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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [SJR: 0.513]   [H-I: 9]   [19 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Matched or nonmatched interventions based on the transtheoretical model to
           promote physical activity. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    • Authors: Ahmed Jerôme Romain; Catherine Bortolon; Mathieu Gourlan; Marion Carayol; Emmanuelle Decker; Olivier Lareyre; Grégory Ninot; Julie Boiché; Paquito Bernard
      Pages: 50 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ahmed Jerôme Romain, Catherine Bortolon, Mathieu Gourlan, Marion Carayol, Emmanuelle Decker, Olivier Lareyre, Grégory Ninot, Julie Boiché, Paquito Bernard
      Purpose The aim of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of transtheoretical model (TTM)-based interventions on physical activity (PA) varied according to the following criteria: (1) interventions targeted the actual stages of change (SOCs) or did not; (2) participants were selected according to their SOC or were not; and (3) its theoretical constructs (decisional balance, temptation, self-efficacy, processes of change). Methods Thirty-three randomized controlled trials assessing TTM-based interventions promoting PA in adults were systematically identified. Results The between-group heterogeneity statistic (Qb) did not reveal any differential efficacy either in interventions targeting the actual SOC compared with those that did not (Qb = 1.48, p = 0.22) or in interventions selecting participants according to their SOC compared with those that did not (Qb = 0.01, p = 0.91). TTM-based interventions enhanced PA behavior whether they targeted the actual SOC (Cohen's d = 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22–0.49) or not (d = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.09–0.38) and whether they selected their participants according to their SOC (d = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.13–0.53) or not (d = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.19–0.44). The moderators of the efficacy of TTM-based interventions were the number of theoretical constructs used to tailor the intervention (Qb = 8.82, p = 0.003), the use of self-efficacy (Qb = 6.09, p = 0.01), and the processes of change (Qb = 3.51, p = 0.06). Conclusion TTM-based interventions significantly improved PA behavior, and their efficacy was not moderated by SOC but by the TTM theoretical constructs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.007
  • The longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the
           trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood

    • Authors: Chung Gun Lee; Seiyeong Park; Seunghyun Yoo
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Chung Gun Lee, Seiyeong Park, Seunghyun Yoo
      Background One efficient way to increase physical activity is through sport participation because participation in sport activities inherently includes many enjoyable aspects, such as social interaction, competition, personal challenge, and goal achievement. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood. Methods The data used in this study came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). It is a 4-wave longitudinal study that followed up a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students in the US. A series of multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of parental support at Wave 1 on the trajectory of sport participation from Wave 1 to Wave 4. Results The effect of parental support during adolescence on participants' sport participation lasted until they become young adults (Wave 3) (p < 0.001). Among the male participants, parental support at Wave 1 was a significant predictor for sport participation at Waves 1, 2, and 3 (p < 0.001). However, a significant effect of parental support at Wave 1 on sport participation in early young adulthood (Wave 3) becomes insignificant when adjusting for self-esteem and depression. Among the female participants, parental support at Wave 1 was a significant predictor for sport participation at Waves 1, 2, and 3 (p < 0.01) even after depression and self-esteem were introduced into the model. That is to say, unlike male participants, parental support during adolescence has an independent effect on sport participation from adolescence (Wave 1) through early young adulthood (Wave 3) over and above the effects of depression and self-esteem in female participants. Conclusion The results of this study contributed to the literature by providing important information on the longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood using a nationally representative sample of participants transitioning from adolescence to young adulthood.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.12.004
  • Does knowledge of physical activity recommendations increase physical
           activity among Chinese college students' Empirical investigations
           based on the transtheoretical model

    • Authors: Kahar Abula; Peter Gröpel; Kai Chen; Jürgen Beckmann
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kahar Abula, Peter Gröpel, Kai Chen, Jürgen Beckmann
      Background Based on the transtheoretical model, the current study investigated whether awareness of physical activity (PA) recommendations had an impact on the stages of PA behavior change and levels of PA among Chinese college students. Methods In Study 1, with a cross-sectional study design, 9826 students were recruited, and their knowledge of international PA recommendations, PA stage distribution, and self-reported PA level were surveyed. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test whether those participants who were aware and not aware of PA guidelines were equally distributed across the stages of PA behavior, and independent t test was conducted to test the group difference in the actual levels of PA. In Study 2, 279 students who were not aware of the PA recommendations were randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group, and only those in the intervention group were presented with international PA guidelines. In both groups, students' PA stages and PA level were examined before the test and then 4 months post-test. McNemar's test for correlated proportions and repeated-measures analysis of variance were conducted to examine the changes in PA stage membership and PA level after the intervention. Results Study 1 results revealed that only 4.4% of the surveyed students had correct knowledge of PA recommendations. Those who were aware of the recommendations were in later stages of PA behavior (χ 2(4) = 167.19, p < 0.001). They were also significantly more physically active than those who were not aware of the recommendations (t(443.71) = 9.00, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.53). Study 2 results demonstrated that the intervention group participants who were at the precontemplation and contemplation stages at the pre-test each progressed further in the PA stages in the post-test (χ 2(1) = 112.06, p < 0.001; χ 2(1) = 118.76, p = 0.03, respectively), although no significant change in PA level was observed (t(139) < 1, p = 0.89). Conclusion The results showed that awareness of the PA recommendations was associated with higher stages and levels of PA behavior, and a brief educational exposure to PA recommendations led to improved stages of PA behavior but no change in the levels of PA among Chinese college students. More effective public health campaign strategies are needed to promote the dissemination of the PA recommendations and to raise the awareness of the Chinese student population.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.010
  • The association between Tai Chi exercise and safe driving performance
           among older adults: An observational study

    • Authors: Sally Miller; Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
      Pages: 83 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sally Miller, Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
      Background Age-related cognitive and physical decline can impair safe driving performance. Tai Chi exercise benefits cognitive and physical function and may influence safe driving performance in older adults. The primary aim of this observational study was to compare cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance among older adult Tai Chi practitioners to normative reference values. Secondary aims were to examine relationships between Tai Chi exercise habits, cognitive processes, and physical function related to safe driving performance and to explore potential predictors of safe driving performance. Methods The DrivingHealth Inventory, the Driving Scenes Test, other driving-related cognitive and physical measures, and self-reported measures including the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Vitality Plus Scale (VPS) were collected from current Tai Chi practitioners (n = 58; age 72.9 ± 5.9 years, mean ± SD) with median >3 years Tai Chi practice. Results Compared to normative reference values, participants performed better on numerous cognitive measures including the Driving Scenes Test (p < 0.001, d = 1.63), maze navigation (p = 0.017, d = 0.27), the Useful Field of View Test (p < 0.001, r = 0.15), and on physical measures including the Rapid Walk Test (p < 0.001, r = 0.20), and the Right Foot Tapping Test, (p < 0.001, r = 0.35). Participants scored higher than normative reference values on MAAS and VPS (p < 0.001, d = 0.75; p = 0.002, d = 0.38, respectively). Statistically significant correlations were found between several study measures. The digit span backward test was the strongest predictor of safe driving performance (β = 0.34, p = 0.009). Conclusion Tai Chi exercise has the potential to impact cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance. Further study using randomized controlled trials, structured Tai Chi exercise doses, and driving simulator or on-road driving performance as outcome measures are warranted.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.013
  • Associations between walking parameters and subsequent sleep difficulty in
           older adults: A 2-year follow-up study

    • Authors: Li-Jung Chen; Kenneth R. Fox; Wen-Jung Sun; Pei-Shu Tsai; Po-Wen Ku; Dachen Chu
      Pages: 95 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li-Jung Chen, Kenneth R. Fox, Wen-Jung Sun, Pei-Shu Tsai, Po-Wen Ku, Dachen Chu
      Purpose This 2-year follow-up study aimed to examine the associations between total volume, frequency, duration, and speed of walking with subsequent sleep difficulty in older adults. Methods A total of 800 older adults aged 65 years and over participated in the first survey in 2012 and 511 of them were followed 2 years later. The 5-item Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-5) was used to measure sleep difficulty. Frequency, duration, and speed of outdoor walking were self-reported. Walking speed was assigned a metabolic equivalent value (MET) from 2.5 to 4.5. Total walking volume in MET-h/week was calculated as frequency × duration × speed. Negative binomial regressions were performed to examine the associations between volume and components of walking with subsequent sleep difficulty with covariates of age, sex, education, marital status, living arrangement, smoking, alcohol consumption, mental health, Charlson Index, exercise (excluding walking), and sleep difficulty at baseline. Results Participants with low walking volume had a higher level of sleep difficulty 2 years later compared with those with high walking volume (incident rate ratios = 1.61, p = 0.004). When speed, frequency, and duration of walking were simultaneously entered into 1 model, only walking speed was significantly associated with subsequent sleep difficulty (after the model was adjusted for covariates and baseline sleep difficulty). Sensitivity analyses showed that walking duration emerged as a significant predictor among 3 walking parameters, with 2-year changes of sleep scores as dependent variable. Conclusion Total amount of walking (especially faster walking and lasting for more than 20 min) is associated with less subsequent sleep difficulty after 2 years among older adults.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.007
  • Effect of different intensities of physical activity on cardiometabolic
           markers and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats fed with a
           high-fat high-carbohydrate diet

    • Authors: Romeo B. Batacan; Mitch J. Duncan; Vincent J. Dalbo; Geraldine L. Buitrago; Andrew S. Fenning
      Pages: 109 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Romeo B. Batacan, Mitch J. Duncan, Vincent J. Dalbo, Geraldine L. Buitrago, Andrew S. Fenning
      Background Physical activity (PA) and diet are 2 lifestyle factors that affect cardiometabolic risk. However, data on how a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet influences the effect of different intensities of PA on cardiometabolic health and cardiovascular function in a controlled setting are yet to be fully established. This study investigated the effect of sedentary behavior, light-intensity training (LIT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiometabolic markers and vascular and cardiac function in HFHC-fed adult rats. Methods Twelve-week-old Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups (12 rats/group): control (CTL), sedentary (SED), LIT, and HIIT. Biometric indices, glucose and lipid control, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, vascular reactivity, and cardiac electrophysiology of the experimental groups were examined after 12 weeks of HFHC-diet feeding and PA interventions. Results The SED group had slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.0426) and greater thoracic aortic contractile responses (p < 0.05) compared with the CTL group. The LIT group showed improved cardiac conduction compared with the SED group (p = 0.0003), and the HIIT group showed decreased mesenteric artery contractile responses compared with all other groups and improved endothelium-dependent mesenteric artery relaxation compared with the LIT group (both p < 0.05). The LIT and HIIT groups had lower visceral (p = 0.0057 for LIT, p = 0.0120 for HIIT) and epididymal fat (p < 0.0001 for LIT, p = 0.0002 for HIIT) compared with the CTL group. Conclusion LIT induced positive adaptations on fat accumulation and cardiac conduction, and HIIT induced a positive effect on fat accumulation, mesenteric artery contraction, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. No other differences were observed between groups. These findings suggest that few positive health effects can be achieved through LIT and HIIT when consuming a chronic and sustained HFHC diet.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.001
  • Physical activity guidelines for Chinese children and adolescents: The
           next essential step

    • Authors: Jincheng Xu; Can Gao
      Pages: 120 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jincheng Xu, Can Gao

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.07.001
  • “Excessive muscle strain as the direct cause of injury” should not be
           generalized to hamstring muscle strain injury in sprinting

    • Authors: Mianfang Ruan
      Pages: 123 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mianfang Ruan

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.006
  • Exercise vs. high altitude therapy

    • Authors: Francesco Misiti
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Francesco Misiti

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.07.002
  • Biomechanics of ankle giving way: A case report of accidental ankle giving
           way during the drop landing test

    • Authors: Yumeng Li; Jupil Ko; Shuqi Zhang; Cathleen N. Brown; Kathy J. Simpson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yumeng Li, Jupil Ko, Shuqi Zhang, Cathleen N. Brown, Kathy J. Simpson
      Background Several case studies observed that the lateral ankle sprain resulted from a sudden increase in ankle inversion accompanied by internal rotation. However, without sufficient ankle kinetics and muscle activity information in the literature, the detailed mechanism of ankle sprain is still unrevealed. The purpose of our case report is to present two accidental ankle giving way incidents for participants with CAI and compare to their normal trials with data of kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Case description Two young female participants accidentally experienced the ankle giving way when landing on a 25° lateral-tilted force plate. 3D kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity were recorded for the lower extremity. Qualitative comparisons were made between the giving way trials and normal trials for joint angles, angular velocities, moments, centers of pressure and EMG linear envelopes. Results One participant's giving way trial displayed increased ankle inversion and internal rotation angles in the pre-landing phase and at initial contact compared to her normal trials. Another participant's giving way trial exhibited greater hip abduction angles and delayed activation of the peroneus longus muscle in the pre-landing phase versus her normal trials. Conclusion A vulnerable ankle position (i.e., more inverted and internally rotated), and a late activation of peroneus activity in the pre-landing phase could result in the ankle giving way or even sprains. A neutral ankle position and early activation of ankle evertors before landing may be helpful in preventing ankle sprains.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.01.002
  • Do recreational team sports provide fitness and health benefits'

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.01.001
  • Recreational team sports: The motivational medicine

    • Authors: Carlo Castagna; Maysa de Sousa; Peter Krustrup; Donald Kirkendall; James R. Urbaniak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Carlo Castagna, Maysa de Sousa, Peter Krustrup, Donald Kirkendall, James R. Urbaniak

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.12.001
  • Effects of soccer training on health-related physical fitness measures in
           male adolescents

    • Authors: Amri Hammami; Morten B. Randers; Sofien Kasmi; Mohamed Razgallah; Zouhaier Tabka; Karim Chamari; Ezdine Bouhlel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Amri Hammami, Morten B. Randers, Sofien Kasmi, Mohamed Razgallah, Zouhaier Tabka, Karim Chamari, Ezdine Bouhlel
      Purpose The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the health-related physical fitness profile of untrained adolescent boys in comparison to adolescent soccer players, (2) determine the intensity and enjoyment of 6v6 and 4v4 small-sided games, and (3) evaluate the health-related effects of a short-period of soccer training in the untrained group. Methods Forty-one adolescent boys (untrained, n = 24: age = 15.9 ± 0.6 years; trained, n = 17: age = 15.7 ± 0.7 years) were recruited. For Purpose 1, the players (n = 17) and the untrained (n = 24) boys were tested for speed, jumping power, postural balance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity. After baseline testing, Purposes 2 and 3 were addressed by randomly assigning the untrained boys to either a soccer-training group (small-sided games, 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks) or to a control group, followed by identical retesting. Results At baseline, physical fitness was higher (p < 0.001) in trained players than in untrained for aerobic fitness, sprinting, jumping power, and postural balance. Small-sided games using 6v6 or 4v4 elicited similar heart rate (HR) (mean:  ~ 85% peak heart rate, HRpeak), rate of perceived exertion, and enjoyment responses. Over 8 weeks, the between-group analysis revealed that soccer training had a large beneficial effect on postural balance (45%) when compared with control group with unclear effects on other fitness parameters. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players had markedly higher physical fitness compared with untrained adolescents. Small-sided soccer games practiced by untrained adolescents elicited high exercise intensity. While 8 weeks of twice-weekly soccer training sessions induced significant improvement in postural balance, the short duration of the study was not sufficient to result in between-group differences in sprint and jump performance or aerobic fitness.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.009
  • Empowering youth sport environments: Implications for daily
           moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and adiposity

    • Authors: Sally A.M. Fenton; Joan L. Duda; Paul R. Appleton; Timothy G. Barrett
      Pages: 423 - 433
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sally A.M. Fenton, Joan L. Duda, Paul R. Appleton, Timothy G. Barrett
      Background Evidence suggests involvement in youth sport does not guarantee daily guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are met, and participation may not mitigate the risks associated with physical inactivity. The need to promote higher habitual MVPA engagement amongst children active in the youth sport context has therefore been underlined. Framed by self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was to examine the implications of the motivational climate created in youth sport, for children's daily engagement in MVPA and associated adiposity. Specifically, we sought to test a motivational sequence in which children's perceptions of an empowering coach-created motivational climate were related to autonomous and controlled motivation, which in turn predicted sport-related enjoyment. Finally, enjoyment was assumed to predict accelerometer assessed daily MVPA and, following this, adiposity. Methods Male and female youth sport participants aged 9–16 years (n = 112) completed multi-section questionnaires assessing their perceptions of the motivational climate created in youth sport (i.e., autonomy supportive, task involving, socially supportive), autonomous and controlled motivation, and sport-related enjoyment. Daily MVPA engagement was determined via 7 days of accelerometry. Percent body fat (BF%) was estimated using bio-electrical impedance analysis. Results Path analysis revealed perceptions of an empowering motivational climate positively predicted players' autonomous motivation, and in turn, sport-related enjoyment. Enjoyment was also significantly negatively related to players' BF%, via a positive association with daily MVPA. Conclusion Fostering more empowering youth sport environments may hold implications for the prevention of excess adiposity, through encouraging higher habitual MVPA engagement. Findings may inform the optimal design of youth sport settings for MVPA promotion, and contribute towards associated healthy weight maintenance amongst youth active in this context. Longitudinal and intervention studies are required to confirm these results.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.03.006
  • Correlates of long-term physical activity adherence in women

    • Authors: Haichun Sun; Cheryl A. Vamos; Sara S.B. Flory; Rita DeBate; Erika L. Thompson; Jennifer Bleck
      Pages: 434 - 442
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Haichun Sun, Cheryl A. Vamos, Sara S.B. Flory, Rita DeBate, Erika L. Thompson, Jennifer Bleck
      Background Little is known about the factors that may influence women's adherence to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using longitudinal data. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of long-term physical activity (PA) participation among women. Methods Female data from Waves I, III, and IV (n = 5381) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used for the analysis. The outcome of PA adherence was operationalized as (1) consistently physically active (at least 5 instances during the week) in both Waves III and IV (during adulthood), and (2) consistently not physically active or only physically active in either Wave III or IV. Predictor variables from Wave I (during adolescence) included race/ethnicity, PA level, self-perception of being physically fit, general health status, attempt to change weight, parents' income level, parents' education, well-being, depression, access to PA resources, days of physical education (PE), and grade level. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the outcome variable. Results PA levels during adolescence significantly predicted PA adherence (aOR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.35–2.05). Additionally, wanting to lose weight (aOR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.20–1.85), using fitness center in the neighborhood (aOR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.05–1.58), and having 5 days of PE a week (aOR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.09–2.02) were significant predictors. Women who did not perceive being physically fit (aOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.44–0.95) and Black, non-Hispanics (aOR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.44–0.82) were less likely to adhere to PA. Conclusion The findings suggested that physically active adolescents were more likely to become active adults. Future research should address interventions (e.g., PE program, community resources) that may promote lifetime PA in women, with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.009
  • The Wingate anaerobic test cannot be used for the evaluation of growth
           hormone secretion in children with short stature

    • Authors: Nitzan Dror; Liat Oren; Michal Pantanowitz; Alon Eliakim; Dan Nemet
      Pages: 443 - 446
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Nitzan Dror, Liat Oren, Michal Pantanowitz, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet
      Purpose To assess the growth hormone (GH) response to the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) among children with short stature and suspected GH deficiency. We hypothesized that the GH response to the WAnT would be similar to the GH response to a commonly used pharmacologic provocation test. Methods Ten children (6 males and 4 females, age range 9.0–14.9 years) participated in the study. Each participant performed 2 tests: a standard all-out WAnT, cycling for 30 s against constant resistance, and a standardized pharmacologic test (clonidine or glucagon). Blood samples for GH were collected before and 10, 30, 45, and 60 min after the beginning of exercise. In addition, we collected pre- and post-exercise blood lactate levels. Results There was a significant increase in GH levels after the WAnT, yet in 9 of 10 participants, this increase was below the threshold for GH sufficiency. Peak GH after the WAnT was significantly lower compared to the pharmacologic GH provocation tests (with 9 of 10 demonstrating GH-sufficient response). Conclusion The traditional WAnT cannot be used as a GH provocation test. Further research is needed to develop anaerobic exercise protocols sufficient to promote GH secretion.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.002
  • The effects of aerobic exercise training on oxidant–antioxidant balance,
           neurotrophic factor levels, and blood–brain barrier function in obese
           and non-obese men

    • Authors: Hee-Tae Roh; Wi-Young So
      Pages: 447 - 453
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Hee-Tae Roh, Wi-Young So
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and aerobic exercise training on oxidant–antioxidant balance, neurotrophic factor levels, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) function. Methods Ten non-obese healthy men (body mass index < 25 kg/m2) and 10 obese men (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) were included in the study. Both groups performed treadmill exercise for 40 min 3 times weekly for 8 weeks at 70% heart rate reserve. Blood samples were collected to examine oxidant–antioxidant balance (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels), and BBB function (S100β and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels) before and after exercise training. Results The obese group showed significantly greater changes than the non-obese group in serum ROS (−0.46 ± 0.31 mmol/L vs. −0.10 ± 0.17 mmol/L, p = 0.005), serum S100β levels (−8.50 ± 5.92 ng/L vs. −0.78 ± 5.45 ng/L, p = 0.007), and serum NSE levels (−0.89 ± 0.54 µg/L vs. −0.01 ± 0.74 µg/L, p = 0.007) after training. At baseline, the obese group showed significantly higher serum ROS and S100β levels and significantly lower serum SOD activity and BDNF levels than the non-obese group (p < 0.05). The obese group showed significantly lower serum ROS, S100β, and NSE levels and significantly higher serum SOD activity and BDNF levels after training compared with baseline (p < 0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that obesity can reduce serum neurotrophic factor levels and can induce BBB dysfunction. On the other hand, aerobic exercise can improve an oxidant–antioxidant imbalance in obese subjects and limit BBB dysfunction.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.006
  • What is the most effective exercise protocol to improve cardiovascular
           fitness in overweight and obese subjects'

    • Authors: Eliane Aparecida Castro; Ana Belén Peinado; Pedro Jose Benito; Mercedes Galindo; Marcela González-Gross; Rocío Cupeiro
      Pages: 454 - 461
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Eliane Aparecida Castro, Ana Belén Peinado, Pedro Jose Benito, Mercedes Galindo, Marcela González-Gross, Rocío Cupeiro
      Background Increased peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) can reduce cardiovascular risks associated with obesity. Our aim was to analyze the effect of a weight loss program on cardiovascular fitness in overweight (W) and obese (O) subjects. Methods One hundred and sixty-seven subjects (77 males and 90 females), aged 18–50 years, performed a modified Bruce protocol before (pre) and after (post) a weight loss program of 24 weeks. This program combined physical training (strength, S; endurance, E; combined strength + endurance, SE; or physical activity recommendation, PA) 3 times per week, with a 25%–30% caloric restriction diet. Results VO2peak improved in overweight and obese males (pre and post values in L/min, respectively; W = 3.2 ± 0.6 vs. 3.7 ± 0.5, p < 0.001; O = 3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6, p = 0.013) as well as in overweight females (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.4, p < 0.001). VO2peak in the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) increased for all 4 interventions in males (p < 0.05), except for S in the obese group (1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.7 ± 0.3, p = 0.141). In females, it increased in E (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3, p < 0.001), SE (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.003), and PA (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2, p = 0.006) in overweight groups. Time-to-exhaustion improved in all subjects except for females in PA group (15.7 ± 0.3 min vs. 15.9 ± 0.3 min, p = 0.495). Conclusion Our results suggest that all methods, including the recommendation of physical activity, can improve cardiovascular fitness in overweight subjects and obese males.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.04.007
  • The influence of different exercise intensities on kicking accuracy and
           velocity in soccer players

    • Authors: Ricardo Ferraz; Roland van den Tillar; Mario C. Marques
      Pages: 462 - 467
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ricardo Ferraz, Roland van den Tillar, Mario C. Marques
      Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different exercise intensities induced by a soccer specific protocol on kicking performance in soccer players. Methods Twelve semi-professional male soccer players participated in this study and performed maximal instep kicks before and after the implementation of an exercise protocol to determine the influence of different intensities upon kicking ball velocity and the target-hitting accuracy. Results Analysis of variance designs with repeated measures showed that maximal ball velocity was affected only after the most intense circuit (F(6, 66) = 2.3; p = 0.041; η 2 = 0.18), while accuracy was not affected in the protocol (F(6, 66) = 0.19; p = 0.98; η 2 = 0.02). Low and moderate intensities did not affect accuracy or kicking ball velocity. Conclusion These findings suggest that kicking ball velocity is influenced by high-exercise intensities. Low and moderate exercise intensities do not affect the performance of the kick, and intensity does not influence accuracy. Otherwise, it is possible that other mechanisms (not only physiological) may influence players during the exercise.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.10.001
  • Heart rate variability to assess ventilatory thresholds in professional
           basketball players

    • Authors: Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo; Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias; Vicente Ávila-Gandía; Cristian Marín-Pagán; Antonio Luque; Pedro E. Alcaraz
      Pages: 468 - 473
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Antonio Luque, Pedro E. Alcaraz
      Purpose The aim of this study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV) during incremental test could be used to estimate ventilatory threshold (VT) in professional basketball players, with sufficient precision to be used in their training. Furthermore, the second aim was to analyse the association between HRV and 3 methods of VT determination by gas analysis. Methods Twenty-four professional basketball players (age: 23.4 ± 4.9 years; height: 195.4 ± 9.8 cm; body mass: 92.2 ± 11.9 kg) performed an incremental running test to exhaustion. First ventilatory threshold (VT1) was determined by ventilatory equivalent (VE) and HRV and second ventilatory threshold (VT2) was determined by 3 methods of gases analysis (V-slope, VE and gas exchange ratio (R), and HRV). Pearson's coefficient (r) was used to detect differences between data and the strength of each relationship. The mean of absolute differences and Bland–Altman analysis were used to evaluate whether there was agreement. Results The results showed no significant differences in HR and oxygen consumption (VO2) at VT1 between the 2 methods. Furthermore, no significant differences among the methods of gases analysis and HRV were observed in speed, HR, and VO2 at VT2. Moreover, VTs estimated using HRV and gas methods were significantly correlated. Correlation in HR values was higher between R and HRV (r = 0.96) and VE and HRV (r = 0.96) than V-slope and HRV (r = 0.90). Conclusion These findings provide a practical, inexpensive approach for evaluating specific training loads when determining VT2 in basketball players. Therefore, HRV is an alternative method to determine VT2 without the application of expensive technology that limits its use to laboratories.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.002
  • Tribulus terrestris extracts alleviate muscle damage and promote anaerobic
           performance of trained male boxers and its mechanisms: Roles of androgen,
           IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3

    • Authors: Yiming Ma; Zhicheng Guo; Xiaohui Wang
      Pages: 474 - 481
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yiming Ma, Zhicheng Guo, Xiaohui Wang
      Purpose To investigate the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extracts on muscle mass, muscle damage, and anaerobic performances of trained male boxers and its mechanisms: roles of plasma androgen, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Methods Fifteen male boxers were divided into exercise group (E, n = 7) and exercise plus TT group (E + TT, n = 8). The 2 groups both undertook 3-week high-intensity and 3-week high-volume trainings separated by a 4-week rest. TT extracts (1250 mg/day) were orally administered by boxers in E + TT group. TT extract compositions were detected by UHPLC–Q-TOF/MS. Before and at the end of the 2 trainings, muscle mass, anaerobic performance, and blood indicators were explored. Results Compared with E group, decreases of plasma CK (1591.5 ± 909.6 U/L vs. 2719.9 ± 832.5 U/L) and IGFBP-3 (3075.5 ± 1072.5 ng/mL vs. 3950.8 ± 479.3 ng/mL) as well as increases of mean power (MP, 459.4 ± 122.3 W vs. 434.6 ± 69.5 W) and MP/body weight (MP/BW, 7.5 ± 0.9 W/kg vs. 7.1 ± 1.1 W/kg) were detected in E + TT group after a high-intensity training. For high-volume training, reduction of IGFBP-3 (2946.4 ± 974.1 ng/mL vs. 3632.7 ± 470.1 ng/mL) and increases of MP (508.7 ± 103.2 W vs. 477.8 ± 49.9 W) and MP/BW (8.2 ± 0.3 W/kg vs. 7.5 ± 0.9 W/kg) were detected in E + TT group, compared with E group. Muscle mass, blood levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and IGF-1 were not signifiantly changed between the 2 groups. Conclusion Taking 1250 mg capsules containing TT extracts did not change muscle mass and plasma levels of testosterone, DHT, and IGF-1 but significantly alleviated muscle damage and promoted anaerobic performance of trained male boxers, which may be related to the decrease of plasma IGFBP-3 rather than androgen in plasma.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.003
  • Shock attenuation, spatio-temporal and physiological parameter comparisons
           between land treadmill and water treadmill running

    • Authors: Paul W. Macdermid; Philip W. Fink; Stephen R. Stannard
      Pages: 482 - 488
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Paul W. Macdermid, Philip W. Fink, Stephen R. Stannard
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare shock attenuation, spatio-temporal and physiological parameters during water immersed (depth: anterior superior iliac spine) aquatic treadmill (ATM) running and land based treadmill (LTM) running matched for speed. Methods Six participants completed 15 min running under 2 conditions (LTM and ATM) in a randomised and balanced order, matched for speed. Synchronised tri-axial accelerometers placed at the distal tibia, lumbar region, and forehead were used to identify running dynamics and measure acceleration on impact and its attenuation. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate were sampled on a breath-by-breath basis for physiological variable collection throughout each trial. Results Participants experienced reduced accelerations on impact at the distal tibia (p < 0.0001) but not the lower back (p = 0.1363) or forehead (p = 0.0551) during ATM compared to LTM. Consequently, large reductions in shock attenuation occurred during the ATM compared to LTM (p = 0.0001). Stride frequency was greater (p < 0.0001) and stride length was shorter (p = 0.0341) as a result of reduced swing time (p = 0.0201) for LTM, whilst ATM running increased physiological demand for both heart rate (p < 0.0001) and O2 (p < 0.0001) compared to LTM. Conclusion These findings show ATM reduces impact stress on the passive structures of the lower limbs whilst increasing physiological demand when running at matched speeds.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.006
  • Three-dimensional impact kinetics with foot-strike manipulations during

    • Authors: Andrew D. Nordin; Janet S. Dufek; John A. Mercer
      Pages: 489 - 497
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Andrew D. Nordin, Janet S. Dufek, John A. Mercer
      Background Lack of an observable vertical impact peak in fore/mid-foot running has been suggested as a means of reducing lower extremity impact forces, although it is unclear if impact characteristics exist in other axes. The purpose of the investigation was to compare three-dimensional (3D) impact kinetics among foot-strike conditions in over-ground running using instantaneous loading rate–time profiles. Methods Impact characteristics were assessed by identifying peak loading rates in each direction (medial–lateral (ML), anterior–posterior (AP), vertical, and 3D resultant) following foot-strike instructions (fore-foot, mid-foot, subtle heel, and obvious heel strike). Kinematic and kinetic data were analyzed among 9 male participants in each foot-strike condition. Results Loading rate peaks were observed in each direction and foot-strike condition, differing in magnitude by direction (3D resultant and vertical > AP > ML, p ≤ 0.031) and foot-strike: ML (fore-foot and mid-foot strike > obvious heel strike, p ≤ 0.032), AP (fore-foot and mid-foot strikes > subtle-heel and obvious heel strikes, p ≤ 0.023). In each direction, the first loading rate peak occurred later during heel strike running relative to fore-foot (p ≤ 0.019), with vertical and 3D resultant impact durations exceeding shear (ML and AP, p ≤ 0.007) in each condition. Conclusion Loading rate–time assessment identified contrasting impact characteristics in each direction and the 3D resultant following foot-strike manipulations, with potential implications for lower extremity structures in running.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.11.003
  • Footfall patterns of a runner with an Achilles tendon rupture

    • Authors: Daniel Jandacka; David Zahradnik; Roman Farana; Jaroslav Uchytil; Joseph Hamill
      Pages: 498 - 502
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Daniel Jandacka, David Zahradnik, Roman Farana, Jaroslav Uchytil, Joseph Hamill
      Purpose This study aims to compare the load and the length of previously ruptured and healthy Achilles tendon (AT) of a recreational runner who used different footfall patterns on each limb during running. Methods A 41-year-old recreational athlete with a ruptured AT participated in this report. Two force plates and a high-speed motion capture system were used to collect ground reaction force and kinematic data in shod and barefoot running conditions. AT length was measured using ultrasonography and an infrared camera system. AT force was estimated as the active plantar flexion moment divided by AT moment arm during stance phase. Results The participant used a rearfoot pattern on the affected limb and a forefoot/midfoot pattern on the unaffected limb during shod running, and a forefoot/midfoot pattern during barefoot running. There was no difference between the length of the affected and the unaffected AT. During shod running, the maximal AT force and loading rate were lower in the affected AT versus the unaffected AT. During barefoot running, the affected maximal AT force and loading rate were greater than the unaffected AT. Conclusion Footfall patterns can be an adaptation to reduce the loading on a previously injured AT. It appears that runners may consider using a rearfoot footfall pattern during running to reduce the stress on the AT.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.05.004
  • Implementation and assessment of diverse strategies for physical activity
           promotion in Vietnam—A case report

    • Authors: Gabriella Beckvid-Henriksson; Hoai Thu Nguyen; Julia Kilhed; Agnes Nordström; Sofie Svensson; Huong Thi Thanh Tran; Ingeborg Van Der Ploeg; Carl Johan Sundberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gabriella Beckvid-Henriksson, Hoai Thu Nguyen, Julia Kilhed, Agnes Nordström, Sofie Svensson, Huong Thi Thanh Tran, Ingeborg Van Der Ploeg, Carl Johan Sundberg
      Background Regular physical activity (PA) has documented effects in prevention and treatment of many non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Physical inactivity is recognized as the fourth leading risk factor for premature death, worldwide. Despite these facts, physical inactivity is increasing, not only in high-income, but also in middle- and low-income countries. To address this negative trend, evidence-based methods to increase PA are needed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation and assessment of 4 strategies designed to increase PA in Vietnam. Methods Four strategies were used: i) introduction and evaluation of an education and training programme on the Swedish method of Physical Activity on Prescription (PAP) among healthcare professionals, ii) translation of the PAP evidence-based handbook, Physical Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease (called FYSS in Swedish) into Vietnamese, iii) launch of a mass media campaign to promote PA, and iv) advocacy to support development of PA guidelines in Vietnam. Results The evaluation indicated that the participating healthcare professionals had a positive attitude to PAP. However, they also reported uncertainty in prescribing PA. FYSS was translated and disseminated successfully to healthcare professionals. A mass-media campaign identified the beneficial effects of PA to healthcare professionals, journalists, policy makers, and the public. Last, the process of developing national guidelines on PA was initiated. Conclusion This project led to enhanced awareness and appreciation of PA in the prevention and treatment of NCDs among healthcare professionals as well as initiation of national PA guidelines. Important lessons also were learned in the presentation of PAP, which will be considered when designing similar projects in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.11.004
  • The built environment correlates of objectively measured physical activity
           in Norwegian adults: A cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Ane Kristiansen Solbraa; Sigmund Alfred Anderssen; Ingar Morten Holme; Elin Kolle; Bjørge Herman Hansen; Maureen C. Ashe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ane Kristiansen Solbraa, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen, Ingar Morten Holme, Elin Kolle, Bjørge Herman Hansen, Maureen C. Ashe
      Background Built environments that are designed to provide accessible, attractive, and convenient locales promote regular physical activity (PA). Norway has great variability in its geographic, natural, and built environment features. Urban areas have well-developed built environment features, whereas the rural areas are less walkable and this may influence the mode of transport. In general, active transport is more common in urban centers. Further, public transportation is more developed in urban areas, whereas motorized transport may be more widespread in the rural areas. Despite this, in Sogn & Fjordane, a rural county in western Norway, high PA levels are frequently observed. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) explore perceived built environment features and characterize their associations with objectively measured PA levels in Norwegian adults and (2) explore the differences in these correlates between Sogn & Fjordane and the rest of Norway. Methods In this cross-sectional study, participants used questionnaires to rate perceptions of their built environments, and their PA was objectively measured for 7 consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. There were 972 Norwegian adults who were included in the study. The average age was 46.9 ± 6.5 years and 43.8% of participants were men. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results Total PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were both associated with perceived walkability, the community perception score, and active transport for commuting (all p ≤ 0.004). We also observed geographic-area-specific associations: the community perception score was negatively associated with total PA and MVPA in the rest of Norway (p ≤ 0.012) but not in Sogn & Fjordane. Public transport for commuting was positively associated with MVPA in Sogn & Fjordane (p = 0.03) but not in the rest of Norway. Conclusion Total PA level and MVPA were associated with built environment factors, such as perceptions of community, perceived walkability, and engaging in active transport for commuting. Geographic differences in the PA correlates were observed, and thus, locally customized environmental population approaches aimed at increasing PA levels may be essential complements to individual behavior and lifestyle strategies. Further, objective measures of Norwegian built environments, such as geographic information system data, and validated walk- and bike-scores would advance the field.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.11.002
  • Applying the socio-ecological model to barriers to implementation of ACL
           injury prevention programs: a systematic review

    • Authors: Rima L. Bogardus; Ryan J. Martin; Alice R. Richman; Anthony S. Kulas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rima L. Bogardus, Ryan J. Martin, Alice R. Richman, Anthony S. Kulas
      Background Preventing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is important to avoid long-term adverse health consequences. Identifying barriers to implementation of these prevention programs is crucial to reducing the incidence of these injuries. Our purpose was to identify barriers of implementation for ACL injury prevention programs and suggest mechanisms for reducing the barriers through application of a Socio-Ecological Model (SEM). Methods Studies investigating ACL prevention program effectiveness were searched in Medline via PubMed and the Cochrane Library, and a subsequent from references of identified articles yielded 15 articles total. Inclusion criteria were: prospective controlled trials, published in English, and ACL injuries as the primary outcome. Studies were independently appraised by two reviewers for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Barriers to implementation were identified when reported in at least two separate studies. A SEM was used to suggest ways to reduce the identified barriers. Results Five barriers were identified: motivation, time requirements, skill requirements for program facilitators, compliance, and cost. The SEM suggested ways to minimize the barriers at all levels of the model from the individual through policy levels. Conclusion Identification of barriers to program implementation and suggesting how to reduce them through the SEM is a critical first step towards enabling ACL prevention programs to be more effective and ultimately reducing the incidence of these injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T02:57:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.11.001
  • Acknowledgment to reviewers—November 2016 to October 2017

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T02:53:00Z
  • Sport burnout inventory — dual career form for student-athletes:
           assessing validity and reliability in a finnish sample of adolescent

    • Authors: Matilda Sorkkila; Tatiana. V. Ryba; Kaisa Aunola; Harri Selänne; Katariina Salmela-Aro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Matilda Sorkkila, Tatiana. V. Ryba, Kaisa Aunola, Harri Selänne, Katariina Salmela-Aro
      Background The pressure of pursuing an athletic career simultaneously with education may set adolescent student-athletes at risk for sport and school burnout. Although the 2 life domains of student-athletes are strongly intertwined, so far, there has not been an instrument for investigating sport burnout parallel to school burnout. The aim of the present study was to introduce a sport burnout measure for adolescents in a dual career context and investigate its validity and reliability by using confirmatory factor analysis. Methods The participants were 391 student-athletes (51% females) who filled in a questionnaire of sport burnout and background variables in the beginning of upper secondary school. Results A 3-factor model or a second-order-factor model described the data better and gave better reliability indices than a 1-factor model. The 3 dimensions of sport burnout were shown to be separate, but closely related constructs. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity was obtained by correlating the 3 sport burnout dimensions with depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sport task values. Conclusion The results suggest that Sport Burnout Inventory - Dual Career Form (SpBI-DC) is a valid and reliable instrument for investigating sport burnout among adolescent student-athletes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.006
  • Promoting physical activity in a public health context

    • Authors: Caroline A. Macera; Barbara E. Ainsworth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Barbara E. Ainsworth, Caroline A. Macera

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.004
  • Translating science to inform global policy on physical activity

    • Authors: Fiona Bull
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fiona Bull

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.005
  • Research highlights from the status report for step it up! the surgeon
           general's call to action to promote walking and walkable communities

    • Authors: David R. Brown; Susan A. Carlson; Gayathri S. Kumar; Janet E. Fulton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David R. Brown, Susan A. Carlson, Gayathri S. Kumar, Janet E. Fulton

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T23:31:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.003
  • Improving school physical education to increase physical activity and
           promote healthy growth of chinese school-aged children – time for action

    • Authors: Dengfeng Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Dengfeng Wang

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
  • Addressing the public health concerns of physical inactivity, low levels
           of fitness, and unhealthy weight among chinese school-aged children

    • Authors: Fuzhong Peiji; Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li, Peiji Chen

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
  • Effects of a 3-month vigorous physical activity intervention on eating
           behaviors and body composition in overweight and obese boys and girls

    • Authors: María Martín-García; Luis M. Alegre Durán; Beatriz García-Cuartero; Eleanor J. Bryant; Bernard Gutin; Ignacio Ara Royo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): María Martín-García, Luis M. Alegre Durán, Beatriz García-Cuartero, Eleanor J. Bryant, Bernard Gutin, Ignacio Ara Royo
      Purpose This study analyzes the effects of a 3-month vigorous physical activity (VPA) intervention on eating behavior and body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods Forty-seven participants (7–16 years) took part in the study: 28 were assigned to the intervention group (IG) (10 boys and 18 girls) and 19 in a control group (CG) (8 boys and 11 girls). Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), anthropometrics (body mass, height and body mass index (BMI)) and eating behavior traits (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21C) were determined before and after the VPA intervention. Results A decrease in the percentage of body fat (%BF) and BMI (–2.8% and –1.8%, respectively), and an increase in lean mass variables were found in the IG (all p ≤ 0.05). In relation to the eating behavior traits, IG subjects showed a 14 % reduction in the Emotional Eating score (p = 0.04), while Cognitive Restraint score did not change after the VPA intervention. The baseline factors of the questionnaire predicted changes in body mass and fat mass variables only in the CG. Conclusion A 3-month VPA intervention influenced eating behaviors of overweight or obese young, especially the Emotional Eating factor in the presence of favorable body composition changes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.012
  • Step it up: Promoting physical activity in school-aged children and
           adolescents in China

    • Authors: Barbara E. Ainsworth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Barbara E. Ainsworth

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.013
  • Physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index in the Chinese
           child and adolescent populations: an update from the 2016 physical
           activity and fitness in China – the youth study

    • Authors: Peijjie Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peijjie Chen

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.011
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