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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [12 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]
  • Concussion management in soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jason P. Mihalik , Robert C. Lynall , Elizabeth F. Teel , Kevin A. Carneiro
      Brain injuries in sports drew more and more public attentions in recent years. Brain injuries vary by name, type, and severity in the athletic setting. It should be noted, however, that these injuries are not isolated to only the athletic arena, as non-athletic mechanisms (e.g., motor vehicle crashes) are more common causes of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among teenagers. Notwithstanding, as many as 1.6 and 3.8 million TBI result from sports each year in the United States alone. These injuries are extremely costly to the global health care system, and make TBI among the most expensive conditions to treat in children. This article serves to define common brain injuries in sport; describe their prevalence, what happens to the brain following injury, how to recognize and manage these injuries, and what you can expect as the athlete recovers. Some return-to-activity considerations for the brain-injured athlete will also be discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-08-11T21:54:16Z
       
  • Effect of turf on the cutting movement of female football players

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gerda Strutzenberger , Hue-Man Cao , Janina Koussev , Wolfgang Potthast , Gareth Irwin
      Purpose The globalisation of artificial turf and the increase in player participation has driven the need to examine injury risk in the sport of football. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface-player interaction in female football players between natural and artificial turf. Methods Eight university level female football players performed an unanticipated cutting manoeuver at an angle of 30° and 60°, on a regulation natural grass pitch (NT) and a 3G artificial turf pitch (AT). An automated active maker system (CodaSport CXS System, 200Hz) quantified 3D joint angles at the ankle and knee during the early deceleration phase of the cutting, defined from foot strike to weight acceptance at 20% of the stance phase. Differences were statistically examined using a two-way (cutting angle, surface) ANOVA, with an α level of p < 0.05 and Cohen’s d effect size reported. Results A trend was observed on the AT, with a reduction in knee valgus and internal rotation, suggesting a reduced risk of knee injury. This findings highlight that AT is no worse than NT and may have the potential to reduce the risk of knee injury. The ankle joint during foot strike showed large effects for an increase dorsiflexion and inversion on AT. A large effect for an increase during weight acceptance was observed for ankle inversion and external rotation on AT. Conclusion These findings provide some support for the use of AT in female football, with no evidence to suggests that there is an increased risk of injury when performing on an artificial turf. The ankle response was less clear and further research is warranted. This initial study provides a platform for more detailed analysis, and highlights the importance of exploring the biomechanical changes in performance and injury risk with the introduction of AT.


      PubDate: 2014-08-11T21:54:16Z
       
  • Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition,
           aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20-45

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Luke J. Connolly , Suzanne Scott , Magni Mohr , Giorgos Ermidis , Ross Julian , Jens Bangsbo , Sarah R. Jackman , Joanna L. Bowtell , Rosemary C. Davies , Susan J. Hopkins , Richard Seymour , Karen M. Knapp , Peter Krustrup , Jonathan Fulford
      Purpose The present study investigated the effects of 16 weeks of small-volume, small-sided soccer training (soccer group (SG) n = 13) and oscillating whole-body vibration training (vibration group (VG) n = 17) on body composition, aerobic fitness and muscle PCr kinetics in healthy inactive premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group (CO) (n = 14). Methods Training for SG and VG consisted of twice-weekly 15-min sessions with average heart rates (HR) of ∼155 and 90 bpm respectively. Pre- and post-measurements of body composition (DXA), phosphocreatine (PCr) on- and off-kinetics and HR measurements during standardised submaximal exercise were performed. Results After 16 weeks of training in SG, fat percentage was lowered (p = 0.03) by 1.7% ± 2.4 % from 37.5% ± 6.9% to 35.8% ± 6.2% and the PCr decrease in the quadriceps during knee-extension ramp exercise was attenuated (4% ± 8%, p = 0.04), with no changes in VG or CO (time-group effect: p = 0.03 and p = 0.03). Submaximal exercise HR was also reduced in SG after 16 weeks of training (7% ± 5% of HRmax, p = 0.01). Conclusion Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.


      PubDate: 2014-08-11T21:54:16Z
       
  • Chinese-translated Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2:
           Evidence from university students in Mainland China and Hong Kong.

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jing Dong Liu , Pak-Kwong Chung , Chun-Qing Zhang , Gangyan Si
      Purpose The study further examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese-translated Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (C-BREQ-2) among Chinese university students from Mainland China and Hong Kong. Methods University students from Mainland China (n = 191) and Hong Kong (n = 194) participated in this study. Factorial validity, discriminant validity, nomological validity, internal reliability, and measurement invariance across sample of the C-BREQ-2 were examined. Results Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the 18-item, 5-factor structure C-BREQ-2. Examination of the 95% confidence interval of the inter-factor correlations suggested that the C-BREQ-2 assesses related but distinct constructs, which provided support for its discriminant validity. The internal consistency reliability of the C-BREQ-2 was found acceptable. Examination of the pattern of inter-factor correlations between different regulations suggested that a simplex-like pattern was displayed, which provided evidence for the nomological validity of C-BREQ-2. The results from multi-group confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the factor loadings and factor variances/covariances of the C-BREQ-2 measurement model were invariant across the Chinese University students in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Conclusion The current study provided further psychometric evidence for the C-BREQ-2, which makes the further application and research of self-determination theory (SDT) based motivation in relation to exercise and physical activity in the Mainland Chinese context possible.


      PubDate: 2014-08-05T21:14:53Z
       
  • Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk
           factors, and prevention programs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Boyi Dai , Dewei Mao , William E. Garrett , Bing Yu
      Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that is connected to ACL loading mechanisms, and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.


      PubDate: 2014-07-31T20:49:39Z
       
  • The relative age effect has no influence on match outcome in youth soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Donald T. Kirkendall
      Purpose In age-restricted youth sport, the over-selection of athletes born in the first quarter of the year and under-selection of athletes born in the last quarter of the year has been called the relative age effect (RAE). Its existence in youth sports like soccer is well established. Why it occurs has not been identified, however, one thought is that older players, generally taller and heavier, are thought to improve the team’s chances of winning. To test this assumption, birth dates and match outcome were correlated to see if teams with the oldest mean age had a systematic advantage against teams with younger mean ages. Methods Player birth dates and team records (n = 5943 players on 371 teams; both genders; U11-U16) were obtained from the North Carolina Youth Soccer Association for the highest level of statewide youth competition. Results The presence of an RAE was demonstrated with significant oversampling from players born in the 1st vs. the 4th quarter (overall: 29.6% vs. 20.9% respectively, p < 0.0001). Mean team age was regressed on match outcomes (winning %, points/match, points/goal, and goals for, against, and goal difference), but there was no evidence of any systematic influence of mean team age and match outcomes, except possibly in U11 males. Conclusion Selecting players based on physical maturity (and subsequently, on age) does not appear to have any systematic influence on match outcome or season record in youth soccer suggesting that the selection process should be focused on player ability and not on physical maturation.


      PubDate: 2014-07-31T20:49:39Z
       
  • Principle and practices of training for soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ryland Morgans , Patrick Orme , Liam Anderson , Barry Drust
      The complexity of the physical demands of soccer requires the completion of a multi-component training programme. The development, planning, and implementation of such a programme is difficult due partly to the practical constraints related to the competitive schedule at the top level. The effective planning and organisation of training is therefore crucial to the effective delivery of the training stimulus for both individual players and the team. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the principles of training that can be used to prepare players for the physical demands of soccer. Information relating to periodisation is supported by an outline of the strategies used to deliver the acute training stress in a soccer environment. The importance of monitoring to support the planning process is also reviewed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-31T20:49:39Z
       
  • Effects of carbohydrate supplements on exercise-induced menstrual
           dysfunction and ovarian subcellular structural changes in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Can Zhao , Xiao-Li Liu , Run-Xiao Hong , He Li , Rena Li , Ren-Wei Wang
      Background Exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (EAMD) is a common health problem in female athletes as a part of female athlete triad (FAT), a condition related to low energy availability. In this study, we explored the possibility that carbohydrate supplements can improve the status of EAMD and prevent exercise-induced ovarian injury in a FAT rat model. This research aimed to provide experimental evidence with regard to the relationship of energy intervention and EAMD. Methods Forty-five female Sprague–Dawley rats (2 months old) were randomly divided into five experimental groups: control group (C), 9-week exercise as model for EAMD (E), post-EAMD recovery group (R), oligosaccharide intervention group (O), and glucose intervention group (G). All rats were sacrificed at the end of 9 weeks. Serum samples were collected for measuring gonadotropin releasing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, 17β-estradiol and progesterone levels. The ovaries were taken for investigation of exercise- and carbohydrate-induced follicular subcellular structure changes. Results Exercise induced irregular menstrual cycles and ovary subcellular structural damages, such as swollenness of mitochondrial in rats from groups E and R. Both glucose and oligosaccharide supplements restored well-differentiated mitochondria in the ovarian follicular cells, and a significant improvement of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi in swollenness in theca cells in groups O and G compared to groups C, E, and R. There was no difference in mitochondria subcellular structural changes between groups O and G. Group E showed attenuation of serum levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone compared to C. There were no differences of 17β-estradiol serum levels among groups O, G, and R, while group G showed a lower level of progesterone than C. Conclusion Female adult rats with 9-week continuous exercise can cause menstrual dysregulation as a model for EAMD. Post-EAMD intervention with glucose and oligosaccharide intake can normalize the menstrual cycle, restore the follicular subcellular structure, and reverse the exercise-induced reduction of ovary sex hormones. It suggests a positive feedback of hypothalamus–pituitary–ovarian axis might be involved in the molecular mechanisms of energy intake in treating EAMD.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Women's health in exercise and aging: What do we know?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rena Li



      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve
           cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kiran Chaudhari , Jessica M. Wong , Philip H. Vann , Nathalie Sumien
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if antioxidant supplementation, moderate exercise, and the combination of both treatments could ameliorate cognitive performance in adult mice and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype as well as sex could influence the functional outcomes of the treatments. Methods For a period of 16 weeks, separate groups of male and female mice expressing either the human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms were fed either a control diet (NIH-31) or the control diet supplemented with vitamins E and C (1.12 IU/g diet α-tocopheryl acetate and 1.65 mg/g ascorbic acid). The mice were further separated into a sedentary group or a group that followed a daily exercise regimen. After 8 weeks on the treatments, the mice were administered a battery of functional tests including tests to measure cognitive and affective function. Results There was no effect of genotype or treatment on the learning performance in the Morris water maze. In the discriminated avoidance task, APOE4 mice performed better in learning the discrimination component of the task. Overall, exercise improved performance of APOE4 and APOE3 mice on various aspects of the active avoidance task. Antioxidant supplementation improved performance only in the APOE4 mice. On the test for anxiety, APOE4 mice spent more time in the open arms and supplementation with antioxidant reversed that effect. Conclusion Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Sex differences in exercise and drug addiction: A mini review of animal
           studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yuehui Zhou , Chenglin Zhou , Rena Li
      Growing literature has demonstrated that exercise may be an effective prevention and treatment option for drug addiction. In the past few years, many studies have suggested that there were sex differences in all phases of drug addiction. However, very limited research has investigated sex differences in the effectiveness of exercise intervention in drug addiction and rehabilitation. In this mini review, we summarize the effect of sex on the results of using exercise to prevent and treat drug addiction. The studies we consider span various animal models and use multiple types of exercise to examine the effectiveness of exercise on the neurobiological mechanism of exercise rehabilitation. We believe that exercise as an adjuvant intervention strategy can be applied better in drug addiction prevention and recovery.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Women and exercise in aging

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kristina L. Kendall , Ciaran M. Fairman
      Aging is associated with physiological declines, notably a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and lean body mass, with a concurrent increase in body fat and central adiposity. Interest in women and aging is of particular interest partly as a result of gender specific responses to aging, particularly as a result of menopause. It is possible that the onset of menopause may augment the physiological decline associated with aging and inactivity. More so, a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (an accumulation of cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose) has been shown in middle-aged women during the postmenopausal period. This is due in part to the drastic changes in body composition, as previously discussed, but also a change in physical activity (PA) levels. Sarcopenia is an age related decrease in the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle fibers that consequently leads to a decline in physical function, gait speed, balance, coordination, decreased BMD, and quality of life. PA plays an essential role in combating physiological decline associated with aging. Maintenance of adequate levels of PA can result in increased longevity, and a reduced risk for metabolic disease along with other chronic diseases. The aim of this paper is to review relevant literature, examine current PA guidelines, and provide recommendations specific to women based on current research.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Why women see differently from the way men see? A review of sex
           differences in cognition and sports

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rena Li
      The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire life span. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory – especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Metabolic response to 6-week aerobic exercise training and dieting in
           previously sedentary overweight and obese pre-menopausal women: A
           randomized trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Petri Wiklund , Markku Alen , Eveliina Munukka , Shu Mei Cheng , Bo Yu , Satu Pekkala , Sulin Cheng
      Background The aim of this study was to compare 6 weeks short-term moderate intensity aerobic exercise and dieting on serum metabolomics and cardio-metabolic risk factors in pre-menopausal women. Methods Ninety previously inactive overweight and obese (BMI 25–35 kg/m2) women (age 41.5 ± 7.6 years) were randomized to either a 6-week Nordic walking exercise program (EX, n = 45) or dietary counseling group (DI, n = 45). Body composition, serum glucose, insulin and lipids were measured. Serum low-molecular-weight metabolites and lipid constituents were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Measurements were done at baseline and 7 days after the last training session. Results Six weeks aerobic exercise program yielded reductions in serum free fatty acids (−34.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI), −50 to −18, p < 0.001), glucose (−9.6%, 95%CI, −15 to −4, p < 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−28.7%, 95% CI, −48 to −10, p = 0.005) without changes in body weight or fat mass. Diet counseling resulted in loss of body weight (1.5%, 95%CI, −2.3 to −0.7, p = 0.001) but no changes in free fatty acids, fasting glucose, or HOMA-IR were found. Conclusion Our results indicate that small weight loss does not produce measurable health benefits, whereas short-term regular aerobic exercise can improve glucose and lipid metabolism even in the absence of weight loss in previously sedentary overweight and obese women.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Muscle capacity and physical function in older women: What are the impacts
           of resistance training?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Anne O. Brady , Chad R. Straight
      The number of older adults (individuals ≥65 years), particularly women, in our society is increasing and understanding the impact of exercise on muscle capacity (e.g., strength and power) and subsequently physical function is of utmost importance to prevent disability and maintain independence. Muscle capacity declines with age and this change negatively impacts physical function in older women. Exercise, specifically resistance training, is recommended to counteract these declines; however, the synergistic relationships between exercise, muscle capacity, and physical function are poorly understood. This review will summarize the literature regarding age-related changes in the aforementioned variables and review the research on the impact of resistance training interventions on muscle capacity and physical function in older women. Recommendations for future research in this area will be discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Surgical menopause enhances hippocampal amyloidogenesis following global
           cerebral ischemia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Erin L. Scott , Quan-Guang Zhang , Yan Dong , Dong Han , Rui-Min Wang , Ratna K. Vadlamudi , Darrell W. Brann
      Background Prematurely menopausal women have a doubled lifetime risk of dementia and a 5-fold increased risk of mortality from neurological disorders, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these risks remain unclear. We hypothesized that ischemia-induced amyloidogenesis may be enhanced in the hippocampus following prolonged loss of ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2), which could contribute to these phenomena. Methods To investigate, the current study used a rat model of premature surgical menopause (10-week bilateral ovariectomy) with E2 therapy either initiated immediately (short-term E2 deprivation (STED)) or delayed to the end of the ovariectomy period (long-term E2 deprivation (LTED)). One week after continuous, subcutaneous E2 therapy, we subjected animals to 10-min global cerebral ischemia (GCI) to assess the effect of LTED on ischemia-induced amyloidogenesis in the hippocampal CA1. Results The present study revealed that while hippocampal β-amyloid (Aβ) is not typically enhanced following GCI, there is a rapid, robust elevation of endogenous Aβ in LTED females after GCI. In STED females, we observed that GCI attenuates and E2 maintains ADAM 10 expression in the hippocampal CA1, and concurrently, GCI increases and E2 decreases BACE1 levels in the same region. Intriguingly, however, we observed a loss of E2 regulation of ADAM 10, ADAM 17, and BACE1 levels in the hippocampal CA1 of LTED females, which provides mechanistic evidence for the enhanced post-ischemic Aβ load following LTED. We also observed loss of E2 regulation of tau hyperphosphorylation in LTED females subjected to GCI. Conclusion Collectively, these studies partially explain the enhanced risk of dementia and mortality from neurological disorders seen in prematurely menopausal women and support timely initiation of E2 therapy to yield maximum neurological benefit.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • The acute effects of vibration stimulus following FIFA 11+ on agility and
           reactive strength in collegiate soccer players

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ross Cloak , Alan Nevill , Julian Smith , Matthew Wyon
      Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effects of combining the FIFA 11+ and acute vibration training on reactive strength index (RSI) and 505 agility. Methods Seventy-four male collegiate soccer players took part in the study and were randomly assigned to FIFA 11+ with acute vibration group (FIFA + WBV), FIFA 11+ with isometric squat group (FIFA + IS) or a control group consisting of the FIFA 11+ alone (Con). The warm-up consisted of the FIFA 11+ and was administered to all participants. The participants in the acute vibration group were exposed to 30 s whole body vibration in squat position immediately post warm-up. The isometric group completed an isometric squat for 30 s immediately post warm-up. Results RSI significantly improved pre- to post- intervention amongst FIFA + WBV (p < 0.001) due to a decrease in contact time (p < 0.001) in comparison to FIFA + IS and Con, but 505 agility was not affected. Conclusion The results of this study suggest the inclusion of an acute bout of WBV post FIFA 11+ warm-up produces a neuromuscular response leading to an improvement in RSI. Future research is required to examine the exact mechanisms behind these improvements amongst other populations and over time course of the performance.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Correlates of subjectively and objectively measured physical activity in
           young adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kelly Kavanaugh , Justin B. Moore , Leisha Johnson Hibbett , Andrew T. Kaczynski
      Background Many studies examining individual-level correlates in youth utilize self-report rather than objective measures of physical activity (PA). This utilization of self-report may result in associations that are not present when examining objectively measured PA. The present study investigates the relationship between hypothesized correlates of PA with objectively and subjectively measured PA. Methods Participating children (n = 232, 101 males, mean age = 12.3 years) provided a minimum of four monitored days of PA (via accelerometer) and completed a survey assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sport competence, appearance, enjoyment, and self-efficacy. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Results Hierarchical regression models controlling for sex, race, and BMI Z-score showed that only sex and BMI Z-score were significant correlates of objective MVPA while only sex was a significant correlate of objective total PA. However, in a separate model examining the relationship with subjective MVPA, enjoyment of PA and self-efficacy for PA were the only significant correlates of self-reported PA. Conclusion Measuring MVPA via self-report versus accelerometry produces considerably different results in a sample of young adolescents. Future studies should use caution when selecting outcome measures if the intent is to identify modifiable correlates of MVPA in youth.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Stress hormonal analysis in elite soccer players during a season

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yiannis Michailidis
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in some hormonal parameters (cortisol, testosterone, ratio of testosterone/cortisol) in professional soccer players during a season. Methods Fifteen professional players from a soccer club of the first division of the Greek soccer league participated. All sport medical examinations were conducted four times: before the re-building period, post re-building period, mid-season, and after finishing the competition phase. Results For testosterone, significant differences were observed between the end season and post re-building period (11.6%; p < 0.05) and mid-season (12.1%; p < 0.05). The cortisol concentration increased at mid-season by approximately 23%, and this change differed significantly from all other measurements for this hormone. The T/C ratio increased at the post re-building period and decreased at the middle of the season. Conclusion These hormones and their ratios could be used as stress and recovery state indicators. Coaches can use these parameters in combination with other indicators to optimize workloads, and to avoid overreaching and overtraining.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Introduction: The past, present, and future of research on running
           barefoot and in minimal shoes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Daniel E. Lieberman , Irene S. Davis , Benno M. Nigg



      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Strike type variation among Tarahumara Indians in minimal sandals versus
           conventional running shoes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Daniel E. Lieberman
      Purpose This study examined variation in foot strike types, lower extremity kinematics, and arch height and stiffness among Tarahumara Indians from the Sierra Tarahumara, Mexico. Methods High speed video was used to study the kinematics of 23 individuals, 13 who habitually wear traditional minimal running sandals (huaraches), and 10 who habitually wear modern, conventional running shoes with elevated, cushioned heels and arch support. Measurements of foot shape and arch stiffness were taken on these individuals plus an additional sample of 12 individuals. Results Minimally shod Tarahumara exhibit much variation with 40% primarily using midfoot strikes, 30% primarily using forefoot strikes, and 30% primarily using rearfoot strikes. In contrast, 75% of the conventionally shod Tarahumara primarily used rearfoot strikes, and 25% primarily used midfoot strikes. Individuals who used forefoot or midfoot strikes landed with significantly more plantarflexed ankles, flexed knees, and flexed hips than runners who used rearfoot strikes. Foot measurements indicate that conventionally shod Tarahumara also have significantly less stiff arches than those wearing minimal shoes. Conclusion These data reinforce earlier studies that there is variation among foot strike patterns among minimally shod runners, but also support the hypothesis that foot stiffness and important aspects of running form, including foot strike, differ between runners who grow up using minimal versus modern, conventional footwear.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David Hryvniak , Jay Dicharry , Robert Wilder
      Background Running is becoming an increasingly popular activity among Americans with over 50 million participants. Running shoe research and technology has continued to advance with no decrease in overall running injury rates. A growing group of runners are making the choice to try the minimal or barefoot running styles of the pre-modern running shoe era. There is some evidence of decreased forces and torques on the lower extremities with barefoot running, but no clear data regarding how this corresponds with injuries. The purpose of this survey study was to examine factors related to performance and injury in runners who have tried barefoot running. Methods The University of Virginia Center for Endurance Sport created a 10-question survey regarding barefoot running that was posted on a variety of running blogs and FaceBook pages. Percentages were calculated for each question across all surveys. Five hundred and nine participants responded with over 93% of them incorporating some type of barefoot running into their weekly mileage. Results A majority of the participants (53%) viewed barefoot running as a training tool to improve specific aspects of their running. However, close to half (46%) viewed barefoot training as a viable alternative to shoes for logging their miles. A large portion of runners initially tried barefoot running due to the promise of improved efficiency (60%), an attempt to get past injury (53%) and/or the recent media hype around the practice (52%). A large majority (68%) of runners participating in the study experienced no new injuries after starting barefoot running. In fact, most respondents (69%) actually had their previous injuries go away after starting barefoot running. Runners responded that their previous knee (46%), foot (19%), ankle (17%), hip (14%), and low back (14%) injuries all proceeded to improve after starting barefoot running. Conclusion Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Muscle activity and kinematics of forefoot and rearfoot strike runners

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): A.N. Ahn , C. Brayton , T. Bhatia , P. Martin
      Background Forefoot strike (FFS) and rearfoot strike (RFS) runners differ in their kinematics, force loading rates, and joint loading patterns, but the timing of their muscle activation patterns are less clear. Methods Forty recreational and highly trained runners ran at four speeds barefoot and shod on a motorized treadmill. “Barefoot” runners wore thin, five-toed socks and shod runners wore neutral running shoes. Subjects were instructed to run comfortably at each speed with no instructions about foot strike patterns. Results Eleven runners landed with an FFS when barefoot and shod and eleven runners landed with an RFS when barefoot and shod. The 18 remaining runners shifted from an FFS when barefoot to an RFS when shod (shifters). Shod shifters ran with a lower stride frequency and greater stride length than all other runners. All FFS runners landed with more plantarflexed ankles and more vertical lower legs at the beginning of stance compared to RFS runners. All FFS runners activated their plantarflexor muscles 11% earlier and 10% longer than RFS runners. Conclusion This earlier and longer relative activation of the plantarflexors likely enhances the capacity for the passive structures of the foot and ankle to store elastic energy, and may also enhance the performance of the active muscle by increasing the storage of elastic strain energy in the cross-bridges and activated titin.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • The effect of minimal shoes on arch structure and intrinsic foot muscle
           strength

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Elizabeth E. Miller , Katherine K. Whitcome , Daniel E. Lieberman , Heather L. Norton , Rachael E. Dyer
      Background This prospective study explored the effects of endurance running (ER) in minimal versus standard running shoes on the foot’s superficial layer intrinsic muscles and the function of the longitudinal arch. Our hypothesis was that running in minimal shoes would cause hypertrophy in these muscles and lead to higher, stronger, stiffer arches. Methods The hypothesis was tested using a sample of 33 healthy runners randomized into two groups, a control group shod in traditional running footwear and an experimental group shod in minimal support footwear, whose feet were scanned in an MRI before and after a 12-week training regime. Running kinematics as well as arch stiffness and height were also assessed before and after the treatment period. Results Analysis of anatomical cross-sectional areas and muscle volumes indicate that the flexor digitorum brevis muscle became larger in both groups by 11% and 21%, respectively, but only the minimally shod runners had significant areal and volumetric increases of the abductor digiti minimi of 18% and 22%, respectively, and significantly increased longitudinal arch stiffness (60%). Conclusion These results suggest that endurance running in minimal support footwear with 4 mm offset or less makes greater use of the spring-like function of the longitudinal arch, thus leading to greater demands on the intrinsic muscles that support the arch, thereby strengthening the foot.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Reduction in ground reaction force variables with instructed barefoot
           running

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Cynthia D. Samaan , Michael J. Rainbow , Irene S. Davis
      Backgound Barefoot (BF) running has recently increased in popularity with claims that it is more natural and may result in fewer injuries due to a reduction in impact loading. However, novice BF runners do not necessarily immediately switch to a forefoot strike pattern. This may increase mechanical parameters such as loading rate, which has been associated with certain running-related injuries, specifically, tibial stress fractures, patellofemoral pain, and plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in loading parameters between typical shod running and instructed BF running with real-time force feedback. Methods Forty-nine patients seeking treatment for a lower extremity injury ran on a force-sensing treadmill in their typical shod condition and then BF at the same speed. While BF they received verbal instruction and real-time feedback of vertical ground reaction forces. Results While 92% of subjects (n = 45) demonstrated a rearfoot strike pattern when shod, only 2% (n = 1) did during the instructed BF run. Additionally, while BF 47% (n = 23) eliminated the vertical impact transient in all eight steps analyzed. All loading variables of interest were significantly reduced from the shod to instructed BF condition. These included maximum instantaneous and average vertical loading rates of the ground reaction force (p < 0.0001), stiffness during initial loading (p < 0.0001), and peak medial (p = 0.001) and lateral ground reaction forces (p < 0.0001) and impulses in the vertical (p < 0.0001), medial (p = 0.047), and lateral (p < 0.0001) directions. Conclusion As impact loading has been associated with certain running-related injuries, instruction and feedback on the proper forefoot strike pattern may help reduce the injury risk associated with transitioning to BF running.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Foot strike patterns and hind limb joint angles during running in Hadza
           hunter-gatherers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Herman Pontzer , Kelly Suchman , David A. Raichlen , Brian M. Wood , Audax Z.P. Mabulla , Frank W. Marlowe
      Background Investigations of running gait among barefoot and populations have revealed a diversity of foot strike behaviors, with some preferentially employing a rear-foot strike (RFS) as the foot touches down while others employ a mid-foot strike (MFS) or fore-foot strike (FFS). Here, we report foot strike behavior and joint angles among traditional Hadza hunter-gatherers living in Northern Tanzania. Methods Hadza adults (n = 26) and juveniles (n = 14) ran at a range of speeds (adults: mean 3.4 ± 0.7 m/s, juveniles: mean 3.2 ± 0.5) over an outdoor trackway while being recorded via high-speed digital video. Foot strike type (RFS, MFS, or FFS) and hind limb segment angles at foot strike were recorded. Results Hadza men preferentially employed MFS (86.7% of men), while Hadza women and juveniles preferentially employed RFS (90.9% and 85.7% of women and juveniles, respectively). No FFS were recorded. Speed, the presence of footwear (sandals versus barefoot), and trial duration had no effect on foot strike type. Conclusion Unlike other habitually barefoot populations which prefer FFS while running, Hadza men preferred MFS, and Hadza women and juveniles preferred RFS. Sex and age differences in foot strike behavior among Hadza adults may reflect differences in running experience, with men learning to prefer MFS as they accumulate more running experience.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • The effect of shoe type on gait in forefoot strike runners during a 50-km
           run

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mark E. Kasmer , Nicholas C. Ketchum , Xue-cheng Liu
      Purpose To observe the relative change in foot-strike pattern, pressure characteristics, surface EMG (sEMG) recordings, and stride characteristics in forefoot strike runners wearing both minimalist and traditional shoes during a 50-km run. Methods Four experienced minimalist runners were enrolled in this study. Each runner ran a 50-km simulated run in both minimalist shoes and traditional shoes. Pressure data, sEMG recordings, and limited 3D motion capture data were collected during the initial 0.8 km and final 0.8 km for each trial. Results Three runners in the traditional shoe type condition and one runner in the minimalist shoe type condition demonstrated a more posterior initial contact area (midfoot strike (MFS) pattern) after the 50-km run, which was supported by increased activity of the tibialis anterior in the pre-contact phase (as per root mean square (RMS) values). In addition, in both pre- and post-run conditions, there were increased peak pressures in the minimalist shoe type, specifically in the medial forefoot. Muscle fatigue as defined by a decreased median frequency observed in isometric, constant force contractions did not correspond with our hypothesis in relation to the observed foot strike change pattern. Finally, step rate increased and step length decreased after the 50-km run in both shoe type conditions. Conclusion More runners adopted a more posterior initial contact area after the 50-km run in the traditional shoe type than in the minimalist shoe type. The runners who adopted a more posterior initial contact area were more closely associated with an increased median frequency of the medial gastrocnemius, which suggests there may be a change in motor unit recruitment pattern during long-distance, sustained velocity running. The increased peak pressures observed in the medial forefoot in the minimalist shoe type may predispose to metatarsal stress fractures in the setting of improper training.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Impact shock frequency components and attenuation in rearfoot and forefoot
           running

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Allison H. Gruber , Katherine A. Boyer , Timothy R. Derrick , Joseph Hamill
      Background The forefoot running footfall pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of developing running related overuse injuries due to a reduction of impact related variables compared with the rearfoot running footfall pattern. However, only time-domain impact variables have been compared between footfall patterns. The frequency content of the impact shock and the degree to which it is attenuated may be of greater importance for injury risk and prevention than time-domain variables. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the differences in head and tibial acceleration signal power and shock attenuation between rearfoot and forefoot running. Methods Nineteen habitual rearfoot runners and 19 habitual forefoot runners ran on a treadmill at 3.5 m/s using their preferred footfall patterns while tibial and head acceleration data were collected. The magnitude of the first and second head acceleration peaks, and peak positive tibial acceleration were calculated. The power spectral density of each signal was calculated to transform the head and tibial accelerations in the frequency domain. Shock attenuation was calculated by a transfer function of the head signal relative to the tibia. Results Peak positive tibial acceleration and signal power in the lower and higher ranges were significantly greater during rearfoot than forefoot running (p < 0.05). The first and second head acceleration peaks and head signal power were not statistically different between patterns (p > 0.05). Rearfoot running resulted in significantly greater shock attenuation for the lower and higher frequency ranges as a result of greater tibial acceleration (p < 0.05). Conclusion The difference in impact shock frequency content between footfall patterns suggests that the primary mechanisms for attenuation may differ. The relationship between shock attenuation mechanisms and injury is not clear but given the differences in impact frequency content, neither footfall pattern may be more beneficial for injury, rather the type of injury sustained may vary with footfall pattern preference.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Comparison of foot strike patterns of barefoot and minimally shod runners
           in a recreational road race

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peter Larson
      Background Previous studies of foot strike patterns of distance runners in road races have typically found that the overwhelming majority of shod runners initially contact the ground on the rearfoot. However, none of these studies has attempted to quantify foot strike patterns of barefoot or minimally shod runners. This study classifies foot strike patterns of barefoot and minimally shod runners in a recreational road race. Methods High-speed video footage was obtained of 169 barefoot and 42 minimally shod distance runners at the 2011 New York City Barefoot Run. Foot strike patterns were classified for each runner, and frequencies of forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot striking were compared between the barefoot and minimally shod groups. Results A total of 59.2% of barefoot runners were forefoot strikers, 20.1% were midfoot strikers, and 20.7% were rearfoot strikers. For minimally shod runners, 33.3% were forefoot strikers, 19.1% were midfoot strikers, and 47.6% were rearfoot strikers. Foot strike distributions for barefoot and minimally shod runners were significantly different both from one another and from previously reported foot strike distributions of shod road racers. Conclusion Foot strike patterns differ between barefoot and minimally shod runners, with forefoot striking being more common, and rearfoot striking less common in the barefoot group.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Can minimal running shoes imitate barefoot heel-toe running patterns?
           A comparison of lower leg kinematics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Tobias Hein , Stefan Grau
      Background Numerous studies about the interaction between footwear (and barefoot) and kinematic and kinetic outcomes have been published over the last few years. Recent studies however lead to the conclusion that the assumed interactions depend mainly on the subjects' experience of barefoot (BF) walking/running, the preferred running strike pattern, the speed, the hardness of the surface, the thickness of the midsole material and the runners' level of ability. The aim of the present study was to investigate lower leg kinematics of BF running and running in a minimal running shoe (MRS) to assess comparability of BF kinematics in both conditions. To systematically compare both conditions we monitored the influencing variables described above in our measurement setup. We hypothesized that running in an MRS does not alter lower leg kinematics compared to BF running. Methods Thirty-seven subjects, injury-free and active in sports, ran BF on an EVA foam runway, and also ran shod wearing Nike Free 3.0 on a tartan indoor track. Lower-leg 3D kinematics was measured to quantify rearfoot and ankle movements. Skin markers were used in both shod and BF running. Results All runners revealed rearfoot strike pattern when running barefoot. Differences between BF and MRS running occurred particularly during the initial stance phase of running, both in the sagittal and the frontal planes. BF running revealed a flatter foot placement, a more plantar flexed ankle joint and less inverted rearfoot at touchdown compared to MRS running. Conclusion Barefoot running does not change the landing automatically to forefoot running, especially after a systematic exclusion of surface and other influencing factors. The Nike Free 3.0 mimics some BF features. Nevertheless, changes in design of the Nike Free should be considered in order to mimic BF movement even more closely.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Participation in some sports, not running, increases risk of knee and hip
           osteoarthritis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Songning Zhang



      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Effects of latissimus dorsi length on shoulder flexion in canoeists,
           swimmers, rugby players, and controls

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Lee Herrington , Ian Horsley
      Background Shoulder flexion requires an optimal length of the latissimus dorsi muscle in order to allow full lateral rotation of the humerus and upward scapular rotation. If shoulder flexion (in an externally rotated position) is restricted, this may predispose the individual to shoulder pathology. Sports such as swimming and canoeing have increased shoulder injuries and require high levels of latissimus dorsi muscle activity, which may create muscle hypertrophy and increased stiffness, resulting in a loss of muscle length. The objective of this study was to investigate if differences are present in shoulder flexion in internally and externally rotated positions across different sports (swimming, canoeing, and rugby) and a non-sporting control group. Methods One hundred subjects (40 physically active controls, 25 professional Rugby Union players, 20 elite, national-level canoeists (slalom), and 15 elite, national-level swimmers) participated in this study. Shoulder flexion range of motion was measured using a standard goniometer, with the arm elevated in either full external or internal rotation. Results A significant difference in shoulder flexion range was observed between canoeists and swimmers, canoeists and controls, rugby players and canoeists, rugby players and swimmers, and controls and swimmers in the external rotation position (p < 0.017), but not between controls and rugby players (p = 0.12). For the internal rotation position, swimmers significantly differed from canoeists, rugby players, and controls (p < 0.017), but there were no significant differences between rugby players, canoeists, and controls (p > 0.07). Conclusion This study found that the length of the latissimus dorsi differs between sports and controls in accordance with the specific physical demands of their sport.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Overhead shoulder press – In-front of the head or behind the
           head?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mark R. McKean , Brendan J. Burkett
      Background Using a cross-sectional design comparison, two overhead press techniques (in-front of the head or behind the head) were compared. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of behind the head or in-front of the head overhead pressing technique on shoulder range of movement (ROM) and spine posture. The overhead press is commonly prescribed exercise. The two techniques (in-front of the head or behind the head) may influence joint mechanics and therefore require an objective analysis. Methods Passive shoulder ROM quantified using goniometric measures, dynamic ROM utilised three dimensional (3D) biomechanical measures (120 Hz) of 33 participants performing overhead pressing in a seated position. The timing and synchronisation of the upper limb shoulder and spine segments were quantified and influence of each technique was investigated. Results The in-front technique commenced in lordotic position, whilst behind the head technique commenced in kyphotic position. Behind the head technique started with less thoracic extension than in-front condition. The thoracic spine remained extended and moved between 12° and 15° regardless of gender or technique. The techniques resulted in a significant difference between genders. Males were able to maintain a flat or normal lumbar lordosis, whereas females tended to kyphotic. Conclusion Shoulder ROM was within passive ROM for all measures except external rotation for males with the behind the head technique. To avoid possible injury passive ROM should be increased prior to behind the head protocol. Females showed greater spine movements, suggesting trunk strengthening may assist overhead pressing techniques. For participants with normal trunk stability and ideal shoulder ROM, overhead pressing is a safe exercise (for the shoulder and spine) when performed either in-front or behind the head.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Changes in the number of circulating CD34+ cells after eccentric exercise
           of the elbow flexors in relation to muscle damage

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ho Seong Lee , Makii Muthalib , Takayuki Akimoto , Kazunori Nosaka
      Background It has been reported that strenuous exercise increases the number of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells such as CD34+ cells in the blood, but no previous studies have investigated the changes in circulating CD34+ cells following resistance exercise. This study tested the hypothesis that the number of CD34+ cells in the blood would increase after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors, but decrease in recovery, and the magnitude of the changes would be dependent on the magnitude of muscle damage. Methods Nine men (28.0 ± 6.6 years) performed exercises consisting of 10 sets of six maximal voluntary eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors with their non-dominant arm. Six of them performed the same exercise with the same arm 4 weeks later. Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage were measured before, within 10 min after, and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after eccentric exercise. Differential leukocyte counts (total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes) and CD34+ cells in the blood were measured before, immediately after, and at 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following the exercises. Results After eccentric exercise, significant (p < 0.05) decreases in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque and increases in delayed onset muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were observed. However, no significant changes in leukocytes and CD34+ cells were evident. The changes in muscle damage markers were significantly (p < 0.05) smaller following the second exercise session as compared with the first exercise session, but the changes in leukocytes and CD34+ cells were not significantly different between sessions. Conclusion These results did not support the hypothesis, and showed that eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage to the elbow flexors did not influence the number of circulating CD34+ cells.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • A meta-analytic review of the approach-avoidance achievement goals and
           performance relationships in the sport psychology literature

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Marc Lochbaum , Jarrett Gottardy
      Purpose To summarize the approach-avoidance achievement goal and performance in the sport psychology literature. Methods A total of 17 published studies, two of which provided two samples, were located. Accepted meta-analytic procedures were used with Hedges' g as the effect size metric. From the 17 studies, 73 effect sizes were calculated. Results Results based on a random effects model indicated that the performance goal contrast had the largest facilitative impact on performance followed by the mastery and performance approach goals. Both of the avoidance goals performance and mastery had small non-significant and detrimental effects on performance. The homogeneity statistics revealed significant heterogeneity for the approach and avoidance performance goals. Categorical moderator variables were examined for study sex composition (male, female, or mixed), mean age of sample (<18 years or ≥18 years), study setting (lab or naturalistic), and nature of performance variable (objective or subjective). Conclusion The performance goal contrast holds value for sport performance research. Contrary to approach-avoidance predictions, the mastery-approach goal and performance effect size was significant and of equal magnitude as the performance approach goal and performance effect size. Thus, future research should closely test the efficacy of both the mastery- and performance contrasts in impacting performance of sport tasks. Last, the significant effect sizes reported in this review are in stark contrast to contemporary meta-analytic findings in education. Differences in the approach-avoidance goals in sport and education relative to performance should be researched further.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic
           sleep complaints

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Carmen Erlacher , Daniel Erlacher , Michael Schredl
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent the observed effects on self-rated sleep in a previous study using a combined treatment program with physical exercise and sleep education can be attributed by the physical activity (PA) component. Methods The present study reports supplementary analysis of an already described and published study. Data was provided by a nonclinical sample of 98 normal-active adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints. The additional analysis included sleep log, exercise log, and daily pedometer data which was collected during a baseline week and 6-week of a combined intervention. Results The results indicate that the number of steps (p = 0.02) and the duration of PA (p = 0.01) is significantly related to the improvement in subjective sleep measures and therefore reveal an independent effect within this combined sleep program. Sleep diary data (recuperation of sleep, number of awakenings after sleep onset, and wake time after sleep onset time) improved significant (all p < 0.01) over the intervention program. About 50% of the participants stated that the PA had an effect on their improvement. Conclusion Improvements on subjective sleep quality after a combined intervention cannot be attributed to the cognitive component alone, but PA has an independent effect. Adults with chronic sleep complaints benefit from exercise. Therefore structured PA should be implemented in any sleep management programs.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • The financial burden of physical inactivity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Li Li



      PubDate: 2014-01-08T06:10:07Z
       
  • Can an evidence-based fall prevention program be translated for use in
           culturally diverse communities?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David A. Sleet , Grant T. Baldwin



      PubDate: 2014-01-04T21:04:35Z
       
  • Implementing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance in real-world
           settings: success and challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jade Leung



      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • So much research, so little application: Barriers to dissemination and
           practical implementation of Tai Ji Quan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peter A. Harmer
      Despite the large number of articles published in the medical literature advocating the use of Tai Ji Quan for a wide variety of health-related outcomes, there has been little systematic broad-scale implementation of these programs. It may be argued that the lack of funding from organizations capable of implementing and overseeing large-scale programs, such as governmental health agencies or national non-governmental organizations concerned with healthcare for older adults, is to blame. However, the evidence these organizations need to justify underwriting such programs is in short supply because of conflicting priorities and standards related to determining the efficacy and effectiveness of Tai Ji Quan. Establishing efficacy through acceptable designs such as randomized controlled trials involves strict protocols to ensure meaningful internal validity but different approaches are needed to demonstrate meaningful effectiveness (external validity) outside the study setting. By examining the quality, quantity, and relative proportions of the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and dissemination studies reported in the medical literature, this paper highlights the disparity in emphasis between efficacy and effectiveness research that has impeded the development of a cohesive literature on Tai Ji Quan and concludes that until more researchers develop a systematic, long-range commitment to investigating its health-related benefits, the research related will remain fractured and sporadic, limiting the incentive of large funding agencies to support its wide-spread use.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan: an overview of its history, health benefits, and cultural
           value

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Guo Yucheng , Qiu Pixiang , Liu Taoguang
      Tai Ji Quan is considered to be a part of traditional Chinese Wushu (a martial art) and comprises various styles that have evolved historically from the Chen, Yang, Wǔ, Wú, and Sun families (schools). Recent simplification of the original classic styles has made Tai Ji Quan easier to adopt in practice. Thus, the traditional legacy of using Tai Ji Quan for self-defense, mindful nurturing of well-being, and fitness enhancement has been expanded to more contemporary applications that focus on promoting physical and mental health, enhancing general well-being, preventing chronic diseases, and being an effective clinical intervention for diverse medical conditions. As the impact of Tai Ji Quan on physical performance and health continues to grow, there is a need to better understand its historical impact and current status. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of Tai Ji Quan in China, its functional utility, and the scientific evidence of its health benefits, as well as how it has been a vehicle for enhancing cultural understanding and exchange between East and West.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan: From traditional applications to contemporary practice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li , Peter Harmer



      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage cardiovascular
           disease: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
      Background Regular exercise is beneficial for adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors. Tai Ji Quan is popular among older adults and may offer additional exercise options. The present article aims to review the scientific literature published within the past decade on Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage CVD. Methods An electronic literature search of four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and AMED) was conducted from April 2003 through March 2013. Studies that examined Tai Ji Quan, were published in English, and specified a target study population of participants with a known CVD condition (e.g., coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, or stroke) or studies conducted among participants with a CVD risk factor (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, or impaired glucose metabolism) were included. Results A total of 20 studies met the inclusion criteria: 11 randomized clinical trials, seven quasi-experimental studies and two cross-sectional studies. The effect of Tai Ji Quan was examined on more than 20 different study variables among persons with coronary artery disease (n = 5 studies), chronic heart failure (n = 5 studies), stroke (n = 4 studies), and CVD risk factors (n = 6 studies). These studies were conducted primarily in Asia (n = 9, 45%) or the United States (n = 8, 40%). Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Ji Quan had better outcomes, though mixed results were reported. Conclusion Collectively, these studies indicate that Tai Ji Quan is a safe form of exercise to prevent and manage CVD. Further research is needed with more rigorous study designs, larger sample sizes, adequate Tai Ji Quan exercise doses, and carefully chosen outcome measures that assess the mechanisms as well as the effects of Tai Ji Quan, before widespread recommendations can be made.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan for the aging cancer survivor: Mitigating the accelerated
           development of disability, falls, and cardiovascular disease from cancer
           treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kerri Winters-Stone
      Currently there are more than 13.7 million cancer survivors living in the U.S., and that figure is projected to increase by 31% in the next decade, adding another 4 million cancer survivors into the healthcare system. Cancer is largely a disease of aging, and the aging of the population will sharply raise the proportion of older cancer survivors, many of whom will be long-term survivors (5 + years post diagnosis). This review will address the potential utility of exercise to address three health problems that are of particular concern for the aging cancer survivor and the healthcare system, i.e., disability, falls, and cardiovascular disease, because the development of these age-related problems may be accelerated by cancer treatment. While there are many different modes of exercise that each produce specific adaptations, Tai Ji Quan may be a particularly suitable strategy to mitigate the development of age- and cancer-treatment-related problems. Based on studies in older adults without cancer, Tai Ji Quan produces musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic adaptations and is more easily performed by older adults due to its low energy cost and slower movement patterns. Since cancer survivors are mostly older, inactive, and often physically limited by the lingering side effects of treatment, they need to engage in safe, practical, and effective modes of exercise. The dearth of published controlled trials examining the efficacy of Tai Ji Quan to mitigate cancer-treatment-related musculoskeletal and cardiovascular side effects points to ample research opportunities to explore the application of this non-Western exercise modality to improve long-term outcomes for aging cancer survivors.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Implementing an evidence-based Tai Ji Quan program in a multicultural
           setting: A pilot dissemination project

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David Fink , Kate Houston
      Falls in older adults are a significant public health issue and a particularly significant health risk in Minnesota. With accumulating research evidence suggesting that falls can be prevented through exercise, there is an increased public health effort among organizations serving older adults to translate and disseminate evidence-based programs into the community. Such efforts, however, face additional challenges if they are implemented in communities with older adults from different cultural backgrounds and languages. This paper briefly describes a pilot community-based dissemination project, including the initiation, implementation, process, and outcomes, of an evidence-based fall prevention (Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance formerly known as Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance) through a local Area Agency on Aging in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area in Minnesota (USA). Overall, the program was successfully implemented resulting in adoption by local community organizations serving Asian and, to a lesser degree, East African non-English speaking older adults. Bilingual community instructors were trained to lead the classes resulting in broad participation and improved physical performance by the older adults targeted for the intervention. The results from this pilot study indicate that Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance can be implemented with positive results in non-English speaking community settings using bilingual leaders.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan, the brain, and cognition in older adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yu-Kai Chang , Yu-Hsiang Nien , Ai-Guo Chen , Jun Yan
      The relationship between physical activity (PA) and cognition has received much attention recently. While evidence of improved cognition following PA has consistently been observed, the majority of studies have spotlighted aerobic exercise and the effects of other modes of PA, such as Tai Ji Quan, on cognition have received limited attention. This article provides a brief review of the literature concerning the influence of Tai Ji Quan on cognition in older adults, including those with intact cognition and those with cognitive impairment. In addition, this review proposes potential mechanisms (cardiovascular fitness, motor fitness, movement coordination, social interaction, and meditation statuses as well brain structure and function) evaluated from a neuroimaging perspective that may explain the Tai Ji Quan–cognition relationship. Finally, we present suggestions for future research. In conclusion, Tai Ji Quan, with its multi-faceted characteristics, shows promise as a mode of PA for enhancing cognition, as well as brain health, in older adults. Based on the findings in this review, further exploration of the effects of Tai Ji Quan on cognition in older adults is warranted.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Preventing falls with Tai Ji Quan: A public health perspective

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Judy A. Stevens , Alexander Voukelatos , Heidi Ehrenreich
      Falls among people aged 65 and older are a significant public health problem and one that is expected to increase as the population ages. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that Tai Ji Quan can reduce falls and associated injuries among older adults. In this paper, we describe how Tai Ji Quan community programs are being utilized by public health and aging services organizations to reduce older adult falls. We conclude that, to have a population-level impact on reducing falls and improving the health of older adults, Tai Ji Quan interventions must be translated into community programs that meet the needs and abilities of older adults. These programs must be adapted to fit into existing community structures, disseminated through multiple delivery channels, adopted and implemented broadly by organizations, and institutionalized to ensure sustainability.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement
           therapy—Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li
      Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
 
 
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