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Journal Cover   Journal of Sport and Health Science
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Competitive trampolining influences trabecular bone structure, bone size,
           and bone strength

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lauren A. Burt , John D. Schipilow , Steven K. Boyd
      Purpose Trampolining is a form of gymnastics that has increased in popularity over the last decade and due to its concurrence with the formative years of bone development, it may have an important impact on bone health. However, bone density, microarchitecture, and bone strength of competitive trampolinists have not been explored. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between trampolining participation and (1) bone density, area, and microarchitecture; and (2) estimated bone strength and the role of muscle and impact loading in young female adults. Methods We recruited 29 female participants aged 16–29 years for this study (n = 14 trampolinists; n = 15 controls). Skeletal parameters were assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and finite element analysis (FEA). Muscle strength was measured using dynamometers. Results Trampolinists had higher bone density at the hip and spine, greater trabecular density and thicker trabeculae at the tibia as well as larger bones at both the tibia and radius than controls (p < 0.05). Trampolinists also had higher muscle strength than controls at the lower body with no difference between groups in the upper body. Estimates of bone strength using FEA were greater for trampolinists than controls at both the radius and tibia. Conclusion This is the first study to investigatebone density, area, and microarchitecture in female trampolinists using HR-pQCT. In conclusion, trampolinists had greater bone density, area, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength than controls.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Salsa dance and Zumba fitness: Acute responses during community-based
           classes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Pablo A. Domene , Hannah J. Moir , Elizabeth Pummell , Chris Easton
      Background Research interest in both partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance has increased in recent years, likely a result of the gaining popularity of these types of instructor-led group classes among the mainstream dance and fitness audiences; however, the efficacy of these activities for the purposes of health promotion currently remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously assess the physiological responses and psychological experiences during salsa dance and Zumba fitness in a community sample of physically inactive women. Methods Twenty-four participants, aged 22—56 year, visited the laboratory to perform a graded exercise test for determination of maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate. The participants then attended two partnered salsa dance and two non-partnered Zumba fitness classes each in a counterbalanced order over a 2-week period. The 1-h classes were taught by certified instructors in established venues in the Royal Borough of Kingston and the surrounding communities of London, UK. Physiological data were collected using a wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X+ accelerometer with accompanying heart rate monitor and were processed using previously validated dance-specific techniques. Psychological experiences were measured via the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. Results There was a significantly higher (p < 0.001) total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (51.2 ± 3.1 vs. 32.6 ± 5.9 min), total energy expenditure (411 ± 66 vs. 210 ± 46 kcal), and total step count (6773 ± 556 vs. 4108 ± 781 step) during Zumba fitness when compared to salsa dance. Significant pre-to post-class improvements in positive well-being (p < 0.01, partial η 2 = 0.41) and psychological distress (p < 0.001, partial η 2 = 0.72) were simultaneously observed for both salsa dance and Zumba fitness. Conclusion The acute responses to classes of partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance suggest that in physically inactive women participation is indeed efficacious in terms of community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • The effect of high and low exercise intensity periods on a simple memory
           recognition test

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ben Rattray , Disa J. Smee
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of variable intensities on a simple memory recognition task during exercise. Methods Twenty active participants took part in initial testing, a familiarization trial and then four 60 min cycling interventions in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of no exercise (control), constant exercise at 90% ventilatory threshold (constant) and two trials that initially mimicked the constant trial, but then included periods of high (∼90% VO2peak) and low intensities (∼50% VO2peak). Cardiorespiratory measures and capillary blood samples were taken throughout. A short tablet-based cognitive task was completed prior to and during (50 and 55 min into exercise) each intervention. Results The exercise conditions facilitated response time (p = 0.009), although the extent of this effect was not as strong in the variable exercise conditions (p = 0.011–0.089). High intensity exercise periods resulted in some cognitive regression back towards control trial performance. Elevations in cardiorespiratory measures and periods of hypocapnia could not explain changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion Changes in cognitive performance with variations in exercise intensity are likely to have implications for sport and occupational settings. The timing of cognitive tests to exercise intensity changes as well as use of short cognitive assessments will be important for future work.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with
           lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mónica Sousa , Maria J. Fernandes , Pedro Carvalho , José Soares , Pedro Moreira , Vitor Hugo Teixeira
      Background The use of nutritional supplements (NS) among athletes is widespread. However, little is known about the relationship between nutritional adequacy and NS usage. The aims of this study were to evaluate the NS usage and to compare the nutritional intake from food and prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy (PMI) between NS users and non-users. Methods Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed an NS usage questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire assessing information over the previous 12 months. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method was used to calculate PMI. General linear models were used to compare nutritional intake and NS usage. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were performed to study, respectively, relationships and associations between PMI and NS usage. Results From the 244 athletes (66% males, 13–37 year), 64% reported NS usage. After adjustment, NS users showed a higher intake from food (p < 0.05), for at least one gender, for energy, and for seven of the 17 studied nutrients. The highest PMI were seen for vitamins D and E, calcium, folate, and magnesium. After adjustment, NS users, irrespective of gender, reported lower PMI for calcium (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.12, 0.65), and female users for magnesium (OR 0.06, 95%CI 0.00, 0.98). Conclusion Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Resultant linear acceleration of an instrumented head form does not differ
           between junior and collegiate taekwondo athletes' kicks

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David O'Sullivan , Gabriel P. Fife , Willy Pieter , Taehee Lim , Insik Shin
      Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various taekwondo kicks and age (school level) in absolute terms and relative body mass on the resultant linear acceleration (RLA) of an instrumented head form. Methods Forty-eight male (middle school: 16; high school: 16; university: 16) taekwondo athletes were recruited for this study. Subjects performed 10 turning, 10 jump spinning hook, and 10 jump back kicks on a Hybrid II head mounted on a height-adjustable frame. Results A 2-way (School × Kick) MANOVA was used to determine the differences in RLA between schools (age groups) by type of kick. There was no univariate School main effect for absolute RLA (η 2 = 0.06) and RLA relative to body mass (η 2 = 0.06). No univariate Kick main effects were found for absolute (η 2 = 0.06) and relative RLA (η 2 = 0.06). Conclusion It is of concern that RLA did not significantly differ between school levels, implying that young taekwondo athletes generate similar forces to their adult counterparts, possibly exposing young athletes to an increased risk for head injuries.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Effects of core and non-dominant arm strength training on drive distance
           in elite golfers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Dong Jun Sung , Seung Jun Park , Sojung Kim , Moon Seok Kwon , Young-Tae Lim
      Background Various training schemes have sought to improve golf-related athletic ability. In the golf swing motion, the muscle strengths of the core and arms play important roles, where a difference typically exists in the power of arm muscles between the dominant and non-dominant sides. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of exercises strengthening the core and non-dominant arm muscles of elite golf players (handicap < 3) on the increase in drive distance, and to present a corresponding training scheme aimed at improving golf performance ability. Methods Sixty elite golfers were randomized into the control group (CG, n = 20), core exercise group (CEG, n = 20), and group receiving a combination of muscle strengthening exercises of the non-dominant arm and the core (NCEG, n = 20). The three groups conducted the corresponding exercises for 8 weeks, after which the changes in drive distances and isokinetic strength were measured. Results Significant differences in the overall improvement of drive distance were observed among the groups (p < 0.001). Enhancement of the drive distance of NCEG was greater than both CG (p < 0.001) and CEG (p = 0.001). Except for trunk flexion, all variables of the measurements of isokinetic strength for NCEG also showed the highest values compared to the other groups. Examination of the correlation between drive distance and isokinetic strength revealed significant correlations of all variables except trunk flexion, wrist extension, and elbow extension. Conclusion The combination of core and non-dominant arm strength exercises can provide a more effective specialized training program than core alone training for golfers to increase their drive distances.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Contextualizing physical literacy in the school environment: The
           challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Darla M. Castelli , Jeanne M. Barcelona , Lynne Bryant
      The intent of this paper is to conceptualize physical literacy in the school environment within the United States educational system. Evolution of physical literacy from both a general education and disciplinary focus is overviewed. The challenges of transitioning from a physically educated to a physically literate person as the primary learning outcome of physical education may inhibit progress. Five prioritized recommendations are made to assist teachers in overcoming such barriers: (a) whole of school approach, (b) effective, differentiated pedagogy, (c) integration of technology for individualized tracking of progress, (d) supportive school climate, and (e) alignment of local efforts with national initiatives.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Effects of functional training on geometric indices of heart rate
           variability

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Marianne P.C. de Rezende Barbosa , Jayme Netto Júnior , Bruna M. Cassemiro , Aline Fernanda B. Bernardo , Anne K. França da Silva , Franciele M. Vanderlei , Carlos Marcelo Pastre , Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei
      Background Geometric methods provide an analysis of autonomic modulation using the geometric properties of the resulting pattern, and represent an interesting tool in the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of functional training on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy young women using the geometric indices of HRV. Methods Data were analyzed from 29 women, and were stratified into a functional training group (FTG, n = 13; 23.00 ± 2.51 years; 21.90 ± 2.82 kg/m²) and a control group (CG, n = 16; 20.56 ± 1.03 years; 22.12 ± 3.86 kg/m²). The FTG received periodized functional training for 12 weeks. The cardiac autonomic modulation of both groups was evaluated before and after this training, and a qualitative analysis was performed using the Poincaré plot. Results There was a significant increase in the difference of the triangular index (RRTri), SD1, SD2, and RR intervals in the FTG as compared to the CG, and the qualitative analysis from the Poincaré plot showed an increase in the dispersion of beat-to-beat and long-term RR intervals in the functional group after training. No changes were observed in the triangular interpolation of RR interval histogram (TINN) or SD1/SD2. Functional training had a beneficial impact on autonomic modulation, as characterized by increased parasympathetic activity and overall variability, thus highlighting the clinical usefulness of this type of training.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Imagery perspective among young athletes: Differentiation between external
           and internal visual imagery

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Qiu-Hua Yu , Amy S.N. Fu , Adeline Kho , Jie Li , Xiao-Hua Sun , Chetwyn C.H. Chan
      Purpose This study aimed to investigate the construct of external visual imagery (EVI) vs. internal visual imagery (IVI) by comparing the athletes' imagery ability with their levels of skill and types of sports. Methods Seventy-two young athletes in open (n = 45) or closed (n = 27) sports and with different skill levels completed two custom-designed tasks. The EVI task involved the subject generating and visualizing the rotated images of different body parts, whereas the IVI task involved the subject visualizing himself or herself performing specific movements. Results The significant Skill-Level × Sport Type interactions for the EVI task revealed that participants who specialized in open sports and had higher skill-levels had a higher accuracy rate as compared to the other subgroups. For the IVI task, the differences between the groups were less clear: those with higher skill-levels or open sports had a higher accuracy rate than those with lower skill-levels or closed sports. Conclusion EVI involves the visualization of others and the environment, and would be relevant to higher skill-level athletes who engage in open sports. IVI, in contrast, tends to be more self-oriented and would be relevant for utilization by higher skill-level athletes regardless of sport type.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Operationalizing physical literacy: The potential of active video games

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Haichun Sun
      The core idea of physical literacy is a mind-body integrated, holistic approach to physical activity. A physically literate individual is expected to be cognitively knowledgeable, physically competent, and mentally motivated for a physically active life throughout the lifespan. The advancement of technology in recent years, especially those in active video games (AVGs), seems to have allowed the mind-body integrated physical activity accessible to children at all ages. This article reviews findings from research and critique research on AVGs in light with the theoretical and pedagogical tenets of physical literacy and, on the basis of the review, elaborates the potential that AVGs could contribute to enhancing children physical literacy.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Operationalizing physical literacy for learners: Embodying the motivation
           to move

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ang Chen
      Physical literacy is a concept that is expected to encompass the mind and body in an integrated way to explain, promote, and help sustain human beings' fundamental function: movement. According to Whitehead (2010), physical literacy is defined by motivation especially by competence-based and interest-based motivation. This point of view is consistent with vast amount of research evidence on children and adolescents' physical activity behavior. In the article I attempt to interpret and operationalize physical literacy from a perspective that children's motivation in physical education is both an innate mental disposition and an acquired/learned attribute. Particularly I rely on the conceptual learning theory and motivation regulation mechanisms of the self-determination theory to argue that in physical education, children should experience tasks that inspire them to embody competence and interest along with self-regulation strategies necessary for developing and sustaining the motivation to move.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • A great leap of faith: Editorial for JSHS special issue on physical
           literacy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ang Chen , Haichun Sun



      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Intermittent blood flow restriction does not reduce atrophy following
           anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Erik Iversen , Vibeke Røstad , Arne Larmo
      Background A previous study has reported a 50% reduction in disuse atrophy of the quadriceps during the first 14 days after ACL reconstruction. A follow up trial is needed to confirm these promising results. The present study aims to investigate the effect of an occlusion stimulus on quadriceps atrophy after ACL reconstruction. Methods A total of 24 subjects participated in the study. They were randomized into two groups. Starting the 2nd day after surgery, the occlusion group received an occlusion stimulus for 5 min, followed by removal of the occlusive pressure for 3 min. This was repeated 5 times in one training session, twice daily. During the period of occlusive stimulus, the subjects performed 20 low load exercises for the quadriceps. The control group followed the same exercise protocol, but without the occlusion stimulus. Changes in quadriceps anatomical cross section area (ACSA) were measured using axial MR images at 40% and 50% of the length of the femur. Results Both groups had a significant reduction of quadriceps ACSA from 2 days before surgery to 16 days after surgery. During the intervention period, the occlusion group lost 13.8% ± 1.1% (mean ± SEM) and the control group lost 13.1% ± 1.0% of their quadriceps ACSA respectively. There was no significant difference between the occlusion and control groups with regards to atrophy of the quadriceps muscles. Conclusion In conflict with other studies using a similar protocol, application of blood flow restriction the first 14 days after ACL reconstruction did not reduce quadriceps ACSA muscle atrophy measured by MR in a population of athletes.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Stride length-velocity relationship during running with body weight
           support

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): John A. Mercer , Carmen Chona
      Background Lower body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills can be used in rehabilitation programs and/or to supplement run mileage in healthy runners by reducing the effective body weight and impact associated with running. The purpose of this study is to determine if body weight support influences the stride length (SL)-velocity as well as leg impact acceleration relationship during running. Methods Subjects (n = 10, 21.4 ± 2.0 year, 72.4 ± 10.3 kg, 1.76 ± 0.09 m) completed 16 run conditions consisting of specific body weight support and velocity combinations. Velocities tested were 100%, 110%, 120%, and 130% of the preferred velocity (2.75 ± 0.36 m/s). Body weight support conditions consisted of 0, 60%, 70%, and 80% body weight support. SL and leg impact accelerations were determined using a light-weight accelerometer mounted on the surface of the anterior-distal aspect of the tibia. A 4 × 4 (velocity × body weight support) repeated measures ANOVA was used for each dependent variable (α = 0.05). Results Neither stride length nor leg impact acceleration were influenced by the interaction of body weight support and velocity (p > 0.05). Stride length was least during no body weight support (p < 0.05) but not different between 60%, 70%, and 80% support (p > 0.05). Leg impact acceleration was greatest during no body weight support (p < 0.05) but not different between 60%, 70%, and 80% support (p > 0.05). SL and leg impact accelerations increased with velocity regardless of support (p < 0.05). Conclusion The relationships between SL and leg impact accelerations with velocity were not influenced by body weight support.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Endurance swimming and increased risk of atrial fibrillation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Andrew D. Schreiner , Brad A. Keith , Walter A. Brzezinski



      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Physically literate and physically educated: A rose by any other name?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Monica A.F. Lounsbery , Thomas L. McKenzie
      In the 2013 release of the U.S. National Physical Education Standards the term “physically literate” replaced “physically educated.” Unfortunately, most discourse within the profession about the term physically literate occurred primarily after its adoption. While we agree with the spirit and intent of the term, we feel it is essential to discuss not only what has been potentially gained but also lost. In our paper, we illustrate the similarity of the terms physically educated and physical literate and essentially, from a definitional perspective, find little difference—but are these terms interchangeable? We provide a critical review of the standards and conclude that the change to physical literacy has produced a shift away from psychomotor outcomes to cognitive outcomes. Our concerns about this are many, but most importantly they are about the need to emphasize the “physical” in physical education (PE). It is our belief that the key to elevating the profession and maintaining and increasing support for PE is in its ability to promote and provide physical activity. Without physical activity and physical fitness as main outcomes, PE increases its vulnerability to extinction as a standard part of the U.S. K-12 education curriculum.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Teaching for physical literacy: Implications to instructional design and
           PETE

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Stephen Silverman , Kevin Mercier
      Physical education teachers play an important role in helping students' development of the motor skills needed to be physically literate individuals. Research suggests that teacher made instructional design decisions can lead to enhanced motor skill learning. After presenting a model of evidenced-based research this paper presents information that will help teachers plan and execute lessons designed to improve students' motor skills. Variables that impact motor skill learning in physical education including time, type of practice, content, presentation and organizational strategies, and student skill level are presented and discussed. A brief section on student attitudes, their relation to motor skill learning and to physical literacy is included. Motor skills are needed for physically literate people to enjoy lifelong physical activity. Physical education teachers and the decisions they make contribute to students' learning and whether the goal of physical literacy is met.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Operationalizing physical literacy through sport education

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peter A. Hastie , Tristan L. Wallhead
      Physical literacy (PL), as embodied within physical education (PE), has been vaunted as having increasing importance as a disposition for students of all abilities to establish lifelong adherence to physical activity. The purpose of this paper was to provide a discussion of how the pedagogical features of a contemporary pedagogical model, Sport Education (SE), may be used to operationalize PL in PE and what empirical evidence currently exists to validate this claim. Substantial empirical evidence exists that the attributes associated with the development of PL (Whitehead, 2010) can be operationalized in PE with the effective implementation of the model. SE has distinct pedagogical features which positively contribute to many of the dimensions of PL and can further an individuals' journey towards greater PL and having an embodied self within PE. That stated, there remains concern that the context for this embodiment remains too narrow to be viewed as a panacea for the development of lifelong physical activity. SE must be developed as a connective specialism if these PL attributes are to transform the motivation and confidence for individuals to capitalize on their innate physical potential and make a more significant contribution to the quality of life.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Unpacking the physical literacy concept for K-12 physical education: What
           should we expect the learner to master?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): E. Paul Roetert , Lynn Couturier MacDonald
      The term “physical literacy” is gaining traction in many countries and institutions as a goal for physical education. This paper explores the concept of physical literacy and highlights the foundational work in this area, particularly that of Margaret Whitehead. The relationship of physical literacy to physical education is also discussed with potential ramifications for teachers and learners who adopt physical literacy as the goal of the subject area.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Physical literacy in the field of physical education – a challenge
           and a possibility

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Suzanne Lundvall
      Publications of articles with physical literacy as topic have increased dramatically since the beginning of 2000s. The aim of this paper is to, through an explorative literature overview with an inductive approach, analyze frequent, and significant themes in published peer reviewed articles, with a focus on physical literacy. The database EBSCO has been used with the identifiers “physical literacy” and “physical literacy and evidence”. Furthermore ICSSPE Bulletin’s special issue on physical literacy has been included in the overview. The findings have resulted in three key themes: assumptions of the concept physical literacy and its educative role, sports development and physical literacy, and assessment and physical literacy. Future studies are needed to examine if the advocated pedagogical strategies based on the concept physical literacy have led to a re-organized and revitalized school subject. There is also an existing critique towards making physical literacy an idealistic neutral concept or synonym with FMS or sports talent identification. The role of higher education emerges as crucial for the next step of the development of the scientific framework as this involves how physical literacy will be socially configured, nurtured, and embodied in practice.


      PubDate: 2015-04-10T10:48:24Z
       
  • Knowledge, transfer, and innovation in physical literacy curricula

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Catherine D. Ennis
      Literate individuals possess knowledge and skill and can apply these to perform tasks in novel settings. Knowledge is at the heart of physical literacy and provides the foundation for knowing what to do and how and when to perform. In this paper I argue that physical literacy includes not only knowledge for performance but also the ability to apply knowledge and use knowledge for innovation. Scholars since the 1930s have addressed the role of knowledge in physical literacy designing curricula centered on transmitting knowledge through a range of interdisciplinary approaches to physical education. This emphasis on physical literacy curricula continues today in the Science, PE, & Me! and The Science of Healthful Living interdisciplinary curricula.


      PubDate: 2015-04-10T10:48:24Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 4, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-03-14T19:47:36Z
       
  • Beneficial effects of fenugreek glycoside supplementation in male subjects
           during resistance training: a randomized controlled pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sachin Wankhede , Vishwaraman Mohan , Prasad Thakurdesai
      Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the glycoside fraction of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds (Fenu-FG) on physiological parameters related to muscle anabolism, androgenic hormones, and body fat in healthy male subjects during an 8-week resistance training program using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design. Methods Sixty healthy male subjects were randomized to ingest capsules of Fenu-FG (one capsule of 300 mg, twice per day) or the matching placebo at a 1:1 ratio. The subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week resistance-training program for 8 weeks. The outcome measurements were recorded at recruitment (baseline), and at the end of the treatment (8 weeks). The efficacy outcome included serum testosterone (total and free) levels, muscle strength and repetitions to failure, metabolic markers for anabolic activity (serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) and % body fat. The standard safety measurements such as adverse events (AE) monitoring, vital signs, hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis were performed. Results Fenu-FG supplementation demonstrated significant anabolic and androgenic activity as compared with the placebo. Fenu-FG treated subjects showed significant improvements in body fat without a reduction in muscle strength or repetitions to failure. The Fenu-FG supplementation was found to be safe and well-tolerated. Conclusion Fenu-FG supplementation showed beneficial effects in male subjects during resistance training without any clinical side effects.


      PubDate: 2015-03-09T19:16:34Z
       
  • Impact of an active educational video game on children's motivation,
           science knowledge, and physical activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Haichun Sun , Yong Gao
      Background Active educational video games (AVGs) appear to have a positive effect on elementary school students' motivation leading to enhanced learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of an AVG on elementary school students' science knowledge learning, physical activity (PA) level, and interest-based motivation. Methods In this randomized controlled study, 53 elementary school students were assigned to an experimental condition or a comparison condition. The experimental condition provided an active educational video game learning environment, whereas the comparison condition was based on sedentary educational video games. Results The results of repeated measures ANOVA on the knowledge test showed that students in both groups performed better on the post-test than they did on the pre-test (p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.486), and their posttest scores did not differ significantly. The experimental condition provided a more active environment since the students' average heart rates (HRs) were in the Target-Heart-Rate-Zone (HR = 134 bpm), which was significantly higher than the average HR (103 bpm) from the comparison condition (t = 7.212, p < 0.001). Students in the experimental condition perceived a higher level of situational interest than their counterparts in the comparison group (p < 0.01, and η 2 = 0.301). Conclusion These results suggest that AVGs benefit children more in terms of PA and motivation than traditional video games by providing an enjoyable learning experience and sufficient PA.


      PubDate: 2015-02-22T18:10:17Z
       
  • Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase
           in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage: A pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zekine Punduk , Onur Oral , Nadir Ozkayin , Khalid Rahman , Rana Varol
      Backgrounds Platelet rich plasma (PRP) therapy is widely used in enhancing the recovery of skeletal muscle from injury. However, the impact of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses has not been fully elucidated in exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this investigation the effects of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses and recovery strategy muscle damage induced by high intensity muscle exercise (EIMD). Methods Moderately active male volunteers participated in this study and were assigned to a control group (control, n = 6) and PRP administration group (PRP, n = 6). The subjects performed exercise with a load of 80%one repetition maximum (1RM) maximal voluntary contraction of the elbow flexors until point of exhaustion of the non-dominant arm was reached. The arms were treated with saline or autologous PRP post-24 h EIMD. Venous blood samples were obtained in the morning to establish a baseline value and 1–4 days post-exercise and were analyzed for serum ferritin, iron, iron binding capacity (IBC), creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results The baseline levels of plasma iron, ferritin, IBC, CK, LDH, AST, and ALT were similar in both the control and PRP groups. However, 24-h following exercise a significant increase in these parameters was observed in both groups between 1 and 4 days during the recovery period. Interestingly, PRP administration decreased plasma iron levels compared to the control on the second daypost-exercise. Plasma IBC increased in PRP group from day 2 to 4 post-exercise compared to the control group whilst PRP administration had no effect on plasma ferritin, CK, AST, ALT, or LDH. Conclusion Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP administration improves inflammation by reversing the increasein the iron levels post-exercise without displaying any myotoxicity and may have a role to play in therecovery of exercise-induced muscle damage.


      PubDate: 2015-02-22T18:10:17Z
       
  • Effect of a combined inversion and plantarflexion surface on ankle
           kinematics and EMG activities in landing

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Divya Bhaskaran , Michael Wortley , Qingjian Chen , Clare E. Milner , Eugene C. Fitzhugh , Songning Zhang
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of landing on a combined inversion and plantarflexion surface on the ankle kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of medial gastrocnemius (MG), peroneus longus (PL), and anterior tibialis (TA) muscles. Methods Twelve recreational athletes performed five drop landings from an overhead bar of 30 cm height on to three surfaces:a flat surface, a 25° inversion surface, and a combined surface of 25° inversion and 25° plantarflexion. The kinematic variables and integrated EMG (IEMG) of the three muscles were assessed using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA and a 3 × 3 (surface × muscle) ANOVA, respectively (p< 0.05). Results The IEMG results showed a significant muscle by surface interaction. The flat surface induced higher TA activity than the two tilted surfaces. The inverted surface produced significantly higher inversion peak angle and velocity than the flat surface, but similar PL activity across the surfaces. The MG IEMG, ankle plantarflexion angle and inversion range of motion were significantly higher for the combined surface compared to the inverted surface. Conclusion These findings suggest that compared to the inversion surface, the combined plantarflexion and inversion surface seems to provide a more unstable surface condition for lateral ankle sprains during landing.


      PubDate: 2015-02-05T19:33:11Z
       
  • Assessing proprioception: A critical review of methods

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jia Han , Gordon Waddington , Roger Adams , Judith Anson , Yu Liu
      To control movement, the brain has to integrate proprioceptive information from a variety of mechanoreceptors. The role of proprioception in daily activities, exercise and sport has been extensively investigated, using different techniques, yet the proprioceptive mechanisms underlying human movement control are still unclear. In the current work we have reviewed understanding of proprioception and the three testing methods: threshold to detection of passive motion, joint position reproduction, and active movement extent discrimination, all of which have been used for assessing proprioception. The origin of the methods, the different testing apparatus, and the procedures and protocols used in each approach are compared and discussed. Recommendations are made for choosing an appropriate technique when assessing proprioceptive mechanisms in different contexts.


      PubDate: 2015-02-05T19:33:11Z
       
  • The effects of fluid loss on physical performance: A critical review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Andrew Carlton , Robin Marc Orr
      Purpose The purpose of this review was to critically analyse the current evidence investigating the effect of an athlete’s hydration status on physical performance. Methods A literature search of multiple databases was used to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review. The included studies were then critically appraised using the Downs and Black protocol. Results Nine articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria, with an average score of 79% for methodological quality representative of a “high”standard of research. Discussion The evidence suggests that dehydration has a negative impact on physical performance for activities lasting more than 30 s in duration. However dehydration was found to have no significant impact on physical performance for activities lasting less than 15 s in duration.


      PubDate: 2015-02-05T19:33:11Z
       
  • The use of the greater trochanter marker in the thigh segment model:
           Implications for hip and knee frontal and transverse plane motion

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Valentina Graci , Gretchen B. Salsich
      Background The greater trochanter marker is commonly used in 3-dimensional (3D) models; however, its influence on hip and knee kinematics during gait is unclear. Understanding the influence of the greater trochanter marker is important when quantifying frontal and transverse plane hip and knee kinematics, parameters which are particularly relevant to investigate in individuals with conditions such as patellofemoral pain, knee osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and hip pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of including the greater trochanter in the construction of the thigh segment on hip and knee kinematics during gait. Methods 3D kinematics were collected in 19 healthy subjects during walking using a surface marker system. Hip and knee angles were compared across two thigh segment definitions (with and without greater trochanter) at two time points during stance: peak knee flexion (PKF) and minimum knee flexion (MinKF). Results Hip and knee angles differed in magnitude and direction in the transverse plane at both time points. In the thigh model with the greater trochanter the hip was more externally rotated than in the thigh model without the greater trochanter (PKF: -9.34° ± 5.21° vs. 1.40° ± 5.22°; MinKF: -5.68° ± 4.24° vs. 5.01° ± 4.86°; p < 0.001). In the thigh model with the greater trochanter, the knee angle was more internally rotated compared to the knee angle calculated using the thigh definition without the greater trochanter (PKF: 14.67° ± 6.78° vs. 4.33° ± 4.18°; MinKF: 10.54° ± 6.71° vs. -0.01° ± 2.69°; p < 0.001). Small but significant differences were detected in the sagittal and frontal plane angles at both time points (p < 0.001). Conclusion Hip and knee kinematics differed across different segment definitions including or excluding the greater trochanter marker, especially in the transverse plane. Therefore when considering whether to include the greater trochanter in the thigh segment model when using a surface markers to calculate 3D kinematics for movement assessment, it is important to have a clear understanding of the effect of different marker sets and segment models in use.


      PubDate: 2015-01-22T18:20:04Z
       
  • Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP
           study using the stop-signal task

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Chien-Heng Chu , Brandon L. Alderman , Gao-Xia Wei , Kuei-Hui Chan , Yu-Kai Chang
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute exercise on motor response inhibition using both behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. Methods The P3 and N1 event-related potential (ERP) components were recorded while performing a stop-signal task in 21 college students following a moderately intense acute exercise bout for 30 min and a sedentary control session that involved reading. Results Acute exercise induced a shorter stop signal response time (SSRT) as compared to control; however, the go response time (Go RT) remained unchanged. In examining the ERP data, acute exercise increased both P3 amplitude and latency but did not affect the N1 component. Conclusion Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • Effects of acute aerobic exercise on response preparation in a Go/No Go
           task in children with ADHD: An ERP study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lan-Ya Chuang , Yu-Jung Tsai , Yu-Kai Chang , Chung-Ju Huang , Tsung-Min Hung
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of acute exercise on reaction time, and response preparation during a Go/No Go task in children with ADHD. Methods Nineteen children with ADHD (aged between 8 and 12 years old) undertook a 30-min intervention that consisted of treadmill running or video-watching presented in a counterbalanced order on different days. A Go/No Go task was administrated after exercise or video-watching. Results The results indicated a shorter reaction time and smaller CNV 2 amplitude following exercise relative to the video-watching. For ERP analyses, greater CNV 1 and CNV 2 amplitudes in response to No Go stimuli in comparison to Go stimuli was observed in the video-watching session only. Conclusion These findings suggest that acute exercise may benefit children with ADHD by developing appropriate response preparation, particularly in maintaining a stable motor preparatory set prior to performing the given task.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • Determine an effective golf swing by swing speed and impact precision
           tests

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jiann-Jyh Wang , Pei-Feng Yang , Wei-Hua Ho , Tzyy-Yuang Shiang
      Background To understand an effective golf swing, both swing speed and impact precision must be thoroughly and simultaneously examined. The aim of this study was to perform both swing speed test and impact precision test to ascertain what swing type determines an effective impact. Methods Seven golfers from a college team (handicap: 0–12) were recruited to complete a swing speed test and impact precision test using a 5 iron club. A force plate and electromyography (EMG) system were used to collect data in the swing speed test to compare the difference between two motion sequences. High speed video cameras were used to determine the displacement of rotation center for impact precision test. Results The results showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) in clubhead speed with different motion sequences and muscle contraction patterns. In the impact precision test, the displacement of the rotation center which defined as the inner center point of the C7 was significantly different (p < 0.05) between different ball impacted marks on club face. Conclusion The vertical peak ground reaction force on left foot occurring before impact and the left latissimus dorsi contracting prior to the right pectoralis major represent a superior skill by allowing the club to strike the ball with normal collision at a faster speed.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and
           without ADHD

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Aaron T. Piepmeier , Chia-Hao Shih , Margaret Whedon , Lauren Williams , Matthew Davis , David Henning , SeYun Park , Susan D. Calkins , Jennifer L. Etnier
      Background Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that affects approximately 11% of children in the United States. Research supports that a single session of exercise benefits cognitive performance by children, and a limited number of studies have demonstrated that these effects can also be realized by children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance by children with and without ADHD. Method Children with and without ADHD were asked to perform cognitive tasks on two days following treatment conditions that were assigned in a random, counterbalanced order. The treatment conditions consisted of a 30-min control condition on one day and a moderate intensity exercise condition on the other day. Results Exercise significantly benefited performance on all three conditions of the Stroop task, but did not significantly affect performance on the Tower of London or the Trail Making Test. Conclusion children with and without ADHD realize benefits in speed of processing and inhibitory control in response to a session of acute exercise, but do not experience benefits in planning or set shifting.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football
           penalties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Curtis Craig , Randy W. Overbeek , Miles V. Condon , Shannon B. Rinaldo
      Purpose Increased ambient temperature has been implicated in increased physical aggression, which has important practical consequences. The present study investigates this established relationship between aggressive behavior and ambient temperature in the highly aggressive context of professional football in the national football league (NFL). Methods Using a publicly available dataset, authors conducted multiple hierarchical regression analyses on game-level data (2326 games). Results The analysis revealed that temperature positively predicted aggressive penalties in football, and that this relationship was significant for teams playing at home but not for visiting teams. Conclusion These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • Acute exercise is associated with specific executive functions in college
           students with ADHD: A preliminary study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jennifer Gapin , Jeffrey D. Labban , Sara C. Bohall , Joshua S. Wooten , Yu-Kai Chang
      Purpose The relationship between acute exercise and executive functions in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has not been clearly established. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the difference in cognitive performance between college students with and without ADHD and to explore the effects of acute exercise on multiple aspects of executive functions and on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Methods College students (normal: n = 10; ADHD: n = 10) performed the Stroop Test, Trail Making Test, and Digit Span Test prior to and after an acute exercise intervention. Blood samples were obtained prior to the pre-test cognitive test performance and then again after exercise and prior to the post-test cognitive test performance. Results Students with ADHD exhibited impaired executive functions, particularly on inhibition. Additionally, while acute exercise improved all aspects of executive functions in those without ADHD, acute exercise only improved inhibitory performance for those with ADHD. Further, BDNF was not influenced by acute exercise regardless of the subjects' ADHD status. Conclusion These results provide preliminary evidence for exercise as a potential adjunct treatment for benefitting inhibition in college students with ADHD.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • The strength model of self-control revisited: Linking acute and chronic
           effects of exercise on executive functions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Michel Audiffren , Nathalie André
      Since the 1960’s, hundreds of articles have been published on the effects of exercise on cognition and more recently on executive functions. A large variety of effects have been observed: acute or long-lasting, facilitating or debilitating. Several theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain these effects with plausible mechanisms. However, as yet none of these models has succeeded in unifying all the observations in a single framework that subsumes all effects. The aim of the present review is to revisit the strength model of self-control initiated by Baumeister and his colleagues in the 1990’s in order to extend its assumptions to exercise psychology. This model provides a heuristic framework that can explain and predict the effects of acute and chronic exercise on effortful tasks tapping self-regulation or executive functions. A reconsideration of exercise as a self-control task results from this perspective. A new avenue for future research is delineated besides more traditional approaches.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Acute exercise and cognitive function: emerging research issues

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yu-Kai Chang , Jennifer L. Etnier



      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Is there an acute exercise-induced physiological/biochemical threshold
           which triggers increased speed of cognitive functioning? A
           meta-analytic investigation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Terry McMorris , Beverley J. Hale
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytic measures, the evidence regarding the optimal exercise intensity at which improvements in speed of cognitive function are triggered. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the catecholamine, lactate and ventilatory thresholds is the point at which significant improvements in speed of cognitive function are observed. Methods We compared mean effect sizes for threshold studies and for those studies where exercise intensity was classed as moderate (40%–79% VO2max or equivalent) but in which the thresholds were not measured. Results Random effects meta-analysis showed significant, moderate, mean effect sizes for studies at the threshold (g = 0.58, Z = 2.98, p < 0.003) and for those during moderate intensity exercise but in which the threshold was not measured (g = 0.54, Z = 5.01, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between mean effect sizes, which suggests that the thresholds are unlikely to represent a trigger point. Conclusion It was concluded that moderate intensity exercise, even below the thresholds, can induce improved speed of cognition, possibly due to a combination of increased peripheral catecholamine concentrations inducing vagal/nucleus tractus solitarii pathway activation and central increases due to perceptions of stress.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a potential mechanism of the
           effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Aaron T. Piepmeier , Jennifer L. Etnier
      The literature shows that improvements in cognitive performance may be observed following an acute bout of exercise. However, evidence in support of the biological mechanisms of this effect is still limited. Findings from both rodent and human studies suggest brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a potential mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on memory. The molecular properties of BDNF allow this protein to be assessed in the periphery (pBDNF) (i.e., blood serum, blood plasma), making measurements of acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentration relatively accessible. Studies exploring the acute exercise-pBDNF-cognitive performance relationship have had mixed findings, but this may be more reflective of methodological differences between studies than it is a statement about the role of BDNF. For example, significant associations have been observed between acute exercise-induced changes in pBDNF concentration and cognitive performance in studies assessing memory, and non-significant associations have been found in studies assessing non-memory cognitive domains. Three suggestions are made for future research aimed at understanding the role of BDNF as a biological mechanism of this relationship. 1) Assessments of cognitive performance may benefit from a focus on various types of memory (e.g., relational, spatial, long-term). 2) More fine-grained measurements of pBDNF will allow for the assessment of concentrations of specific isoforms of the BDNF protein (i.e., immature, mature). 3) Statistical techniques designed to test the mediating role of pBDNF in the acute exercise-cognitive performance relationship should be utilized in order to make causal inferences.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation probes the excitability of the primary
           motor cortex: A framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute
           whole-body exercise on motor processes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Karen Davranche , John Temesi , Samuel Verges , Thierry Hasbroucq
      The effects of exercise on decision-making performance have been studied using a wide variety of cognitive tasks and exercise interventions. Although the current literature supports a beneficial influence of acute exercise on cognitive performance, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. We review studies that used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe the excitability of motor structures during whole-body exercise and present a framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute exercise on motor processes. Recent results suggest that, even in the absence of fatigue, the increase in corticospinal excitability classically reported during submaximal and exhausting exercises may be accompanied by a reduction in intracortical inhibition. We propose that reduced intracortical inhibition elicits an adaptive central mechanism that counteracts the progressive reduction in muscle responsiveness caused by peripheral fatigue. Such a reduction would render the motor cortex more sensitive to upstream influences, thus causing increased corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, reduction of intracortical inhibition may account for the more efficient descending drive and for the improvement of reaction time performance during exercise. The adaptive modulation in intracortical inhibition could be implemented through a general increase in reticular activation that would further account for enhanced sensory sensitivity.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Exercise and children’s cognition: The role of exercise
           characteristics and a place for metacognition

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Phillip D. Tomporowski , Bryan McCullick , Daniel M. Pendleton , Caterina Pesce
      Definitive conclusions concerning the impact of exercise interventions on children’s mental functioning are difficult to ascertain because of procedural differences among studies. A narrative review of studies was conducted to evaluate the role of two types of exercise interventions on children’s cognition. Acute and chronic exercise interventions were classified as quantitative or qualitative on the basis of manipulations of task complexity and, by inference, mental engagement. Both types of interventions enhance aspects of children’s cognition; however, their effects on metacognitive processes are unknown. The role of metacognitive processes and their regulation of children’s behavior and academic performance are highlighted.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Where are the limits of the effects of exercise intensity on cognitive
           control?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Karen Davranche , Jeanick Brisswalter , Rémi Radel
      Purpose This study aimed to investigate whether workload intensity modulates exercise-induced effect on reaction time (RT) performances, and more specifically to clarify whether cognitive control that plays a crucial role in rapid decision making is altered. Methods Fourteen participants performed a Simon task while cycling 20 min at a light (first ventilatory threshold,VT1–20%), moderate (VT1) or very hard (VT1+20%) level of exercise. Results After 15 min of cycling, RT are faster than during the first 5 min of exercise. This benefit does not fluctuate with the intensity of exercise and enlarges as RT lengthens. Despite a numerical difference suggesting a greater facilitation during moderate exercise (-16 ms) than during a light exercise (-10 ms), the benefit is not statistically different. Interestingly, we did not observe any signs of worsening on RT or on accuracy during very hard exercise. Conclusion Cognitive control is extremely robust and appears not to be affected by the intensity of exercise. The selective inhibition and the between trials adjustments are effective from the beginning to the end of exercise, regardless of the workload output.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function
           assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Chun-Chih Wang , Chia-Hao Shih , Caterina Pesce , Tai-Fen Song , Tsung-Min Hung , Yu-Kai Chang
      Purpose Acute exercise has been linked to the facilitation of executive function, but little is known regarding executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The present research consisted of two experiments aimed to determine whether acute aerobic exercise influences successive WCST performance. Methods In Study 1, 27 young adults were randomly assigned to the exercise or reading control group and then instructed to perform the WCST before and after assigned treatment. In exercise group, participants completed a single bout aerobic exercise with moderate intensity for 20 min on a stationary bike. A similar experimental protocol was replicated in Study 2 with 24 late middle-aged adults to look for age differences during adulthood and control for a potential ceiling effect at young adult age. Results Although a significant time effect was observed in young adults, both studies revealed that there was no main effect for treatment or an interaction between treatment and time on any of the WCST indices. Conclusion Acute aerobic exercise failed to influence executive function as assessed by the WCST, revealing that this classical neuropsychological test tapping executive function may not be sensitive to acute exercise. Our findings suggest that acute exercise does not broadly affect the entire family of executive functions, or its effect on a specific aspect of executive function may be task dependent, as proposed by Etnier and Chang (2009).


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Sports medician and science in soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Donald T. Kirkendall , Bing Yu



      PubDate: 2014-11-12T10:57:39Z
       
  • Women’s football: Player characteristics and demands of the game

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Vanessa Martinez-Lagunas , Margot Niessen , Ulrich Hartmann
      The number of scientific investigations on women’s football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game have considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women’s game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men’s football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women’s football was still in its infancy and there were only a few studies to report on. The other review is more recent. Nonetheless, its main focus was on the game and training demands of senior elite female players. Thus, information on female footballers of lower competitive levels and younger age groups was not included. Consequently, an updated review is needed in this area. The present article therefore aims to provide an overview of a series of studies that have been published so far on the specific characteristics of female football players and the demands of match-play. Mean values reported in the literature for age (12-27 years), body height (155-174 cm), body mass (48-72 kg), percent body fat (13%-29%), maximal oxygen uptake (45.1-55.5 mL/kg/min), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (780-1379 m), maximum heart rate (189-202 bpm), 30-m sprint times (4.34-4.96 s), and counter-movement jump or vertical jump (28-50 cm) vary mostly according to the players’ competitive level and positional role. There are also some special considerations that coaches and other practitioners should be aware of when working with female athletes such as the menstrual cycle, potential pregnancy and lactation, common injury risks (particularly knee and head injuries) and health concerns (e.g., female athlete triad, iron deficiency, and anemia) that may affect players’ football performance, health or return to play. Reported mean values for total distance covered (4-13 km), distance covered at high-speed (0.2-1.7 km), average/peak heart rate (74%-87%/94%-99% HRmax), average/peak oxygen uptake (52%-77%/96%-98% VO2max), and blood lactate (2.2-7.3 mmol/L) during women’s football match-play vary according to the players’ competitive level and positional role. Methodological differences may account for the discrepancy of the reported values as well. Finally, this review also aims to identify literature gaps that require further scientific research in women’s football and to derive a few practical recommendations. The information presented in this report provides an objective point of reference about player characteristics and game demands at various levels of women’s football, which can help coaches and sport scientists to design more effective training programs and science-based strategies for the further improvement of players’ football performance, health, game standards, and positive image of this sport.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T04:27:34Z
       
  • Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition,
           aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20-45

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Luke J. Connolly , Suzanne Scott , Magni Mohr , Giorgos Ermidis , Ross Julian , Jens Bangsbo , Sarah R. Jackman , Joanna L. Bowtell , Rosemary C. Davies , Susan J. Hopkins , Richard Seymour , Karen M. Knapp , Peter Krustrup , Jonathan Fulford
      Purpose The present study investigated the effects of 16 weeks of small-volume, small-sided soccer training (soccer group (SG) n = 13) and oscillating whole-body vibration training (vibration group (VG) n = 17) on body composition, aerobic fitness and muscle PCr kinetics in healthy inactive premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group (CO) (n = 14). Methods Training for SG and VG consisted of twice-weekly 15-min sessions with average heart rates (HR) of ∼155 and 90 bpm respectively. Pre- and post-measurements of body composition (DXA), phosphocreatine (PCr) on- and off-kinetics and HR measurements during standardised submaximal exercise were performed. Results After 16 weeks of training in SG, fat percentage was lowered (p = 0.03) by 1.7% ± 2.4 % from 37.5% ± 6.9% to 35.8% ± 6.2% and the PCr decrease in the quadriceps during knee-extension ramp exercise was attenuated (4% ± 8%, p = 0.04), with no changes in VG or CO (time-group effect: p = 0.03 and p = 0.03). Submaximal exercise HR was also reduced in SG after 16 weeks of training (7% ± 5% of HRmax, p = 0.01). Conclusion Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.


      PubDate: 2014-08-11T21:54:16Z
       
  • The relative age effect has no influence on match outcome in youth soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Donald T. Kirkendall
      Purpose In age-restricted youth sport, the over-selection of athletes born in the first quarter of the year and under-selection of athletes born in the last quarter of the year has been called the relative age effect (RAE). Its existence in youth sports like soccer is well established. Why it occurs has not been identified, however, one thought is that older players, generally taller and heavier, are thought to improve the team’s chances of winning. To test this assumption, birth dates and match outcome were correlated to see if teams with the oldest mean age had a systematic advantage against teams with younger mean ages. Methods Player birth dates and team records (n = 5943 players on 371 teams; both genders; U11-U16) were obtained from the North Carolina Youth Soccer Association for the highest level of statewide youth competition. Results The presence of an RAE was demonstrated with significant oversampling from players born in the 1st vs. the 4th quarter (overall: 29.6% vs. 20.9% respectively, p < 0.0001). Mean team age was regressed on match outcomes (winning %, points/match, points/goal, and goals for, against, and goal difference), but there was no evidence of any systematic influence of mean team age and match outcomes, except possibly in U11 males. Conclusion Selecting players based on physical maturity (and subsequently, on age) does not appear to have any systematic influence on match outcome or season record in youth soccer suggesting that the selection process should be focused on player ability and not on physical maturation.


      PubDate: 2014-07-31T20:49:39Z
       
  • Principle and practices of training for soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ryland Morgans , Patrick Orme , Liam Anderson , Barry Drust
      The complexity of the physical demands of soccer requires the completion of a multi-component training programme. The development, planning, and implementation of such a programme is difficult due partly to the practical constraints related to the competitive schedule at the top level. The effective planning and organisation of training is therefore crucial to the effective delivery of the training stimulus for both individual players and the team. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the principles of training that can be used to prepare players for the physical demands of soccer. Information relating to periodisation is supported by an outline of the strategies used to deliver the acute training stress in a soccer environment. The importance of monitoring to support the planning process is also reviewed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-31T20:49:39Z
       
  • Stress hormonal analysis in elite soccer players during a season

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yiannis Michailidis
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in some hormonal parameters (cortisol, testosterone, ratio of testosterone/cortisol) in professional soccer players during a season. Methods Fifteen professional players from a soccer club of the first division of the Greek soccer league participated. All sport medical examinations were conducted four times: before the re-building period, post re-building period, mid-season, and after finishing the competition phase. Results For testosterone, significant differences were observed between the end season and post re-building period (11.6%; p < 0.05) and mid-season (12.1%; p < 0.05). The cortisol concentration increased at mid-season by approximately 23%, and this change differed significantly from all other measurements for this hormone. The T/C ratio increased at the post re-building period and decreased at the middle of the season. Conclusion These hormones and their ratios could be used as stress and recovery state indicators. Coaches can use these parameters in combination with other indicators to optimize workloads, and to avoid overreaching and overtraining.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
 
 
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