous PA than men in the very high risk group (with a WC > 102 cm). Corresponding numbers for women within normal (WC < 80 cm) and very high risk group (WC > 88 cm) were 25% and 18% (p < 0.05). There was a high negative correlation between CRF and WC in men (r = –0.68), and a moderate correlation for women (r = –0.49;p < 0.001). For each cm increase in WC, CRF was reduced by 0.48 and 0.27 mL/kg/min in men and women, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion The recommended WC thresholds for abdominal obesity reflected significant differences in CRF for both men and women, and could serve as a useful instrument for estimating health related differences in CRF.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T23:49:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.011
  • Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery profiles in individuals with
           intellectual disability

    • Authors: Rihab Borji; Firas Zghal; Nidhal Zarrouk; Vincent Martin; Sonia Sahli; Haithem Rebai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rihab Borji, Firas Zghal, Nidhal Zarrouk, Vincent Martin, Sonia Sahli, Haithem Rebai
      Purpose This study aimed to explore neuromuscular fatigue and recovery profiles in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) after exhausting submaximal contraction. Methods Ten men with ID were compared to 10 men without ID. The evaluation of neuromuscular function consisted in brief (3 s) isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC) of the knee extension superimposed with electrical nerve stimulation before, immediately after, and during 33 min after an exhausting submaximal isometric task at 15% of the IMVC. Force, voluntary activation level (VAL), potentiated resting twitch (Ptw), and electromyography (EMG) signals were measured during IMVC and then analyzed. Results Individuals with ID developed lower baseline IMVC, VAL, Ptw, and RMS/Mmax ratio than controls (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, the time to task failure was significantly longer in ID vs. controls (p < 0.05). The 2groups presented similar IMVC decline and recovery kinetics after the fatiguing exercise. However, individuals with ID presented higher VAL and RMS/Mmax ratio declines but lower Ptw decline compared to those without ID. Moreover, individuals with ID demonstrated a persisted central fatigue but faster recovery from peripheral fatigue. Conclusion These differences in neuromuscular fatigue profiles and recovery kinetics should be acknowledged when prescribing training programs for individuals with ID.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.015
  • Why forefoot striking in minimal shoes might positively change the course
           of running injuries

    • Authors: Irene S. Davis; Hannah M. Rice; Scott C. Wearing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Irene S. Davis, Hannah M. Rice, Scott C. Wearing
      It is believed that human ancestors evolved the ability to run bipedally approximately 2 million years ago. This form of locomotion may have been important to our survival and likely has influenced the evolution of our body form. As our bodies have adapted to run, it seems unusual that up to 79% of modern day runners are injured annually. The etiology of these injuries is clearly multifactorial. However, one aspect of running that has significantly changed over the past 50 years is the footwear we use. Modern running shoes have become increasingly cushioned and supportive, and have changed the way we run. In particular, they have altered our footstrike pattern from a predominant forefoot strike (FFS) landing to a predominant rearfoot strike (RFS) landing. This alters the way in which the body is loaded and may be contributing to the high rate of injuries runners experience, engaging in an activity they were adapted for. In this paper, we will examine the benefits of barefoot running (typically an FFS pattern), and compare the lower extremity mechanics between FFS and RFS. The implications of these mechanical differences, in terms of injury will be discussed. We will then provide evidence to support that forefoot striking provides an optimal mechanical environment for specific foot and ankle structures, such as the heel pad, the plantar fascia and the Achilles tendon. The importance of footwear will then be addressed, highlighting its interaction with strike pattern on mechanics. This will underscore why footwear matters when assessing mechanics. Finally, proper preparation and safe transition to an FFs pattern in minimal shoes will be emphasized. Through the discussion of the current literature, we will develop a justification for returning to running in the way we were adapted for in order to reduce running-related injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.013
  • Promoting physical activity among Chinese youth: no time to wait

    • Authors: Yang Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yang Liu

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
  • The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in

    • Authors: Xianglin Wan; Feng Qu; William E. Garrett; Hui Liu; Bing Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Xianglin Wan, Feng Qu, William E. Garrett, Hui Liu, Bing Yu
      Background The effect of hamstring flexibility on the peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting still remained unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors of hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury). As a continuation of our previous study, this study was aimed to examine the relationship between hamstring flexibility and peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting. Methods Ten male and 10 female college students participated in this study. Hamstring flexibility, isokinetic strength data, three-dimensional (3D)kinematic data in a hamstring isokinetic test, and kinematic data in a sprinting test were collected for each participant. The optimal hamstring muscle lengths and peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting were determined for each participant. Results The muscle strain of each of the 3 biarticulate hamstring muscles reached a peak during the late swing phase. Peak hamstring muscle strains were negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility (0.1179 ≤ R 2 ≤ 0.4519, p = 0.001) but not to hip and knee joint positions at the time of peak hamstring muscle strains. Peak hamstring muscle strains were not different for different genders. Peak muscle strains of biceps long head (0.071 ± 0.059) and semitendinosus (0.070 ± 0.055) were significantly greater than that of semimembranosus (0.064 ± 0.054). Conclusion A potential for hamstring injury exists during the late swing phase of sprinting. Peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting are negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility across individuals. The magnitude of peak muscle strains are different among hamstring muscles in sprinting, which may explain the different injury rate among hamstring muscles.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T00:02:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.012
  • Concussion in contact sport: a challenging area to tackle

    • Authors: Samuel Stuart; Aodhan Hickey; Rosie Morris; Karol O'Donovan; Alan Godfrey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Samuel Stuart, Aodhan Hickey, Rosie Morris, Karol O'Donovan, Alan Godfrey

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T00:02:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.009
  • Innovative running related researches

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Li Li

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:31:17Z
  • Could titin have a role in strain-induced injuries?

    • Authors: Craig Perrin; Kazunori Nosaka; James Steele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Craig Perrin, Kazunori Nosaka, James Steele

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T07:27:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.003
  • Parallel and cross sectional hamstring injuries in sprint running

    • Authors: Li Li; Donghai Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Li Li, Donghai Wang

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T03:16:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.002
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