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Journal Cover   Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [13 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Biomechanical characteristics of an anterior cruciate ligament injury in
           javelin throwing

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Boyi Dai, Min Mao, William E. Garrett, Bing Yu
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in javelin throwing and javelin throwing techniques relevant to this ACL injury. Methods The patient in this study was an elite female javelin thrower who completed the first three trials and sustained a non-contact ACL injury on her left knee in the fourth trial of javelin throwing during a recent track and field meet. Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected in the injury and non-injury trials. The kinematic data of 52 male and 54 female elite javelin throwers were obtained from a javelin throwing biomechanical database. Results The patient had greater forward center of mass velocity and less vertical center of mass velocity after the first 25% of the delivery phase in the injury trial compared to non-injury trials. The patient had less left knee flexion angle and angular velocity but similar left knee valgus and internal rotation angles during the first 21% of the delivery phase in the injury trial compared to non-injury trials. The video images showed an obvious tibia anterior translation at the 30% of the delivery phase in the injury trial. The left knee flexion angle and angular velocity at the time of the left foot landing and the maximal left knee flexion angle during the delivery phase were not significantly correlated to the official distance for 52 male and 54 female elite javelin throwers. Conclusion The ACL injury in this study occurred during the first 30% of the delivery phase, most likely during the first 25% of the delivery phase. A stiff landing of the left leg with a small knee flexion angle was the primary contributor to this injury. Javelin throwers may have a soft left leg landing with a flexed knee, which may help them prevent ACL injuries without compromising performance.


      PubDate: 2015-07-28T20:49:52Z
       
  • Effect of approach run velocity on the optimal performance of the triple
           jump

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Hui Liu, Dewei Mao, Bing Yu
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of horizontal and vertical velocities at the landing of the last step of approach run on the performance and optimal phase ratio of the triple jump. Methods Three-dimensional kinematic data of 13 elite male triple jumpers were obtained during a competition. Computer simulations were performed using a biomechanical model of the triple jump to determine the longest actual distance using the optimal phase ratio with altered horizontal and vertical velocities at the landing of the last step of approach run. Results The actual distance obtained using the optimal phase ratio significantly increased as the horizontal velocity at the landing of the last step of approach run increased (p = 0.001) and the corresponding downward vertical velocity decreased (p = 0.001). Increasing horizontal velocity at the landing of the last step of approach run decreased optimal hop percentage and increased optimal jump percentage (p = 0.001), while decreasing corresponding downward vertical velocity increased optimal hop percentage and decreased optimal jump percentage (p = 0.001). Conclusion The effects of the velocities at the landing of the last step of approach run on the optimal phase ratio were generally small and did not qualitatively alter optimal techniques.


      PubDate: 2015-07-28T20:49:52Z
       
  • Performance on the Functional Movement Screen in older active adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ulrike H. Mitchell, A. Wayne Johnson, Pat R. Vehrs, J. Brent Feland, Sterling C. Hilton
      Purpose The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) has become increasingly popular for identifying functional limitations in basic functional movements. This exploratory and descriptive study was undertaken to confirm feasibility of performing the FMS™ in older active adults, assess prevalence of asymmetries and to evaluate the relationship between functional movement ability, age, physical activity level and body mass index (BMI). Methods This is an observational study; 97 men (n = 53) and women (n = 44) between the ages of 52 and 83 participated. BMI was computed and self-reported physical activity levels were obtained. Subjects were grouped by age (5-year intervals), BMI (normal, over-weight, and obese) and sex. Each participant's performance on the FMS™ was digitally recorded for later analysis. Results The youngest age group (50–54 years) scored highest in all seven tests and the oldest age group (75+) scored lowest in most of the tests compared to all other age groups. The subjects in the “normal weight” group performed no different than those who were in the “overweight” group; both groups performed better than the “obese” group. Of the 97 participants 54 had at least one asymmetry. The pairwise correlations between the total FMS score and age (r = −0.531), BMI (r = −0.270) and the measure of activity level (r = 0.287) were significant (p < 0.01 for all). Conclusion FMS™ scores decline with increased BMI, increased age and decreased activity level. The screen identifies range of motion- and strength-related asymmetries. The FMS™ can be used to assess functional limitations and asymmetries. Future research should evaluate if a higher total FMS™ score is related to fewer falls or injuries in the older population.


      PubDate: 2015-07-28T20:49:52Z
       
  • The training process: Planning for strength–power training in track
           and field. Part 2: Practical and applied aspects

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Brad DeWeese, Guy Hornsby, Meg Stone, Michael H. Stone
      Planning training programs for strength/power track and field athletes requires an understanding of both training principles and training theory. The training principles are overload, variation, and specificity. Each of these principles must be incorporated into an appropriate system of training. Conceptually, periodization embraces training principles and offers advantages in planning, allowing for logical integration and manipulation of training variables such as exercise selection, intensification, and volume factors. The adaptation and progress of the athlete is to a large extent directly related to the ability of the coach/athlete to create and carry an efficient and efficacious training process. This ability includes: an understanding of how exercises affect physiological and performance adaptation (i.e., maximum force, rate of force development, power, etc.), how to optimize transfer of training effect ensuring that training exercises have maximum potential for carryover to performance, and how to implement programs with variations at appropriate levels (macro, meso, and micro) such that fatigue management is enhanced and performance progress is optimized.


      PubDate: 2015-07-28T20:49:52Z
       
  • The training process: Planning for strength—power training in track
           and field. Part 1: Theoretical aspects

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Brad H. DeWeese, Guy Hornsby, Meg Stone, Michael H. Stone
      The process of strength-power training and the subsequent adaptation is a multi-factorial process. These factors range from the genetics and morphological characteristics of the athlete to how a coach selects, orders, and doses exercises and loading patterns. Consequently, adaptation from these training factors may largely relate to the mode of delivery, in other words, programming tactics. There is strong evidence that the manner and phases in which training is presented to the athlete can make a profound difference in performance outcome. This discussion deals primarily with block periodization concepts and associated methods of programming for strength-power training within track and field.


      PubDate: 2015-07-28T20:49:52Z
       
  • Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jacob A. Sinex, Robert F. Chapman
      Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2,000–3,000 m) for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.


      PubDate: 2015-07-28T20:49:52Z
       
  • The effects of artificial surface temperature on mechanical properties and
           player kinematics during landing and acceleration

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Laura Charalambous , Hans Christian Von Lieres und Wilkau , Wolfgang Potthast , Gareth Irwin
      Background Artificial turf is considered a feasible global alternative to natural turf by many sports governing bodies. Consequently, its ability to provide a safe and consistent playing surface regardless of climate becomes essential. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of artificial surface temperature on: (1) mechanical properties of the turf and (2) the kinematics of a turf-sport related movement. Methods Two identical artificial turf pitches were tested: one with a cold surface temperature (1.8°C–2.4°C) and one with a warm surface temperature (14.5°C–15.2°C). Mechanical testing was performed to measure the surface properties. Four amateur soccer players performed a hurdle jump to sprint acceleration movement, with data (contact time, step length and hip, knee and ankle kinematics) collected using CODASport (200 Hz). Results The temperature difference had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of the artificial turf, including force absorption, energy restitution, rotational resistance and the height where the head injury criterion (HIC) was met. Both step length (p = 0.008) and contact time (p = 0.002) of the initial step after the landing were significantly longer on the warm surface. In addition, significant range of motion and joint angular velocity differences were found. Conclusion These findings highlight different demands placed on players due to the surface temperature and suggest a need for coaches, practitioners and sports governing bodies to be aware of these differences.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • The relationship between steeplechase hurdle economy, mechanics, and
           performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sarah Earl , Iain Hunter , Gary Mack , Matthew Seeley
      Background Research surrounding the steeplechase is scarce, with most research focusing primarily on how biomechanical factors relate to maintaining running speed while crossing barriers. One area that has not been well explored is the relationship between biomechanical factors and hurdling economy. The purpose of this study was to investigate how performance times and biomechanical variables relate to hurdling economy during the steeplechase. Methods This was accomplished by measuring running economy of collegiate and professional steeplechasers while running with and without hurdles. Biomechanical measures of approach velocity, take-off distance, clearance height, and lead knee extension while hurdling, as well as steeplechase performance times were correlated to a ratio of running economy with and without hurdles. Results While oxygen uptake was 2.6% greater for the laps requiring five barriers, there was no correlation between steeplechase performance time and the ratio of running economy during the hurdle and non-hurdle laps. Results also indicated no correlation between the aforementioned biomechanical variables and ratio of running economy during the hurdle and non-hurdle laps. Conclusion Increasing approach velocity did not negatively affect running economy. Increased approach velocity is a benefit for maintenance of race pace, but does not hurt economy of movement.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • Evidence of a conservative gait strategy in athletes with a history of
           concussions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Thomas A. Buckley , Srikant Vallabhajosula , Jessie Oldham , Barry A. Munkasy , Kelsey M. Evans , David A. Krazeise , Caroline J. Ketcham , Eric E. Hall
      Background A history of three or more concussions is frequently associated with numerous short- and long-term neuropathologies. Impairments in postural control are a known acute consequence of concussion; however, limited evidence exists on the effects of multiple concussions on gait. The purpose of this study was to assess gait stepping characteristics in collegiate aged student-athletes based on concussion history. Methods There were 63 participants divided into three even groups based on concussion history: ≥3 concussions, 1–2 concussions, and 0 concussion. All participants completed 10 trials of gait on a 4.9 m instrumented walkway. The dependent variables of interest included both gait stepping characteristics (step velocity, length, and width, double support time, and the percentage of the gait cycle in stance) and coefficient of variability (CoV) measures (step length, time, and width). The gait stepping characteristics were compared first with a MANOVA with follow-up one-way ANOVAs and Tukey post-hoc tests as appropriate. The CoV measures were compared with one-way ANOVAs and Tukey post-hoc tests. Results There were main effects for group for step velocity, length, width, and double support time. Overall, the 0 concussion group displayed typical healthy young gait parameters and performed significantly better than either concussion group. The 0 concussion group had a significantly greater step length CoV, but there were no differences in the step time or width CoV. Conclusion This finding provides evidence of subtle impairments in postural control during gait among individuals with prior history of concussion which could be an early indicator of future neurological deficiencies. The limited difference in the variability measures is consistent with prior static stance studies and could suggest the individuals constrain their motor systems to reduce variability. Taken together, these findings suggest a conservative gait strategy which is adopted by individuals with a history of concussions.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • A comparison of base running and sliding techniques collegiate baseball
           with implications for sliding into first base

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Travis Ficklin , Jesus Dapena , Alexander Brunfeldt
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare four techniques for arrival at a base after sprinting maximally to reach it: sliding head-first, sliding feet-first, running through the base without slowing, and stopping on the base. A secondary purpose of the study was to determine any advantage there may be to diving into first base to arrive sooner than by running through the base. Methods Two high-definition video cameras were used to capture three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of sliding techniques of nine intercollegiate baseball players. Another video camera was used to time runs from first base to second in four counterbalanced conditions: running through the base, sliding head-first, sliding feet-first, and running to a stop. Mathematical modeling was used to simulate diving to first base such that the slide would begin when the hand touches the base. Results Based upon overall results, the quickest way to the base is by running through it, followed by head-first, feet-first, and running to a stop. Conclusion There was a non-significant trend toward an advantage for diving into first base overrunning through it, but more research is needed, and even if the advantage is real, the risks of executing this technique probably outweigh the miniscule gain.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • A quantification of the treadmill 6-min walk test using the MyWellness
           Key™ accelerometer

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 4, Issue 2
      Author(s): S. Andy Sparks , Nathan P. Hilton
      Background Accelerometers have been suggested to provide additional information during the 6-min walk test which may be useful in evaluating changes in functional exercise capacity. The aim of the study was to identify whether the additional information measured by the MyWellness Key™ (MWK) accelerometer during a treadmill 6-min walk test (t-6MWT) was related to currently used outcome measures. Methods Fifteen participants (9 males, 6 females) performed a self-paced t-6MWT. Respiratory gas analysis and walking distance were measured whilst wearing the MWK. Results A significant correlation was established between activity counts and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) (r = −0.847, p < 0.001) yet not 6-min walk work (6MWW) (r = −0.337, p = 0.220). Energy expenditure estimated by the MWK was strongly correlated to 6MWW (r = 0.938, p < 0.001) but not 6MWD (r = 0.477, p = 0.072). The MWK significantly underestimated energy expenditure (36.73, CI = 33.9–39.7 kcal) compared to gas analysis (54.35, CI = 46.2–61.4 kcal) demonstrating poor agreement between the two analyses (Bias = −17.61 kcal, Limits of agreement = −37.4, +2.2 kcal). Measurement of time spent undertaking light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the MWK and gas analysis. Conclusion Estimated energy expenditure provided by the MWK was strongly correlated to 6MWW; however, MWK underestimated energy expenditure as measured by gas analysis. The MWK may provide outcome data that supplement those currently provided by the 6MWD for functional capacity assessment during the t-6MWT.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • Effect of minimal shoes and slope on vertical and leg stiffness during
           running

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 4, Issue 2
      Author(s): Thibault Lussiana , Kim Hébert-Losier , Laurent Mourot
      Purpose This study was designed to characterize and compare the vertical (k vert) and leg (k leg) stiffness measured during running in two different footwear conditions on negative, level, and positive slopes, using kinematic data only. Methods Fourteen male recreational runners (age 23.4 ± 4.4 years, height 177.5 ± 5.2 cm, and body mass 69.5 ± 5.3 kg) were tested on 2 separate days within 1 week. At each session, subjects ran seven 5-min trials on a treadmill at 10 km/h, interspersed with 5 min of sitting passive recovery. Each trial was performed on a different slope gradient, ranging from −8% (downhill) to +8% (uphill), assigned in a random order. Furthermore, each subject ran one 5-min trial wearing minimal shoes (MS) and the subsequent trial wearing traditional shoes (TS) in a counter-balanced randomized order ensuring that each slope was ran once in MS and once in TS. Kinematic data were collected using a photocell measuring system and high-speed video camera, with k vert and k leg stiffness being calculated from these data. Results Leg compression, contact times, and vertical displacement of the center of mass during running were significantly smaller in MS compared to TS across all slopes. In the two footwear conditions, step frequency significantly increased with a (positive) increase in slope. Kinematic analyses indicated that k leg was greater when running in MS than TS and this between-footwear difference remained similar across slopes. On the contrary, k vert did not change on the basis of footwear, but increased with positive increases in slope. Conclusion This study showed that k vert and k leg during running respond differently to change in footwear and/or slope. These two stiffness measures can hence provide a unique insight on the biomechanical adaptations of running under varying conditions and their respective quantification may assist in furthering our understanding of training, performance, and/or injury in this sport.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • Association between hip abductor function, rear-foot dynamic alignment,
           and dynamic knee valgus during single-leg squats and drop landings

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 4, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yoshinori Kagaya , Yasunari Fujii , Hidetsugu Nishizono
      Background Preventing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is very important for athletes, and dynamic knee valgus is considered a risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, little is known about whether the functions of the hip abductor and rear-foot increase dynamic knee valgus. A two-dimensional (2D) video-based screening test focused on hip abductor and rear-foot functions among factors involved in dynamic knee valgus. The present study determined associations between hip and rear-foot dynamic alignment and dynamic knee valgus. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 130 female basketball players (258 legs) from nine high-school teams. The players performed single-leg squats and single-leg drop landings to provide knee-in (KID) and hip-out (HOD) distances on 2D video images. Hip and rear-foot dynamic alignment was evaluated using a dynamic Trendelenburg test (DTT) and a dynamic heel-floor test (HFT). Results The Chi-square test revealed no significant difference in the prevalence of DTT-positivity between single-leg squats (28.7%) and single-leg drop landings (23.3%). The prevalence of HFT-positivity was significantly greater during landings (51.4%) than during single-leg squats (31.0%, p < 0.01). The KID values for both single-leg squats and single-leg drop landings were greater in the DTT-positive than in the DTT-negative group (15.1 ± 5.4 cm and 20.2 ± 7.5 cm, p < 0.001). The HOD values were similarly greater in the DTT-positive group (15.2 ± 1.9 cm and 17.6 ± 2.8 cm, p < 0.001). The KID values for both single-leg squats and single-leg drop landings were greater in the HFT-positive than in the HFT-negative group (12.2 ± 5.1 cm, p < 0.01; 14.7 ± 7.2 cm, p < 0.001), whereas HOD values for these tasks did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusion Dynamic hip mal-alignment might be associated with both greater KID and HOD, whereas rear-foot eversion is associated only with greater KID. Hip abductor and rear-foot dysfunction are important factors for dynamic knee valgus and thus evaluating DTT and HFT will help to prevent dynamic knee valgus.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • A meta-analytic review of the approach-avoidance achievement goals and
           performance relationships in the sport psychology literature

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 4, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marc Lochbaum , Jarrett Gottardy
      Purpose To summarize the approach-avoidance achievement goal and performance in the sport psychology literature. Methods A total of 17 published studies, two of which provided two samples, were located. Accepted meta-analytic procedures were used with Hedges g as the effect size metric. From the 17 studies, 73 effect sizes were calculated. Results Results based on a random effects model indicated that the performance goal contrast had the largest facilitative impact on performance followed by the mastery and performance approach goals. Both of the avoidance goals performance and mastery had small non-significant and detrimental effects on performance. The homogeneity statistics revealed significant heterogeneity for the approach and avoidance performance goals. Categorical moderator variables were examined for study sex composition (male, female, or mixed), mean age of sample (<18 years or ≥18 years), study setting (lab or naturalistic), and nature of performance variable (objective or subjective). Conclusion The performance goal contrast holds value for sport performance research. Contrary to approach-avoidance predictions, the mastery-approach goal and performance effect size was significant and of equal magnitude as the performance approach goal and performance effect size. Thus, future research should closely test the efficacy of both the mastery- and performance contrasts in impacting performance of sport tasks. Last, the significant effect sizes reported in this review are in stark contrast to contemporary meta-analytic findings in education. Differences in the approach-avoidance goals in sport and education relative to performance should be researched further.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • Ulnar variance related to biological and training characteristics, pain
           and handgrip strength in Portuguese skeletally immature male gymnasts

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 4, Issue 2
      Author(s): Luísa Amaral , Albrecht L. Claessens , José Ferreirinha , Paulo Santos
      Purpose This study was to investigate the association between ulnar variance (UV) and biological and training characteristics, handgrip, and wrist pain in a group of 23 Portuguese skeletally immature male gymnasts (aged 11.2 ± 2.5 years). Methods Left and right UV was obtained using Hafner's procedure and skeletal age was determined by the Tanner–Whitehouse 3-method. A negative mean value for UV measures was observed (−2.4 to −3.6 mm) without significant differences with increasing age-category (p = 0.09 to p = 0.48). Significant low correlations were observed between some UV parameters and stature, fat percentage, years of training, and left handgrip strength. Results Ten gymnasts reported wrist pain with gradual onset and UV values were very similar between painless and painful wrists. Conclusion The findings of this study do not directly support the thesis that gymnastics training and biological variables or wrist pain are associated with UV.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 4, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • Effectiveness of quality physical education in improving students'
           manipulative skill competency

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Weiyun Chen , Weimo Zhu , Steve Mason , Austin Hammond-Bennett , Andrew Colombo-Dougovito
      Objectives This study examined the extent to which the quality physical education (PE) teaching practices (QPET) contributed to improving fourth- and fifth-grade students' manipulative skill competency. Methods Participants were nine elementary PE teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 2709–3420). The students' skill competency was assessed with three manipulative skills using PE Metrics assessment rubrics. The PE teachers' levels of QPET were assessed by coding 63 videotaped lessons using the assessing quality teaching rubrics (AQTR), which consisted of four essential dimensions including task design, task presentation, class management, and instructional guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4%, 84.5%, and 94%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R 2 regression models, and independent sample t tests. Results This study indicated that the four essential dimensions of QPET were all significant contributors to students' manipulative skill competency. These predictors were significantly higher for boys than for girls in soccer and striking skills, while they were significantly higher for girls than for boys in throwing skill competency. Of the four essential dimensions of QPET, task presentation played the most significant role in contributing to all three skill competencies for both boys and girls. Further, students who experienced high QPET were significantly more skillfully competent than those students who did not have this experience. Conclusion It was concluded that the QPET practices played a significantly critical role in contributing to students' manipulative skill competency.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • Understanding Chinese international college and university students'
           physical activity behavior

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 4, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zi Yan , Bradley J. Cardinal , Alan C. Acock
      Objective To examine factors of the youth physical activity promotion (YPAP) model that are associated with Chinese international students' meeting PA recommendations (MPAR). Methods A total of 649 (females = 320, males = 329) Chinese international college students participated in the study. This study was conducted in the United States (US.) between June and August in 2011. Participants completed an online survey regarding their demographic, PA, predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors. Results Logistic nested-regression analysis suggested that being male, having a higher body mass index, perceived competence, self-efficacy, attitude, and enjoyment all increased (p < 0.001) the participants' odds of MPAR. Except language barriers, all of the enabling and reinforcing factors predicted MPAR indirectly through the predisposing factors (p < 0.001). Conclusion Understanding factors that influence PA among Chinese international students is an important step in the process of promoting their long-term health and wellbeing. Designing program that address the identified key factors may help colleges and universities achieve this goal.


      PubDate: 2015-06-23T14:57:15Z
       
  • Effects of aerobic training on serum paraoxonase activity and its
           relationship with PON1-192 phenotypes in women

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gulbin Rudarli Nalcakan , S. Rana Varol , Faruk Turgay , Mesut Nalcakan , M. Zeki Ozkol , S. Oguz Karamizrak
      Background Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme that protects high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. Limited studies have addressed the influence of exercise on PON1 activity and its relationship with PON1 phenotypes. We investigated relationships between PON1-192 phenotypes, PON1 activity, aerobic exercise, and blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in middle-aged women. Methods An exercise group (n = 50) engaging in regular aerobic exercise and a control group (n = 41) were selected from a subset of 300 Caucasian women that met the inclusion criteria. Serum PON1, salt-stimulated PON1 (SSPON1), and arylesterase (ARE) activities; cholesterol levels and ARE activities of total HDL and HDL subgroups (HDLs) (supernatants obtained by polyethylene glycol); and blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were determined by standardized enzymatic methods. PON1-192 QQ (low activity), QR (moderate activity), and RR (high activity) phenotype groups were defined using serum SSPON1/ARE activity ratios. The RC phenotype group consisted of the QR and RR groups combined. Results All lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were greater in the exercise group than in the control group. Regardless of phenotype, no significant differences were observed between the exercise and control groups in terms of serum PON1, SSPON1, or ARE activity associated with HDLs (p > 0.05), whereas PON1 activities in QQ-phenotyped women in the exercise group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.01), but not the RC group. A statistically significant interaction between PON1 phenotypes (QQ and RC groups) and exercise (exercise and control groups) on PON1 activity was found. Conclusion These results showed that a regular aerobic exercise program can improve PON1 activity depending on PON1-192 phenotype, but not on lipid and lipoprotein levels, in middle-aged Turkish women.


      PubDate: 2015-06-04T04:00:11Z
       
  • Manipulative skill competency and health-related physical fitness
           in elementary school students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Weiyun Chen , Steve Mason , Austin Hammond-Bennett , Sandy Zalmout
      Background Improving motor skill competency and enhancing health-related physical fitness are desired learning outcomes for school-aged children. Achieving motor skill competency and a healthy level of physical fitness lay a foundation for being a physically active person across a lifetime. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between levels of manipulative skill competency and physical fitness for elementary school boys and girls. Methods In this study, 565 fourth-grade students and their nine physical education teachers were voluntary participants. The students were assessed in four basic specialized manipulative skills and four fitness components during regular physical education lessons. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, univariate analyses, and multiple R 2 liner regression methods. Results Boys were more proficient at the manipulative skills than girls, while girls had significant higher percentages for meeting the healthy fitness zone for the fitness tests than boys. Four manipulative skills significantly predicted progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER), push-up, and trunk lifts tests at p < 0.05 levels, but not curl-up test for both boys and girls. Boys and girls in the Skill-Competent group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the Skill-Incompetent group on PACER, push-up, and trunk lift tests at p < 0.05 level, with an exception of curl-up test. Conclusion The more competent in manipulative skills, the higher healthy level in cardiovascular endurance, upper-body muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility the students demonstrated. Demonstrating manipulative skill competence and maintaining a healthy level of physical fitness are two major desired learning outcomes for elementary school students to be able to achieve.


      PubDate: 2015-06-04T04:00:11Z
       
  • Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis mechanisms and prevention: A literature
           review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jooyoung Kim , Joohyung Lee , Sojung Kim , Ho young Ryu , Kwang Suk Cha , Dong Jun Sung
      Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis (exRML), a pathophysiological condition of skeletal muscle cell damage that may cause acute renal failure and in some cases death. Increased Ca2+ level in cells along with functional degradation of cell signaling system and cell matrix have been suggested as the major pathological mechanisms associated with exRML. The onset of exRML may be exhibited in athletes as well as in general population. Previous studies have reported that possible causes of exRML were associated with excessive eccentric contractions in high temperature, abnormal electrolytes balance, and nutritional deficiencies possible genetic defects. However, the underlying mechanisms of exRML have not been clearly established among health professionals or sports medicine personnel. Therefore, we reviewed the possible mechanisms and correlated prevention of exRML, while providing useful and practical information for the athlete and general exercising population.


      PubDate: 2015-06-04T04:00:11Z
       
  • Defensive pressure affects basketball technical actions but not the
           time-motion variables

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jaime Sampaio , Roland Leser , Arnold Baca , Julio Calleja-Gonzalez , Diogo Coutinho , Bruno Gonçalves , Nuno Leite
      Background Novel player tracking technologies can change the understanding of performance determinants in team sports by allowing to accurately measuring the activity demands. The aim of this study was to identify how the defensive pressure affects the time-motion variables and the technical actions in basketball. Methods Twenty international male players (age: 16.05 ± 2.09 years, weight: 73.13 ± 8.10 kg, height: 183.10 ± 5.88 cm) played two 10-min basketball quarters, where they used a man-to-man ¼-court defense until the 4th minute (F¼), changed to man-to-man full court (FULL) for 3 min and, from the 7th to the 10th min returned to ¼-court defense (S¼). A computerized notational analysis was performed using Simi Scout (version 2.0.0.174, Simi Reality Motion Systems GmbH, 2007, Unterschleissheim, Germany) and positional data were captured with the Ubisense Real Time Location System (mean sampling rate 3.74 ± 0.45 Hz per transmitter/player). Results The time-motion variables presented similar results between defensive conditions, showing a total distance covered around 90 m/min. However, results suggested possible vertical jump impairments in S¼ periods. There was more distance covered while jogging in the offensive court (38.15 ± 12.17 m/min offensive court vs. 32.94 ± 10.84 m/min defensive court, p < 0.05) and more distance covered while running in the defensive court (16.41 ± 10.27 m/min offensive court vs. 19.56 ± 10.29 m/min defensive court, p < 0.05). Conclusion These results suggest how to improve task representativeness during specific conditioning or game-based training situations and also to help coaches' strategic decisions during the games.


      PubDate: 2015-06-04T04:00:11Z
       
  • English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Joshua M. Williams , Jody L. Langdon , James McMillan , Thomas Buckley
      Background Concussions are a common pathology in football and multiple misconceptions exist amongst the players and managers. To address these misconceptions, and potentially reduce concussion associated sequela, effective educational interventions need to be developed. However, the current knowledge and attitude status must be ascertained to appropriately develop these interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the concussion knowledge and attitude of English professional footballers. Methods Twenty-six participants from one English Football League Championship club completed the study. A mixed methods approach included the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS) and a semi-structured interview. The RoCKAS contains separate knowledge (0–25) and attitude (15–75) scores and was followed by a semi-structured interview consisting of concussion knowledge, attitude, and behavior related questions. Results The mean score on the RoCKAS knowledge was 16.4 ± 2.9 (range 11–22) and the attitude score was 59.6 ± 8.5 (range 41–71). The interview responses identified inconsistencies between the RoCKAS and the intended behaviors, endorsing multiple concussion misconceptions, and revealed barriers to concussion reporting. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.


      PubDate: 2015-05-28T14:00:00Z
       
  • Effects of age onmarathon finishing timeamong male amateur runners in
           Stockholm Marathon 1979-2014

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Niklas Lehto
      Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the age-related changes in the endurance performance among male amateur marathon runners. Methods Subjects were taken from the 36 Stockholm Marathons heldfrom 1979 through 2014, and age and finishing time were analyzed for a total of 312,342male runners. Results The relation was found to be a second-order polynomial, t = a + bx + cx 2, which models 99.7% of the variation in the average running time t as a function of age x. The model shows that the marathon performance of the average runner improves up to age 34.3 ± 2.6 years, thereafter, the performance starts to decline. Aquantification of the age’s influence on running time shows that it accounts for 4.5% of the total variance seen in the performance data. Conclusion These outcomes indicate that the effect of age on performance in endurance running events is clearly measurable, quantifiable and possible to describe. At the same time the findings indicate that other factors, such as training, affect the performance more. A comparison with the elite showed peak performance at the same age, but the rates of change in performance with age, improvement as well as degradation, was found to be higher among the elite.


      PubDate: 2015-05-28T14:00:00Z
       
  • Competitive trampolining influences trabecular bone structure, bone size,
           and bone strength

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lauren A. Burt , John D. Schipilow , Steven K. Boyd
      Purpose Trampolining is a form of gymnastics that has increased in popularity over the last decade and due to its concurrence with the formative years of bone development, it may have an important impact on bone health. However, bone density, microarchitecture, and bone strength of competitive trampolinists have not been explored. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between trampolining participation and (1) bone density, area, and microarchitecture; and (2) estimated bone strength and the role of muscle and impact loading in young female adults. Methods We recruited 29 female participants aged 16–29 years for this study (n = 14 trampolinists; n = 15 controls). Skeletal parameters were assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and finite element analysis (FEA). Muscle strength was measured using dynamometers. Results Trampolinists had higher bone density at the hip and spine, greater trabecular density and thicker trabeculae at the tibia as well as larger bones at both the tibia and radius than controls (p < 0.05). Trampolinists also had higher muscle strength than controls at the lower body with no difference between groups in the upper body. Estimates of bone strength using FEA were greater for trampolinists than controls at both the radius and tibia. Conclusion This is the first study to investigatebone density, area, and microarchitecture in female trampolinists using HR-pQCT. In conclusion, trampolinists had greater bone density, area, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength than controls.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Salsa dance and Zumba fitness: Acute responses during community-based
           classes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Pablo A. Domene , Hannah J. Moir , Elizabeth Pummell , Chris Easton
      Background Research interest in both partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance has increased in recent years, likely a result of the gaining popularity of these types of instructor-led group classes among the mainstream dance and fitness audiences; however, the efficacy of these activities for the purposes of health promotion currently remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously assess the physiological responses and psychological experiences during salsa dance and Zumba fitness in a community sample of physically inactive women. Methods Twenty-four participants, aged 22—56 year, visited the laboratory to perform a graded exercise test for determination of maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate. The participants then attended two partnered salsa dance and two non-partnered Zumba fitness classes each in a counterbalanced order over a 2-week period. The 1-h classes were taught by certified instructors in established venues in the Royal Borough of Kingston and the surrounding communities of London, UK. Physiological data were collected using a wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X+ accelerometer with accompanying heart rate monitor and were processed using previously validated dance-specific techniques. Psychological experiences were measured via the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. Results There was a significantly higher (p < 0.001) total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (51.2 ± 3.1 vs. 32.6 ± 5.9 min), total energy expenditure (411 ± 66 vs. 210 ± 46 kcal), and total step count (6773 ± 556 vs. 4108 ± 781 step) during Zumba fitness when compared to salsa dance. Significant pre-to post-class improvements in positive well-being (p < 0.01, partial η 2 = 0.41) and psychological distress (p < 0.001, partial η 2 = 0.72) were simultaneously observed for both salsa dance and Zumba fitness. Conclusion The acute responses to classes of partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance suggest that in physically inactive women participation is indeed efficacious in terms of community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • The effect of high and low exercise intensity periods on a simple memory
           recognition test

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ben Rattray , Disa J. Smee
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of variable intensities on a simple memory recognition task during exercise. Methods Twenty active participants took part in initial testing, a familiarization trial and then four 60 min cycling interventions in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of no exercise (control), constant exercise at 90% ventilatory threshold (constant) and two trials that initially mimicked the constant trial, but then included periods of high (∼90% VO2peak) and low intensities (∼50% VO2peak). Cardiorespiratory measures and capillary blood samples were taken throughout. A short tablet-based cognitive task was completed prior to and during (50 and 55 min into exercise) each intervention. Results The exercise conditions facilitated response time (p = 0.009), although the extent of this effect was not as strong in the variable exercise conditions (p = 0.011–0.089). High intensity exercise periods resulted in some cognitive regression back towards control trial performance. Elevations in cardiorespiratory measures and periods of hypocapnia could not explain changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion Changes in cognitive performance with variations in exercise intensity are likely to have implications for sport and occupational settings. The timing of cognitive tests to exercise intensity changes as well as use of short cognitive assessments will be important for future work.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with
           lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mónica Sousa , Maria J. Fernandes , Pedro Carvalho , José Soares , Pedro Moreira , Vitor Hugo Teixeira
      Background The use of nutritional supplements (NS) among athletes is widespread. However, little is known about the relationship between nutritional adequacy and NS usage. The aims of this study were to evaluate the NS usage and to compare the nutritional intake from food and prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy (PMI) between NS users and non-users. Methods Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed an NS usage questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire assessing information over the previous 12 months. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method was used to calculate PMI. General linear models were used to compare nutritional intake and NS usage. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were performed to study, respectively, relationships and associations between PMI and NS usage. Results From the 244 athletes (66% males, 13–37 year), 64% reported NS usage. After adjustment, NS users showed a higher intake from food (p < 0.05), for at least one gender, for energy, and for seven of the 17 studied nutrients. The highest PMI were seen for vitamins D and E, calcium, folate, and magnesium. After adjustment, NS users, irrespective of gender, reported lower PMI for calcium (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.12, 0.65), and female users for magnesium (OR 0.06, 95%CI 0.00, 0.98). Conclusion Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Resultant linear acceleration of an instrumented head form does not differ
           between junior and collegiate taekwondo athletes' kicks

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David O'Sullivan , Gabriel P. Fife , Willy Pieter , Taehee Lim , Insik Shin
      Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various taekwondo kicks and age (school level) in absolute terms and relative body mass on the resultant linear acceleration (RLA) of an instrumented head form. Methods Forty-eight male (middle school: 16; high school: 16; university: 16) taekwondo athletes were recruited for this study. Subjects performed 10 turning, 10 jump spinning hook, and 10 jump back kicks on a Hybrid II head mounted on a height-adjustable frame. Results A 2-way (School × Kick) MANOVA was used to determine the differences in RLA between schools (age groups) by type of kick. There was no univariate School main effect for absolute RLA (η 2 = 0.06) and RLA relative to body mass (η 2 = 0.06). No univariate Kick main effects were found for absolute (η 2 = 0.06) and relative RLA (η 2 = 0.06). Conclusion It is of concern that RLA did not significantly differ between school levels, implying that young taekwondo athletes generate similar forces to their adult counterparts, possibly exposing young athletes to an increased risk for head injuries.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Effects of core and non-dominant arm strength training on drive distance
           in elite golfers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Dong Jun Sung , Seung Jun Park , Sojung Kim , Moon Seok Kwon , Young-Tae Lim
      Background Various training schemes have sought to improve golf-related athletic ability. In the golf swing motion, the muscle strengths of the core and arms play important roles, where a difference typically exists in the power of arm muscles between the dominant and non-dominant sides. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of exercises strengthening the core and non-dominant arm muscles of elite golf players (handicap < 3) on the increase in drive distance, and to present a corresponding training scheme aimed at improving golf performance ability. Methods Sixty elite golfers were randomized into the control group (CG, n = 20), core exercise group (CEG, n = 20), and group receiving a combination of muscle strengthening exercises of the non-dominant arm and the core (NCEG, n = 20). The three groups conducted the corresponding exercises for 8 weeks, after which the changes in drive distances and isokinetic strength were measured. Results Significant differences in the overall improvement of drive distance were observed among the groups (p < 0.001). Enhancement of the drive distance of NCEG was greater than both CG (p < 0.001) and CEG (p = 0.001). Except for trunk flexion, all variables of the measurements of isokinetic strength for NCEG also showed the highest values compared to the other groups. Examination of the correlation between drive distance and isokinetic strength revealed significant correlations of all variables except trunk flexion, wrist extension, and elbow extension. Conclusion The combination of core and non-dominant arm strength exercises can provide a more effective specialized training program than core alone training for golfers to increase their drive distances.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Contextualizing physical literacy in the school environment: The
           challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Darla M. Castelli , Jeanne M. Barcelona , Lynne Bryant
      The intent of this paper is to conceptualize physical literacy in the school environment within the United States educational system. Evolution of physical literacy from both a general education and disciplinary focus is overviewed. The challenges of transitioning from a physically educated to a physically literate person as the primary learning outcome of physical education may inhibit progress. Five prioritized recommendations are made to assist teachers in overcoming such barriers: (a) whole of school approach, (b) effective, differentiated pedagogy, (c) integration of technology for individualized tracking of progress, (d) supportive school climate, and (e) alignment of local efforts with national initiatives.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Effects of functional training on geometric indices of heart rate
           variability

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Marianne P.C. de Rezende Barbosa , Jayme Netto Júnior , Bruna M. Cassemiro , Aline Fernanda B. Bernardo , Anne K. França da Silva , Franciele M. Vanderlei , Carlos Marcelo Pastre , Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei
      Background Geometric methods provide an analysis of autonomic modulation using the geometric properties of the resulting pattern, and represent an interesting tool in the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of functional training on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy young women using the geometric indices of HRV. Methods Data were analyzed from 29 women, and were stratified into a functional training group (FTG, n = 13; 23.00 ± 2.51 years; 21.90 ± 2.82 kg/m²) and a control group (CG, n = 16; 20.56 ± 1.03 years; 22.12 ± 3.86 kg/m²). The FTG received periodized functional training for 12 weeks. The cardiac autonomic modulation of both groups was evaluated before and after this training, and a qualitative analysis was performed using the Poincaré plot. Results There was a significant increase in the difference of the triangular index (RRTri), SD1, SD2, and RR intervals in the FTG as compared to the CG, and the qualitative analysis from the Poincaré plot showed an increase in the dispersion of beat-to-beat and long-term RR intervals in the functional group after training. No changes were observed in the triangular interpolation of RR interval histogram (TINN) or SD1/SD2. Functional training had a beneficial impact on autonomic modulation, as characterized by increased parasympathetic activity and overall variability, thus highlighting the clinical usefulness of this type of training.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Imagery perspective among young athletes: Differentiation between external
           and internal visual imagery

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Qiu-Hua Yu , Amy S.N. Fu , Adeline Kho , Jie Li , Xiao-Hua Sun , Chetwyn C.H. Chan
      Purpose This study aimed to investigate the construct of external visual imagery (EVI) vs. internal visual imagery (IVI) by comparing the athletes' imagery ability with their levels of skill and types of sports. Methods Seventy-two young athletes in open (n = 45) or closed (n = 27) sports and with different skill levels completed two custom-designed tasks. The EVI task involved the subject generating and visualizing the rotated images of different body parts, whereas the IVI task involved the subject visualizing himself or herself performing specific movements. Results The significant Skill-Level × Sport Type interactions for the EVI task revealed that participants who specialized in open sports and had higher skill-levels had a higher accuracy rate as compared to the other subgroups. For the IVI task, the differences between the groups were less clear: those with higher skill-levels or open sports had a higher accuracy rate than those with lower skill-levels or closed sports. Conclusion EVI involves the visualization of others and the environment, and would be relevant to higher skill-level athletes who engage in open sports. IVI, in contrast, tends to be more self-oriented and would be relevant for utilization by higher skill-level athletes regardless of sport type.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Operationalizing physical literacy: The potential of active video games

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Haichun Sun
      The core idea of physical literacy is a mind-body integrated, holistic approach to physical activity. A physically literate individual is expected to be cognitively knowledgeable, physically competent, and mentally motivated for a physically active life throughout the lifespan. The advancement of technology in recent years, especially those in active video games (AVGs), seems to have allowed the mind-body integrated physical activity accessible to children at all ages. This article reviews findings from research and critique research on AVGs in light with the theoretical and pedagogical tenets of physical literacy and, on the basis of the review, elaborates the potential that AVGs could contribute to enhancing children physical literacy.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Operationalizing physical literacy for learners: Embodying the motivation
           to move

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ang Chen
      Physical literacy is a concept that is expected to encompass the mind and body in an integrated way to explain, promote, and help sustain human beings' fundamental function: movement. According to Whitehead (2010), physical literacy is defined by motivation especially by competence-based and interest-based motivation. This point of view is consistent with vast amount of research evidence on children and adolescents' physical activity behavior. In the article I attempt to interpret and operationalize physical literacy from a perspective that children's motivation in physical education is both an innate mental disposition and an acquired/learned attribute. Particularly I rely on the conceptual learning theory and motivation regulation mechanisms of the self-determination theory to argue that in physical education, children should experience tasks that inspire them to embody competence and interest along with self-regulation strategies necessary for developing and sustaining the motivation to move.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • A great leap of faith: Editorial for JSHS special issue on physical
           literacy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ang Chen , Haichun Sun



      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Intermittent blood flow restriction does not reduce atrophy following
           anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Erik Iversen , Vibeke Røstad , Arne Larmo
      Background A previous study has reported a 50% reduction in disuse atrophy of the quadriceps during the first 14 days after ACL reconstruction. A follow up trial is needed to confirm these promising results. The present study aims to investigate the effect of an occlusion stimulus on quadriceps atrophy after ACL reconstruction. Methods A total of 24 subjects participated in the study. They were randomized into two groups. Starting the 2nd day after surgery, the occlusion group received an occlusion stimulus for 5 min, followed by removal of the occlusive pressure for 3 min. This was repeated 5 times in one training session, twice daily. During the period of occlusive stimulus, the subjects performed 20 low load exercises for the quadriceps. The control group followed the same exercise protocol, but without the occlusion stimulus. Changes in quadriceps anatomical cross section area (ACSA) were measured using axial MR images at 40% and 50% of the length of the femur. Results Both groups had a significant reduction of quadriceps ACSA from 2 days before surgery to 16 days after surgery. During the intervention period, the occlusion group lost 13.8% ± 1.1% (mean ± SEM) and the control group lost 13.1% ± 1.0% of their quadriceps ACSA respectively. There was no significant difference between the occlusion and control groups with regards to atrophy of the quadriceps muscles. Conclusion In conflict with other studies using a similar protocol, application of blood flow restriction the first 14 days after ACL reconstruction did not reduce quadriceps ACSA muscle atrophy measured by MR in a population of athletes.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Stride length-velocity relationship during running with body weight
           support

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): John A. Mercer , Carmen Chona
      Background Lower body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills can be used in rehabilitation programs and/or to supplement run mileage in healthy runners by reducing the effective body weight and impact associated with running. The purpose of this study is to determine if body weight support influences the stride length (SL)-velocity as well as leg impact acceleration relationship during running. Methods Subjects (n = 10, 21.4 ± 2.0 year, 72.4 ± 10.3 kg, 1.76 ± 0.09 m) completed 16 run conditions consisting of specific body weight support and velocity combinations. Velocities tested were 100%, 110%, 120%, and 130% of the preferred velocity (2.75 ± 0.36 m/s). Body weight support conditions consisted of 0, 60%, 70%, and 80% body weight support. SL and leg impact accelerations were determined using a light-weight accelerometer mounted on the surface of the anterior-distal aspect of the tibia. A 4 × 4 (velocity × body weight support) repeated measures ANOVA was used for each dependent variable (α = 0.05). Results Neither stride length nor leg impact acceleration were influenced by the interaction of body weight support and velocity (p > 0.05). Stride length was least during no body weight support (p < 0.05) but not different between 60%, 70%, and 80% support (p > 0.05). Leg impact acceleration was greatest during no body weight support (p < 0.05) but not different between 60%, 70%, and 80% support (p > 0.05). SL and leg impact accelerations increased with velocity regardless of support (p < 0.05). Conclusion The relationships between SL and leg impact accelerations with velocity were not influenced by body weight support.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Endurance swimming and increased risk of atrial fibrillation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Andrew D. Schreiner , Brad A. Keith , Walter A. Brzezinski



      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Physically literate and physically educated: A rose by any other name?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Monica A.F. Lounsbery , Thomas L. McKenzie
      In the 2013 release of the U.S. National Physical Education Standards the term “physically literate” replaced “physically educated.” Unfortunately, most discourse within the profession about the term physically literate occurred primarily after its adoption. While we agree with the spirit and intent of the term, we feel it is essential to discuss not only what has been potentially gained but also lost. In our paper, we illustrate the similarity of the terms physically educated and physical literate and essentially, from a definitional perspective, find little difference—but are these terms interchangeable? We provide a critical review of the standards and conclude that the change to physical literacy has produced a shift away from psychomotor outcomes to cognitive outcomes. Our concerns about this are many, but most importantly they are about the need to emphasize the “physical” in physical education (PE). It is our belief that the key to elevating the profession and maintaining and increasing support for PE is in its ability to promote and provide physical activity. Without physical activity and physical fitness as main outcomes, PE increases its vulnerability to extinction as a standard part of the U.S. K-12 education curriculum.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Teaching for physical literacy: Implications to instructional design and
           PETE

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Stephen Silverman , Kevin Mercier
      Physical education teachers play an important role in helping students' development of the motor skills needed to be physically literate individuals. Research suggests that teacher made instructional design decisions can lead to enhanced motor skill learning. After presenting a model of evidenced-based research this paper presents information that will help teachers plan and execute lessons designed to improve students' motor skills. Variables that impact motor skill learning in physical education including time, type of practice, content, presentation and organizational strategies, and student skill level are presented and discussed. A brief section on student attitudes, their relation to motor skill learning and to physical literacy is included. Motor skills are needed for physically literate people to enjoy lifelong physical activity. Physical education teachers and the decisions they make contribute to students' learning and whether the goal of physical literacy is met.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Operationalizing physical literacy through sport education

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peter A. Hastie , Tristan L. Wallhead
      Physical literacy (PL), as embodied within physical education (PE), has been vaunted as having increasing importance as a disposition for students of all abilities to establish lifelong adherence to physical activity. The purpose of this paper was to provide a discussion of how the pedagogical features of a contemporary pedagogical model, Sport Education (SE), may be used to operationalize PL in PE and what empirical evidence currently exists to validate this claim. Substantial empirical evidence exists that the attributes associated with the development of PL (Whitehead, 2010) can be operationalized in PE with the effective implementation of the model. SE has distinct pedagogical features which positively contribute to many of the dimensions of PL and can further an individuals' journey towards greater PL and having an embodied self within PE. That stated, there remains concern that the context for this embodiment remains too narrow to be viewed as a panacea for the development of lifelong physical activity. SE must be developed as a connective specialism if these PL attributes are to transform the motivation and confidence for individuals to capitalize on their innate physical potential and make a more significant contribution to the quality of life.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Unpacking the physical literacy concept for K-12 physical education: What
           should we expect the learner to master?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): E. Paul Roetert , Lynn Couturier MacDonald
      The term “physical literacy” is gaining traction in many countries and institutions as a goal for physical education. This paper explores the concept of physical literacy and highlights the foundational work in this area, particularly that of Margaret Whitehead. The relationship of physical literacy to physical education is also discussed with potential ramifications for teachers and learners who adopt physical literacy as the goal of the subject area.


      PubDate: 2015-05-06T14:40:54Z
       
  • Physical literacy in the field of physical education – a challenge
           and a possibility

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Suzanne Lundvall
      Publications of articles with physical literacy as topic have increased dramatically since the beginning of 2000s. The aim of this paper is to, through an explorative literature overview with an inductive approach, analyze frequent, and significant themes in published peer reviewed articles, with a focus on physical literacy. The database EBSCO has been used with the identifiers “physical literacy” and “physical literacy and evidence”. Furthermore ICSSPE Bulletin’s special issue on physical literacy has been included in the overview. The findings have resulted in three key themes: assumptions of the concept physical literacy and its educative role, sports development and physical literacy, and assessment and physical literacy. Future studies are needed to examine if the advocated pedagogical strategies based on the concept physical literacy have led to a re-organized and revitalized school subject. There is also an existing critique towards making physical literacy an idealistic neutral concept or synonym with FMS or sports talent identification. The role of higher education emerges as crucial for the next step of the development of the scientific framework as this involves how physical literacy will be socially configured, nurtured, and embodied in practice.


      PubDate: 2015-04-10T10:48:24Z
       
  • Knowledge, transfer, and innovation in physical literacy curricula

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Catherine D. Ennis
      Literate individuals possess knowledge and skill and can apply these to perform tasks in novel settings. Knowledge is at the heart of physical literacy and provides the foundation for knowing what to do and how and when to perform. In this paper I argue that physical literacy includes not only knowledge for performance but also the ability to apply knowledge and use knowledge for innovation. Scholars since the 1930s have addressed the role of knowledge in physical literacy designing curricula centered on transmitting knowledge through a range of interdisciplinary approaches to physical education. This emphasis on physical literacy curricula continues today in the Science, PE, & Me! and The Science of Healthful Living interdisciplinary curricula.


      PubDate: 2015-04-10T10:48:24Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 4, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-03-14T19:47:36Z
       
  • Beneficial effects of fenugreek glycoside supplementation in male subjects
           during resistance training: a randomized controlled pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sachin Wankhede , Vishwaraman Mohan , Prasad Thakurdesai
      Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the glycoside fraction of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds (Fenu-FG) on physiological parameters related to muscle anabolism, androgenic hormones, and body fat in healthy male subjects during an 8-week resistance training program using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design. Methods Sixty healthy male subjects were randomized to ingest capsules of Fenu-FG (one capsule of 300 mg, twice per day) or the matching placebo at a 1:1 ratio. The subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week resistance-training program for 8 weeks. The outcome measurements were recorded at recruitment (baseline), and at the end of the treatment (8 weeks). The efficacy outcome included serum testosterone (total and free) levels, muscle strength and repetitions to failure, metabolic markers for anabolic activity (serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) and % body fat. The standard safety measurements such as adverse events (AE) monitoring, vital signs, hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis were performed. Results Fenu-FG supplementation demonstrated significant anabolic and androgenic activity as compared with the placebo. Fenu-FG treated subjects showed significant improvements in body fat without a reduction in muscle strength or repetitions to failure. The Fenu-FG supplementation was found to be safe and well-tolerated. Conclusion Fenu-FG supplementation showed beneficial effects in male subjects during resistance training without any clinical side effects.


      PubDate: 2015-03-09T19:16:34Z
       
 
 
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