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Journal of Sport and Health Science    [12 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2556 journals]
  • Validation of a method to predict hammer speed from cable force
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sara Bricea , Kevin Ness , Doug Rosemond
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method that would facilitate immediate feedback on linear hammer speed during training. Methods Three-dimensional hammer head positional data were measured and used to calculate linear speed (calculated speed) and cable force. These data were used to develop two linear regression models (shifted and non-shifted) that would allow prediction of hammer speed from measured cable force data (predicted speed). The accuracy of the two models was assessed by comparing the predicted and calculated speeds. Averages of the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) and the root mean square (RMS) of the difference between the predicted and calculated speeds for each throw of each participant were used to assess the level of accuracy of the predicted speeds. Results Both regression models had high CMC values (0.96 and 0.97) and relatively low RMS values (1.27 m/s and 1.05 m/s) for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. In addition, the average percentage differences between the predicted and calculated speeds were 6.6% and 4.7% for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. The RMS differences between release speeds attained via the two regression models and those attained via three-dimensional positional data were also computed. The RMS differences between the predicted and calculated release speeds were 0.69 m/s and 0.46 m/s for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. Conclusion This study successfully derived and validated a method that allows prediction of linear hammer speed from directly measured cable force data. Two linear regression models were developed and it was found that either model would be capable of predicting accurate speeds. However, data predicted using the shifted regression model were more accurate.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T05:00:46Z
       
  • A quantification of the treadmill 6-min walk test using the MyWellness
           Key™ accelerometer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): S. Andy Sparks , Nathan P. Hilton
      Background Accelerometers have been suggested to provide additional information during the 6-min walk test which may be useful in evaluating changes in functional exercise capacity. The aim of the study was to identify whether the additional information measured by the MyWellness Key™ (MWK) accelerometer during a treadmill 6-min walk test (6MWT) was related to currently used outcome measures. Methods Fifteen participants (9 males, 6 females) performed a self-paced treadmill 6-min walk test. Respiratory gas analysis and walking distance were measured whilst wearing the MWK. Results A significant correlation was established between activity counts and 6-min walk distance (r = −0.847, p < 0.001) yet not 6-min walk work (r = −0.337, p = 0.220). Energy expenditure estimated by the MWK was strongly correlated to 6-min walk work (r = 0.938, p < 0.001) but not 6-min walk distance (r = 0.477, p = 0.072). The MWK significantly underestimated energy expenditure (36.73, CI = 33.9–39.7 kcal) compared to gas analysis (54.35, CI = 46.2–61.4 kcal) demonstrating poor agreement between the two analyses (Bias = −17.61 kcal, Limits of agreement = −37.4, +2.2 kcal). Measurement of time spent undertaking light, moderate and vigorous physical activity was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the MWK and gas analysis. Conclusion Estimated energy expenditure provided by the MWK was strongly correlated to 6-min walk work; however, MWK underestimated energy expenditure as measured by gas analysis. The MWK may provide outcome data that supplements that currently provided by the 6MWD for functional capacity assessment during the treadmill 6MWT.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T05:00:46Z
       
  • The effect of active sitting on trunk motion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Henry Wang , Kaitlyn J. Weiss , Mason C. Haggerty , Jacqueline E. Heath
      Background Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for low-back pain. The primary purpose of this study is to determine if prolonged active sitting will result in increased trunk motion. Methods Fifteen healthy female participants volunteered to sit for 30 min on each of three surfaces including an air-cushion, a stability ball, and a hard surface. Trunk motion was monitored using a Vicon motion capture system, and foot center of pressure was collected with two AMTI force plates. Results Our findings indicated that the average speed of the trunk center of mass significantly increased with seating surface compliance. There were significant differences in right and left foot centers of pressure in the antero-posterior direction between the ball and air-cushion conditions and the ball and chair conditions. Conclusion Active sitting results in increased trunk motion and could have a positive effect on low-back health.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T05:00:46Z
       
  • Sleep quality improved following a single session of moderate-intensity
           aerobic exercise in older women: Results from a pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Xuewen Wang , Shawn D. Youngstedt
      Background Poor sleep quality is associated with adverse effects on health outcomes. It is not clear whether exercise can improve sleep quality and whether intensity of exercise affects any of the effects. Methods Fifteen healthy, non-obese (body mass index = 24.4 ± 2.1 kg/m2, mean ± SD), sedentary (<20 min of exercise on no more than 3 times/week) older women (66.1 ± 3.9 years) volunteered for the study. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was evaluated using a graded exercise test on a treadmill with a metabolic cart. Following a 7-day baseline period, each participant completed two exercise sessions (separated by 1 week) with equal caloric expenditure, but at different intensities (60% and 45% VO2peak, sequence randomized) between 9 and 11 am. A wrist ActiGraph monitor was used to assess sleep at baseline and two nights following each exercise session. Results The average duration of the exercise was 54 and 72 min, respectively at 60% (moderate-intensity) and 45% VO2peak (light-intensity). Wake time after sleep onset was significantly shorter (p = 0.016), the number of awakenings was less (p = 0.046), and total activity counts were lower (p = 0.05) after the moderate-intensity exercise compared to baseline no-exercise condition. Conclusion Our data showed that a single moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session improved sleep quality in older women.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T07:44:57Z
       
  • Sport specificity background affects the principal component structure of
           vertical squat jump performance of young adult female athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos , Nikolaos Papachatzis , Iraklis A. Kollias
      Purpose Long-term training specificity is thought to alter performance in tests evaluating strength and power production capability. The aim of the present study was to provide additional information to the limited existing knowledge concerning the possible differences of the force/time profile of squat jumping among different groups of young female athletes. Methods One hundred and seventy-three adult women (20.1 ± 2.8 years, 1.71 ± 0.09 m, 65.6 ± 10.3 kg, mean ± SD for age, height, and mass, respectively) engaged in track and field (TF), volleyball (VO), handball (HA), basketball (BA) and physical education students (PE) executed maximal squat jumps (SQJ) on a force plate. Pearson's correlation was used to identify the relationship between SQJ performance, the anthropometric characteristics and the biomechanical paremeters. Differences concerning the biomechanical parameters among groups were investigated with analysis of variance, while the force- (FPD) or time- (TPD) dependency of SQJ execution was examined using principal components analysis (PCA). Results SQJ was unrelated to body height but significantly correlated with body mass (r = −0.26, p = 0.001). TF jumped higher and produced larger peak body power output compared to all the other groups (p < 0.05). All athletes were superior to PE since they performed the SQJ with a longer (p < 0.05) vertical body center of mass trajectory during the propulsion phase. PCA results revealed that TF significantly differentiated than the other groups by relying on FPD. Conclusion Various different profiles of FPD and TPD were detected due to different sporting background in young female athletes. Since TF superiority in SQJ was relied on the larger power production and a greater FPD, female indoor team sport athletes are suggested to execute jumping exercises adopting the jumping strategies utilized by TF.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T07:44:57Z
       
  • Effect of minimal shoes and slope on vertical and leg stiffness during
           running
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Thibault Lussiana , Kim Hébert-Losier , Laurent Mourot
      Purpose This study was designed to characterize and compare the vertical (k vert) and leg (k leg) stiffness measured during running in two different footwear conditions on negative, level and positive slopes, using kinematic data only. Methods Fourteen male recreational runners (age 23.4 ± 4.4 years, height 177.5 ± 5.2 cm and body mass 69.5 ± 5.3 kg) were tested on 2 separate days within 1 week. At each session, subjects ran seven 5-min trials on a treadmill at 10 km/h, interspersed with 5 min of sitting passive recovery. Each trial was performed on a different slope gradient, ranging from -8% (downhill) to +8% (uphill), assigned in a random order. Furthermore, each subject ran one 5-min trial wearing minimal shoes (MS) and the subsequent trial wearing traditional shoes (TS) in a counter-balanced randomized order ensuring that each slope was ran once in MS and once in TS. Kinematic data were collected using a photocell measuring system and high-speed video camera, with k vert and k leg stiffness being calculated from these data. Results Leg compression, contact times, and vertical displacement of the centre of mass during running were significantly smaller in MS compared to TS across all slopes. In the two footwear conditions, step frequency significantly increased with a (positive) increase in slope. Kinematic analyses indicated that k leg was greater when running in MS than TS and this between-footwear difference remained similar across slopes. On the contrary, k vert did not change on the basis of footwear, but increased with positive increases in slope. Conclusion This study showed that k vert and k leg during running respond differently to change in footwear and/or slope. These two stiffness measures can hence provide a unique insight on the biomechanical adaptations of running under varying conditions and their respective quantification may assist in furthering our understanding of training, performance and/or injury in this sport.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T07:44:57Z
       
  • The financial burden of physical inactivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Li Li



      PubDate: 2014-01-08T06:10:07Z
       
  • Can an evidence-based fall prevention program be translated for use in
           culturally diverse communities?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David A. Sleet , Grant T. Baldwin



      PubDate: 2014-01-04T21:04:35Z
       
  • Implementing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance in real-world
           settings: success and challenges
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jade Leung



      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • So much research, so little application: Barriers to dissemination and
           practical implementation of Tai Ji Quan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peter A. Harmer
      Despite the large number of articles published in the medical literature advocating the use of Tai Ji Quan for a wide variety of health-related outcomes, there has been little systematic broad-scale implementation of these programs. It may be argued that the lack of funding from organizations capable of implementing and overseeing large-scale programs, such as governmental health agencies or national non-governmental organizations concerned with healthcare for older adults, is to blame. However, the evidence these organizations need to justify underwriting such programs is in short supply because of conflicting priorities and standards related to determining the efficacy and effectiveness of Tai Ji Quan. Establishing efficacy through acceptable designs such as randomized controlled trials involves strict protocols to ensure meaningful internal validity but different approaches are needed to demonstrate meaningful effectiveness (external validity) outside the study setting. By examining the quality, quantity, and relative proportions of the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and dissemination studies reported in the medical literature, this paper highlights the disparity in emphasis between efficacy and effectiveness research that has impeded the development of a cohesive literature on Tai Ji Quan and concludes that until more researchers develop a systematic, long-range commitment to investigating its health-related benefits, the research related will remain fractured and sporadic, limiting the incentive of large funding agencies to support its wide-spread use.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan: an overview of its history, health benefits, and cultural
           value
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Guo Yucheng , Qiu Pixiang , Liu Taoguang
      Tai Ji Quan is considered to be a part of traditional Chinese Wushu (a martial art) and comprises various styles that have evolved historically from the Chen, Yang, Wǔ, Wú, and Sun families (schools). Recent simplification of the original classic styles has made Tai Ji Quan easier to adopt in practice. Thus, the traditional legacy of using Tai Ji Quan for self-defense, mindful nurturing of well-being, and fitness enhancement has been expanded to more contemporary applications that focus on promoting physical and mental health, enhancing general well-being, preventing chronic diseases, and being an effective clinical intervention for diverse medical conditions. As the impact of Tai Ji Quan on physical performance and health continues to grow, there is a need to better understand its historical impact and current status. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of Tai Ji Quan in China, its functional utility, and the scientific evidence of its health benefits, as well as how it has been a vehicle for enhancing cultural understanding and exchange between East and West.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan: From traditional applications to contemporary practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li , Peter Harmer



      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage cardiovascular
           disease: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
      Background Regular exercise is beneficial for adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors. Tai Ji Quan is popular among older adults and may offer additional exercise options. The present article aims to review the scientific literature published within the past decade on Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage CVD. Methods An electronic literature search of four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and AMED) was conducted from April 2003 through March 2013. Studies that examined Tai Ji Quan, were published in English, and specified a target study population of participants with a known CVD condition (e.g., coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, or stroke) or studies conducted among participants with a CVD risk factor (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, or impaired glucose metabolism) were included. Results A total of 20 studies met the inclusion criteria: 11 randomized clinical trials, seven quasi-experimental studies and two cross-sectional studies. The effect of Tai Ji Quan was examined on more than 20 different study variables among persons with coronary artery disease (n = 5 studies), chronic heart failure (n = 5 studies), stroke (n = 4 studies), and CVD risk factors (n = 6 studies). These studies were conducted primarily in Asia (n = 9, 45%) or the United States (n = 8, 40%). Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Ji Quan had better outcomes, though mixed results were reported. Conclusion Collectively, these studies indicate that Tai Ji Quan is a safe form of exercise to prevent and manage CVD. Further research is needed with more rigorous study designs, larger sample sizes, adequate Tai Ji Quan exercise doses, and carefully chosen outcome measures that assess the mechanisms as well as the effects of Tai Ji Quan, before widespread recommendations can be made.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan for the aging cancer survivor: Mitigating the accelerated
           development of disability, falls, and cardiovascular disease from cancer
           treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kerri Winters-Stone
      Currently there are more than 13.7 million cancer survivors living in the U.S., and that figure is projected to increase by 31% in the next decade, adding another 4 million cancer survivors into the healthcare system. Cancer is largely a disease of aging, and the aging of the population will sharply raise the proportion of older cancer survivors, many of whom will be long-term survivors (5 + years post diagnosis). This review will address the potential utility of exercise to address three health problems that are of particular concern for the aging cancer survivor and the healthcare system, i.e., disability, falls, and cardiovascular disease, because the development of these age-related problems may be accelerated by cancer treatment. While there are many different modes of exercise that each produce specific adaptations, Tai Ji Quan may be a particularly suitable strategy to mitigate the development of age- and cancer-treatment-related problems. Based on studies in older adults without cancer, Tai Ji Quan produces musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic adaptations and is more easily performed by older adults due to its low energy cost and slower movement patterns. Since cancer survivors are mostly older, inactive, and often physically limited by the lingering side effects of treatment, they need to engage in safe, practical, and effective modes of exercise. The dearth of published controlled trials examining the efficacy of Tai Ji Quan to mitigate cancer-treatment-related musculoskeletal and cardiovascular side effects points to ample research opportunities to explore the application of this non-Western exercise modality to improve long-term outcomes for aging cancer survivors.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Implementing an evidence-based Tai Ji Quan program in a multicultural
           setting: A pilot dissemination project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David Fink , Kate Houston
      Falls in older adults are a significant public health issue and a particularly significant health risk in Minnesota. With accumulating research evidence suggesting that falls can be prevented through exercise, there is an increased public health effort among organizations serving older adults to translate and disseminate evidence-based programs into the community. Such efforts, however, face additional challenges if they are implemented in communities with older adults from different cultural backgrounds and languages. This paper briefly describes a pilot community-based dissemination project, including the initiation, implementation, process, and outcomes, of an evidence-based fall prevention (Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance formerly known as Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance) through a local Area Agency on Aging in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area in Minnesota (USA). Overall, the program was successfully implemented resulting in adoption by local community organizations serving Asian and, to a lesser degree, East African non-English speaking older adults. Bilingual community instructors were trained to lead the classes resulting in broad participation and improved physical performance by the older adults targeted for the intervention. The results from this pilot study indicate that Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance can be implemented with positive results in non-English speaking community settings using bilingual leaders.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan, the brain, and cognition in older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yu-Kai Chang , Yu-Hsiang Nien , Ai-Guo Chen , Jun Yan
      The relationship between physical activity (PA) and cognition has received much attention recently. While evidence of improved cognition following PA has consistently been observed, the majority of studies have spotlighted aerobic exercise and the effects of other modes of PA, such as Tai Ji Quan, on cognition have received limited attention. This article provides a brief review of the literature concerning the influence of Tai Ji Quan on cognition in older adults, including those with intact cognition and those with cognitive impairment. In addition, this review proposes potential mechanisms (cardiovascular fitness, motor fitness, movement coordination, social interaction, and meditation statuses as well brain structure and function) evaluated from a neuroimaging perspective that may explain the Tai Ji Quan–cognition relationship. Finally, we present suggestions for future research. In conclusion, Tai Ji Quan, with its multi-faceted characteristics, shows promise as a mode of PA for enhancing cognition, as well as brain health, in older adults. Based on the findings in this review, further exploration of the effects of Tai Ji Quan on cognition in older adults is warranted.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Preventing falls with Tai Ji Quan: A public health perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Judy A. Stevens , Alexander Voukelatos , Heidi Ehrenreich
      Falls among people aged 65 and older are a significant public health problem and one that is expected to increase as the population ages. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that Tai Ji Quan can reduce falls and associated injuries among older adults. In this paper, we describe how Tai Ji Quan community programs are being utilized by public health and aging services organizations to reduce older adult falls. We conclude that, to have a population-level impact on reducing falls and improving the health of older adults, Tai Ji Quan interventions must be translated into community programs that meet the needs and abilities of older adults. These programs must be adapted to fit into existing community structures, disseminated through multiple delivery channels, adopted and implemented broadly by organizations, and institutionalized to ensure sustainability.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement
           therapy—Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li
      Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 2, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2013-12-08T11:21:26Z
       
  • Association between hip abductor function, rear-foot dynamic alignment and
           dynamic knee valgus during single-leg squats and drop landings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yoshinori Kagaya , Yasunari Fujii , Hidetsugu Nishizono
      Background Preventing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is very important for athletes and dynamic knee valgus is considered a risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, little is known about whether the functions of the hip abductor and rear-foot increase dynamic knee valgus. A two-dimensional (2D) video-based screening test focused on hip abductor and rear-foot functions among factors involved in dynamic knee valgus. The present study determined associations between hip and rear-foot dynamic alignment and dynamic knee valgus. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 130 female basketball players (258 legs) from nine high-school teams. The players performed single-leg squats and single-leg drop landings to provide knee-in (KID) and hip-out (HOD) distances on 2D video images. Hip and rear-foot dynamic alignment was evaluated using a dynamic Trendelenburg test (DTT) and a dynamic heel-floor test (HFT). Results The Chi-square test revealed no significant difference in the prevalence of DTT-positivity between single-leg squats (28.7%) and single-leg drop landings (23.3%). The prevalence of HFT-positivity was significantly greater during landings (51.4%) than during single-leg squats (31.0%, p < 0.01). The KID values for both single-leg squats and single-leg drop landings were greater in the DTT-positive than in the DTT-negative group (15.1 ± 5.4 cm and 20.2 ± 7.5 cm, p < 0.001). The HOD values were similarly greater (15.2 ± 1.9 cm and 17.6 ± 2.8 cm, p < 0.001) in the DTT-positive group. The KID values for both single-leg squats and single-leg drop landings were greater in the HFT-positive than in the HFT-negative group (12.2 ± 5.1 cm, p < 0.01 and 14.7 ± 7.2 cm, p < 0.001), whereas HOD values for these tasks did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusion Dynamic hip mal-alignment might be associated with both greater KID and HOD, whereas rear-foot eversion is associated only with greater KID. Hip abductor and rear-foot dysfunction are important factors for dynamic knee valgus and thus evaluating DTT and HFT will help to prevent dynamic knee valgus.


      PubDate: 2013-11-09T22:38:55Z
       
  • Analysis of the TCM theory of traditional Chinese health exercise
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yan Jiang , Jun Zou
      The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory of traditional Chinese health exercise (TCHE) is analyzed. The effect of meridians and acupoints contained in TCHE is summarized, the treatment methods of tonifying deficiencies and reducing excesses applied in TCHE are discussed, the regulation of Zang-fu organs are emphasized, and the leading role of Qi is introduced. The exercise prescription and proper timing of TCHE are described and reported. TCHE, such as Baduanjin, Liuzijue and Tai Chi possess strong TCM characteristics.


      PubDate: 2013-10-22T22:07:33Z
       
  • The effects of Tai Chi exercise on cognitive function in older adults: A
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yin Wu , Yongtai Wang , Elisabeth O. Burgess , Jerry Wu
      Backgrounds Cognitive impairment is prevalent among older adults and results in degraded quality of life for older adults. As the population ages, this may cause a huge burden to society. Research has demonstrated that physical exercise is beneficial to cognitive function. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to critically assess the effect of Tai Chi exercise on global cognitive, executive, and memory functions in older adults. Methods After a thorough electronic search and selection, eight studies were included in this meta-analysis with two cross-sectional and six intervention studies. Nine variables included in this meta-analysis were: mini mental status examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), trailmaking test part A (TMA), trailmaking test part B (TMB), digit span test forward (DSF), digit span test backward (DSB), visual span test backward (VSB), verbal fluency test (VFT), and word delay recall test (WDR). The effect sizes and forest plots of these nine variables were generated. Results Four (MMSE, DSB, VSB, and VFT) out of nine variables were significantly improved after Tai Chi exercise with the effect sizes ranged from 0.20 to 0.46 (small to medium). MMSE represented global cognitive function, and DSB, VSB, and VFT represented memory function. Conclusion Tai Chi as a mind-body exercise has the positive effects on global cognitive, and memory functions, and more consistent positive effects were found on memory function, especially verbal working memory.


      PubDate: 2013-09-28T05:27:11Z
       
  • Using Sensewear armband and diet journal to promote adolescents' energy
           balance knowledge and motivation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Senlin Chen , Xihe Zhu , Gregory J. Welk , Youngwon Kim , Jungmin Lee , Nathan F. Meier
      Purpose Educating adolescents about energy balance (EB) is essential for effective weight control. This study utilized the Sensewear (SWA) armband and a diet journal to promote adolescents' EB knowledge and motivation. Methods Ninety sixth graders were randomly assigned into the experimental group (n = 46) who utilized SWA and diet journal for 7 consecutive days or the control group (n = 44) who did not. Both groups were pre- and post-measured on EB knowledge, situational interest, and weight. The experimental group was tracked on motivation effort, energy expenditure (EE), and energy intake (EI). Results EB knowledge significantly increased and situational interest remained stable (except for total interest and enjoyment) over time, but these changes did not favor the experimental group. Situational interest and motivation effort were correlated with EE, EI, and/or EB. Conclusion Tracking EB using the SWA and diet journal is motivating but has limited efficacy in promoting adolescents' EB knowledge. Using these two tools as educational technology in conjunction with a focused, systematic, and educational approach has the potential to leverage adolescents' EB knowledge, motivation, as well as behaviors for living an energy-balanced lifestyle.


      PubDate: 2013-09-28T05:27:11Z
       
  • The ActiGraph GT3X determined variations in “free-living”
           standing, lying and sitting duration among sedentary adults in different
           BMI categories
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Faisal A. Barwais , Thomas F. Cuddihy , Jerome N. Rachele , Tracy L. Washington
      Background Overweight and obesity has become a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. Studies suggest that making small changes in daily activity levels such as “breaking-up” sedentary time (i.e., standing) may help mitigate the health risks of sedentary behavior. The aim of the present study was to examine time spent in standing (determined by count threshold), lying, and sitting postures (determined by inclinometer function) via the ActiGraph GT3X among sedentary adults with differing weight status based on body mass index (BMI) categories. Methods Participants included 22 sedentary adults (14 men, 8 women; mean age 26.5 ± 4.1 years). All subjects completed the self-report International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to determine time spent sitting over the previous 7 days. Participants were included if they spent seven or more hours sitting per day. Postures were determined with the ActiGraph GT3X inclinometer function. Participants were instructed to wear the accelerometer for 7 consecutive days (24 h a day). BMI was categorized as: 18.5 to <25 kg/m2 as normal, 25 to <30 kg/m2 as overweight, and >30 kg/m2 as obese. Results Participants in the normal weight (n = 10) and overweight (n = 6) groups spent significantly more time standing (after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and wear-time) (6.7 and 7.3 h respectively) and less time sitting (7.1 and 6.9 h respectively) than those in obese (n = 6) categories (5.5 h and 8.0 h respectively) after adjustment for wear-time (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in standing and sitting time between normal weight and overweight groups (p = 0.051 and p = 0.670 respectively). Differences were not significant among groups for lying time (p = 0.55). Conclusion This study described postural allocations standing, lying and sitting among normal weight, overweight and obese sedentary adults. The results provide additional evidence for the use of increasing standing time in obesity prevention strategies.


      PubDate: 2013-08-21T01:46:05Z
       
  • Understanding Chinese international college and university students'
           physical activity behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zi Yan , Bradley J. Cardinal , Alan C. Acock
      Objective To examine factors of the youth physical activity promotion (YPAP) model that are associated with Chinese international students' meeting PA recommendations (MPAR). Methods A total of 649 (females = 320, males = 329) Chinese international college students participated in the study. This study was conducted in the United States (U.S.) between June and August in 2011. Participants completed an online survey regarding their demographic, PA, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors. Results Logistic nested-regression analysis suggested that being male, having a higher body mass index (BMI), perceived competence, self-efficacy, attitude, and enjoyment all increased (p < 0.001) the participants' odds of MPAR. Except language barriers, all of the enabling and reinforcing factors predicted MPAR indirectly through the predisposing factors (p < 0.001). Conclusion Understanding factors that influence PA among Chinese international students is an important step in the process of promoting their long-term health and wellbeing. Designing program that address the identified key factors may help colleges and universities achieve this goal.


      PubDate: 2013-08-21T01:46:05Z
       
  • Parental involvement and gender differences in the psychological profile
           of freshmen collegiate athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 2, Issue 3
      Author(s): J. Gualberto Cremades , Catherine J. Donlon , Artur Poczwardowski
      Background The parent-to-child influences can be adaptive and contribute to the optimal psychological well-being and positive perception of the athlete. Contrary to the healthy parental involvement, a family can also have negative effects on an athlete development. The purpose of this study was to determine gender, father involvement, and mother involvement differences in the psychological profiles of collegiate freshmen athletes as measured by perfectionism, physical self-concept, and psychological well-being. Methods Eighty-two male and 73 female collegiate freshmen responded to self-reported measures of family involvement, perfectionism, physical self-concept, and psychological well-being. Three separate 2 × 2 × 2 (gender × mother involvement × father involvement) factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVAs) were carried out on the respective subscales from the reported measures. Results There were significant differences for gender as well as father involvement in perfectionism (p < 0.01). Freshmen females had lower concern over mistakes, and greater levels of organization as well as planfulness than males. Furthermore, freshmen athletes with high involved fathers showed greater levels of high standards for others as well as organization. Conclusion Father involvement and mother involvement impact extends through the freshmen year in college as shown in the athletes' perfectionism, physical self-concept, and psychological well-being. Future research should develop better measures and utilize a family systems perspective.


      PubDate: 2013-08-12T01:44:32Z
       
  • Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 2, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2013-08-12T01:44:32Z
       
  • The relationship between self-presentation concerns and pre-game affect
           among adolescent American football players
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 2, Issue 3
      Author(s): Leslie Podlog , Marc Lochbaum , Jens Kleinert , James Dimmock , Maria Newton , Stefanie Schulte
      Background The influence of self-presentation concerns on the adolescent sport experience has received scant empirical attention. The purpose of this investigation was to prospectively examine the relationship among self-presentational concerns and pre-game affective states among middle and high school aged football players. Methods American football players (n = 112; mean age = 15.57 years) completed a measure of self-presentational concerns (SPSQ, McGowan, et al., 2008) a week prior to the measurement of selected pre-game affective states (i.e., attentiveness, self-assurance, serenity, and fear). Results Regression analyses revealed that concerns about appearing athletically untalented negatively contributed to the significant prediction (p < 0.001) of pre-game attentiveness, β = −0.43, R 2 adj = 19.5% (p < 0.001), and self-assurance, β = −0.38, R 2 adj = 11.9% (p < 0.01). Conclusion These findings highlight the importance of reducing self-presentational concerns in promoting positive pre-game mental states that likely impact the quality of athletes' competitive play and experience.


      PubDate: 2013-08-12T01:44:32Z
       
  • Extraversion, emotional instability, and self-reported exercise: The
           mediating effects of approach-avoidance achievement goals
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 2, Issue 3
      Author(s): Marc Lochbaum , Kylee Litchfield , Leslie Podlog , Rafer Lutz
      Background Understanding leisure time physical inactivity is a priority in Westernized nations where participation rates are low. The present study sought to address this priority by examining whether the extraversion and emotional instability to leisure time exercise relationships were mediated through Elliot's (1999) 2 × 2 achievement goals. Methods Participants were 116 female and 97 male volunteers from a Southwestern community (mean age = 37.21 years, range 24–69) who completed measures of extraversion, emotional instability, approach-avoidance achievement goals, and 7-day recall of leisure-time exercise. Multiple mediation models (Preacher and Hayes, 2008) were run to specifically examine our hypotheses. Results The mastery-approach goal mediated the relationship from extraversion to overall exercise and strenuous intensity exercise. Results indicated emotional instability had direct effects on overall and strenuous leisure time exercise while also having significant (p < 0.05) indirect mediation paths through the performance-approach and avoidance goals. The extraversion and emotional instability models accounted from 15.89% to 29.82% of variance in the various self-reported exercise measures. Conclusion The results suggest the promotion of leisure-time exercise would be improved in the studied personalities by manipulation of achievement goals.


      PubDate: 2013-08-12T01:44:32Z
       
  • Moderating variables in the relationship between mental toughness and
           performance in basketball
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 2, Issue 3
      Author(s): Aubrey Newland , Maria Newton , Laura Finch , Colin R. Harbke , Leslie Podlog
      Purpose This study explored the relationship between mental toughness and college basketball performance, specifically examining possible moderating variables (gender and starting status). Methods Male and female (n = 197) college basketball players completed the Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A), a measure of characteristics and skills consistent with mental toughness, and the PERF, an objective measure of basketball performance. Results Findings suggest that basketball performance can be partially predicted by mental toughness and starting status. Males reported greater mental toughness than females. Starters and nonstarters did not differ in mental toughness. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis indicated that mental toughness was related to performance for male players as both a main effect and interaction with starter status. For female players, in contrast, starter status was the only significant predictor of performance. Practitioners are encouraged to foster the psychological skills associated with mental toughness in females and non-starters in basketball. Conclusion Discussion of the PPI-A as a measure of mental toughness and suggestions for its improvement are explored. A need exists for additional research on mental toughness and objective performance, as performance enhancement is a major impetus for research on mental toughness.


      PubDate: 2013-08-12T01:44:32Z
       
  • Human neuromuscular structure and function in old age: A brief review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Geoffrey A. Power , Brian H. Dalton , Charles L. Rice
      Natural adult aging is associated with many functional impairments of the human neuromuscular system. One of the more observable alterations is the loss of contractile muscle mass, termed sarcopenia. The loss of muscle mass occurs primarily due to a progressive loss of viable motor units, and accompanying atrophy of remaining muscle fibers. Not only does the loss of muscle mass contribute to impaired function in old age, but alterations in fiber type and myosin heavy chain isoform expression also contribute to weaker, slower, and less powerful contracting muscles. This review will focus on motor unit loss associated with natural adult aging, age-related fatigability, and the age-related differences in strength across contractile muscle actions.


      PubDate: 2013-08-03T16:48:10Z
       
  • Recent changes in evidence-based, non-pharmacological treatment
           recommendations for acupuncture and Tai Chi for knee osteoarthritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Songning Zhang



      PubDate: 2013-07-18T18:19:06Z
       
  • Process and outcome evaluation of the “No more smoking! It's time
           for physical activity” program
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mary Hassandra , Nikos Zourbanos , Georgia Kofou , Konstantinos Gourgoulianis , Yiannis Theodorakis
      Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the program “No more smoking! It's time for physical activity”, with a mixed methods design, in order to collect information to improve the program for future applications. Methods Forty patients across five anti-smoking clinics in Central Greece completed the program. Counselors' records and participants' questionnaires and interviews were used as data in order to evaluate the programs' process and outcome. Results Quantitative measures before and after the program revealed significant differences on smoking behavior, physical activity (PA) behavior, self-efficacy and smoking habit measures. Qualitative data implied that the promotion of PA as a cessation aid was perceived as positive by the participants and both participants' and counselors' statements were encouraging for the effectiveness of PA promotion during the program as a cessation-aid technique. Conclusion Strengths, weaknesses, and implications for further improvements of the program are further discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-07-18T18:19:06Z
       
  • A 6-week diet and exercise intervention alters metabolic syndrome risk
           factors in obese Chinese children aged 11–13 years
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Beibei Luo , Yang Yang , David C. Nieman , Yajun Zhang , Jie Wang , Ru Wang , Peijie Chen
      Purpose A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine whether a 6-week low calorie diet and aerobic exercise intervention could alter metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in pre-pubescent obese Chinese children. Methods The subjects were randomized into diet and exercise (DE) and control (C) groups. The DE group ingested 1,600–2,000 kcal/day adjusted to each participant's basal metabolic rate, and engaged in high-volume aerobic exercise (6 days/week, twice daily, for 3 h per session) for 6 weeks. A total of 215 obese children between the ages of 11 and 13 years were recruited into the study, with 167 subjects (DE, n = 95; C, n = 72) completing all phases. Pre- and post-study measures included body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure and other MetS-related markers from fasting blood samples (serum cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose). Results Compared to controls, the DE subjects experienced significantly reduced levels for all outcome markers (p < 0.05), except for fasting blood glucose in boys (p = 0.09). Conclusion An intensive, 6-week diet and exercise intervention had favorable effects in altering MetS risk factors in obese Chinese children aged 11 to 13.


      PubDate: 2013-07-01T21:37:03Z
       
  • Implications of exergaming for the physical education curriculum in the
           21st century
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Catherine D. Ennis
      Exergaming provides an initial situationally interesting environment in physical education (PE) that serves to motivate novice players to engage in PE or physical activity. Current research suggests, however, that as students persist in this activity their situational interest decreases as their ability to exercise consistently at moderate intensity levels increases. In this article I will briefly review the literature citing benefits of exergaming and the role of exergaming in contemporary PE curricula before turning to the question of the place of exergaming in a learning-oriented approach to PE. I will suggest that exergaming, when taught within a situated learning framework, can contribute to student understanding of the effects of exercise on their bodies and may produce meaningful lessons to assist students to create, monitor, and adapt a fitness plan to participate in life long exercise using a variety of physical activities.


      PubDate: 2013-07-01T21:37:03Z
       
  • Ulnar variance related to biological and training characteristics, pain
           and handgrip strength in Portuguese skeletally immature male gymnasts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Luísa Amaral , Albrecht L. Claessens , José Ferreirinha , Paulo Santos
      Purpose This study was to investigate the association between ulnar variance (UV) and biological and training characteristics, handgrip, and wrist pain in a group of 23 Portuguese skeletally immature male gymnasts (aged 11.2 ± 2.5 years). Methods Left and right UV was obtained using Hafner's procedure and skeletal age was determined by the Tanner–Whitehouse 3-method. A negative mean value for UV measures was observed (−2.4 to −3.6 mm) without significant differences with increasing age-category (p = 0.09 to p = 0.48). Significant low correlations were observed between some UV parameters and stature, fat percentage, years of training, and left handgrip strength. Results Ten gymnasts reported wrist pain with gradual onset and UV values were very similar between painless and painful wrists. Conclusion The findings of this study do not directly support the thesis that gymnastics training and biological variables or wrist pain are associated with UV.


      PubDate: 2013-06-27T21:02:08Z
       
  • Children's physical activity levels and psychological correlates in
           interactive dance versus aerobic dance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zan Gao , Tao Zhang , David Stodden
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare children's physical activity (PA) levels, self-efficacy, and enjoyment when experiencing dance-exergaming (Dance Dance Revolution, DDR) and aerobic dance in physical education. Methods A total of 53 urban fourth grade children were divided into two groups, with one group playing DDR and the other group engaged in aerobic dance. After 15 min, the groups switched activities and continued their respective activities for another 15 min. Participants wore NL-1000 pedometers in four consecutive sessions, and responded to a questionnaire measuring their self-efficacy and enjoyment toward two dance activities at the end of the first session. Results Children spent more moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) time (p < 0.01, η 2 = 0.49) in aerobic dance than DDR. Additionally, children reported significantly higher self-efficacy (p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.28) and enjoyment (p < 0.01, η 2 = 0.18) in DDR than in aerobic dance. Conclusion Health care professionals and educators may not replace the traditional physical activities and sports with interactive video games, but may use exergaming as an excellent addition to promote PA.


      PubDate: 2013-06-27T21:02:08Z
       
  • Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 2, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2013-06-07T20:04:06Z
       
  • The effects of a daily, 6-week exergaming curriculum on balance in fourth
           grade children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Dwayne P. Sheehan , Larry Katz
      Balance is an essential component of movement and is critical in the ability to participate in physical activity. Developing an exergaming curriculum for schools has the potential to improve balance or postural stability in children. In this study, a purposely-built exergaming center in an elementary school was used to test fourth grade students with a specially designed exergaming curriculum oriented toward improving postural stability. The program was implemented over a 6-week period, 34 min per day, 4–5 days per week. Two control groups were used: (1) a physical education (PE) class geared toward agility, balance, and coordination (ABC) improvement, and (2) a typical PE curriculum class. Exergaming students improved their postural stability significantly over a 6-week period compared to those in the typical PE class. Improvements in postural stability were also evident in the ABC class. Postural stability in the girls was better than the boys in all pre- and post-intervention tests. This study demonstrates that exergaming is a practical resource in the PE class to improve postural stability.


      PubDate: 2013-05-25T13:25:50Z
       
  • Impact of exergames on physical activity and motivation in elementary
           school students: A follow-up study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Haichun Sun
      The present study was built upon a previous study on the new generation video game, exergame, in elementary school physical education (PE). The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of exergames on elementary children's in-class physical activity (PA) intensity levels and perceived situational interest over time. The results indicated that students' situational interest dropped dramatically over two semesters, but their PA intensity increased over time. The results showed that boys and girls were equally active in the exergaming lessons, but boys perceived their gaming experiences more enjoyable than girls did. The findings suggest that exergames may be a sustainable means to enhance PA in PE. However, whether exergaming is a sustainable way to motivate children in PA is questionable.


      PubDate: 2013-05-25T13:25:50Z
       
  • Current concepts in sport concussion management: A multifaceted approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ashley Littleton , Kevin Guskiewicz
      Sport-related concussion is a common neurological injury that occurs in all levels of athletic participation. Concussions may actually go undiagnosed, as they do not always display outward signs and athletes may fail to report symptoms of concussion, either because they do not know the symptoms, or for fear of removal from play. Inappropriate management of concussion can lead to increased risk of subsequent injury. This article outlines various aspects of sport-related concussion management, including preparation/planning, education, evaluation, management, return to play decisions, and long term effects of concussion. Preparation and education are the first steps that must be taken to minimize the potentially negative consequences of concussion. If a concussion is suspected, it must be stressed that the evaluation should include a multifaceted approach, with a physical examination and assessment of signs and symptoms, neurocognition and balance. The management of concussion should include both physical and cognitive rest and factors such as transportation, sleep, work, and academics should be taken into consideration. Return to play following concussion should follow a graduated return to play protocol, with careful monitoring of symptoms. Sports medicine clinicians should stay up to date with information regarding concussion management and take a conservative approach, because there are recent reports of various cumulative effects of multiple concussions.


      PubDate: 2013-05-17T10:32:43Z
       
  • Physical activity responsive miRNAs – Potential mediators of
           training responses in human skeletal muscle?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Reeta Kangas , Eija Pöllänen



      PubDate: 2013-05-09T07:58:19Z
       
  • The complex role of physical exercise and reactive oxygen species on brain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zsolt Radak , Orsolya Marton , Eniko Nagy , Erika Koltai , Sataro Goto
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated during aerobic metabolism and at moderate level. They play a role in redox signaling but in significant concentration they cause oxidative damage and neurodegeneration. Because of the enhanced sensitivity of brain to ROS, it is especially important to maintain the normal redox state in different types of neuron cells. In the last decade it became clear that regular exercise beneficially affects brain function, and can play an important preventive and therapeutic role in stroke, Alzheimer, and Parkinson diseases. The effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include neurogenesis via neurotrophic factors, increased capillariszation, decreased oxidative damage, and increased proteolytic degradation by proteasome and neprilysin. Data from our and other laboratories indicate that exercise-induced modulation of ROS levels plays a role in the protein content and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB), and cAMP response element binding protein, resulting in better function and increased neurogenesis. Therefore, it appears that exercise-induced modulation of the redox state is an important means, by which exercise benefits brain function, increases the resistance against oxidative stress, facilitates recovery from oxidative stress, and attenuates age-associated decline in cognition.


      PubDate: 2013-04-27T19:05:40Z
       
  • Exercise and antioxidant supplements in the elderly
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera , Beatriz Ferrando , Thomas Brioche , Fabian Sanchis-Gomar , Jose Viña
      Both exercise and aging increase reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in damage to cells. Aging is the result of damage caused by ROS to the mitochondrial genome in post mitotic cells and numerous studies which have demonstrated an increase in ROS or their byproducts with exercise. ROS can cause oxidative stress as they overwhelm the antioxidant cellular defenses. Therefore interventions aimed at limiting or inhibiting ROS production, such as supplementation with antioxidant vitamins, should be able to reduce fatigue during muscle contraction and the rate of formation of aging changes with a consequent reduction of the aging rate and disease pathogenesis. However, it has been shown that ROS are essential signaling molecules which are required to promote the health benefits of exercise and longevity. In young individuals, ROS are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, for the development of training-induced adaptations in endurance performance, as well as for the induction of the endogenous defense systems. Thus, taking antioxidants during training, in young athletes, seems to be detrimental. However, antioxidant supplementation may be expected to be beneficial and is receiving growing attention in the active old population. In this manuscript we review the literature associated with the main areas of interest in this topic.


      PubDate: 2013-04-22T23:31:32Z
       
  • Mitochondrial redox metabolism in aging: Effect of exercise interventions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Hai Bo , Ning Jiang , Li Li Ji , Yong Zhang
      Mitochondrial redox metabolism has long been recognized as being central to the effects of aging and the development of age-related pathologies in the major oxidative organs. Consistent evidence has shown that exercise is able to retard the onset and impede the progression of aging by modifying mitochondrial oxidant–antioxidant homeostasis. Here we provide a broad overview of the research evidence showing the relationship between mitochondrial redox metabolism, aging and exercise. We address part aspects of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, from superoxide production, to ROS detoxification, especially antioxidant enzymes and uncoupling protein. Furthermore, we describe mitochondrial remodeling response to aging and exercise, which is accompanied by bioenergetics and redox regulation. In addition, potential mechanisms for redox signaling involved in mitochondrial remodeling and redox metabolism regulation are also reviewed.


      PubDate: 2013-04-15T01:37:00Z
       
  • Implications of oxidative damage to proteins and DNA in aging and its
           intervention by caloric restriction and exercise
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      In this short review we describe implications of age-related changes of protein and DNA oxidation as a public mechanism of biological aging. Oxidatively modified protein and DNA have been demonstrated to increase with advancing age in rodents. Half-life of proteins is extended and DNA repair activity declines in old animals by the regimen. Dietary restriction initiated late in life can shorten the half-life of proteins to levels of young animals, thus contributing to reduce level of altered proteins in old animals. Regular exercise reduced oxidatively modified proteins in the brain with improved cognitive functions. It attenuated oxidative stress in the liver, i.e., ameliorating activation of nuclear factor κB, increasing reduced glutathione, and decreasing oxidized guanine base in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. These findings suggest that regular exercise has systemic effects in reducing oxidative stress. Thus, life-styles such as diet and exercise may extend health span, by up-regulating overall anti-oxidant capacities that include proteins involved in protein turnover and DNA repair, resulting in reduction of damaged proteins and DNA that potentially promote physiological and pathological aging.


      PubDate: 2013-04-11T20:10:35Z
       
  • Healthy aging: Cellular insights
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science




      PubDate: 2013-04-11T20:10:35Z
       
  • Role of PGC-1α in muscle function and aging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      This article focus on the current underlying of molecular mechanisms of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mediated pathway and discuss possible therapeutic benefits of increased mitochondrial biogenesis in compensating for mitochondrial dysfunction and circumventing aging and aging-related diseases. PGC-1α is the master transcription regulator that stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, by upregulating nuclear respiratory factors and mitochondrial transcription factor A, leading to increased mitochondrial DNA replication and gene transcription. PGC-1α also regulates cellular oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis by stimulating the gene expression of superoxide dismutase-2, catalase, glutathione peroxidase 1, and uncoupling protein. Recent reports from muscle-specific PGC-1α overexpression underline the benefit of PGC-1α in muscle atrophy and sarcopenia, during which PGC-1α enhanced mitochondrial biogenic pathway and reduced oxidative damage. Thus, PGC-1α seems to have a protective role against aging associated skeletal muscle deterioration.


      PubDate: 2013-04-11T20:10:35Z
       
  • Effects of exergaming and the physical education curriculum
    • Abstract: Available online 21 March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science




      PubDate: 2013-03-21T18:34:50Z
       
  • Effects of resistance and Tai Ji training on mobility and symptoms in knee
           osteoarthritis patients
    • Abstract: Available online 1 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      Background No studies have compared effectiveness of resistance training and Tai Ji exercise on relieving symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of the study was to evaluate effects of a 10-week Tai Ji and resistance training intervention on improving OA symptoms and mobility in seniors with knee OA. Methods Thirty-one seniors (60–85 years) were randomly assigned to a Tai Ji program (n = 12), a resistance training program (n = 13), and a control group (n = 6). All participants completed the Western Ontario and MacMaster (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index and performed three physical performance tests (6-min walk, timed up-and-go, and timed stair climb and descent) before and after the 10-week interventions. Results The participants in the resistance training group significantly improved on the timed up-and-go test (p = 0.001), the WOMAC pain sub-score (p = 0.006), WOMAC stiffness sub-score (p 
      PubDate: 2013-02-04T22:34:40Z
       
 
 
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