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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [SJR: 0.513]   [H-I: 9]   [19 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    • Authors: Lauren N. Erickson; Marc A. Sherry
      Pages: 262 - 270
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Lauren N. Erickson, Marc A. Sherry
      Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.001
       
  • Relationships among hamstring muscle optimal length and hamstring
           flexibility and strength

    • Authors: Xianglin Wan; Feng Qu; William E. Garrett; Hui Liu; Bing Yu
      Pages: 275 - 282
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xianglin Wan, Feng Qu, William E. Garrett, Hui Liu, Bing Yu
      Background Hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury) due to excessive muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in sports. The relationships among hamstring muscle optimal lengths and hamstring flexibility and strength were unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors for hamstring injury. This study was aimed at examining the relationships among hamstring muscle optimal length and flexibility and strength. Methods Hamstring flexibility and isokinetic strength data and three-dimensional kinematic data for hamstring isokinetic tests were collected for 11 male and 10 female recreational athletes. The maximal hamstring muscle forces, optimal lengths, and muscle lengths in standing were determined for each participant. Results Hamstring muscle optimal lengths were significantly correlated to hamstring flexibility score and gender, but not to hamstring strength. The greater the flexibility score, the longer the hamstring muscle optimal length. With the same flexibility score, females tend to have shorter hamstring optimal muscle lengths compared to males. Hamstring flexibility score and hamstring strength were not correlated. Hamstring muscle optimal lengths were longer than but not significantly correlated to corresponding hamstring muscle lengths in standing. Conclusion Hamstring flexibility may affect hamstring muscle maximum strain in movements. With similar hamstring flexibility, hamstring muscle maximal strain in a given movement may be different between genders. Hamstring muscle lengths in standing should not be used as an approximation of their optimal lengths in calculation of hamstring muscle strain in musculoskeletal system modeling.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.04.009
       
  • The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in
           sprinting

    • Authors: Xianglin Wan; Feng Qu; William E. Garrett; Hui Liu; Bing Yu
      Pages: 283 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xianglin Wan, Feng Qu, William E. Garrett, Hui Liu, Bing Yu
      Background The effect of hamstring flexibility on the peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting, until now, remained unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors of hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury). As a continuation of our previous study, this study was aimed to examine the relationship between hamstring flexibility and peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting. Methods Ten male and 10 female college students participated in this study. Hamstring flexibility, isokinetic strength data, three-dimensional (3D) kinematic data in a hamstring isokinetic test, and kinematic data in a sprinting test were collected for each participant. The optimal hamstring muscle lengths and peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting were determined for each participant. Results The muscle strain of each of the 3 biarticulated hamstring muscles reached a peak during the late swing phase. Peak hamstring muscle strains were negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility (0.1179 ≤ R 2 ≤ 0.4519, p = 0.001) but not to hip and knee joint positions at the time of peak hamstring muscle strains. Peak hamstring muscle strains were not different for different genders. Peak muscle strains of biceps long head (0.071 ± 0.059) and semitendinosus (0.070 ± 0.055) were significantly greater than that of semimembranosus (0.064 ± 0.054). Conclusion A potential for hamstring injury exists during the late swing phase of sprinting. Peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting are negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility across individuals. The magnitude of peak muscle strains is different among hamstring muscles in sprinting, which may explain the different injury rate among hamstring muscles.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.012
       
  • The ethics of exercise in eating disorders: Can an ethical principles
           

    • Authors: Brian Cook; Lisa Leininger
      Pages: 295 - 298
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Brian Cook, Lisa Leininger


      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.004
       
  • Concussion in contact sport: A challenging area to tackle

    • Authors: Samuel Stuart; Aodhan Hickey; Rosie Morris; Karol O'Donovan; Alan Godfrey
      Pages: 299 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Samuel Stuart, Aodhan Hickey, Rosie Morris, Karol O'Donovan, Alan Godfrey


      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.009
       
  • Motivation dimensions for running a marathon: A new model emerging from
           the Motivation of Marathon Scale (MOMS)

    • Authors: Sima Zach; Yan Xia; Aviva Zeev; Michal Arnon; Noa Choresh; Gershon Tenenbaum
      Pages: 302 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sima Zach, Yan Xia, Aviva Zeev, Michal Arnon, Noa Choresh, Gershon Tenenbaum
      Purpose The aim of this study was to test and expand the Motivation of Marathoners Scale (MOMS) model (Masters et al., 1993). Methods The MOMS questionnaire was distributed to 306 male and female marathon runners (age range: 20–77 years) with experience in marathon running (range: 1–44 runs). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the original model failed to fit the data. Hence, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to test the best factorial solution for the current data, and a subsequent CFA was performed on the revised factorial structure. Then, a series of EFAs using maximum likelihood factor extraction method were performed. Results The best structure solution for model-data fit resulted in 11 factors: psychological coping—emotional-related coping, psychological coping—everyday-life management, life meaning, self-esteem, recognition, affiliation, weight concerns, general health orientation—reduced disease prevalence and longevity, general health orientation—keep fit, competition, and personal goal achievement. Conclusion This study provides a sound and solid framework for studying motivation for physically demanding tasks such as marathon runs, and needs to be similarly applied and tested in studies incorporating physical tasks which vary in mental demands.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.10.003
       
  • Assessing acceptance in mindfulness with direct-worded items: The
           development and initial validation of the Athlete Mindfulness
           Questionnaire

    • Authors: Chun-Qing Zhang; Pak-Kwong Chung; Gangyan Si
      Pages: 311 - 320
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Chun-Qing Zhang, Pak-Kwong Chung, Gangyan Si
      Purpose The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate a sport-specific mindfulness measure, the Athlete Mindfulness Questionnaire (AMQ), through 5 related studies using 4 separate samples of Chinese athletes. The AMQ is a 3-factor measure designed to assess mindfulness that reflects present-moment attention, awareness, and acceptance in a sport context. Methods In Study 1, an initial pool of items was generated based on previous literature, existing mindfulness scales, as well as interviews with and feedback from the athletes, coaches, and mindfulness experts. Initial support for the 3-factor structure of the AMQ was established via exploratory factor analysis in Study 2, and cross-validated through confirmatory factor analysis in Studies 3 and 4. In Study 5, a modified 3-factor AMQ with direct-worded acceptance items was examined in a fourth independent sample. Results Convergent and concurrent validities of the acceptance subscale failed to be established in Studies 3 and 4 which may be due to the inattention and confusion of the athletes whilst interpreting the reverse-worded items. A modified 16-item AMQ in Study 5 displayed satisfactory model fit and acceptable internal consistencies. Most importantly, convergent and concurrent validities of the 16-item AMQ were supported. The 3 subscales showed significant positive associations with mindfulness, flow, well-being, and positive affect and significant negative associations with experiential avoidance, burnout, and negative affect. Conclusion The AMQ is a psychometrically sound measure of mindfulness in a sport context. The importance of using direct-worded acceptance items is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.010
       
  • Mental training can improve physical activity behavior in adolescent girls

    • Authors: Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi; Amir-Hossein Memari; Ramin Kordi; Monir Shayestehfar; Mohammad-Ali Eshghi
      Pages: 327 - 332
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi, Amir-Hossein Memari, Ramin Kordi, Monir Shayestehfar, Mohammad-Ali Eshghi
      Background Lately, physical activity (PA) in young girls has been frequently discussed, thus we were interested to examine whether a mental training intervention can increase the level of PA in young girls. Methods A sample of 56 girls aged 15.4 ± 0.3 years (mean ± SD) was assigned to either the intervention or control group. We then conducted a 6-week mental imagery training program on young female participants. PA was evaluated with objective accelerometer monitors. Physical self-concept was also assessed in all participants. Results Young females' PA increased after a course of mental training compared to female participants in control group. Furthermore, physical self-concept improved related to mental training program. Conclusion Exercise imagery may be an effective method of PA increase besides psychological enhancement in young girls.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.011
       
  • Various performance-enhancing effects from the same intensity of
           whole-body vibration training

    • Authors: Paohung Chung; Chiang Liu; Hsinghsiang Wang; Yu Liu; Longren Chuang; Tzyy-Yuang Shiang
      Pages: 333 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Paohung Chung, Chiang Liu, Hsinghsiang Wang, Yu Liu, Longren Chuang, Tzyy-Yuang Shiang
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-week whole-body vibration training program in various frequency and amplitude settings under the same acceleration on the strength and power of the knee extensors. Methods Sixty-four young participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups with the same acceleration (4 g): high frequency and low amplitude (n = 16, 32 Hz, 1 mm) group, medium frequency and medium amplitude (n = 16, 18 Hz, 3 mm) group, low frequency and high amplitude (n = 16, 3 Hz, 114 mm) group, and control (n = 16, no vibration) group. All participants underwent 8 weeks of training with body mass dynamic squats, 3 sessions a week. Results The results showed that the high frequency and low amplitude group increased significantly in isometric contraction strength and 120°/s isokinetic concentric contraction strength; the medium frequency and medium amplitude group increased significantly in 60°/s and 120°/s isokinetic strength of both concentric and eccentric contraction; and the low frequency and high amplitude group increased significantly in 60°/s and 120°/s isokinetic eccentric contraction strength. Conclusion All frequency and amplitude settings in the 8-week whole-body vibration training increased muscle strength, but different settings resulted in various neuromuscular adaptations despite the same intensity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.001
       
  • The effects of total ankle replacement on ankle joint mechanics during
           walking

    • Authors: Henry Wang; Scott R. Brown
      Pages: 340 - 345
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Henry Wang, Scott R. Brown
      Background End-stage ankle arthritis impairs joint function and patients' mobility. Total ankle replacement is a surgical procedure to treat severe ankle arthritis. Salto Talaris Anatomic AnkleTM (STAA) was designed to mimic the normal ankle anatomy and flexion/extension of the ankle movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an STAA ankle replacement on ankle joint function and mechanics during gait. Methods Five patients with end-stage unilateral ankle arthritis were recruited. Patients performed level walking in a laboratory setting on 2 occasions, prior to and 3 months after the STAA ankle surgeries. American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score was obtained. A 12-camera motion capture system was used to perform walking analysis. Gait temporo-spatial parameters and ankle joint mechanics were evaluated. Paired Student's t tests and non-parametric Wilcoxon matched tests were performed to examine the differences in biomechanical variables between the pre- and post-surgery walking conditions. Results Compared to the pre-surgical condition, at 3 months of post-STAA surgery, patients experienced greater improvement in AOFAS hindfoot score (p = 0.0001); the STAA ankle demonstrated a 31% increase in ankle joint excursion (p = 0.045), a 22% increase in ankle plantarflexor moment (p = 0.075), a 60% increase in ankle power absorption (p = 0.023), and a 68% increase in ankle power production (p = 0.039). Patients also demonstrated a 26% increase in walking speed (p = 0.005), a 20% increase in stride length (p = 0.013), a 15% decrease in double support time (p = 0.043), and a 5% decrease in total stance time (p = 0.055). Conclusion Three months after surgeries, the STAA patients experienced improvements in ankle function and gait parameters. The STAA ankle demonstrated improved ankle mechanics during daily activities such as walking.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.012
       
  • Dual-frequency whole body vibration enhances vertical jumping and
           change-of-direction ability in rugby players

    • Authors: Wen-Wen Yang; Li-Wei Chou; Wei-Han Chen; Tzyy-Yuang Shiang; Chiang Liu
      Pages: 346 - 351
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Wen-Wen Yang, Li-Wei Chou, Wei-Han Chen, Tzyy-Yuang Shiang, Chiang Liu
      Background Traditional vertical and side-alternating whole body vibrations (WBV) can effectively improve muscle power performance but have a limited efficacy for enhancing change-of-direction (COD) ability. Novel dual-plate WBV uniquely providing various directions of movements with higher and distinctive frequencies for each leg may cause better acute effect on muscle power and stretch-shortening cycle efficacy contributing to COD ability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of dual- or single-frequency WBV on squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), eccentric utilization ratios (EURs), and COD ability in rugby players. Methods Fourteen male rugby players were recruited and performed a 4 min partial squat with 3 types of WBV protocols on a dual-plate WBV machine, including 1 dual-frequency WBV protocol (DFW) with the dominant leg receiving 35 Hz and the non-dominant leg receiving 45 Hz, and 2 single-frequency WBV protocols (SFWs) with 35 Hz or 45 Hz provided to both legs (SFW35Hz and SFW45Hz) on 3 different days. Results The results showed that all the vibration protocols significantly improved SJ and CMJ performances (SJ: p = 0.008; CMJ: p < 0.001), but did not significantly change EURs (p > 0.05). In addition, only the DFW significantly improved COD ability (p = 0.001 for the pre–post comparison). Conclusion A 4 min dual-frequency WBV session improved both vertical jumping and COD ability in rugby players, suggesting that this could be a potential warm-up protocol for athletes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.009
       
  • Effects of total soy saponins on free radicals in the quadriceps femoris,
           serum testosterone, LDH, and BUN of exhausted rats

    • Authors: Zhigang Liu; Ruixin Nie; Yun Liu; Zhouhong Li; Chenxi Yang; Zhengying Xiong
      Pages: 359 - 364
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Zhigang Liu, Ruixin Nie, Yun Liu, Zhouhong Li, Chenxi Yang, Zhengying Xiong
      Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total soy saponins (TS) on the free radical metabolism from the quadriceps femoris muscle, serum testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in rats exercised to exhaustion. Methods A one-time exhausted treadmill exercise session was used. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group—animals receiving no TS and no exercise (NTSNE), animals receiving TS but no exercise group (TSNE), animals receiving no TS but exercised to exhaustion group (NTSE), and animals receiving TS and exercised to exhaustion group (TSE). The TSNE and TSE groups were fed TS at a dosage of 20 mg/kg body weight once per day for 2 weeks. The NTSE group was given a placebo, and the NTSNE group was not given any treatment. The NTSE and TSE groups were exercised at speed of 30 m/min on treadmill until exhausted. The exercise time and exercise distance were recorded when the rats became exhausted and the rats were then decapitated and anatomized immediately. A 10% homogenate of the quadriceps femoris tissue was prepared. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), LDH, BUN, and serum testosterone were tested. Results TS significantly increased the exercise time to exhaustion by 20.62% (p < 0.05). The MDA levels were decreased significantly in the TSNE group than in NTSNE group (p < 0.05); the T-AOC levels increased significantly in the TSNE group than in the other 3 groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.05). The LDH activity significantly increased in the NTSE group than in TSNE group (p < 0.05). The BUN levels significantly increased in the NTSE group than in the other 3 groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.05), and significantly increased in the TSE group than in NTSNE and TSNE groups (both p < 0.01). The serum testosterone levels increased significantly in the TSNE group than in the other 3 groups (all p < 0.01). SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR, and GSH were not statistically different among the groups. Conclusion TS can significantly improve the exercised rats' serum testosterone level and antioxidant activity in their quadriceps femoris to varying degrees, decrease MDA and serum LDH and BUN levels, increase the exercise time, and delay the occurrence of the fatigue.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.016
       
  • Confirmatory factor analysis of VISA-P scale and measurement invariance
           across sexes in athletes with patellar tendinopathy

    • Authors: Sergio Hernandez-Sanchez; Ferran Abat; María D. Hidalgo; Antonio I. Cuesta-Vargas; Victor Segarra; Jose M. Sanchez-Ibañez; Antonia Gomez-Conesa
      Pages: 365 - 371
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sergio Hernandez-Sanchez, Ferran Abat, María D. Hidalgo, Antonio I. Cuesta-Vargas, Victor Segarra, Jose M. Sanchez-Ibañez, Antonia Gomez-Conesa
      Background The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Patella (VISA-P) scale is the most condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure used to assess symptom severity in athletes with patellar tendinopathy. Previous exploratory factor analyses have been conducted to evaluate the scale's dimensionality, with inconsistent results, and the factor structure of the scale remains unclear. The aims of the present study were to determine the factorial structure of the VISA-P scale using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and test measurement invariance across sexes. Methods The study included a convenience sample of 249 Spanish athletes with patellar tendinopathy. CFA was performed to assess factorial validity. Hypothesized 1- and 2-factor models were tested. Measurement invariance across sexes was evaluated via multi-group CFA with several fit indices using EQS 6.1 software. Results The internal consistency coefficient was 0.74. Several CFA models were examined and the 1-factor model in which errors for Items 7 and 8 were correlated showed acceptable fit in terms of comparative fit index (CFI) and goodness-of-fit index (GFI) statistics (CFI = 0.93; GFI = 0.94; standardized root mean square residual = 0.06; root mean square error of approximation = 0.10; 90% confidence interval: 0.08–0.13). This model was invariant across sexes. Conclusion The 1-factor model of the Spanish version of the VISA-P scale (VISA-P-Sp) in which errors for Items 7 and 8 were correlated demonstrated relative fit in CFA. Scores obtained via VISA-P-Sp can be compared between men and women without sexes bias. Further studies should examine the VISA-P scale and other single-score patient-reported outcome measures concurrently.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.020
       
  • Preparatory training attenuates drastic response of the insulin-like
           growth factor binding protein 1 at the point of maximal oxygen consumption
           in handball players

    • Authors: Olgica Nedić; Miloš Šunderić; Goran Miljuš; Zoran Valdevit; Vladimir Jakovljević; Marija Glibetić; Vesna Vučić
      Pages: 372 - 377
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Olgica Nedić, Miloš Šunderić, Goran Miljuš, Zoran Valdevit, Vladimir Jakovljević, Marija Glibetić, Vesna Vučić
      Background Intensive exercise changes physiological need for glucose and several biochemical pathways responsible for its metabolism response. Among them are those which involve insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Different types and degrees of exercise, as well as an athlete's fitness, may induce a range of responses regarding concentrations and time needed for the alteration. The idea of the work was to find out whether and how insulin/IGF axis responds to additional physical activity in the already trained subjects and if so, is the adaptation potentially beneficial from the aspect of metabolic control. Methods The effect of 4-week intensive training on campus (preparatory training) on the levels of insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBPs during maximal progressive exercise test (MPET) on a treadmill was compared to the results obtained during MPET conducted after a regular training season of a female elite handball team (n = 17, age: 17 ± 1 years, height: 171 ± 8 cm, weight: 65 ± 8 kg, body mass index: 22 ± 1 kg/m2 at the beginning of the study; there were no significant changes at the end). Serum samples were obtained from players immediately before the test (basal), at the end of the test after reaching the point of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and after recovery. Results The concentration of insulin decreased at VO2max, but remained higher in players after preparatory training (12.2 ± 2.5 mU/L vs. 8.9 ± 4.4 mU/L, p = 0.049). The level of IGFBP-1 decreased in players at VO2max in either case of training, but it remained much higher in tests performed after the preparatory regime than before (p = 0.029). Concentrations of IGF-1, IGFBP-2, -3, and -4 did not change significantly. Conclusion The inverse relation between insulin and IGFBP-1 was lost during MPET, as these 2 molecules changed in the same direction. The results obtained suggest less severe stress-induced depression of insulin and IGFBP-1 after preparatory training. But another metabolic mechanism cannot be excluded, and that is potentially impaired insulin sensitivity resulting in higher level of IGFBP-1.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.014
       
  • Applying the socio-ecological model to barriers to implementation of ACL
           injury prevention programs: a systematic review

    • Authors: Rima L. Bogardus; Ryan J. Martin; Alice R. Richman; Anthony S. Kulas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rima L. Bogardus, Ryan J. Martin, Alice R. Richman, Anthony S. Kulas
      Background Preventing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is important to avoid long-term adverse health consequences. Identifying barriers to implementation of these prevention programs is crucial to reducing the incidence of these injuries. Our purpose was to identify barriers of implementation for ACL injury prevention programs and suggest mechanisms for reducing the barriers through application of a Socio-Ecological Model (SEM). Methods Studies investigating ACL prevention program effectiveness were searched in Medline via PubMed and the Cochrane Library, and a subsequent from references of identified articles yielded 15 articles total. Inclusion criteria were: prospective controlled trials, published in English, and ACL injuries as the primary outcome. Studies were independently appraised by two reviewers for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Barriers to implementation were identified when reported in at least two separate studies. A SEM was used to suggest ways to reduce the identified barriers. Results Five barriers were identified: motivation, time requirements, skill requirements for program facilitators, compliance, and cost. The SEM suggested ways to minimize the barriers at all levels of the model from the individual through policy levels. Conclusion Identification of barriers to program implementation and suggesting how to reduce them through the SEM is a critical first step towards enabling ACL prevention programs to be more effective and ultimately reducing the incidence of these injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T02:57:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.11.001
       
  • Acknowledgment to reviewers—November 2016 to October 2017

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science


      PubDate: 2017-11-03T02:53:00Z
       
  • Sport burnout inventory — dual career form for student-athletes:
           assessing validity and reliability in a finnish sample of adolescent
           athletes

    • Authors: Matilda Sorkkila; Tatiana. V. Ryba; Kaisa Aunola; Harri Selänne; Katariina Salmela-Aro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Matilda Sorkkila, Tatiana. V. Ryba, Kaisa Aunola, Harri Selänne, Katariina Salmela-Aro
      Background The pressure of pursuing an athletic career simultaneously with education may set adolescent student-athletes at risk for sport and school burnout. Although the 2 life domains of student-athletes are strongly intertwined, so far, there has not been an instrument for investigating sport burnout parallel to school burnout. The aim of the present study was to introduce a sport burnout measure for adolescents in a dual career context and investigate its validity and reliability by using confirmatory factor analysis. Methods The participants were 391 student-athletes (51% females) who filled in a questionnaire of sport burnout and background variables in the beginning of upper secondary school. Results A 3-factor model or a second-order-factor model described the data better and gave better reliability indices than a 1-factor model. The 3 dimensions of sport burnout were shown to be separate, but closely related constructs. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity was obtained by correlating the 3 sport burnout dimensions with depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sport task values. Conclusion The results suggest that Sport Burnout Inventory - Dual Career Form (SpBI-DC) is a valid and reliable instrument for investigating sport burnout among adolescent student-athletes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.006
       
  • Promoting physical activity in a public health context

    • Authors: Caroline A. Macera; Barbara E. Ainsworth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Barbara E. Ainsworth, Caroline A. Macera


      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.004
       
  • Translating science to inform global policy on physical activity

    • Authors: Fiona Bull
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fiona Bull


      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.005
       
  • Research highlights from the status report for step it up! the surgeon
           general's call to action to promote walking and walkable communities

    • Authors: David R. Brown; Susan A. Carlson; Gayathri S. Kumar; Janet E. Fulton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David R. Brown, Susan A. Carlson, Gayathri S. Kumar, Janet E. Fulton


      PubDate: 2017-10-12T23:31:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.003
       
  • Improving school physical education to increase physical activity and
           promote healthy growth of chinese school-aged children – time for action
           

    • Authors: Dengfeng Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Dengfeng Wang


      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
       
  • Addressing the public health concerns of physical inactivity, low levels
           of fitness, and unhealthy weight among chinese school-aged children

    • Authors: Fuzhong Peiji; Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li, Peiji Chen


      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
       
  • Validation and adaptation of the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES)
           in fitness group exercisers

    • Authors: Pedro Teques; Luís Calmeiro; Carlos Silva; Carla Borrego
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Carlos Silva, Carla Borrego
      Background Recently, Mullen et al. (2011) presented an 8-item version of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) providing a valid instrument for assessing enjoyment in physical activity. The present paper investigated the psychometric properties of a Portuguese adaptation of PACES. Methods After a process of back-to-back translation into Portuguese, 395 members of fitness centers who ranged in age from 18 to 66 years (31.11 ± 8.90, mean ± SD) completed the translated version of the PACES. On average, participants had 3.2 years of experience in fitness group classes and practiced for approximately 3.3 times per week. Results An initial exploratory factor analysis (n = 139) revealed a unidimensional structure with factor loadings ranging from 0.79 to 0.89. Results also showed acceptable internal consistency. A confirmatory factor analysis in an independent sample (n = 256) provided additional support for the unidimensional structure of the questionnaire. In addition, moderate positive correlations between enjoyment and intrinsic and identified regulation, and moderate negative correlations between enjoyment and external and amotivation demonstrate the convergent validity of the instrument. Finally, measurement invariance between two independent samples was also found. Conclusion The 8-item Portuguese version of PACES is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring enjoyment of physical activity in Portuguese adult's fitness exercisers, therefore suitable to use as a measure of affect in exercise adherence interventions studies.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.010
       
  • Effects of a 3-month vigorous physical activity intervention on eating
           behaviors and body composition in overweight and obese boys and girls

    • Authors: María Martín-García; Luis M. Alegre Durán; Beatriz García-Cuartero; Eleanor J. Bryant; Bernard Gutin; Ignacio Ara Royo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): María Martín-García, Luis M. Alegre Durán, Beatriz García-Cuartero, Eleanor J. Bryant, Bernard Gutin, Ignacio Ara Royo
      Purpose This study analyzes the effects of a 3-month vigorous physical activity (VPA) intervention on eating behavior and body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods Forty-seven participants (7–16 years) took part in the study: 28 were assigned to the intervention group (IG) (10 boys and 18 girls) and 19 in a control group (CG) (8 boys and 11 girls). Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), anthropometrics (body mass, height and body mass index (BMI)) and eating behavior traits (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21C) were determined before and after the VPA intervention. Results A decrease in the percentage of body fat (%BF) and BMI (–2.8% and –1.8%, respectively), and an increase in lean mass variables were found in the IG (all p ≤ 0.05). In relation to the eating behavior traits, IG subjects showed a 14 % reduction in the Emotional Eating score (p = 0.04), while Cognitive Restraint score did not change after the VPA intervention. The baseline factors of the questionnaire predicted changes in body mass and fat mass variables only in the CG. Conclusion A 3-month VPA intervention influenced eating behaviors of overweight or obese young, especially the Emotional Eating factor in the presence of favorable body composition changes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.012
       
  • Step it up: Promoting physical activity in school-aged children and
           adolescents in China

    • Authors: Barbara E. Ainsworth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Barbara E. Ainsworth


      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.013
       
  • Physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index in the Chinese
           child and adolescent populations: an update from the 2016 physical
           activity and fitness in China – the youth study

    • Authors: Peijjie Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peijjie Chen


      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.011
       
  • Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared
           with young and elderly untrained men

    • Authors: Marie Hagman; Eva Wulff Helge; Therese Hornstrup; Bjørn Fristrup; Jens Jung Nielsen; Niklas Rye Jørgensen; Jesper Løvind Andersen; Jørn Wulff Helge; Peter Krustrup
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Marie Hagman, Eva Wulff Helge, Therese Hornstrup, Bjørn Fristrup, Jens Jung Nielsen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Jørn Wulff Helge, Peter Krustrup
      Purpose The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age-matched men. Methods One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players aged 65-80 years (FTE, n = 35), elite football players aged 18-30 years (FTY, n = 35), as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35) and young (UY, n = 35) men. All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and sclerostin were measured. Results FTE had 7.3%–12.9% higher (p < 0.05) BMD of the femoral neck, wards, shaft and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UE, and 9.3%–9.7% higher (p < 0.05) BMD in femoral trochanter in both legs compared to UY. FTY had 24.3%–37.4% higher (p < 0.001) BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p < 0.05) leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p < 0.001) whole-body BMD and 18.2% higher (p < 0.001) leg BMD compared to UY. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin, CTX-1, and P1NP were 29%, 53%, and 52% higher (p < 0.01), respectively, in FTY compared to UY. Conclusion BMD of the proximal femur, and whole-body BMD, are markedly higher in lifelong trained male football players aged 65-80 years and young elite football players aged 18-30 years compared to age-matched untrained men. Elderly football players even show higher BMD in femoral trochanter and leg BMD than untrained young despite an age difference of 47 years.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.009
       
  • Fitness and health benefits of team handball training for young untrained
           women – a cross-disciplinary rct on physiological adaptations and
           motivational aspects

    • Authors: Therese Hornstrup; Johan M. Wikman; Bjørn Fristrup; Susana Póvoas; Eva W. Helge; Signe H. Nielsen; Jørn W. Helge; Jesper L. Andersen; Lars Nybo; Peter Krustrup
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Therese Hornstrup, Johan M. Wikman, Bjørn Fristrup, Susana Póvoas, Eva W. Helge, Signe H. Nielsen, Jørn W. Helge, Jesper L. Andersen, Lars Nybo, Peter Krustrup
      Objective The present study evaluated the effects of regular participation in small-sided team handball training on body composition, osteogenic response, physical performance and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as well-being and motivation, in young untrained women. Methods Twenty-eight untrained 20–30-year-old women were randomised to a handball training group (HG; n = 14, height 170 ± 5 cm, weight 73 ± 11 kg, VO2peak 37.7 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg) that trained 1.7 ± 0.3 time per week over 12 weeks (70 min 4v4 handball sessions) or an inactive control group (CG; n = 14, 169 ± 5 cm, 71 ± 12 kg, 38.1 ± 3.7 mL/min/kg). Physiological and psychological/motivational training adaptations were assessed pre- and post-intervention by DXA scans, blood sampling, physical tests and questionnaires. Results The average heart rate over all training sessions was equal to 85% ± 6%HRmax. Between-group intervention effects were observed in favor of HG for muscle mass (2.1%, p = 0.024), proximal femur bone mineral density (0.8%, p = 0.041), Yo-Yo IE1 performance (35%, p < 0.001), and incremental treadmill test performance (11.5%, p = 0.003), but not total fat mass (p = 0.176), mean arterial blood pressure (p = 0.328), resting heart rate (p = 0.219), or blood lipids (p = 0.298-0.854). In CG, no changes were observed in any of the measured physiological variables after the training period. Compared to CG, HG had an increase in intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001) and in the well-being subscale “energy” (p = 0.010). Conclusion Participation in regular recreational team handball training organised as small-sided games has marked beneficial effects on physical performance, musculoskeletal fitness, well-being, and motivation in untrained young women.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.007
       
  • School-based physical activity interventions for children and youth: Keys
           for success

    • Authors: Arto
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Arto Gråstén


      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
       
  • Effects of 3 months of full-court and half-court street basketball
           training on health profile in untrained men

    • Authors: Morten B. Randers; Marie Hagman; Jonathan Brix; Jesper F. Christensen; Jens Jung Nielsen; Mogens T. Pedersen; Peter Krustrup
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Morten B. Randers, Marie Hagman, Jonathan Brix, Jesper F. Christensen, Jens Jung Nielsen, Mogens T. Pedersen, Peter Krustrup
      Purpose The aim of the present study was to investigate whether street basketball organised as 3v3 on either a half court (HC) with 1 basket or a full court (FC) with 2 baskets could improve fitness and health profiles in untrained men after 3 months of supervised training. Methods Thirty-five untrained men (aged 20–42 years) completed the pre- and post-intervention testing (FC: n = 13, HC: n = 12, CO (control): n = 10). The training attendance was 2.0 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.3 time per week in FC and HC, respectively. Mean HR was 83.8 ± 6.0 and 84.5 ± 2.9%HRmax in FC and HC, respectively. Results The 3 months of street basketball training on a FC with 2 baskets increased maximal oxygen uptake (2.4 (95%CI: 1.0–3.9) mL/min/kg), time to exhaustion (47 (95%CI: 26–67) s), lean body mass (0.8 (95%CI: 0.1–1.5) kg) and bone mineral density (0.021 (95%CI: 0.011–0.031) g/cm2), whereas mean arterial pressure (-5.6 (95%CI: -7.5 to 3.7) mmHg), body fat percentage (-1.6 (95%CI: -2.5 to -0.7)%,), heart rate (-18 (95%CI: -24 to -12) bpm) and blood lactate during submaximal running were lowered. The changes were less pronounced after the training period when playing on an HC with one basket, but increases in maximal oxygen uptake 1.8 (95%CI: -0.1 to 3.3] ml/min/kg, time to exhaustion (28 (95%CI: 9 to 47) s), lean body mass (1.3 (95%CI: 0.3 to 2.4) kg) and lower body fat percentage (-0.9 95%CI: -1.9 to -0.1)%) were observed in this group. Conclusion Three months of 3v3 street basketball improved fitness and led to broad-spectrum improvements in variables related to overall health profile, with the most marked effects observed when playing on an HC with 2 baskets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T13:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.004
       
  • The descriptive epidemiology of sitting in Chilean adults: Results from
           the National Health Survey 2009-2010

    • Authors: Nicolas Aguilar-Farias; Pia Martino-Fuentealba; Andrea Cortínez-O'Ryan; Damian Chandía-Poblete; Carlos Celis-Morales; Paz Bahamondes; Jaime Leppe Zamora; Wendy J. Brown
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Pia Martino-Fuentealba, Andrea Cortínez-O'Ryan, Damian Chandía-Poblete, Carlos Celis-Morales, Paz Bahamondes, Jaime Leppe Zamora, Wendy J Brown
      Background Although evidence on the health effects of sedentary behavior (SB) has grown systematically in recent years, few developing countries have reported population levels of SB, especially in South America. Our objective was to describe time spent sitting in a representative sample from Chile categorized by age, gender, educational level, and body mass index (BMI). Methods A National Health Survey was conducted in Chile in a nationally representative sample (n = 5411) in 2009-2010. Sitting time (ST) was measured with the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire v2. Results Data were from 5031 participants (43.3 ± 0.41 years, mean ± SE; 40.3% male). Overall, there were no gender differences in mean ST (men: 158.1 ± 5.80 min/day, women 143.5 ± 4.77 min/day; p = 0.05). ST was lower in those who lived in rural areas compared with urban areas (99.4 min/day vs. 160.0 min/day; p = 0.001). ST increased significantly with increasing BMI, but only in men (p = 0.009) and was positively related to years of education in both men and women (p > 0.0001). Conclusion The findings were different from those reported in other countries and contexts, reinforcing the need for international surveillance and monitoring over time to inform policy makers. Differences in ST across different groups emphasize the need to develop tailored messages and interventions for reducing ST in different population sub-groups.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T13:28:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.08.002
       
  • Classification of higher- and lower-mileage runners based on running
           kinematics

    • Authors: Christian A. Clermont; Angkoon Phinyomark; Sean T. Osis; Reed Ferber
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Christian A. Clermont, Angkoon Phinyomark, Sean T. Osis, Reed Ferber
      Background Running-related overuse injuries can result from the combination of extrinsic (e.g., running mileage) and intrinsic risk factors (e.g., biomechanics and gender), but the relationship between these factors is not fully understood. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to determine whether we could classify higher- and lower-mileage runners according to differences in lower extremity kinematics during the stance and swing phases of running gait. The second purpose was to subgroup the runners by gender and determine whether we could classify higher- and lower-mileage runners in male and female subgroups. Methods Participants were allocated to the “higher-mileage” group (≥32 km/week; n = 41 [30 females]) or to the “lower-mileage” group (≤25 km; n = 40 [29 females]). Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected during 60 s of treadmill running at a self-selected speed (2.61 ± 0.23 m/s). A support vector machine classifier identified kinematic differences between higher- and lower-mileage groups based on principal component scores and cross-fold classification accuracy. Results Higher- and lower-mileage runners (both genders) could be separated with 92.59% classification accuracy. When subgrouping by gender, higher- and lower-mileage female runners could be separated with 89.83% classification accuracy, and higher- and lower-mileage male runners could be separated with 100% classification accuracy. Conclusion These results demonstrate there are distinct kinematic differences between subgroups related to both mileage and gender, and that these factors need to be considered in future research.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T13:28:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.08.003
       
  • Dynamic knee valgus kinematics and their relationship to pain in women
           with patellofemoral pain compared to women with chronic hip joint pain

    • Authors: Eric Schmidt; Marcie Harris-Hayes; Gretchen B. Salsich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Eric Schmidt, Marcie Harris-Hayes, Gretchen B. Salsich
      Background Dynamic knee valgus (DKV) is an abnormal movement pattern visually characterized by excessive medial movement of the lower extremity during weight bearing. Differences in hip and knee kinematic components of DKV may explain the emergence of different pain problems in people who exhibit the same observed movement impairment. Using a secondary analysis of exiting data sets, we sought to determine whether hip and knee frontal and transverse plane angles during a functional task differed between women with patellofemoral pain and women with chronic hip joint pain and the relationship between joint-specific kinematics and pain in these 2 pain populations. Methods In the original studies, 3-dimensional hip and knee kinematics during a single-leg squat were obtained in 20 women with patellofemoral pain and 14 women with chronic hip joint pain who demonstrated visually classified DKV. Pain intensity during the squat was assessed in both groups. For the secondary analysis, kinematic data were compared between pain groups using their respective control groups as a reference. Within each pain group, correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between kinematics and pain during the squat. Results Hip adduction and contralateral pelvic drop were greater in those with chronic hip joint pain compared to those with patellofemoral pain (effect sizes ≥0.40). Greater knee external rotation (r = 0.47, p = 0.04) was correlated with greater knee pain in those with patellofemoral pain, while greater hip adduction (r = 0.53, p = 0.05) and greater hip internal rotation (r = 0.55, p = 0.04) were correlated with greater hip pain in those with chronic hip joint pain. Conclusion Hip frontal plane motion was greater in those with chronic hip joint pain compared to those with patellofemoral pain. In both groups, greater abnormal movement at the respective joint (e.g. knee external rotation in the patellofemoral pain group and hip adduction and internal rotation in the chronic hip joint pain group) was associated with greater pain at that joint during a single-leg squat.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T13:28:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.08.001
       
  • Physical activity guidelines for Chinese children and adolescents: The
           next essential step

    • Authors: Jincheng Xu; Can Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jincheng Xu, Can Gao


      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.07.001
       
  • Exercise vs. high altitude therapy

    • Authors: Francesco Misiti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Francesco Misiti


      PubDate: 2017-07-19T18:22:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.07.002
       
  • Application of the neuromuscular fatigue threshold treadmill test to
           muscles of the quadriceps and hamstrings

    • Authors: Clayton L. Camic; Attila J. Kovacs; Trisha A. VanDusseldorp; Ethan C. Hill; Evan A. Enquist
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Clayton L. Camic, Attila J. Kovacs, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Ethan C. Hill, Evan A. Enquist
      Purpose The purposes of the present study were: (1) to determine if the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT) model that has been used for estimating the onset of neuromuscular fatigue in the vastus lateralis (VL) during incremental treadmill running could also be applied to the vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles; and (2) if applicable, to compare the running velocities associated with the PWCFT among these muscles. Methods Eleven subjects (age 21.7 ± 1.8 years) performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion with electromyographic signals recorded from the VL, VM, BF, and ST. Results The results indicated there were no significant (p > 0.05) mean differences in the running velocities associated with the PWCFT for the VL (14.4 ± 2.0 km/h), VM (14.3 ± 1.9 km/h), BF (13.8 ± 1.8 km/h), and ST (14.7 ± 2.3 km/h). In addition, there were significant inter-correlations (r = 0.68 – 0.88) among running velocities associated with the PWCFT of each muscle. Individual results also indicated that 9 of the 11 subjects exhibited identical PWCFT values for at least 3 of the 4 muscles, but there were no uniform patterns for any intra-individual differences. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggested that the PWCFT test is a viable method to identify neuromuscular fatigue in the quadriceps and hamstrings during incremental treadmill exercise, and results in consistent PWCFT values among these muscles.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T13:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.06.002
       
  • Validity of long-term and short-term recall of occupational sitting time
           in finnish and chinese office workers

    • Authors: Ying Gao; Neil J. Cronin; Nina Nevala; Taija Finni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ying Gao, Neil J. Cronin, Nina Nevala, Taija Finni
      Background As sedentary behavior is a global health issue, there is a need for methods of self-reported sitting assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these methods should also be tested in various populations and different cultural contexts. This study examined the validity of long-term and short-term recall of occupational sitting time in Finnish and Chinese subgroups. Methods Two cohort groups of office-based workers (58.6% female, age range 22−67 years) participated: a Finnish group (FIN, n = 34) and a Chinese group (CHI, n = 36). Long-term (past 3-month sitting) and short-term (daily sitting assessed on 5 consecutive days) single-item measures were used to assess self-reported occupational sitting time. Values from each participant were compared to objectively measured occupational sitting time that was assessed via thigh-mounted accelerometers, with Spearman's rho (ρ) used to assess validity and the Bland-Altman method used to evaluate agreement. Coefficients of variation depicted day-to-day variability of time spent on sitting at work. Results In the total study sample, the results showed that both long-term and short-term recall correlated with accelerometer-derived sitting time (ρ = 0.532, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.336 to 0.684, p < 0.001; ρ = 0.533, 95%CI: 0.449 to 0.607, p < 0.001, respectively). Compared to objectively measured sitting time, self-reported occupational sitting time was 2.4% (95%CI: –0.5% to 5.3%, p = 0.091) and 2.2% (95%CI: 0.7% to 3.6%, p = 0.005) greater for long-term and short-term recall, respectively. The agreement level was within the range –21.2% to 25.9% for long-term recall, and –24.2% to 28.5% for short-term recall. During a 5 day work week, day-to-day variation of sitting time was 9.4% ± 11.4% according to short-term recall and 10.4% ± 8.4% according to accelerometry-derived occupational sitting time. Conclusion Overall, both long-term and short-term self-reported instruments provide acceptable measures of occupational sitting time in an office-based workplace, but their utility at the individual level is limited due to large variability.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T13:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.06.003
       
  • Research in prevention and rehabilitation of hamstring muscle strain
           injury

    • Authors: Bing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Bing Yu, Li Li


      PubDate: 2017-06-17T12:51:58Z
       
  • Time for a paradigm shift in the classification of muscle injuries

    • Authors: Bruce Hamilton; Juan-Manual Alonso; Thomas M. Best
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Bruce Hamilton, Juan-Manual Alonso, Thomas M. Best
      Muscle injuries remain one of the most common injuries in sport, yet despite this there is little consensus on how to either effectively describe, or determine the prognosis of a specific muscle injury. Numerous approaches to muscle classification and grading have been applied over the last century of medicine, but over the last decade the limitations of historic approaches have been recognised. As a consequence in the past 10 years, clinical research groups have begun to question the historic approaches and reconsider the way muscle injuries are classified and described. Using a narrative approach, this manuscript describes several of the most recent attempts to classify and grade muscle injuries, highlighting the relative strengths and weaknesses of each system. While each of the new classification and grading systems have strengths, there remains little consensus on a system which is both comprehensive and evidence based. Few of the currently identified features within the grading systems have relevance to accurately determining prognosis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T18:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.011
       
  • PM2.5: A barrier to fitness and health promotion in China

    • Authors: Jincheng Xu; Can Gao; Jason Kai Wei Lee; Jiexiu Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jincheng Xu, Can Gao, Jason Kai Wei Lee, Jiexiu Zhao


      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.010
       
 
 
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