for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
Followed Journals
Journal you Follow: 0
 
Sign Up to follow journals, search in your chosen journals and, optionally, receive Email Alerts when new issues of your Followed Journals are published.
Already have an account? Sign In to see the journals you follow.
Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [16 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Biomarker guided classification scheme of neurodegenerative diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista, Francesco Garaci, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Nicola Toschi, Harald Hampel



      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
       
  • Intention and automaticity toward physical and sedentary screen-based
           leisure activities in adolescents: A profile perspective

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gonzalo Marchant, Guillaume Chevance, Julie Boiché
      Purpose Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are increasingly considered independent health behaviors. Additionally, current research suggests that both controlled and automatic determinants account for their adoption. The purpose of this article is to identify intention–automaticity profiles toward PA and screen-based SB and to examine how those profiles are associated with different behavioral patterns. Method Two cross-sectional studies based on self-report questionnaires were conducted with French high school students (Study 1: n = 198; Study 2: n = 185). Results In all, 4 distinct motivational profiles appeared. The first 3 clusters emerged in both studies: “PA” (high levels of automaticity and intention for PA, low levels of automaticity and intention for screen-based SB); “screen” (high levels of automaticity and intention for screen-based SB, low levels of automaticity and intention for PA), and “mixed” (high levels of all variables), whereas the fourth cluster was observed only in Study 2: “high control” (below-mean levels of automaticity, high levels of intention toward both PA and screen-based SB). Adolescents with a screen profile displayed the least healthy behavioral pattern, whereas those in the PA profile demonstrated the most favorable behaviors. Conclusion Future research is needed to extend these results to other populations using complementary assessment methods of automatic psychological processes and PA and SB behaviors.


      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
       
  • The microbiome, microbial generated pro-inflammatory neurotoxins, and
           Alzheimer's disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter J. Lukiw



      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
       
  • Mechanism of neurodegeneration through tau and therapy for alzheimer's
           disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Akihiko Takashima



      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
       
  • Effects of intermittent sprint and plyometric training on endurance
           running performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Danny Lum, Frankie Tan, Joel Pang, Tiago M Barbosa
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intermittent sprint training (IST) and plyometric training (PT) on endurance running performance. Methods Fourteen male moderately-trained endurance runners were allocated into either IST group (n = 7) or PT group (n = 7). The preliminary tests required subjects to perform a treadmill graded exercise test, countermovement jump test for peak power measurement and 10-km time trial. Training included 12 sessions of either intermittent sprint or plyometric training carried out twice per week. Upon completion of the intervention, post-tests were conducted. Both groups showed significant reduction in weekly training mileage from pre-intervention and during intervention period. Results There were significant improvement in 10-km time trial performance and peak power. There was also significant improvement in relative peak power for both groups. The 10-km time trial performance and relative peak power showed a moderate inverse correlation. Conclusion These findings showed that both intermittent sprint and plyometric training resulted in improved 10-km running performance despite reduction in training mileage. The improvement in running performance was accompanied by an improvement in peak power and showed an inverse relation with relative peak power.


      PubDate: 2016-08-21T22:01:02Z
       
  • Reliability and validity of the French version of the global physical
           activity questionnaire

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fabien Rivière, Fatima Zahra Widad, Elodie Speyer, Marie-Line Erpelding, Hélène Escalon, Anne Vuillemin
      Background The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) has been used to measure physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in France, but no study has assessed its psychometric properties. This study aimed to compare the reliability as well as criterion and concurrent validity of the French version of the GPAQ with the French International PA Questionnaire long form (IPAQ-LF) and use of an accelerometer in a general adult population. Methods We included 92 participants (students or staff) from the Medicine Campus at the University of Lorraine, Nancy (north-eastern France). The French GPAQ was completed twice, 7 days apart, to study test-retest reliability. The IPAQ-LF was used to assess concurrent validity of the GPAQ, and participants wore an accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+) for 7 days to study criterion validity. Reliability as well as concurrent and criterion validity of the GPAQ was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Spearman correlation coefficient for quantitative variables, and Kappa and Phi coefficients for qualitative variables. Both concurrent and criterion validity of GPAQ were assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Results The GPAQ showed poor to good reliability (ICC = 0.37-0.94; Kappa = 0.50-0.62) and concurrent validity (Spearman r = 0.41-0.86), but only poor criterion validity (Spearman r = 0.22-0.42). Limits of agreement for the GPAQ and accelerometer were wide, with differences between 286.5 and 601.3 min/day. Conclusions The French version of the GPAQ provides limited but acceptable reliability and validity for the measurement of PA and sedentary time. It may be used for assessing PA and sedentary time in a French adult population.


      PubDate: 2016-08-16T21:10:23Z
       
  • Effect of different intensities of physical activity on cardiometabolic
           markers and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats fed with a
           high-fat high-carbohydrate diet

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Romeo B. Batacan, Mitch J. Duncan, Vincent J. Dalbo, Geraldine L. Buitrago, Andrew S. Fenning
      Background Physical activity (PA) and diet are 2 lifestyle factors that affect cardiometabolic risk. However, data on how a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet influences the effect of different intensities of PA on cardiometabolic health and cardiovascular function in a controlled setting are yet to be fully established. This study investigated the effect of sedentary behavior, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic markers and vascular and cardiac function in HFHC-fed adult rats. Methods Twelve-week-old Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups (12 rats/group): control (CTL), sedentary (SED), light-intensity training (LIT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Biometric indices, glucose and lipid control, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, vascular reactivity, and cardiac electrophysiology of the experimental groups were examined after 12 weeks of HFHC-diet feeding and PA interventions. Results The SED group had slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.0426) and greater thoracic aortic contractile responses (p < 0.05) compared with the CTL group. The LIT group showed improved cardiac conduction compared with the SED group (p = 0.0003), and the HIIT group showed decreased mesenteric artery contractile responses compared with all other groups and improved endothelium-dependent mesenteric artery relaxation compared with the LIT group (p < 0.05). The LIT and HIIT groups had lower visceral (p = 0.0057 for LIT, p = 0.0120 for HIIT) and epididymal fat (p < 0.0001 for LIT, p = 0.0002 for HIIT) compared with the CTL group. Conclusion LIT induced positive adaptations on fat accumulation and cardiac conduction, and HIIT induced a positive effect on fat accumulation, mesenteric artery contraction, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. No other differences were observed between groups. These findings suggest that few positive health effects can be achieved through LIT and HIIT when consuming a chronic and sustained HFHC diet.


      PubDate: 2016-08-06T19:59:36Z
       
  • Scientific evidence is just the starting point: A generalizable process
           for developing sports injury prevention interventions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Belinda J. Gabbe, Jill Cook, Warren Young, Peta White, Caroline F. Finch
      Background The 2 most cited sports injury prevention research frameworks incorporate intervention development, yet little guidance is available in the sports science literature on how to undertake this complex process. This paper presents a generalizable process for developing implementable sports injury prevention interventions, including a case study applying the process to develop a lower limb injury prevention exercise training program (FootyFirst) for community Australian football. Methods The intervention development process is underpinned by 2 complementary premises: (1) that evidence-based practice integrates the best available scientific evidence with practitioner expertise and end-user values and (2) that research evidence alone is insufficient to develop implementable interventions. Results The generalizable 6-step intervention development process involves (1) compiling research evidence, clinical experience, and knowledge of the implementation context; (2) consulting with experts; (3) engaging with end users; (4) testing the intervention; (5) using theory; and (6) obtaining feedback from early implementers. Following each step, intervention content and presentation should be revised to ensure that the final intervention includes evidence-informed content that is likely to be adopted, properly implemented, and sustained over time by the targeted intervention deliverers. For FootyFirst, this process involved establishing a multidisciplinary intervention development group, conducting 2 targeted literature reviews, undertaking an online expert consensus process, conducting focus groups with program end users, testing the program multiple times in different contexts, and obtaining feedback from early implementers of the program. Conclusions This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.


      PubDate: 2016-08-06T19:59:36Z
       
  • Determinants of inspiratory muscle function in healthy children

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Theodore Dassios, Gabriel Dimitriou
      Background Children are affected by disorders that impact on the respiratory muscles. Inspiratory muscle function can be assessed by the non-invasive Tension-Time Index of the inspiratory muscles (TTImus). Our objectives were to identify the determinants of TTImus in healthy children and to report normal values of TTImus in this population. Methods We measured weight, height, upper arm muscle area (UAMA), and TTImus in 96 children aged 6-18 years. The level and frequency of aerobic activity was assessed by questionnaire. Results TTImus was significantly lower in male subjects (0.095 ± 0.038, mean ± SD)) compared to female subjects (0.126 ± 0.056) (p = 0.002). TTImus was significantly lower in regularly exercising (0.093 ± 0.040) compared to non-exercising subjects (0.130 ± 0.053), (p < 0.001). TTImus was significantly negatively related to age (r = −0.239, p = 0.019), weight (r = −0.214, p = 0.037), height (r = −0.355, p < 0.001), and UAMA (r = −0.222, p = 0.030). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that height and aerobic exercise were significantly related to TTImus independently of age, weight, and UAMA. Predictive regression equation for TTImus in male subjects was: TTImus = 0.228 − 0.001 × height (cm), and in female subjects: TTImus = 0.320 − 0.001 × height (cm) . Conclusion Gender, age, anthropometry, skeletal muscularity, and aerobic exercise are significantly associated with indices of inspiratory muscle function in children. Normal values of TTImus in healthy children are reported.


      PubDate: 2016-08-06T19:59:36Z
       
  • The effects of aerobic exercise training on oxidant-antioxidant balance,
           neurotrophic factor levels, and blood-brain barrier function in obese and
           nonobese men

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Hee-Tae Roh, Wi-Young So
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and aerobic exercise training on oxidant-antioxidant balance, neurotrophic factor levels, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Methods Ten nonobese healthy men (body mass index < 25 kg/m2) and 10 obese men (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) were included in the study. Both groups performed treadmill exercise for 40 min 3 times weekly for 8 weeks at 70% heart rate reserve. Blood samples were collected to examine oxidant-antioxidant balance (reactive oxygen species [ROS] and superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity levels), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], nerve growth factor, and glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor levels), and BBB function (S100β and neuron-specific enolase [NSE] levels) before and after exercise training. Results The obese group showed significantly greater changes than the nonobese group in serum ROS (−0.46 ± 0.31 mmol/L vs. −0.10 ± 0.17 mmol/L, respectively) (p = 0.005), serum S100β levels (−8.50 ± 5.92 ng/L vs. −0.78 ± 5.45 ng/L, respectively) (p = 0.007), and serum NSE levels (−0.89 ± 0.54 µg/L vs. −0.01 ± 0.74 µg/L, respectively) (p = 0.007) after training. At baseline, the obese group showed significantly higher serum ROS and S100β levels and significantly lower serum SOD activity and BDNF levels than the nonobese group (p < 0.05). The obese group showed significantly lower serum ROS, S100β, and NSE levels and significantly higher serum SOD activity and BDNF levels after training compared with the nonobese group (p < 0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that obesity can reduce serum neurotrophic factor levels and can induce BBB dysfunction. On the other hand, aerobic exercise can improve an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in obese subjects and limit BBB dysfunction.


      PubDate: 2016-07-26T23:18:17Z
       
  • Examining the relationship between sport and health among USA women: An
           analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jennifer R. Pharr, Nancy L. Lough
      Background Research has been conducted linking sports participation and health in childhood and adolescence; however, little is known about the contribution of sport to women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport and women's health in the USA by analyzing data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Methods This study was a secondary data analysis of the 2013 national BRFSS survey. Unlike the BRFSS core component from previous years, in 2013, participants were questioned extensively about their physical activity behaviors. Seventy-six different activities were identified by the participants. Two researchers categorized the 76 activities as sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, or household tasks based on previously identified categories. Logistic regression was utilized to calculate odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases based on physical activity category. Results Women who participated in sport had better health outcomes with significantly lower odds for all chronic diseases except asthma and better general health than women who participated in conditioning exercise, household tasks, or recreation, and many of the significant differences remained after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusion Sport participation was associated with more positive health outcomes among women in the USA compared with the other categories. As a means to improve health of women, the USA could focus on efforts to increase sport participation among women.


      PubDate: 2016-07-26T23:18:17Z
       
  • Effectiveness and time-course adaptation of resistance training vs.
           plyometric training in prepubertal soccer players

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yassine Negra, Helmi Chaabène, Thomas Stöggl, Mehréz Hammami, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly, Younés Hachana
      Purpose This study assessed the effectiveness and time course for improvements in explosive actions through resistance training (RT) vs. plyometric training (PT) in prepubertal soccer players. Methods Thirty-four male subjects were assigned to a control group (n = 11; age = 12.8 ± 0.3 years; height = 153.2 ± 8.6 cm; weight = 42.5 ± 5.5 kg; body mass index (BMI) = 18.1 ± 1.4 kg/m; 5 regular soccer training sessions per week), an RT group (RTG) (n = 12; age = 12.8 ± 0.3 years; height = 159.3 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 47.8 ± 6.8 kg; BMI = 18.9 ± 2.4 kg/m; 3 soccer training sessions and 2 RT sessions per week), and a PT group (PTG) (n = 11; age = 12.7 ± 0.3 years; height = 156.4 ± 9.5 cm; weight = 45.9 ± 8.4 kg; BMI = 18.6 ± 1.3 kg/m; 3 soccer training sessions and 2 PT sessions per week). Results The RTG showed an improvement in the half-squat (Δ13%; d = 1.3, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (Δ9%; d = 2.4, p < 0.001) at Week 4, whereas improvements in the 20-m sprint (20 m), change of direction (CoD), multiple 5 bounds, standing long jump, and squat jump were evident at Week 8 (Δ4.3%, d = 1.1, p < 0.05; Δ3.8%, d = 2.1, p < 0.05; Δ5%, d = 1.5, p < 0.05; Δ7%, d = 1.2, p < 0.01; and Δ19.6%, d = 1.5, p < 0.01, respectively). The PTG showed improvements in CoD, standing long jump, countermovement jump, and squat jump at Week 8 (Δ2.1%, d = 1.3, p < 0.05; Δ9.3%, d = 1.1, p < 0.05; Δ16%, d = 1.2; p < 0.05, and Δ16.6%, d = 1.5, p < 0.01, respectively), whereas improvements in the 20 m and multiple 5 bounds were evident only after Week 12 (Δ4%, d = 1.2, p < 0.05 and Δ7.4%, d = 0.7, p < 0.001, respectively). The RT and PT groups showed improvements in all sprint, CoD, and jump tests (p < 0.05) and in half-squat performance, for which improvement was only shown within the RTG (p < 0.001). Conclusion RT and PT conducted in combination with regular soccer training are safe and feasible interventions for prepubertal soccer players. In addition, these interventions were shown to be effective training tools to improve explosive actions with different time courses of improvements, which manifested earlier in the RTG than in the PTG. These outcomes may help coaches and fitness trainers set out clear and concise goals of training according to the specific time course of improvement difference between RT and PT on proxies of athletic performance of prepubertal soccer players.


      PubDate: 2016-07-18T14:46:24Z
       
  • Recruitment of older adults into randomized controlled trials: Issues and
           lessons learned from two community-based exercise interventions in
           Shanghai

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lingyan Huang, Jiaojiao Lü, Nan Chen, Yu Liu
      Background With the increasing need for high-quality exercise interventions in China, relatively little is known about issues and challenges related to recruitment of older Chinese adults into exercise-based disease prevention interventions. This study aims to describe the recruitment process and outcomes of 2 exercise interventions conducted in Shanghai, China. Methods Recruitment information was ascertained from 2 community-based randomized controlled trials for 2 exercise interventions, the first designed to improve health outcomes for older women with knee osteoarthritis and the second to study changes in cognitive function in adults with mild cognitive impairment. Results were summarized in terms of recruitment sources, number screened, screening-to-enrollment ratios, and costs. Results Recruitment was primarily achieved through working with local residential divisions (i.e., neighborhood associations and residential committees). Both studies achieved their planned target number of older adults (aged: 45-46 years) within a 1-year time frame, with a screening-to-randomized ratio of 5:1 and demonstrated excellent retention rates (range 87%-93%) at 6 months. The recruitment cost for the 2 studies averaged 189 RMB (about 30 USD) per initial recruit and 738 RMB (about119USD) per participant randomized. Some major issues encountered during the recruitment process included (1) the use of community neighborhoods to support the conduct of the projects, (2) access to participants, and (3) feasibility. Conclusion Analysis of the 2 randomized controlled trials has provided valuable insights into the recruitment process and identified resources that can help better planning and recruitment for future interventions. Recommendations aimed at increasing the success of future recruitment efforts are provided.


      PubDate: 2016-07-18T14:46:24Z
       
  • The impact of weather on summer and winter exercise behaviors

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Abram L. Wagner, Florian Keusch, Ting Yan, Philippa J. Clarke
      Background Outdoor exercise is an enjoyable way for individuals to improve fitness, but it is dependent on weather conditions. This study examines the association between weather conditions and outdoor exercise after adjustment for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Methods We used data representative of American adults from the University of Michigan/Thomson Reuters June 2013 surveys of consumers (core and supplement) to investigate self-reported exercise behavior in summer and winter. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models estimated the odds of delayed or indoor exercise compared with outdoor exercise. Results Of the 502 respondents, 16.3% did not regularly exercise outdoors (i.e., at least once a week), and many would delay exercise both in summer (51.8%) and winter (43.9%). Individuals listing rain as the predominant adverse weather condition had 3.29 times higher odds of exercising indoors (95%CI, 1.33-8.17) and 3.49 times higher odds of delaying exercise (95%CI, 1.33-8.17) compared with those mentioning heat as the predominant adverse condition. Individuals for whom ice or snow was an adverse winter weather condition were more likely to delay exercise (OR: 3.22; 95%CI: 1.14-9.08), compared with those concerned with cold. Conclusion This study found that race, age, and education exacerbate the negative effects of adverse weather conditions on the decision to exercise outdoors. Accordingly, any recommendation for an individual to exercise outdoors should be combined with an evaluation of the individual's outdoor environment along with strategies for the individual to continue exercising, indoors or outdoors, when adverse weather is present.


      PubDate: 2016-07-18T14:46:24Z
       
  • Health benefits of traditional chinese sports and physical activity for
           older adults: a systematic review of evidence

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yucheng Guo, Haiyang Shi, Dinghai Yu, Pixiang Qiu
      Background Traditional Chinese sports and physical activities (PAs) have a long history and are practiced by millions of Chinese. However, relatively little systematic review of the scientific evidence for their health benefits, especially for older Chinese adults, has been undertaken. Evidence acquisition Between January and March 2016, a systematic search was conducted using the CNKI and PubMed databases to identify studies published between 2000 and 2015. Studies were selected for review if they were designed specifically to evaluate the health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and PAs in adults aged 50 years and older in the mainland of China. The studies included observational, uncontrolled, and randomized and controlled designs. Papers published without an English title or abstract were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search identified a total of 229 studies. After removing duplicates and studies that did not meet inclusion/exclusion criteria, 95 studies were selected for review. Special attention was given to studies of the most commonly practiced activities: Tai Ji Quan, Qigong, and Yangko exercises. A positive association between these types of exercise and health benefits was noted for healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases. Evidence on other types of activities was less clear due to the limited number of studies conducted. Conclusion There is promising evidence that traditional Chinese sports and PAs provide many health benefits for older Chinese adults. While additional scientifically rigorous research is warranted, promoting these traditional and culturally-based sports and PAs as forms of behavioral medicine in primary and secondary prevention of diseases among the aging Chinese population will help fulfill an urgent public health need.


      PubDate: 2016-07-13T15:34:44Z
       
  • Physical activity and cognitive function among older adults in china: a
           systematic review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jiaojiao Lü, Weijie Fu, Yu Liu
      Background Physical activity has been shown to benefit cognitive function in older adults. However, the cognitive benefits of exercising for older Chinese adults have not been systematically documented. This study was to conduct a systematic review on evidence that physical activity (PA) is beneficial for cognitive functioning in older Chinese adults. Evidence acquisition Major databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WanFang, CNKI, and WeiPu, were searched for studies published in English or Chinese between January 2000 and December 2015. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies that evaluated PA and cognitive function among older Chinese adults were included in this review. Results Of 53 studies included and reviewed, 33 were observational (22 cross-sectional, 7 case-control, and 4 cohort) and 20 were experimental (15 randomized controlled trials, 5 nonrandomized control trials). Observational studies showed an association of reduced risk of cognitive-related diseases (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia) through PA, whereas experimental studies reported exercise-induced improvement in multiple domains of cognitive function (i.e., global cognitive function, memory, executive function, attention, language, and processing recourse). Conclusion This systematic review provides initial evidence that PA may benefit cognition in older Chinese adults. Further studies of individuals with cognitive impairments and prospective and randomized control trial studies having high scientific rigor are needed to corroborate the findings reported in this review.


      PubDate: 2016-07-13T15:34:44Z
       
  • Physical activity among older Chinese adults living in urban and rural
           areas: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Wenfei Zhu, Aiping Chi, Yuliang Sun
      With an increase in rural-to-urban migration, a rapidly aging population, and the rising risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in China, it is important to understand the epidemiology of physical activity (PA) and health in the context of disease prevention and population health. Despite its public health importance, there is a significant lack of knowledge about PA in older Chinese adults that may hamper primary prevention efforts of health promotion in an increasingly aging population. To fill this gap, this article presents a narrative review of PA in the older Chinese adult population with a special focus on residential settings (i.e., urban and rural). Using existing studies, the review examines overall PA patterns and their correlates and discusses public health implications and future research. Although there are some preliminary indications of urban and rural differences in PA in the aging population in China, continued research efforts are needed to facilitate primary prevention efforts aimed at reducing noncommunicable diseases and promoting an active lifestyle among the largest population of older people in the world.


      PubDate: 2016-07-13T15:34:44Z
       
  • Stiffness of individual quadriceps muscle assessed using ultrasound shear
           wave elastography during passive stretching

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jingfei Xu, François Hug, Siu Ngor Fu
      Background Until recently it has not been possible to isolate the mechanical behavior of individual muscles during passive stretching. Muscle shear modulus (an index of muscle stiffness) measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography can be used to estimate changes in stiffness of an individual muscle. The aims of the present study were (1) to determine the shear modulus–knee angle relationship and the slack angle of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles; (2) to determine whether this differs between the muscles. Methods Nine male rowers took part in the study. The shear modulus of VMO, RF, and VL muscles was measured while the quadriceps was passively stretched at 3°/s. The relationship between the muscle shear modulus and knee angle was plotted as shear modulus–angle curve through which the slack angle of each muscle was determined. Results The shear modulus of RF was higher than that of VMO and VL when the muscles were stretched over 54° (all p < 0.01). No significant difference was found between the VMO and VL (all p > 0.055). The slack angle was similar among the muscles: 41.3° ± 10.6°, 44.3° ± 9.1°, and 44.3° ± 5.6° of knee flexion for VMO, RF, and VL, respectively (p = 0.626). Conclusion This is the first study to experimentally determine the muscle mechanical behavior of individual heads of the quadriceps during passive stretching. Different pattern of passive tension was observed between mono- and bi-articular muscles. Further research is needed to determine whether changes in muscle stiffness are muscle-specific in pathological conditions or after interventions such as stretching protocols.


      PubDate: 2016-07-08T14:00:43Z
       
  • Evaluation of a concept-based physical education unit for energy balance
           education

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Senlin Chen, Xihe Zhu, Jared Androzzi, Yoon Ho Nam
      Background Physical education (PE) is a key channel that impacts children's decisions and behaviors for healthful living. This study evaluated the effects of a concept-based PE (CBPE) instructional unit, featured by energy balance (EB) education, on students' knowledge learning, situational interest, cognitive and physical engagements as well as teachers' perceptions. Methods Fourth and 5th grade students (N = 468) in a mid-western state of the United States were recruited as the participants. Four elementary schools were randomized to the CBPE or control groups. Students' EB knowledge, situational interest, cognitive engagement, and physical engagement were measured by a knowledge test, the Situational Interest Scale – Elementary, written task sheets, and accelerometers, respectively, while teachers' perceptions of the CBPE unit were captured by individual interviews at the end of the experiment. Results The CBPE group showed a significant increase in EB knowledge, while the control did not. Both groups showed a similar increasing trend for situational interest over time, although the statistical results favored the control group. For physical engagement, the CBPE group demonstrated a statistically different but substantively similar level of in-class physical activity compared to the control. The CBPE group also showed a moderate level of cognitive engagement throughout the unit. The PE teachers reported overall positive perceptions about teaching the CBPE unit. Conclusion These results support the utility of the CBPE unit in enhancing EB education along with facilitating positive student interest and engagement as well as positive teaching experiences.


      PubDate: 2016-07-03T12:42:31Z
       
  • Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual
           physical activity among older Chinese adults: A social–ecological
           perspective

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Xiangren Yi, Zachary Pope, Zan Gao, Shumei Wang, Fang Pan, Jingpeng Yan, Meng Liu, Peipei Wu, Jingjing Xu, Rui Wang
      Purpose To examine, within a social–ecological framework, associations between multifaceted individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity (HPA) among older Chinese adults. Methods Through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, a survey instrument assessing various factors underlying 3 social–ecological dimensions of intrapersonal, interpersonal, community and environmental resources was developed. Using a cross-sectional design, older adults (n = 1,580, age 67 ± 7 years) recruited from 10 communities in Shandong province completed the social–ecological survey of HPA. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. Results Factors related to intrapersonal (medical knowledge, motivation, physical function, sport skills, socioeconomic status, education), interpersonal (social support, social activity, social norms), and community and physical environmental resources (safety, capacity, availability of and access to physical activity facilities) were found to be significantly associated with older adults' participation in HPA. Conclusion The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active.


      PubDate: 2016-07-03T12:42:31Z
       
  • Exercise is….?: A commentary response

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Michelle Fortier



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Physical activity, aging, and health in China: Addressing public health
           needs in the presence of continued economic growth and urbanization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li, Yu Liu, Peter Harmer



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Commentary on: “scientific evidence is just the starting point: a
           generalisable process for developing sports injury prevention
           interventions” by alex donaldson, et al.

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Eva Ageberg



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Misuse of the metabolic modulator meldonium in sports

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Camilla Mattiuzzi



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Step it up: Advancing physical activity research to promote healthy aging
           in China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ding Ding, Hua Fu, Adrian E. Bauman



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • The Wingate anaerobic test cannot be used for the evaluation of GH
           secretion in children with short stature

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Nitzan Dror, Liat Oren, Michal Pantanowitz, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet
      Purpose To assess the growth hormone (GH) response to the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) among children with short stature and suspected GH deficiency. We hypothesized that the GH response to the WAnT would be similar to the GH response to a commonly used pharmacologic provocation test. Methods Ten children (6 males and 4 females, age range 9.0–14.9 years) participated in the study. Each participant performed 2 tests: a standard all-out WAnT, cycling for 30 s against constant resistance, and a standardized pharmacologic test (clonidine or glucagon). Blood samples for GH were collected before and 10, 30, 45, and 60 min after the beginning of exercise. In addition, we collected pre- and postexercise blood lactate levels. Results There was a significant increase in GH levels after the WAnT, yet in 9 of 10 participants, this increase was below the threshold for GH sufficiency. Peak GH after the WAnT was significantly lower compared to the pharmacologic GH provocation tests (with 9 of 10 demonstrating GH-sufficient response). Conclusion The traditional WAnT cannot be used as a GH provocation test. Further research is needed to develop anaerobic exercise protocols sufficient to promote GH secretion.


      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Obesity promotes oxidative stress and exacerbates blood-brain barrier
           disruption after high-intensity exercise

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and high-intensity acute exercise on oxidant-antioxidant status, neurotrophic factor expression, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Methods Twenty-four healthy, untrained men (12 nonobese [mean 14.9% body fat] and 12 obese subjects [mean 29.8% body fat]) performed 20 min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise at 85% maximal oxygen consumption. Blood sampling was performed to examine the oxidant-antioxidant status (reactive oxygen species [ROS] and superoxide dismutase [SOD]), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]), and BBB disruption (S100β and neuron-specific enolase) before and after acute exercise. Results The obese group showed significantly higher pre-exercise serum ROS levels and significantly lower serum SOD levels than the nonobese group (p < 0.05). Serum ROS, SOD, BDNF, NGF, and S100β levels were significantly increased postexercise compared with pre-exercise levels in both the nonobese and the obese groups (p < 0.05). The obese group showed significantly higher serum ROS, BDNF, NGF, and S100β levels postexercise compared to the nonobese group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our study suggests that episodic vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress and blood neurotrophic factor levels and induce disruption of the BBB. Moreover, high levels of neurotrophic factor in the blood after exercise in the obese group may be due to BBB disruption, and it is assumed that oxidative stress was the main cause of this BBB disruption.


      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Various performance-enhancing effects from the same intensity of
           whole-body vibration training

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Paohung Chung, Chiang Liu, Hsinghsiang Wang, Yu Liu, Longren Chuang, Tzyyyuang Shiang
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-week whole-body vibration training program in various frequency and amplitude settings under the same acceleration on the strength and power of the knee extensors. Methods Sixty-four young participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups with the same acceleration (4g): high frequency and low amplitude (n = 16, 32 Hz, 1 mm) group, medium frequency and medium amplitude (n = 16, 18 Hz, 3 mm) group, low frequency and high amplitude (n = 16, 3 Hz, 114 mm) group, and control (n = 16, no vibration) group. All participants underwent 8 weeks of training with body mass dynamic squats, 3 sessions a week. Results The results showed that the high frequency and low amplitude group increased significantly in isometric contraction strength and 120°/s isokinetic concentric contraction strength; the medium frequency and medium amplitude group increased significantly in 60°/s and 120°/s isokinetic strength of both concentric and eccentric contraction; and the low frequency and high amplitude group increased significantly in 60°/s and 120°/s isokinetic eccentric contraction strength. Conclusion All frequency and amplitude settings in the 8-week whole-body vibration training increased muscle strength, but different settings resulted in various neuromuscular adaptations despite the same intensity.


      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Effects of functional training on geometric indices of heart rate
           variability

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marianne P.C. de Rezende Barbosa, Jayme Netto Júnior, Bruna M. Cassemiro, Aline Fernanda B. Bernardo, Anne K. França da Silva, Franciele M. Vanderlei, Carlos Marcelo Pastre, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei
      Background Geometric methods provide an analysis of autonomic modulation using the geometric properties of the resulting pattern, and represent an interesting tool in the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of functional training on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy young women using the geometric indices of HRV. Methods Data were analyzed from 29 women, and were stratified into a functional training group (FTG, n = 13; 23.00 ± 2.51 years; 21.90 ± 2.82 kg/m2) and a control group (CG, n = 16; 20.56 ± 1.03 years; 22.12 ± 3.86 kg/m2). The FTG received periodized functional training for 12 weeks. The cardiac autonomic modulation of both groups was evaluated before and after this training, and a qualitative analysis was performed using the Poincaré plot. Results There was a significant increase in the difference of the triangular index (RRTri), SD1, SD2, and RR intervals in the FTG as compared to the CG, and the qualitative analysis from the Poincaré plot showed an increase in the dispersion of beat-to-beat and long-term RR intervals in the functional group after training. No changes were observed in the triangular interpolation of RR interval histogram (TINN) or SD1/SD2. Conclusion Functional training had a beneficial impact on autonomic modulation, as characterized by increased parasympathetic activity and overall variability, thus highlighting the clinical usefulness of this type of training.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Beneficial effects of fenugreek glycoside supplementation in male subjects
           during resistance training: A randomized controlled pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sachin Wankhede, Vishwaraman Mohan, Prasad Thakurdesai
      Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the glycoside fraction of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds (Fenu-FG) on physiological parameters related to muscle anabolism, androgenic hormones, and body fat in healthy male subjects during an 8-week resistance training program using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design. Methods Sixty healthy male subjects were randomized to ingest capsules of Fenu-FG (1 capsule of 300 mg, twice per day) or the matching placebo at a 1:1 ratio. The subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week resistance-training program for 8 weeks. The outcome measurements were recorded at recruitment (baseline) and at the end of the treatment (8 weeks). The efficacy outcome included serum testosterone (total and free) levels, muscle strength and repetitions to failure, metabolic markers for anabolic activity (serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and % body fat. The standard safety measurements such as adverse events monitoring, vital signs, hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis were performed. Results Fenu-FG supplementation demonstrated significant anabolic and androgenic activity as compared with the placebo. Fenu-FG treated subjects showed significant improvements in body fat without a reduction in muscle strength or repetitions to failure. The Fenu-FG supplementation was found to be safe and well-tolerated. Conclusion Fenu-FG supplementation showed beneficial effects in male subjects during resistance training without any clinical side effects.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Physical activity and health in the presence of China's economic growth:
           Meeting the public health challenges of the aging population

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li
      Three decades of rapid economic development in China have not only benefited millions of Chinese by improving their living standards but have also dramatically increased the number of people who are part of the country's aging population. However, economic growth has not been accompanied by sufficient attention given to important public health issues, including an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and a decline in physical activity (PA) that comes with an aging population. The rapid growth in China's older population will soon exert an impact on the nation's economy, population health status, and health behaviors, and will increase stress on its healthcare system. This review article provides a broad perspective on the impact of rapid economic development, industrialization, and urbanization on health-related behaviors, with a specific focus on PA among older adults. Specifically, the article offers an overview of the demographic context, significant public health challenges, evidence on PA and exercise interventions, and knowledge gaps and future directions for research.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Salsa dance and Zumba fitness: Acute responses during community-based
           classes

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Pablo A. Domene, Hannah J. Moir, Elizabeth Pummell, Chris Easton
      Background Research interest in both partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance has increased in recent years, likely a result of the gaining popularity of these types of instructor-led group classes among the mainstream dance and fitness audiences; however, the efficacy of these activities for the purposes of health promotion currently remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously assess the physiological responses and psychological experiences during salsa dance and Zumba fitness in a community sample of physically inactive women. Methods Twenty-four participants, aged 22–56 years, visited the laboratory to perform a graded exercise test for determination of maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate. The participants then attended 2 partnered salsa dance and 2 non-partnered Zumba fitness classes each in a counterbalanced order over a 2-week period. The 1-h classes were taught by certified instructors in established venues in the Royal Borough of Kingston and the surrounding communities of London, UK. Physiological data were collected using a wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X+ accelerometer with accompanying heart rate monitor and were processed using previously validated dance-specific techniques. Psychological experiences were measured via the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. Results There was a significantly higher (p < 0.001) total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (51.2 ± 3.1 vs. 32.6 ± 5.9 min), total energy expenditure (411 ± 66 vs. 210 ± 46 kcal), and total step count (6773 ± 556 vs. 4108 ± 781 steps) during Zumba fitness when compared to salsa dance. Significant pre- to post-class improvements in positive well-being (p < 0.01, partial η 2 = 0.41) and psychological distress (p < 0.001, partial η 2 = 0.72) were simultaneously observed for both salsa dance and Zumba fitness. Conclusion The acute responses to classes of partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance suggest that in physically inactive women participation is indeed efficacious in terms of community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Joshua M. Williams, Jody L. Langdon, James L. McMillan, Thomas A. Buckley
      Background Concussions are a common pathology in football and multiple misconceptions exist amongst the players and managers. To address these misconceptions, and potentially reduce concussion associated sequela, effective educational interventions need to be developed. However, the current knowledge and attitude status must be ascertained to appropriately develop these interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the concussion knowledge and attitude of English professional footballers. Methods Twenty-six participants from one English Football League Championship club completed the study. A mixed methods approach included the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS) and a semi-structured interview. The RoCKAS contains separate knowledge (0–25) and attitude (15–75) scores and was followed by a semi-structured interview consisting of concussion knowledge, attitude, and behavior related questions. Results The mean score on the RoCKAS knowledge was 16.4 ± 2.9 (range 11–22) and the attitude score was 59.6 ± 8.5 (range 41–71). The interview responses identified inconsistencies between the RoCKAS and the intended behaviors, endorsing multiple concussion misconceptions, and revealed barriers to concussion reporting. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football
           penalties

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Curtis Craig, Randy W. Overbeek, Miles V. Condon, Shannon B. Rinaldo
      Background Increased ambient temperature has been implicated in increased physical aggression, which has important practical consequences. The present study investigates this established relationship between aggressive behavior and ambient temperature in the highly aggressive context of professional football in the National Football League (NFL). Methods Using a publicly available dataset, authors conducted multiple hierarchical regression analyses on game-level data (2326 games). Results The analysis revealed that temperature positively predicted aggressive penalties in football, and that this relationship was significant for teams playing at home but not for visiting teams. Conclusion These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Imagery perspective among young athletes: Differentiation between external
           and internal visual imagery

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Qiu-Hua Yu, Amy S.N. Fu, Adeline Kho, Jie Li, Xiao-Hua Sun, Chetwyn C.H. Chan
      Purpose This study aimed to investigate the construct of external visual imagery (EVI) vs. internal visual imagery (IVI) by comparing the athletes' imagery ability with their levels of skill and types of sports. Methods Seventy-two young athletes in open (n = 45) or closed (n = 27) sports and with different skill levels completed 2 custom-designed tasks. The EVI task involved the subject generating and visualizing the rotated images of different body parts, whereas the IVI task involved the subject visualizing himself or herself performing specific movements. Results The significant Skill-Level × Sport Type interactions for the EVI task revealed that participants who specialized in open sports and had higher skill-levels had a higher accuracy rate as compared to the other subgroups. For the IVI task, the differences between the groups were less clear: those with higher skill-levels or open sports had a higher accuracy rate than those with lower skill-levels or closed sports. Conclusion EVI involves the visualization of others and the environment, and would be relevant to higher skill-level athletes who engage in open sports. IVI, in contrast, tends to be more self-oriented and would be relevant for utilization by higher skill-level athletes regardless of sport type.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Effects of core and non-dominant arm strength training on drive distance
           in elite golfers

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Dong Jun Sung, Seung Jun Park, Sojung Kim, Moon Seok Kwon, Young-Tae Lim
      Background Various training schemes have sought to improve golf-related athletic ability. In the golf swing motion, the muscle strengths of the core and arms play important roles, where a difference typically exists in the power of arm muscles between the dominant and non-dominant sides. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of exercises strengthening the core and non-dominant arm muscles of elite golf players (handicap < 3) on the increase in drive distance, and to present a corresponding training scheme aimed at improving golf performance ability. Methods Sixty elite golfers were randomized into the control group (CG, n = 20), core exercise group (CEG, n = 20), and group receiving a combination of muscle strengthening exercises of the non-dominant arm and the core (NCEG, n = 20). The 3 groups conducted the corresponding exercises for 8 weeks, after which the changes in drive distances and isokinetic strength were measured. Results Significant differences in the overall improvement of drive distance were observed among the groups (p < 0.001). Enhancement of the drive distance of NCEG was greater than both CG (p < 0.001) and CEG (p = 0.001). Except for trunk flexion, all variables of the measurements of isokinetic strength for NCEG also showed the highest values compared to the other groups. Examination of the correlation between drive distance and isokinetic strength revealed significant correlations of all variables except trunk flexion, wrist extension, and elbow extension. Conclusion The combination of core and non-dominant arm strength exercises can provide a more effective specialized training program than core alone training for golfers to increase their drive distances.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Resultant linear acceleration of an instrumented head form does not differ
           between junior and collegiate taekwondo athletes' kicks

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): David O'Sullivan, Gabriel P. Fife, Willy Pieter, Taehee Lim, Insik Shin
      Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various taekwondo kicks and age (school level) in absolute terms and relative body mass on the resultant linear acceleration (RLA) of an instrumented head form. Methods Forty-eight male (middle school: 16; high school: 16; university: 16) taekwondo athletes were recruited for this study. Subjects performed 10 turning, 10 jump spinning hook, and 10 jump back kicks on a Hybrid II head mounted on a height-adjustable frame. Results A 2-way (School × Kick) MANOVA was used to determine the differences in RLA between schools (age groups) by type of kick. There was no univariate School main effect for absolute RLA (η 2 = 0.06) and RLA relative to body mass (η 2 = 0.06). No univariate Kick main effects were found for absolute (η 2 = 0.06) and relative RLA (η 2 = 0.06). Conclusion It is of concern that RLA did not significantly differ between school levels, implying that young taekwondo athletes generate similar forces to their adult counterparts, possibly exposing young athletes to an increased risk for head injuries.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Effectiveness of quality physical education in improving students'
           manipulative skill competency

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Weiyun Chen, Weimo Zhu, Steve Mason, Austin Hammond-Bennett, Andrew Colombo-Dougovito
      Purpose This study aimed to examine the extent to which the quality physical education teaching (QPET) practices contributed to improving 4th- and 5th-grade students' manipulative skill competency. Methods Participants were 9 elementary physical education (PE) teachers and their 4th- and 5th-grade students (n = 2709–3420). The students' skill competency was assessed with 3 manipulative skills using PE metrics assessment rubrics. The PE teachers' levels of QPET were assessed by coding 63 videotaped lessons using the assessing quality teaching rubrics (AQTR), which consisted of 4 essential dimensions including task design, task presentation, class management, and instructional guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4%, 84.5%, and 94%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R 2 regression models, and independent sample t tests. Results This study indicated that the 4 essential dimensions of QPET were all significant contributors to students' manipulative skill competency. These predictors were significantly higher for boys than for girls in soccer and striking skills, while they were significantly higher for girls than for boys in throwing skill competency. Of the 4 essential dimensions of QPET, task presentation played the most significant role in contributing to all 3 skill competencies for both boys and girls. Further, students who experienced high QPET were significantly more skillfully competent than those students who did not have this experience. Conclusion It was concluded that the QPET practices played a significantly critical role in contributing to students' manipulative skill competency.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic
           diseases—R1

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Leanna M. Ross, Ryan R. Porter, J. Larry Durstine
      Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and for maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT). HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.


      PubDate: 2016-04-16T13:36:34Z
       
  • Effect of aerobic exercise on insulin resistance and central adiposity
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Shenglong Le, Lijuan Mao, Dajiang Lu, Yifan Yang, Xiao Tan, Petri Wiklund, Sulin Cheng
      Purpose This study aimed to assess whether the benefits of exercise on central adiposity and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are maintained after discontinuation of intervention in the overweight/obese (OWOB) women. Methods The study subjects were from 2 independent studies with similar aerobic exercise (AE) intervention programs. In study I, 15 OWOB postmenopausal women with pre-diabetes (body mass index, BMI = 24–33 kg/m2, aged 52–65 years) completed an 8-month exercise intervention and were followed for 2 years after the intervention. In study II, 12 OWOB (BMI = 25–35 kg/m2, aged 30–50 years) premenopausal women participated in a 6-week AE and were followed for 4 years after the intervention. The exercise program consisted of progressive AE with intensity of 60 to 75% of initial fitness level, 30–60 min/time and 3–5 times/week. Fat mass (FM) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance device (Inbody 720; Study I) or Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA, Prodigy; Study II). Plasma glucose and insulin were assessed by chemiluminescent immunoassay and HOMA-IR was calculated. Results Both 8-month and 6-week moderate AE were effective in reducing HOMA-IR (–18.9%, p = 0.012 and –26.7%, p = 0.046, respectively), 8-month AE reduced FM at upper abdominal region (–6.2%, p = 0.021). However, these improvements did not maintain in either study at the follow-up. Conclusion The aerobic exercise program used in these studies was effective to reduce insulin resistance and/or fat mass in central body region among overweight and obese women. However, when exercise intervention was discontinued, the beneficial effects following both short- and long-term intervention disappeared. Thus maintaining exercise seems to be required if one wants to reap the benefits of exercise in the long-term.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T09:18:52Z
       
  • Targeting mitochondrial phenotypes for non-communicable diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zhengtang Qi, Shuzhe Ding
      The concept that “exercise is medicine” has been challenged by the rising prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). This is partly due to the fact that the underlying mechanisms of how exercise influences energy homeostasis and counteracts high-fat diets and physical inactivity is complex and remains relatively poorly understood on a molecular level. In addition to genetic polymorphisms in humans that lead to gross variations in responsiveness to exercise, adaptation in mitochondrial networks are central to physical activity, inactivity and diet. To harness the benefits of exercise for NCDs, much work still needs to be done to improve health effectively on a societal level such as developing personalized exercise interventions aided by advances in high-throughput genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We propose that understanding the mitochondrial phenotype according to the molecular information of genotypes, lifestyles and exercise responsiveness in individuals will optimize exercise effects for prevention of NCDs.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T09:18:52Z
       
  • Exercise is more than medicine: The working age population's wellbeing and
           productivity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gisela Sjøgaard, Jeanette Reffstrup Christensen, Just Bendix Justesen, Mike Murray, Tina Dalager, Gitte Fredslund, Karen Søgaard
      Background Physical activity (PA) includes muscle activity during exercise, manual work, and leisure time activities including sport. Conflicting results exist regarding health effects of PA that may deteriorate with manual work and elite sports, but improve when performed in moderation in accordance with international guidelines and may additionally enhance wellbeing and productivity. Methods In Denmark 15 randomized controlled trials have been conducted, introducing exercise at the workplace enrolling > 3 500 workers. The interventions lasted from 10 – 52 weeks and offered ~1 h weekly supervised exercise during working hours according to the concept of intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) that is based on evidenced sports sciences training principles and tailored to work exposure, employee health status, and physical capacity. Questionnaire surveys and health checks including blood and muscle sampling were performed at baseline and follow-up. The job groups included: Office and computer workers, dentists, industrial technicians, cleaning personnel, health care workers, construction workers, and fighter/helicopter pilots. Results In all job groups significant improvements were documented regarding health outcomes. These were job group specific: Neck pain was reduced among office and computer workers, dentists, industrial laboratory technicians, health care workers as well as fighter pilots. Cardio-respiratory fitness—a health risk indicator for cardio-metabolic diseases—was improved among office and computer workers, health care workers, and construction workers. Additionally, other improvements were evidenced such as increased muscle strength and balance control. Importantly, productivity increased with improved muscle strength and decreased body mass index. Conclusions In every study group outcomes of improved health were documented and the effect sizes were of clinical relevance. Thus, IPET does enhance health if a program with evidenced efficacy is implemented by expert trainees with support of the employer. Cost effectiveness estimates indicate acceptable cost relative to savings on health expenses and lost productivity.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T09:18:52Z
       
  • The role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight
           management: time for critical appraisal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Petri Wiklund
      The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically during the last three decades with devastating consequences to public health. Recommended strategies to reduce obesity have focused on healthier diet and physical activity. Clearly, these approaches have not been successful, but whether this is due failure to restrict energy intake or to maintain high levels of energy expenditure has been the subject of great controversy. Consequently, there has been a great deal of confusion about the role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight management. In this article, the theoretical basis for considering reduced physical activity and energy expenditure as the cause of obesity is appraised. Further, the role of physical activity in food intake and weight control is examined. The idea that obesity is caused by consistent decline in daily energy expenditure is not supported either by objective measures of energy expenditure or physiological theory of weight gain alone. However, since voluntary exercise is the most important discretionary component of total daily energy expenditure, it can affect energy balance. Therefore, physical activity and exercise hold potential as part of the solution for the ongoing obesity epidemic.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T09:18:52Z
       
  • Physical activity, sedentary behavior and long term cardiovascular risk in
           young people: A review and discussion of methodology in prospective
           studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jakob Tarp, Jan Christian Brønd, Lars Bo Andersen, Niels Christian Møller, Karsten Froberg, Anders Grøntved
      The long-term effects of physical activity or sedentary behavior on cardiovascular health in young people are not well understood. In this study, we use a narrative format to review the evidence for a prospective association with adiposity and other well-established biological cardiovascular risk factors in healthy young people, considering only studies with at least 2 years of follow-up. Physical activity appears to elicit a long-term beneficial effect on adiposity and particularly markers of cardiovascular health. With adiposity, however, a few studies also reported that higher levels of physical activity were associated with higher levels of adiposity. Time spent sedentary does not appear to be related to adiposity or markers of cardiovascular health independent of physical activity. We then discuss the uncertainties in the underlying causal chain and considered a number of alternative modeling strategies, which could improve our understanding of the relationship in future studies. Finally, we consider the current methodology for assessing physical activity and sedentary time.


      PubDate: 2016-04-06T09:09:53Z
       
  • Exercise for health: Serious fun for the whole person?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mark Stephen Nesti
      The suggestion that exercise can be viewed as medicine (Chen, 2012) 1 sounds a very appealing idea. In this paper an alternative view will be presented which argues that although the statement, exercise is medicine, makes sense biologically and physiologically speaking, it is more problematic from a behavioral perspective. Inactivity and declining levels of exercise in most countries in the developed world has been identified in studies, policy documents and reports throughout the last few decades. Efforts at turning this trend around by encouraging more people to exercise appear to be failing with few exceptions. Although there are numerous possible reasons behind this finding, I will propose that one of the most important is that for many, exercise is seen as hard work, unenjoyable and only concerned with physical fitness. In contrast, there is ample evidence that sport activity, at least for the vast majority who play for fun, is intrinsically motivating and can provide psychological, social and spiritual benefits in addition to physical. The arguments discussed in this paper for a greater emphasis on sport for health rather than exercise draw mainly on psychological theory. Focus is on those strands of the discipline that have been referred to as holistic, such as existential, humanistic and phenomenological perspectives.


      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
       
  • “Physical activity continuum throughout the lifespan: is exercise
           medicine or what?”

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sulin Cheng, Lijuan Mao



      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
       
  • Exercise is recreation not medicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Andy Smith
      Purpose This paper responds to the question, is exercise medicine? It does so using a qualitative case study that proposes that exercise is recreation. The study (1) describes and reflects upon an exercise is recreation metaphor (2) establishes the principles and processes used to develop a sport park within which exercise is recreation and (3) presents a comparative analysis of the exercise is recreation approach with a UK quality framework for exercise referrals. Methods Four years of documentation were collated and placed into the 14 categories (1) university strategies; (2) plans of the site (3) policy documents; (4) minutes of a steering group (5) contemporary documents; (6) organisational charts; (7) responses to local government policies on sport; (8) consultation documents; (9) operational procedures; (10) facility specifications; (11) partnership agreements; (12) material relating to the university's work on events, (13) notes on the universities sport department and (14) timetables. These data were analysed through a four stage process which used recreation as the analytical theme for a comparative analysis. Results The characteristics of the exercise is recreation metaphor in this case are (1) a focus on the experience of the user; (2) the promotion of wellbeing; (3) the importance of community; (4) embracing inclusivity; (5) sport; (6) aesthetics and (7) leisure time. The principles and processes used to develop the sport park were (1) custodianship; (2) partnerships; (3) values; (4) inter-professional working; (5) local heritage; (6) change; (7) the natural park environment and (8) ‘riding the bike as you build it’. The comparative analysis with a UK quality framework for ‘exercise referrals’ clearly shows a difference from an exercise is recreation approach. Conclusion Exercise is recreation and may enable individuals and communities to reach a state of wellbeing.


      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
       
  • The epistemic basis of distance running injury research: A historical
           perspective

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Adam Hulme, Caroline F. Finch



      PubDate: 2016-03-12T16:15:08Z
       
  • The problem with running injuries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog



      PubDate: 2016-03-12T16:15:08Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.80.247.158
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016