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Journal of Sport and Health Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.722
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 19  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Matched or nonmatched interventions based on the transtheoretical model to
           promote physical activity. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
           

    • Authors: Ahmed Jerôme Romain; Catherine Bortolon; Mathieu Gourlan; Marion Carayol; Emmanuelle Decker; Olivier Lareyre; Grégory Ninot; Julie Boiché; Paquito Bernard
      Pages: 50 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ahmed Jerôme Romain, Catherine Bortolon, Mathieu Gourlan, Marion Carayol, Emmanuelle Decker, Olivier Lareyre, Grégory Ninot, Julie Boiché, Paquito Bernard
      Purpose The aim of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of transtheoretical model (TTM)-based interventions on physical activity (PA) varied according to the following criteria: (1) interventions targeted the actual stages of change (SOCs) or did not; (2) participants were selected according to their SOC or were not; and (3) its theoretical constructs (decisional balance, temptation, self-efficacy, processes of change). Methods Thirty-three randomized controlled trials assessing TTM-based interventions promoting PA in adults were systematically identified. Results The between-group heterogeneity statistic (Qb) did not reveal any differential efficacy either in interventions targeting the actual SOC compared with those that did not (Qb = 1.48, p = 0.22) or in interventions selecting participants according to their SOC compared with those that did not (Qb = 0.01, p = 0.91). TTM-based interventions enhanced PA behavior whether they targeted the actual SOC (Cohen's d = 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22–0.49) or not (d = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.09–0.38) and whether they selected their participants according to their SOC (d = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.13–0.53) or not (d = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.19–0.44). The moderators of the efficacy of TTM-based interventions were the number of theoretical constructs used to tailor the intervention (Qb = 8.82, p = 0.003), the use of self-efficacy (Qb = 6.09, p = 0.01), and the processes of change (Qb = 3.51, p = 0.06). Conclusion TTM-based interventions significantly improved PA behavior, and their efficacy was not moderated by SOC but by the TTM theoretical constructs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.007
       
  • The longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the
           trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood
           

    • Authors: Chung Gun Lee; Seiyeong Park; Seunghyun Yoo
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Chung Gun Lee, Seiyeong Park, Seunghyun Yoo
      Background One efficient way to increase physical activity is through sport participation because participation in sport activities inherently includes many enjoyable aspects, such as social interaction, competition, personal challenge, and goal achievement. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood. Methods The data used in this study came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). It is a 4-wave longitudinal study that followed up a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students in the US. A series of multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of parental support at Wave 1 on the trajectory of sport participation from Wave 1 to Wave 4. Results The effect of parental support during adolescence on participants' sport participation lasted until they become young adults (Wave 3) (p < 0.001). Among the male participants, parental support at Wave 1 was a significant predictor for sport participation at Waves 1, 2, and 3 (p < 0.001). However, a significant effect of parental support at Wave 1 on sport participation in early young adulthood (Wave 3) becomes insignificant when adjusting for self-esteem and depression. Among the female participants, parental support at Wave 1 was a significant predictor for sport participation at Waves 1, 2, and 3 (p < 0.01) even after depression and self-esteem were introduced into the model. That is to say, unlike male participants, parental support during adolescence has an independent effect on sport participation from adolescence (Wave 1) through early young adulthood (Wave 3) over and above the effects of depression and self-esteem in female participants. Conclusion The results of this study contributed to the literature by providing important information on the longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood using a nationally representative sample of participants transitioning from adolescence to young adulthood.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.12.004
       
  • Does knowledge of physical activity recommendations increase physical
           activity among Chinese college students' Empirical investigations
           based on the transtheoretical model

    • Authors: Kahar Abula; Peter Gröpel; Kai Chen; Jürgen Beckmann
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kahar Abula, Peter Gröpel, Kai Chen, Jürgen Beckmann
      Background Based on the transtheoretical model, the current study investigated whether awareness of physical activity (PA) recommendations had an impact on the stages of PA behavior change and levels of PA among Chinese college students. Methods In Study 1, with a cross-sectional study design, 9826 students were recruited, and their knowledge of international PA recommendations, PA stage distribution, and self-reported PA level were surveyed. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test whether those participants who were aware and not aware of PA guidelines were equally distributed across the stages of PA behavior, and independent t test was conducted to test the group difference in the actual levels of PA. In Study 2, 279 students who were not aware of the PA recommendations were randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group, and only those in the intervention group were presented with international PA guidelines. In both groups, students' PA stages and PA level were examined before the test and then 4 months post-test. McNemar's test for correlated proportions and repeated-measures analysis of variance were conducted to examine the changes in PA stage membership and PA level after the intervention. Results Study 1 results revealed that only 4.4% of the surveyed students had correct knowledge of PA recommendations. Those who were aware of the recommendations were in later stages of PA behavior (χ 2(4) = 167.19, p < 0.001). They were also significantly more physically active than those who were not aware of the recommendations (t(443.71) = 9.00, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.53). Study 2 results demonstrated that the intervention group participants who were at the precontemplation and contemplation stages at the pre-test each progressed further in the PA stages in the post-test (χ 2(1) = 112.06, p < 0.001; χ 2(1) = 118.76, p = 0.03, respectively), although no significant change in PA level was observed (t(139) < 1, p = 0.89). Conclusion The results showed that awareness of the PA recommendations was associated with higher stages and levels of PA behavior, and a brief educational exposure to PA recommendations led to improved stages of PA behavior but no change in the levels of PA among Chinese college students. More effective public health campaign strategies are needed to promote the dissemination of the PA recommendations and to raise the awareness of the Chinese student population.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.010
       
  • The association between Tai Chi exercise and safe driving performance
           among older adults: An observational study

    • Authors: Sally Miller; Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
      Pages: 83 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sally Miller, Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
      Background Age-related cognitive and physical decline can impair safe driving performance. Tai Chi exercise benefits cognitive and physical function and may influence safe driving performance in older adults. The primary aim of this observational study was to compare cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance among older adult Tai Chi practitioners to normative reference values. Secondary aims were to examine relationships between Tai Chi exercise habits, cognitive processes, and physical function related to safe driving performance and to explore potential predictors of safe driving performance. Methods The DrivingHealth Inventory, the Driving Scenes Test, other driving-related cognitive and physical measures, and self-reported measures including the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Vitality Plus Scale (VPS) were collected from current Tai Chi practitioners (n = 58; age 72.9 ± 5.9 years, mean ± SD) with median >3 years Tai Chi practice. Results Compared to normative reference values, participants performed better on numerous cognitive measures including the Driving Scenes Test (p < 0.001, d = 1.63), maze navigation (p = 0.017, d = 0.27), the Useful Field of View Test (p < 0.001, r = 0.15), and on physical measures including the Rapid Walk Test (p < 0.001, r = 0.20), and the Right Foot Tapping Test, (p < 0.001, r = 0.35). Participants scored higher than normative reference values on MAAS and VPS (p < 0.001, d = 0.75; p = 0.002, d = 0.38, respectively). Statistically significant correlations were found between several study measures. The digit span backward test was the strongest predictor of safe driving performance (β = 0.34, p = 0.009). Conclusion Tai Chi exercise has the potential to impact cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance. Further study using randomized controlled trials, structured Tai Chi exercise doses, and driving simulator or on-road driving performance as outcome measures are warranted.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.013
       
  • Associations between walking parameters and subsequent sleep difficulty in
           older adults: A 2-year follow-up study

    • Authors: Li-Jung Chen; Kenneth R. Fox; Wen-Jung Sun; Pei-Shu Tsai; Po-Wen Ku; Dachen Chu
      Pages: 95 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li-Jung Chen, Kenneth R. Fox, Wen-Jung Sun, Pei-Shu Tsai, Po-Wen Ku, Dachen Chu
      Purpose This 2-year follow-up study aimed to examine the associations between total volume, frequency, duration, and speed of walking with subsequent sleep difficulty in older adults. Methods A total of 800 older adults aged 65 years and over participated in the first survey in 2012 and 511 of them were followed 2 years later. The 5-item Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-5) was used to measure sleep difficulty. Frequency, duration, and speed of outdoor walking were self-reported. Walking speed was assigned a metabolic equivalent value (MET) from 2.5 to 4.5. Total walking volume in MET-h/week was calculated as frequency × duration × speed. Negative binomial regressions were performed to examine the associations between volume and components of walking with subsequent sleep difficulty with covariates of age, sex, education, marital status, living arrangement, smoking, alcohol consumption, mental health, Charlson Index, exercise (excluding walking), and sleep difficulty at baseline. Results Participants with low walking volume had a higher level of sleep difficulty 2 years later compared with those with high walking volume (incident rate ratios = 1.61, p = 0.004). When speed, frequency, and duration of walking were simultaneously entered into 1 model, only walking speed was significantly associated with subsequent sleep difficulty (after the model was adjusted for covariates and baseline sleep difficulty). Sensitivity analyses showed that walking duration emerged as a significant predictor among 3 walking parameters, with 2-year changes of sleep scores as dependent variable. Conclusion Total amount of walking (especially faster walking and lasting for more than 20 min) is associated with less subsequent sleep difficulty after 2 years among older adults.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.007
       
  • Effect of different intensities of physical activity on cardiometabolic
           markers and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats fed with a
           high-fat high-carbohydrate diet

    • Authors: Romeo B. Batacan; Mitch J. Duncan; Vincent J. Dalbo; Geraldine L. Buitrago; Andrew S. Fenning
      Pages: 109 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Romeo B. Batacan, Mitch J. Duncan, Vincent J. Dalbo, Geraldine L. Buitrago, Andrew S. Fenning
      Background Physical activity (PA) and diet are 2 lifestyle factors that affect cardiometabolic risk. However, data on how a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet influences the effect of different intensities of PA on cardiometabolic health and cardiovascular function in a controlled setting are yet to be fully established. This study investigated the effect of sedentary behavior, light-intensity training (LIT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiometabolic markers and vascular and cardiac function in HFHC-fed adult rats. Methods Twelve-week-old Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups (12 rats/group): control (CTL), sedentary (SED), LIT, and HIIT. Biometric indices, glucose and lipid control, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, vascular reactivity, and cardiac electrophysiology of the experimental groups were examined after 12 weeks of HFHC-diet feeding and PA interventions. Results The SED group had slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.0426) and greater thoracic aortic contractile responses (p < 0.05) compared with the CTL group. The LIT group showed improved cardiac conduction compared with the SED group (p = 0.0003), and the HIIT group showed decreased mesenteric artery contractile responses compared with all other groups and improved endothelium-dependent mesenteric artery relaxation compared with the LIT group (both p < 0.05). The LIT and HIIT groups had lower visceral (p = 0.0057 for LIT, p = 0.0120 for HIIT) and epididymal fat (p < 0.0001 for LIT, p = 0.0002 for HIIT) compared with the CTL group. Conclusion LIT induced positive adaptations on fat accumulation and cardiac conduction, and HIIT induced a positive effect on fat accumulation, mesenteric artery contraction, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. No other differences were observed between groups. These findings suggest that few positive health effects can be achieved through LIT and HIIT when consuming a chronic and sustained HFHC diet.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.001
       
  • The mysteries of eccentric muscle action

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog


      PubDate: 2018-06-13T00:50:55Z
       
  • Predictors of residual force enhancement in voluntary contractions of
           elbow flexors

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Heiliane de Brito Fontana, Daiani de Campos, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa
      Background : The steady-state increase in muscle force generating potential following a lengthening contraction is called residual force enhancement (RFE). In this study, we aimed to test for differences in torque, electromyographic activity (EMG), and the associated neuromuscular efficiency (NME) between isometric voluntary contractions of elbow flexors preceded and not preceded by a lengthening contraction.. The dependence of such differences on i) stretch amplitude, ii) the region of the force–length (FxL) relationship where contraction occurs, and iii) the individual's ability to produce (negative) work during the stretch was investigated. Methods : Sixteen healthy adults participated in the study. Elbow flexor torque, angle, and biceps brachii EMG for purely isometric contractions (reference contractions) and for isometric contractions preceded by active stretches of 20° and 40° were measured at the ascending, plateau, and descending regions of subject-specific force-length curves. All contractions were performed in an isokinetic dynamometer. Two-factor (stretch x FxL region) repeated measures ANOVAs were used to analyze the effect of active stretch on EMG, torque, and NME across conditions. The relationships between mechanical work during stretch—calculated as the torque-angular displacement integral—and the changes in EMG, torque, and NME were analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results : In general, torque, EMG, and NME following active stretches differed from the values observed for the purely isometric reference contractions. While the detailed effects of active stretch on torque and EMG differed between regions of the FxL relationship, NME increased by about 19% for all muscle lengths. Up to 30% of the inter-individual variability in torque generating potential change in response to active stretching was accounted for by differences in (negative) work capacity between subjects. Conclusion : Our results suggest i) that RFE contributes to “flatten” the elbow flexor torque-angle relationship, favouring torque production at lengths where the purely isometric torques are reduced substantially, and ii) that RFE contributes to a reduction in energy cost of torque production during isometric contractions for the entire operating range.

      PubDate: 2018-06-13T00:50:55Z
       
  • Why are muscles strong and why do they require little energy in eccentric
           action'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog
      It is well acknowledged that muscles that are elongated while activated (eccentric muscle action) are stronger and require less energy (per unit of force) than muscles that are shortening (concentric contraction) or that remain at a constant length (isometric contraction). Although the cross-bridge theory of muscle contraction provides a good explanation for the increase in force in active muscle lengthening, it does not explain the residual increase in force following active lengthening (residual force enhancement), or, except with additional assumptions, the reduced metabolic requirement of muscle during and following active stretch. Aside from the cross-bridge theory, 2 other primary explanations for the mechanical properties of actively stretched muscles have emerged: (i) the so-called sarcomere length non-uniformity theory and (ii) the engagement of a passive structural element theory. In this paper, these theories are discussed, and it is shown that the last of these—the engagement of a passive structural element in eccentric muscle action—offers a simple and complete explanation for many hitherto unexplained observations in actively lengthening muscle. Although by no means fully proven, the theory has great appeal for its simplicity and beauty, and even if over time it is shown to be wrong, it nevertheless forms a useful framework for direct hypothesis testing.

      PubDate: 2018-06-04T00:00:16Z
       
  • Battle of the sexes: Which is better for you, high or low intensity
           exercise'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Christian Cobbold


      PubDate: 2018-06-04T00:00:16Z
       
  • Are we leveling the playing field' Trends and disparities in sports
           participation among sexual minority youth in Canada

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marion Doull, Ryan J. Watson, Annie Smith, Yuko Homma, Elizabeth Saewyc
      Purpose Sports participation and physical fitness are widely beneficial for young people, yet activity levels among young people are declining. Despite growing popular media attention on the participation of sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) youth in sports and various campaigns to improve the often homophobic climate of sports, there is limited evidence that sexual minority youth participate in sports. Our aim was to provide a current portrait of sports participation among 3 groups of sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) in British Columbia, Canada, as well as to document population trends. Methods Pooled population-level data from British Columbia, Canada (n = 99,373) were used to examine trends and disparities in sports participation among sexual minority and heterosexual youth. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine changes in participation over time and disparities in participation over time (1998–2013). Results We found an overall decline in sports participation and physical activity (PA) for all youth. Sexual minority students were less likely to participate in formal sports (with a coach) and informal sports (without a coach) compared with their heterosexual peers. The disparity in participating in informal sports between heterosexual and sexual minority youth has narrowed over time for some sexual orientation groups, whereas the disparity in participating in formal sports has widened over time in some cases. Conclusion This study provides a comprehensive examination of sports participation among sexual minority youth over the past 15 years. Despite changing societal attitudes and laudable efforts to reduce homophobia in sports, results suggest that there are continued barriers to participation for sexual minority youth. Further research is needed to understand the factors that limit sports participation for these youth and to inform program development. PA is critical to lifelong health and well-being, and thus continued efforts are needed to increase the sports participation of sexual minority youth in particular.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T23:55:53Z
       
  • Stretching the limits of maximal voluntary eccentric force production in
           vivo

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Daniel Hahn
      During eccentric contractions, muscular force production capacity is enhanced compared to isometric contractions. While this is well accepted in terms of muscle mechanics, maximal voluntary eccentric contractions are associated with neural inhibition that prevents increased force production of in vivo human muscles. However, since it was shown that maximal voluntary eccentric forces can exceed maximum isometric forces by a factor of 1.2–1.4, this review focuses on the question of whether the absent eccentric force enhancement, as observed in many studies, can unambiguously be attributed to an inherent neural inhibition. First, we demonstrate that participant familiarisation, preload, and fascicle behaviour are crucial factors influencing maximal voluntary eccentric force production. Second, it is shown that muscle mechanics such as muscle length, lengthening velocity, and stretch amplitude interact when it comes to maximal voluntary eccentric force production. Finally, we discuss the diverging findings on neural inhibition during maximal voluntary eccentric contractions. Since there was no inhibition of the major motor pathways in the presence of enhanced maximal voluntary eccentric forces, further research is needed to test the concept of neural inhibition and to understand why maximal voluntary force production is reduced compared to the force capacity of isolated muscle preparations.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Titin-mediated thick filament activation stabilizes myofibrils on the
           descending limb of their force-length relationship

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gudrun Schappacher-Tilp
      Purpose The aim of this study was to extend current half-sarcomere models by involving a recently found force-mediated activation of the thick filament and analyze the effect this mechanosensing regulation on the length stability of half-sarcomeres arranged in series. Methods We included a super-relaxed state of myosin motors and its force-dependent activation in a conventional cross-bridge model. We simulated active stretches of a sarcomere consisting of two non-uniform half-sarcomeres on the descending limb of the force-length relationship. Results The mechanosensing model predicts that in a passive sarcomere on the descending limb of the force-length relationship, the longer half-sarcomere has a higher fraction of myosin motors in the on-state than the shorter half-sarcomere. The difference in the number of myosin motors in the on-state ensures that upon calcium-mediated thin filament activation, the force-dependent thick filament activation keeps differences in active force within 20% during an active stretch. In the classical cross-bridge model the corresponding difference exceeds 80% leading to great length instabilities. Conclusion Our simulations suggest that in contrast to the classical cross-bridge model, the mechanosensing regulation is able to stabilize a system of non-uniform half-sarcomeres arranged in series on the descending limb of the force-length relationship.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Activation reduction following an eccentric contraction impairs torque
           steadiness in the isometric steady-state

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Nicole Mazara, Adam J. Hess, Jackey Chen, Geoffrey A. Power
      Background The isometric steady-state following active lengthening is associated with greater torque production and lower activation, as measured by electromyographic activity (EMG), in comparison with a purely isometric contraction (ISO) at the same joint angle. This phenomenon is termed residual force enhancement (RFE). While there has been a great deal of research investigating the basic mechanisms of RFE, little work has been performed to understand the everyday relevance of RFE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neuromuscular control strategies differ between ISO and RFE by measuring torque steadiness of the human ankle plantar flexors. Methods Following ISO maximal voluntary contractions in 12 males (25 years), an active lengthening contraction was performed at 15°/s over a 30° ankle excursion, ending at the same joint angle as ISO (5° dorsiflexion; RFE). Surface EMG of the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles was recorded during all tasks. Torque steadiness was determined as the standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) of the torque trace in the ISO and RFE condition during activation-matching (20% and 60% integrated EMG) and torque-matching (20% and 60% maximal voluntary contraction) experiments. Two-tailed, paired t tests were used, within subject, to determine the presence of RFE/activation reduction (AR) and whether there was a difference in torque steadiness between ISO and RFE conditions. Results During the maximal and submaximal conditions, there was 5%-9% RFE with a 9%-11% AR (p < 0.05), respectively, with no difference in antagonist coactivation between RFE and ISO (p ≥ 0.05). There were no differences in SD and CV of the torque trace for the 20% and 60% activation-matching or the 60% and maximal torque-matching trials in either the RFE or ISO condition (p ≥ 0.05). During the 20% torque-matching trial, there were ∼37% higher values for SD and CV in the RFE as compared with the ISO condition (p < 0.05). A significant moderate-to-strong negative relationship was identified between the reduction in torque steadiness following active lengthening and the accompanying AR. Conclusion It appears that while the RFE-associated AR provides some improved neuromuscular economy, this comes at the cost of increased torque fluctuations in the isometric steady-state following active lengthening during submaximal contractions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Effects of 3 months of full-court and half-court street basketball
           training on health profile in untrained men

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Morten B. Randers, Marie Hagman, Jonathan Brix, Jesper F. Christensen, Mogens T. Pedersen, Jens J. Nielsen, Peter Krustrup
      Purpose The aim of the present study was to investigate whether street basketball organized as 3 v 3 on either a half court (HC) with 1 basket or a full court (FC) with 2 baskets could improve fitness and health profiles of untrained men after 3 months of supervised training. Methods Thirty-five untrained men (aged 20–42 years) completed the pre- and post-intervention testing (FC: n = 13, HC: n = 12, CO (control): n = 10). The training attendance was 2.0 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.3 times per week in FC and HC, respectively. Mean heart rate (HR) was 83.8 ± 6.0 percent of maximal heart rate (%HRmax) and 84.5 ± 2.9 %HRmax in FC and HC, respectively. Results The 3 months of street basketball training on an FC with 2 baskets increased maximal oxygen uptake (2.4 mL/min/kg (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–3.9)), time to exhaustion (47 s (95%CI: 26–67)), lean body mass (0.8 kg (95%CI: 0.1–1.5)), and bone mineral density (0.021 g/cm2 (95%CI: 0.011–0.031)), whereas mean arterial pressure (–5.6 mmHg (95%CI: –7.5 to 3.7)), body fat percentage (–1.6%, (95%CI: –2.5 to –0.7)), heart rate (–18 bpm (95%CI: –24 to –12)), and blood lactate (median: –1.4 mmol/L (interquartile range: –1.5 to –0.6)) during submaximal running were lowered. The changes were less pronounced after the training period when playing on an HC with 1 basket, but increases in maximal oxygen uptake (1.6 mL/min/kg (95%CI: –0.1 to 3.3)), time to exhaustion (28 s (95%CI: 9–47)), lean body mass (1.3 kg (95%CI: 0.3–2.4)), and lower body fat percentage (–0.9% (95%CI: –1.9 to –0.1)) were observed in this group. Conclusion Three months of 3 v 3 street basketball training improved fitness and led to broad-spectrum improvements in variables related to overall health profile, with the most marked effects observed when playing on an FC with 2 baskets.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Fitness and health benefits of team handball training for young untrained
           women—A cross-disciplinary RCT on physiological adaptations and
           motivational aspects

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Therese Hornstrup, Johan M. Wikman, Bjørn Fristrup, Susana Póvoas, Eva W. Helge, Signe H. Nielsen, Jørn W. Helge, Jesper L. Andersen, Lars Nybo, Peter Krustrup
      Purpose The present study evaluated the effects of regular participation in small-sided team handball training on body composition, osteogenic response, physical performance, and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as well-being and motivation, in young untrained women. Methods Twenty-eight untrained 20- to 30-year-old women were randomized to a handball training group (HG; n = 14, height 170 ± 5 cm, weight 73 ± 11 kg, VO2peak 37.7 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg) that trained 1.7 ± 0.3 times per week over 12 weeks (70 min 4 v 4 handball sessions) or an inactive control group (CG; n = 14, 169 ± 5 cm, 71 ± 12 kg, 38.1 ± 3.7 mL/min/kg). Physiological and psychological and motivational training adaptations were assessed pre- and post-intervention by dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans, blood sampling, physical tests, and questionnaires. Results The average heart rate (HR) over all training sessions was equal to 85% ± 6% HRmax. Between-group intervention effects were observed in favor of HG for muscle mass (2.1%, p = 0.024), proximal femur bone mineral density (0.8%, p = 0.041), Yo-Yo IE1 intermittent endurance test level 1 (IE1) performance (35%, p < 0.001), and incremental treadmill test performance (11.5%, p = 0.003), but not total fat mass (p = 0.176), mean arterial blood pressure (p = 0.328), resting HR (p = 0.219), or blood lipids (p = 0.298–0.854). In CG, no changes were observed in any of the measured physiological variables after the training period. Compared to CG, HG had an increase in intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001) and in the well-being subscale “energy” (p = 0.010). Conclusion Participation in regular recreational team handball training organized as small-sided games has marked beneficial effects on physical performance, musculoskeletal fitness, well-being, and motivation in untrained young women.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared
           with young and elderly untrained men

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marie Hagman, Eva Wulff Helge, Therese Hornstrup, Bjørn Fristrup, Jens Jung Nielsen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Jørn Wulff Helge, Peter Krustrup
      Purpose The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age-matched men. Methods One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35) aged 65–80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35) aged 18–30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35) and young (UY, n = 35) men. All participants underwent a regional dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and sclerostin were measured. Results FTE had 7.3%–12.9% higher (p < 0.05) BMD of the femoral neck, wards, shaft, and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UE, and 9.3%–9.7% higher (p < 0.05) BMD in femoral trochanter in both legs compared to UY. FTY had 24.3%–37.4% higher (p < 0.001) BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p < 0.05) leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p < 0.001) whole-body BMD and 18.2% higher (p < 0.001) leg BMD compared to UY. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin, CTX-1, and P1NP were 29%, 53%, and 52% higher (p < 0.01), respectively, in FTY compared to UY. Conclusion BMD of the proximal femur and whole-body BMD are markedly higher in lifelong trained male football players aged 65–80 years and young elite football players aged 18–30 years compared to age-matched untrained men. Elderly football players even show higher BMD in femoral trochanter and leg BMD than untrained young despite an age difference of 47 years.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Temporal changes in physiological and performance responses across
           game-specific simulated basketball activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Aaron T. Scanlan, Jordan L. Fox, Nattai R. Borges, Patrick S. Tucker, Vincent J. Dalbo
      Purpose The aims of this study were to: (1) provide a comprehensive physiological profile of simulated basketball activity and (2) identify temporal changes in player responses in controlled settings. Methods State-level male basketball players (n = 10) completed 4 × 10 min simulated quarters of basketball activity using a reliable and valid court-based test. A range of physiological (ratings of perceived exertion, blood lactate concentration ([BLa−]), blood glucose concentration ([BGlu]), heart rate (HR), and hydration) and physical (performance and fatigue indicators for sprint, circuit, and jump activity) measures were collected across testing. Results Significantly reduced [BLa−] (6.19 ± 2.30 vs. 4.57 ± 2.33 mmol/L; p = 0.016) and [BGlu] (6.91 ± 1.57 vs. 5.25 ± 0.81 mmol/L; p = 0.009) were evident in the second half. A mean HR of 180.1 ± 5.7 beats/min (90.8% ± 4.0% HRmax) was observed, with a significant increase in vigorous activity (77%–95% HRmax) (11.31 ± 6.91 vs. 13.50 ± 6.75 min; p = 0.024) and moderate decrease in near-maximal activity (>95% HRmax) (7.24 ± 7.45 vs. 5.01 ± 7.20 min) in the second half. Small increases in performance times accompanied by a significantly lower circuit decrement (11.67% ± 5.55% vs. 7.30% ± 2.16%; p = 0.032) were apparent in the second half. Conclusion These data indicate basketball activity imposes higher physiological demands than previously thought and temporal changes in responses might be due to adapted pacing strategies as well as fatigue-mediated mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Injuries in Spanish female soccer players

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Juan Del Coso, Helena Herrero, Juan J. Salinero
      Background Epidemiologic research to learn the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury is the first step in developing preventive policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during 1 season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries was reported with an incidence of 0.083 injuries per player per season. Most injuries were in the lower limbs (74.0%), mainly affecting knee (30.4%) and ankle joints (17.9%). Results The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (33.7%) than during training (11.4%; p < 0.001). Noncontact injuries were classified as severe more frequently than were contact injuries (51.0% vs. 42.6%; p < 0.001). A higher incidence of injury was found in adult soccer players (≥18 years) vs. their counterparts younger than18 years (0.094 vs. 0.072 injuries per player per year, respectively; p < 0.001). There were no differences between age groups in any other injury variable (e.g., type, mechanism, location, or severity; p > 0.05). Conclusion Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle; the injury mechanism determined the playing time lost; and the player's age did not affect injury characteristics.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Impact of a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise and short-term
           interval training on interleukin-6, FNDC5, and METRNL mRNA expression in
           human skeletal muscle

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Malcolm Eaton, Cesare Granata, Julianne Barry, Adeel Safdar, David Bishop, Jonathan P. Little
      Background Exercise promotes numerous phenotypic adaptations in skeletal muscle that contribute to improved function and metabolic capacity. An emerging body of evidence suggests that skeletal muscle also releases a myriad of factors during exercise, termed “myokines”. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the acute regulation of the mRNA expression of several myokines, including the prototypical myokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and recently identified myokines fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) (irisin) and meteorin-like protein (METRNL). Methods Both before and after a 20-day period of twice-daily high-volume HIIT, 9 healthy males (20.5 ± 1.5 years performed a standardized bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 5 × 4 min at ~80% pretraining peak power output) with skeletal muscle biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) obtained at rest, immediately following exercise, and at 3 h recovery. Results Before training, a single bout of HIIE increased IL-6 (p < 0.05) and METRNL (p < 0.05) mRNA expression measured at 3 h recovery when compared to rest. Following 20 days of HIIT, IL-6 and FNDC5 mRNA were increased at 3 h recovery from the standardized HIIE bout when compared to rest (both p < 0.05). Resting METRNL and FNDC5 mRNA expression were higher following training (p < 0.05), and there was an overall increase in FNDC5 mRNA post-training (main effect of training, p < 0.05). Conclusion In human skeletal muscle (1) an acute bout of HIIE can induce upregulation of skeletal muscle IL-6 mRNA both before and after a period of intensified HIIT; (2) Resting and overall FNDC5 mRNA expression is increased by 20 days of HIIT; and (3) METRNL mRNA expression is responsive to both acute HIIE and short-term intense HIIT. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings at the protein and secretion level in humans.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Non-exhaustive double effort test is reliable and estimates the first
           ventilatory threshold intensity in running exercise

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Lucas Dantas Maia Forte, Fúlvia Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Roberta Cunha Matheus Rodrigues, Maria Cecília Gallani, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto
      Purpose The present study aimed to investigate the reliability of the non-exhaustive double effort (NEDE) test in running exercise and its associations with the ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Methods Ten healthy male adults (age: 23 ± 4 years, height: 176.6 ± 6.4 cm, body mass: 76.6 ± 10.7 kg) performed 4 procedures: (1) a ramp test for VT1 and VT2 determinations measured by ratio of expired ventilation to O2 uptake (VE/VO2) and expired ventilation to CO2 output (VE/VCO2) equivalents, respectively; (2) the NEDE test measured by blood lactate concentration (NEDELAC) and heart rate responses (NEDEHR); (3) a retest of NEDE for reliability analysis; and (4) continuous efforts to determine the MLSS intensity. The NEDE test consisted of 4 sessions at different running intensities. Each session was characterized by double efforts at the same running velocity (E1 and E2, 180 s), separated by a passive recovery period (90 s rest). LAC and HR values after E1 and E2 (in 4 sessions) were used to estimate the intensity equivalent to “null delta” by linear fit. This parameter represents, theoretically, the intensity equivalent to maximal aerobic capacity. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated significant reliability for NEDELAC (0.93) and NEDEHR (0.79) (both p < 0.05). There were significant correlations, no differences, and strong agreement with the intensities predicted by NEDELAC (10.1 ± 1.9 km/h) and NEDEHR (9.8 ± 2.0 km/h) to VT1 (10.2 ± 1.1 km/h). In addition, despite significantly lower MLSS intensity (12.2 ± 1.2 km/h), NEDELAC and NEDEHR intensities were highly correlated with this parameter (0.90 and 0.88, respectively). Conclusion The NEDE test applied to running exercise is reliable and estimates the VT1 intensity. Additionally, NEDE intensities were lower but still correlated with VT2 and MLSS.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Use of the stepwise progression return-to-play protocol following
           concussion among practicing athletic trainers

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jessica Wallace, Tracey Covassin, Meghan Lafevor
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether practicing athletic trainers (ATs) were using the stepwise progression to make return-to-play (RTP) decisions after concussion and to determine what factors influenced their decision to use the stepwise progression. Methods A total of 166 ATs (response rate = 16.6%) completed a 21-item questionnaire that evaluated participant demographics, methods of concussion management, and RTP decision-making using the stepwise progression. Descriptive statistics and a logistic regression were completed to analyze data. Results Factors such as education level (p = 0.05) and number of concussions treated (p = 0.05) predicted use of the stepwise progression, whereas sex (p = 0.17), employment setting (p = 0.17), state law (p = 0.86), and years practicing (p = 0.17) did not predict whether ATs were following the stepwise progression. Conclusion The majority of the ATs from this study are employing the stepwise progression to safely return athletes to play after sustaining a concussion. This demonstrates that ATs are providing a standard of care for concussed athletes across various athletic training settings; however, having a graduate degree and treating more concussions per year are predictors of whether an AT follows all steps of the stepwise progression.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Comparison of daily physical activity parameters using objective methods
           between overweight and normal-weight children

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jonghoon Park, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Sangjik Lee, Eunkyung Kim, Kiwon Lim, Hyungryul Kim, In-Sook Lee, Shigeho Tanaka
      Purpose The purpose of the present study was to determine if there were any differences in various aspects of physical activity such as energy expenditure, intensity, and type of activity between normal-weight and overweight boys. Methods Children aged 9−12 years were recruited from 2 elementary schools located in different urban districts in Republic of Korea. The present study included 45 Korean boys, of which 19 were normal-weight and 26 were overweight. Daily physical activity was estimated over the same 1-week study period under free-living conditions using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and a tri-axial accelerometer. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured using the Douglas bag method and open-circuit indirect calorimetry. We calculated the physical activity level (PAL) as the total energy expenditure (TEE)/RMR. Results PAL was not significantly different between the groups. In the accelerometer data, time spent in locomotive moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly lower in overweight boys than in normal-weight subjects, whereas other variables including non-locomotive activity did not differ between groups. In addition, among all participants, time spent in total locomotive activity was significantly associated with PAL. Time spent in locomotive MVPA was significantly associated with PAL. Conclusion Overweight boys may be less physically active based on locomotive MVPA, which was positively related with PAL. Our findings suggest that the contribution of locomotive MVPA to the increase in PAL was relatively significant.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Differential effects of physical activity and sleep duration on cognitive
           function in young adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Kazuko Kato, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Naoko Kawano, Yukihiro Noda, Norio Ozaki, Akiko Noda
      Purpose Although exercise and sleep duration habits are associated with cognitive function, their beneficial effects on cognitive function remain unclear. We aimed to examine the effect of sleep duration and daily physical activity on cognitive function, elucidating the neural mechanisms using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Methods A total of 23 healthy young adults (age 22.0 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Exercise amount was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer. We evaluated total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency by actigraphy. Cognitive function was tested using the N-back task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Continuous Performance Test–Identical Pairs (CPT-IP), and the cortical oxygenated hemoglobin levels during a word fluency task were measured with NIRS. Results Exercise amount was significantly correlated with reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (r = −0.602, p = 0.002; r = −0.446, p = 0.033, respectively), whereas TST was significantly correlated with % corrects on the 2-back task (r = 0.486, p = 0.019). Multiple regression analysis, including exercise amount, TST, and sleep efficiency, revealed that exercise amount was the most significant factor for reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (β = −0.634, p = 0.002; β = −0.454, p = 0.031, respectively), and TST was the most significant factor for % corrects on the 2-back task (β = 0.542, p = 0.014). The parameter measured by WCST and CPT-IP was not significantly correlated with TST or exercise amount. Exercise amount, but not TST, was significantly correlated with the mean area under the NIRS curve in the prefrontal area (r = 0.492, p = 0.017). Conclusion Exercise amount and TST had differential effects on working memory and cortical activation in the prefrontal area. Daily physical activity and appropriate sleep duration may play an important role in working memory.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • The impact of perceived social support, loneliness, and physical activity
           on quality of life in South Korean older adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hyun-Wook Kang, Meungguk Park, Juliane Poock Wallace (Hernandez)
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model that explains the interrelationships among perceived social support, loneliness, physical activity (PA), and quality of life (QoL) among active older adults in South Korea. Methods Data were collected from 332 individuals over the age of 65 using a systematic stratified convenience sampling method. Survey data were collected and analyzed using a structural equation model (SEM). Results Perceived social support had a significantly positive effect on PA (β = 0.14, p < 0.01) and QoL (β = 0.28, p < 0.001) while decreasing loneliness (β = −0.55, p < 0.001). PA had a significant positive effect on QoL (β = 0.12, p < 0.01), and loneliness had a negative effect on QoL (β = −0.37, p < 0.001). Loneliness mediated the relationship between perceived social support and QoL. Conclusion The SEM results of the current study support the proposed model that explained the interrelationships among perceived social support, loneliness, PA, and QoL among active older adults in South Korea. These findings suggest the importance of incorporating social support mechanisms for PA interventions in order to enhance QoL. The findings of this study can help create more effective health and physical education programs for the older generations in South Korea to enhance their QoL.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Stiffness of individual quadriceps muscle assessed using ultrasound shear
           wave elastography during passive stretching

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jingfei Xu, François Hug, Siu Ngor Fu
      Background Until recently it has not been possible to isolate the mechanical behavior of individual muscles during passive stretching. Muscle shear modulus (an index of muscle stiffness) measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography can be used to estimate changes in stiffness of an individual muscle. The aims of the present study were (1) to determine the shear modulus–knee angle relationship and the slack angle of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles; (2) to determine whether this differs between the muscles. Methods Nine male rowers took part in the study. The shear modulus of VMO, RF, and VL muscles was measured while the quadriceps was passively stretched at 3°/s. The relationship between the muscle shear modulus and knee angle was plotted as shear modulus–knee angle curve through which the slack angle of each muscle was determined. Results The shear modulus of RF was higher than that of VMO and VL when the muscles were stretched over 54° (all p < 0.01). No significant difference was found between the VMO and VL (all p > 0.05). The slack angle was similar among the muscles: 41.3° ± 10.6°, 44.3° ± 9.1°, and 44.3° ± 5.6° of knee flexion for VMO, RF, and VL, respectively (p = 0.626). Conclusion This is the first study to experimentally determine the muscle mechanical behavior of individual heads of the quadriceps during passive stretching. Different pattern of passive tension was observed between mono- and bi-articular muscles. Further research is needed to determine whether changes in muscle stiffness are muscle-specific in pathological conditions or after interventions such as stretching protocols.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Erratum to “Wearable monitors criterion validity for energy expenditure
           in sedentary and light activities” [J Sport Health Sci 6 (2017)
           103–110]

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2


      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Beneficial effects of fenugreek glycoside
           supplementation in male subjects during resistance training: A randomized
           controlled pilot study” [J Sport Health Sci 5 (2016) 176–182]

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 7, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sachin Wankhede, Vishwaraman Mohan, Prasad Thakurdesai


      PubDate: 2018-05-28T23:48:56Z
       
  • Adolescents’ personal beliefs about sufficient physical activity are
           more closely related to sleep and psychological functioning than
           self-reported physical activity: A prospective study

    • Authors: Christin Lang; Serge Brand; Flora Colledge; Sebastian Ludyga; Uwe Pühse; Markus Gerber
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Christin Lang, Serge Brand, Flora Colledge, Sebastian Ludyga, Uwe Pühse, Markus Gerber
      Background Preliminary evidence among adults suggests that the ways in which individuals think about their physical activity (PA) behavior is more closely associated with their well-being than self-reported PA. This study therefore aimed to examine whether and how self-reported PA and personal beliefs about sufficient PA are associated with sleep and psychological functioning in a sample of Swiss adolescents, using both cross-sectional and prospective data. Methods An overall sample of 864 vocational students (368 girls, 17.98 ± 1.36 years, mean ± standard deviation) was followed prospectively over a 10-month period. At each measurement occasion, participants filled in a series of self-report questionnaires to assess their PA levels, their personal beliefs about whether or not they engage in sufficient PA, sleep (insomnia symptoms, sleep quality, sleep-onset latency, and number of awakenings), and psychological functioning (depressive symptoms, quality of life, perceived stress, and mental toughness). Results Adolescents who believe that they are sufficiently physically active to maintain good health reported more restoring sleep. No differences in sleep were found between adolescents who meet PA recommendations versus those who do not. Additionally, adolescents who believe that they were sufficiently physically active also reported better psychological functioning. This close relationship between adolescents’ beliefs about their PA involvement and their sleep and psychological functioning was corroborated in the prospective analyses. Conclusion Cognitive factors should be studied more intensively when elucidating the relationship among PA, sleep, and psychological functioning in young people, particularly when aiming to develop new exercise interventions targeting psychological outcomes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T10:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.03.002
       
  • Cardiometabolic risk through an integrative classification combining
           physical activity and sedentary behavior in European adolescents: HELENA
           study

    • Authors: Carlos Cristi-Montero; Palma Chillón; Idoia Labayen; José A. Casajus; Marcela Gonzalez-Gross; Jérémy Vanhelst; Yannis Manios; Luis A . Moreno; Francisco B . Ortega; Jonatan R. Ruiz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Carlos Cristi-Montero, Palma Chillón, Idoia Labayen, José A. Casajus, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Jérémy Vanhelst, Yannis Manios, Luis A . Moreno, Francisco B . Ortega, Jonatan R. Ruiz
      Purpose This study aims to compare adolescents’ cardiometabolic risk score through an integrative classification of physical activity (PA), which involves the combination of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Methods A cross-sectional study derived from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study database (2006–2008) was conducted in adolescents (n = 548; boys, 47.3%; 14.7 ± 1.2 years) from 10 European cities. MVPA and SB were objectively measured using accelerometry. Adolescents were divided into 4 categories according to MVPA (meeting or not meeting the international recommendations) and the median of SB time (above or below sex- and age-specific median) as follows: high SB and inactive, low SB and inactive, high SB and active, and low SB and active. A clustered cardiometabolic risk score was computed using the homeostatic model assessment, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, sum 4 skinfolds, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Analyses of covariance were performed to discern differences on cardiometabolic risk scores among PA categories and each health component. Results The cardiometabolic risk score was lower in adolescents meeting the MVPA recommendation and with less time spent in SB in comparison to the high SB and inactive group (p < 0.05). However, no difference in cardiometabolic risk score was established between high SB or low SB groups in inactive adolescents. It is important to note that CRF was the only variable that showed a significant modification (higher) when children were compared from the category of physically inactive with “active” but not from high to low SB. Conclusion Being physically active is the most significant and protective outcome in adolescents to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Lower SB does not exhibit a significant and extra beneficial difference.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T10:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.03.004
       
  • Encouraging kids to hop, skip, and jump: Emphasizing the need for
           higher-intensity physical activity in childcare

    • Authors: Molly Driediger; Leigh M. Vanderloo; Stephanie Truelove; Brianne A. Bruijns; Patricia Tucker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Molly Driediger, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Stephanie Truelove, Brianne A. Bruijns, Patricia Tucker


      PubDate: 2018-04-25T10:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.03.003
       
  • Morphological changes of the lateral abdominal muscles in adolescent
           soccer players with low back pain: A prospective cohort study

    • Authors: Pawel Linek; Pardis Noormohammadpour; Mohammad Ali Mansournia; Tomasz Wolny; Damian Sikora
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Pawel Linek, Pardis Noormohammadpour, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Tomasz Wolny, Damian Sikora
      Background Most papers examining the lateral abdominal muscles (LAMs) and low back pain (LBP) are cross-sectional, with groups of participants being divided into a control and an LBP group. We hypothesized that morphological measurements of the LAMs in adolescent soccer players may predict future LBP incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the morphology of LAMs and LBP incidence rate among adolescent soccer players. Methods Ninety-seven adolescent male soccer players with no LBP at baseline were recruited into the prospective cohort study. The thickness of the LAMs was measured at baseline by ultrasound imaging in a supine rest position. Nine cases of LBP occurred during the follow-up 6 month observation. Results An obliquus internus (OI) asymmetry was related to increasing LBP risk (odds ratio = 19.99; 95%CI: 2.4–167.9). Spearman correlation also showed a linear relationship between OI asymmetry value and duration of LBP (R = 0.75, p = 0.02). An OI side-to-side difference greater than 1.25 mm suggests possible LBP incidence in the 6-month observation among adolescent soccer players. Conclusion The morphological changes of the OI may be related to LBP`s incidence in adolescent soccer players. The presence of OI asymmetry increases the odds of LBP by at least 2.4 times. Hypertrophy of the OI on one side of the body may contribute to trunk muscle imbalance.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T10:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.02.002
       
  • Biomechanics of ankle giving way: A case report of accidental ankle giving
           way during the drop landing test

    • Authors: Yumeng Li; Jupil Ko; Shuqi Zhang; Cathleen N. Brown; Kathy J. Simpson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yumeng Li, Jupil Ko, Shuqi Zhang, Cathleen N. Brown, Kathy J. Simpson
      Background Several case studies observed that the lateral ankle sprain resulted from a sudden increase in ankle inversion accompanied by internal rotation. However, without sufficient ankle kinetics and muscle activity information in the literature, the detailed mechanism of ankle sprain is still unrevealed. The purpose of our case report is to present two accidental ankle giving way incidents for participants with CAI and compare to their normal trials with data of kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Case description Two young female participants accidentally experienced the ankle giving way when landing on a 25° lateral-tilted force plate. 3D kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity were recorded for the lower extremity. Qualitative comparisons were made between the giving way trials and normal trials for joint angles, angular velocities, moments, centers of pressure and EMG linear envelopes. Results One participant's giving way trial displayed increased ankle inversion and internal rotation angles in the pre-landing phase and at initial contact compared to her normal trials. Another participant's giving way trial exhibited greater hip abduction angles and delayed activation of the peroneus longus muscle in the pre-landing phase versus her normal trials. Conclusion A vulnerable ankle position (i.e., more inverted and internally rotated), and a late activation of peroneus activity in the pre-landing phase could result in the ankle giving way or even sprains. A neutral ankle position and early activation of ankle evertors before landing may be helpful in preventing ankle sprains.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.01.002
       
  • Do recreational team sports provide fitness and health benefits'

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog


      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.01.001
       
  • Recreational team sports: The motivational medicine

    • Authors: Carlo Castagna; Maysa de Sousa; Peter Krustrup; Donald Kirkendall; James R. Urbaniak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Carlo Castagna, Maysa de Sousa, Peter Krustrup, Donald Kirkendall, James R. Urbaniak


      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.12.001
       
  • Effects of soccer training on health-related physical fitness measures in
           male adolescents

    • Authors: Amri Hammami; Morten B. Randers; Sofien Kasmi; Mohamed Razgallah; Zouhaier Tabka; Karim Chamari; Ezdine Bouhlel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Amri Hammami, Morten B. Randers, Sofien Kasmi, Mohamed Razgallah, Zouhaier Tabka, Karim Chamari, Ezdine Bouhlel
      Purpose The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the health-related physical fitness profile of untrained adolescent boys in comparison to adolescent soccer players, (2) determine the intensity and enjoyment of 6v6 and 4v4 small-sided games, and (3) evaluate the health-related effects of a short-period of soccer training in the untrained group. Methods Forty-one adolescent boys (untrained, n = 24: age = 15.9 ± 0.6 years; trained, n = 17: age = 15.7 ± 0.7 years) were recruited. For Purpose 1, the players (n = 17) and the untrained (n = 24) boys were tested for speed, jumping power, postural balance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity. After baseline testing, Purposes 2 and 3 were addressed by randomly assigning the untrained boys to either a soccer-training group (small-sided games, 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks) or to a control group, followed by identical retesting. Results At baseline, physical fitness was higher (p < 0.001) in trained players than in untrained for aerobic fitness, sprinting, jumping power, and postural balance. Small-sided games using 6v6 or 4v4 elicited similar heart rate (HR) (mean:  ~ 85% peak heart rate, HRpeak), rate of perceived exertion, and enjoyment responses. Over 8 weeks, the between-group analysis revealed that soccer training had a large beneficial effect on postural balance (45%) when compared with control group with unclear effects on other fitness parameters. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players had markedly higher physical fitness compared with untrained adolescents. Small-sided soccer games practiced by untrained adolescents elicited high exercise intensity. While 8 weeks of twice-weekly soccer training sessions induced significant improvement in postural balance, the short duration of the study was not sufficient to result in between-group differences in sprint and jump performance or aerobic fitness.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.009
       
 
 
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