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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [SJR: 0.513]   [H-I: 9]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Biomarker-guided classification scheme of neurodegenerative diseases

    • Authors: Filippo Baldacci; Simone Lista; Francesco Garaci; Ubaldo Bonuccelli; Nicola Toschi; Harald Hampel
      Pages: 383 - 387
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista, Francesco Garaci, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Nicola Toschi, Harald Hampel


      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.007
       
  • Mechanism of neurodegeneration through tau and therapy for Alzheimer's
           disease

    • Authors: Akihiko Takashima
      Pages: 391 - 392
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Akihiko Takashima


      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.009
       
  • The microbiome, microbial-generated proinflammatory neurotoxins, and
           Alzheimer's disease

    • Authors: Walter J. Lukiw
      Pages: 393 - 396
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Walter J. Lukiw


      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.008
       
  • Examining the relationship between sport and health among USA women: An
           analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    • Authors: Jennifer R. Pharr; Nancy L. Lough
      Pages: 403 - 409
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jennifer R. Pharr, Nancy L. Lough
      Background Research has been conducted linking sports participation and health in childhood and adolescence; however, little is known about the contribution of sport to women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport and women's health in the USA by analyzing data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Methods This study was a secondary data analysis of the 2013 national BRFSS survey. Unlike the BRFSS core component from previous years, in 2013, participants were questioned extensively about their physical activity behaviors. Seventy-six different activities were identified by the participants. Two researchers categorized the 76 activities as sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, or household tasks based on previously identified categories. Logistic regression was utilized to calculate odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases based on physical activity category. Results Women who participated in sport had better health outcomes with significantly lower odds for all chronic diseases except asthma and better general health than women who participated in conditioning exercise, household tasks, or recreation, and many of the significant differences remained after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusion Sport participation was associated with more positive health outcomes among women in the USA compared with the other categories. As a means to improve health of women, the USA could focus on efforts to increase sport participation among women.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.005
       
  • Longitudinal trajectories of physical activity in women using latent class
           growth analysis: The WIN Study

    • Authors: Youngdeok Kim; Minsoo Kang; Anna M. Tacón; James R. Morrow
      Pages: 410 - 416
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Youngdeok Kim, Minsoo Kang, Anna M. Tacón, James R. Morrow
      Purpose This study aimed (1) to examine the longitudinal trajectories in objectively measured physical activity (PA); (2) to identify unknown (i.e., latent) subgroups with distinct trajectories; and (3) to examine the correlates of latent subgroups among community dwelling women. Methods The study sample included a total of 669 women from the Women's Injury Study, a 5-year prospective cohort study conducted from 2007 in the Southwest Central region of the US. Pedometer-based step-count data across 18 consecutive months were fitted to a latent growth model (LGM) and a latent class growth model (LCGM). Baseline characteristics were regressed on latent class membership. Results The longitudinal change in PA was best fit to a piecewise LGM with seasonal transitions. Significantly increased and decreased levels of PA were observed during the spring, fall, and winter, respectively (p < 0.001). Three latent subgroups with distinct PA trajectories were identified (low-active (46.8%), somewhat-active (41.3%), and active (11.9%)). Age and body fat percentage at the baseline significantly explained the likelihoods of being in low-active subgroup. Conclusion Seasonal variations in PA among women were observed but may not be practically significant. A relatively large portion of the sample showed low levels of PA for long periods. Intervention strategies should be considered for women who are overweight or obese, and aged >40 years old to promote PA during the life course.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.04.007
       
  • Evidence of a conservative gait strategy in athletes with a history of
           concussions

    • Authors: Thomas A. Buckley; Srikant Vallabhajosula; Jessie R. Oldham; Barry A. Munkasy; Kelsey M. Evans; David A. Krazeise; Caroline J. Ketcham; Eric E. Hall
      Pages: 417 - 423
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Thomas A. Buckley, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Jessie R. Oldham, Barry A. Munkasy, Kelsey M. Evans, David A. Krazeise, Caroline J. Ketcham, Eric E. Hall
      Background A history of 3 or more concussions is frequently associated with numerous short- and long-term neuropathologies. Impairments in postural control are a known acute consequence of concussion; however, limited evidence exists on the effects of multiple concussions on gait. The purpose of this study was to assess gait stepping characteristics in collegiate aged student-athletes based on concussion history. Methods There were 63 participants divided into 3 even groups based on concussion history: ≥3 concussions, 1–2 concussions, and 0 concussion. All participants completed 10 trials of gait on a 4.9 m instrumented walkway. The dependent variables of interest included both gait stepping characteristics (step velocity, length, and width, double support time, and the percentage of the gait cycle in stance) and coefficient of variability (CoV) measures (step length, time, and width). The gait stepping characteristics were compared first with a MANOVA with follow-up 1-way ANOVAs and Tukey post hoc tests as appropriate. The CoV measures were compared with 1-way ANOVAs and Tukey post hoc tests. Results There were main effects for group for step velocity, length, width, and double support time. Overall, the 0 concussion group displayed typical healthy young gait parameters and performed significantly better than either concussion group. The 0 concussion group had a significantly greater step length CoV, but there were no differences in the step time or width CoV. Conclusion This finding provides evidence of subtle impairments in postural control during gait among individuals with prior history of concussion which could be an early indicator of future neurological deficiencies. The limited difference in the variability measures is consistent with prior static stance studies and could suggest the individuals constrain their motor systems to reduce variability. Taken together, these findings suggest a conservative gait strategy which is adopted by individuals with a history of concussions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.03.010
       
  • Total soy saponins improve the antioxidant capacity of the myocardium and
           exercise ability in exhausted rats

    • Authors: Zhigang Liu; Yun Liu; Zhengying Xiong; Yue Feng; Wenkun Tang
      Pages: 424 - 429
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Zhigang Liu, Yun Liu, Zhengying Xiong, Yue Feng, Wenkun Tang
      Purpose The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of total soy saponins (TS) on the myocardial antioxidant capacity in rats exercised to exhaustion. Methods The one-time exhausted treadmill model was used. All rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the TS group, the exhausted group, and the TS exhausted group. The TS and TS exhausted groups were fed TS at a dosage of 20 mg/kg body weight, once a day, for 2 weeks. The exhausted group was given a placebo, and the control group was not given any treatment. The treadmill speed was set at 30 m/min, and the rats (exhausted and TS exhausted groups) were trained at this speed until exhausted. The rats were decapitated and anatomized immediately after exhausted. A 10% homogenate of the myocardial tissue was prepared. Results TS significantly increased the exercise time by 20.62% (p < 0.05). As compared with the control group, the enzyme activities for catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly enhanced in the TS group (p < 0.01); GR and GSH-Px activity was significantly enhanced in the TS exhausted group (p < 0.01); malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly decreased in the TS exhausted group (p < 0.05). As compared with the exhausted group, the GSH-Px activity was significantly enhanced in the TS exhausted group (p < 0.01); CAT, GSH-Px, and GR activities were significantly enhanced in the TS group (p < 0.01). As compared with the TS group, the CAT and GR activity in the TS exhausted group was significantly decreased (p < 0.01). Conclusion TS can improve the exercised rats' antioxidant activity in their cardiac muscle to varying degrees, decrease MDA and serum AST and LDH levels, increase the exercise time, and delay the occurrence of sports fatigue.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.005
       
  • Changes in balance ability, power output, and stretch-shortening cycle
           utilisation after two high-intensity intermittent training protocols in
           endurance runners

    • Authors: Felipe García-Pinillos; Juan A. Párraga-Montilla; Víctor M. Soto-Hermoso; Pedro A. Latorre-Román
      Pages: 430 - 436
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Felipe García-Pinillos, Juan A. Párraga-Montilla, Víctor M. Soto-Hermoso, Pedro A. Latorre-Román
      Purpose This study aimed to describe the acute effects of 2 different high-intensity intermittent trainings (HIITs) on postural control, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), and stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) utilisation, and to compare the changes induced by both protocols in those variables in endurance runners. Methods Eighteen recreationally trained endurance runners participated in this study and were tested on 2 occasions: 10 runs of 400 m with 90 s recovery between running bouts (10 × 400 m), and 40 runs of 100 m with 30 s recovery between runs (40 × 100 m). Heart rate was monitored during both HIITs; blood lactate accumulation and rate of perceived exertion were recorded after both protocols. Vertical jump ability (CMJ and SJ) and SSC together with postural control were also controlled during both HIITs. Results Repeated measures analysis revealed a significant improvement in CMJ and SJ during 10 × 400 m (p < 0.05), whilst no significant changes were observed during 40 × 100 m. Indexes related to SSC did not experience significant changes during any of the protocols. As for postural control, no significant changes were observed in the 40 × 100 m protocol, whilst significant impairments were observed during the 10 × 400 m protocol (p < 0.05). Conclusion A protocol with a higher number of shorter runs (40 × 100 m) induced different changes in those neuromuscular parameters than those with fewer and longer runs (10 × 400 m). Whereas the 40 × 100 m protocol did not cause any significant changes in vertical jump ability, postural control or SSC utilisation, the 10 × 400 m protocol impaired postural control and caused improvements in vertical jumping tests.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.003
       
  • Physical activity, fitness, and all-cause mortality: An 18-year follow-up
           among old people

    • Authors: Marja Äijö; Markku Kauppinen; Urho M. Kujala; Terttu Parkatti
      Pages: 437 - 442
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Marja Äijö, Markku Kauppinen, Urho M. Kujala, Terttu Parkatti
      Background Little is known about change in physical activity (PA) and its relationship to all-cause mortality among old people. There is even less information about the association between PA, fitness, and all-cause mortality among people aged 80 years and above. The objective is to investigate persistence and change in PA over 5 years as a predictor of all-cause mortality, and fitness as a mediator of this association, among people aged 80 and 85 years at the beginning of an 18-year mortality follow-up period. Methods Using Evergreen Project data (started in 1989), 4 study groups were formed according to self-reported changes in PA level, over a 5-year period (starting in 1989–1990 and ending in 1994–1995): remained active (RA, control group), changed to inactive (CI), remained inactive (RI), and changed to active (CA). Mortality was followed up over the 18-year period (1994–2012). Cox models with different covariates such as age, sex, use of alcohol, smoking, chronic diseases, and a 10 m walking test were used to analyze the association between change in PA level and mortality. Results Compared to RA, those who decreased their PA level (CI) between baseline and follow-up had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR = 2.09; 95%CI: 1.63–2.69) when adjusted for age, gender, and chronic diseases. RI showed the highest all-cause mortality (HR = 2.16; 95%CI: 1.59–2.93). In CA, when compared against RA, the risk of all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (HR = 1.51; 95%CI: 0.95–2.38). In comparison with RA, when walking speed over 10 m was added as a covariate, all-cause mortality risk was almost statistically significant only in CI (HR = 1.37; 95%CI: 1.00–1.87). Conclusion Persistence and change in PA level was associated with mortality. This association was largely explained by fitness status. Randomized controlled studies are needed to test whether maintaining or increasing PA level could lengthen the life of old people.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.008
       
  • Improved sweat gland function during active heating in tennis athletes

    • Authors: Jeong-Beom Lee; Soon-Bok Na; Tae-Wook Kim
      Pages: 443 - 447
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jeong-Beom Lee, Soon-Bok Na, Tae-Wook Kim
      Background Relatively few studies on the peripheral sweating mechanisms of trained tennis athletes have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to compare the sweating capacities of tennis athletes against untrained subjects (controls). Methods Thirty-five healthy male volunteers participated including 15 untrained subjects and 20 trained tennis athletes (nationally ranked). Active heat generation was performed for 30 min (running at 60% VO 2 max ) in a climate chamber (temperature, 25.0°C ± 0.5°C; relative humidity, 60% ± 3%, termed active heating). Sweating data (local sweat onset time, local sweat volume, activated sweat glands, sweat output per gland, whole body sweat loss volume) were measured by the capacitance hygrometer-ventilated capsule method and starch-iodide paper. Mean body temperature was calculated from tympanic and skin temperatures. Results Local sweat onset time was shorter for tennis athletes (p < 0.001). Local sweat volume, activated sweat glands of the torso and limbs, sweat output per gland, and whole body sweat loss volume were significantly higher for tennis athletes than control subjects after active heating (p < 0.001). Tympanic and mean body temperatures were lower among tennis athletes than controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion These results indicate that tennis athletes had increased regulatory capacity of their sweat gland function.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.04.008
       
  • Effects of different fluid replacements on serum HSP70 and lymphocyte DNA
           damage in college athletes during exercise at high ambient temperatures

    • Authors: Hee-Tae Roh; Su-Youn Cho; Wi-Young So; Il-Young Paik; Sang-Hoon Suh
      Pages: 448 - 455
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So, Il-Young Paik, Sang-Hoon Suh
      Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluid replacement by water or sports drinks on serum heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) levels and DNA damage during exercise at a high ambient temperature. Methods Ten male college athletes with an athletic career ranging from 6 to 11 years were recruited from Yonsei University. The subjects ran on a treadmill at 75% of heart rate reserve during 4 different trials: thermoneutral temperature at 18°C (T), high ambient temperature at 32°C without fluid replacement (H), high ambient temperature at 32°C with water replacement (HW), and high ambient temperature at 32°C with sports drink replacement (HS). During each condition, blood samples were collected at the pre-exercise baseline (PEB), immediately after exercise (IAE), and 60 min post-exercise. Results Skin temperature significantly increased during exercise and was significantly higher in H compared to T and HS at IAE. Meanwhile, serum HSP70 was significantly increased in all conditions at IAE compared to PEB and was higher in H compared to T at the former time point. Significantly increased lymphocyte DNA damage (DNA in the tail, tail length, tail moment) was observed in all trials at IAE compared to PEB, and attenuated DNA damage (tail moment) was observed in HS compared to H at IAE. Conclusion Acute exercise elevates serum HSP70 and induces lymphocyte DNA damage. Fluid replacement by sports drink during exercise at high ambient temperature can attenuate HSP response and DNA damage by preventing dehydration and reducing thermal stress.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.007
       
  • Effect of yelling on maximal aerobic power during an incremental test of
           cycling performance

    • Authors: Chien-Liang Chen; Nan-Ying Yu; Jing-Shia Tang; Shao-Hsia Chang; Yea-Ru Yang; Lin Wang
      Pages: 456 - 461
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Chien-Liang Chen, Nan-Ying Yu, Jing-Shia Tang, Shao-Hsia Chang, Yea-Ru Yang, Lin Wang
      Background People experiencing strong feelings of fatigue during exercise sometimes subconsciously yell to refocus their efforts and, thus, maintain exercise performance. The present study examined the influence of yelling during high-intensity exercise by analysing cardiorespiratory reactions and integrated electromyography (iEMG) changes in the vastus lateralis during a cycle ergometer test. Methods A total of 23 moderately trained people were recruited. The cycling test began with a resistance of 25 W/min, which was gradually increased. During the experimental trial, the participants were required to yell at least 3 times when they felt exhausted; during the controlled trial, they were not allowed to produce any yelling sounds. The testing order was randomly assigned and the 2 trials were completed within an interval between 3–10 days. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to analyse the differences within and between the trials, and interaction of trial and time. Results The peak power and time to exhaustion (p < 0.01) in the yelling trial were higher than those in the control trial. However, the vastus lateralis iEMG values of both trials at peak power were not significantly different. During the yelling period at 90%–100% of the maximal effort, a significant time-by-trial interaction (p < 0.05) was observed in oxygen consumption (VO2), CO2 production, O2 pulse, ventilation, and respiratory rate. All the above measures showed a significant between-trial difference (p < 0.02). However, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, end-tidal oxygen pressure, and ventilatory equivalent for oxygen showed only significant between-trial difference (p < 0.05), but without interaction of trial and time. Conclusion Yelling enhances the peak O2 pulse and VO2 and maintains CO2-exclusion efficiency during high-intensity exercise. It may enable maintaining muscle activation without stronger EMG signals being required during high-intensity exercise.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.009
       
  • Effects of aerobic training on serum paraoxonase activity and its
           relationship with PON1-192 phenotypes in women

    • Authors: Gulbin Rudarli Nalcakan; S. Rana Varol; Faruk Turgay; Mesut Nalcakan; M. Zeki Ozkol; S. Oguz Karamizrak
      Pages: 462 - 468
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Gulbin Rudarli Nalcakan, S. Rana Varol, Faruk Turgay, Mesut Nalcakan, M. Zeki Ozkol, S. Oguz Karamizrak
      Background Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme that protects high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. Limited studies have addressed the influence of exercise on PON1 activity and its relationship with PON1 phenotypes. We investigated relationships between PON1-192 phenotypes, PON1 activity, aerobic exercise, and blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in middle-aged women. Methods An exercise group (n = 50) engaging in regular aerobic exercise and a control group (n = 41) were selected from a subset of 300 Caucasian women that met the inclusion criteria. Serum PON1, salt-stimulated PON1 (SSPON1), and arylesterase (ARE) activities; cholesterol levels and ARE activities of total HDL and HDL subgroups (HDLs) (supernatants obtained by polyethylene glycol); and blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were determined by standardized enzymatic methods. PON1-192 QQ (low activity), QR (moderate activity), and RR (high activity) phenotype groups were defined using serum SSPON1/ARE activity ratios. The R-carries (RC) phenotype group consisted of the QR and RR groups combined. Results All lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were greater in the exercise group than in the control group. Regardless of phenotype, no significant differences were observed between the exercise and control groups in terms of serum PON1, SSPON1, or ARE activity associated with HDLs (p > 0.05), whereas PON1 activities in QQ-phenotyped women in the exercise group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.01), but not the RC group. A statistically significant interaction between PON1 phenotypes (QQ and RC groups) and exercise (exercise and control groups) on PON1 activity was found. Conclusion These results showed that a regular aerobic exercise program can improve PON1 activity depending on PON1-192 phenotype, but not on lipid and lipoprotein levels, in middle-aged Turkish women.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.010
       
  • Competitive trampolining influences trabecular bone structure, bone size,
           and bone strength

    • Authors: Lauren A. Burt; John D. Schipilow; Steven K. Boyd
      Pages: 469 - 475
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Lauren A. Burt, John D. Schipilow, Steven K. Boyd
      Background Trampolining is a form of gymnastics that has increased in popularity over the last decade and due to its concurrence with the formative years of bone development, it may have an important impact on bone health. However, bone density, microarchitecture, and bone strength of competitive trampolinists have not been explored. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between trampolining participation and (1) bone density, area, and microarchitecture; and (2) estimated bone strength and the role of muscle and impact loading in young female adults. Methods We recruited 29 female participants aged 16–29 years for this study (n = 14 trampolinists; n = 15 controls). Skeletal parameters were assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), and finite element analysis (FEA). Muscle strength was measured using dynamometers. Results Trampolinists had higher bone density at the hip and spine, greater trabecular density and thicker trabeculae at the tibia, as well as larger bones at both the tibia and radius than controls (p < 0.05). Trampolinists also had higher muscle strength than controls at the lower body with no difference between groups in the upper body. Estimates of bone strength using FEA were greater for trampolinists than controls at both the radius and tibia. Conclusion This is the first study to investigate bone density, area, and microarchitecture in female trampolinists using HR-pQCT. Trampolinists had greater bone density, area, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength than controls.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.007
       
  • Validity and reliability of three methods of stiffness assessment

    • Authors: Elizabeth C. Pruyn; Mark L. Watsford; Aron J. Murphy
      Pages: 476 - 483
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Elizabeth C. Pruyn, Mark L. Watsford, Aron J. Murphy
      Background Stiffness is commonly assessed in relation to injury and athletic performance. The purpose of this research was to compare the validity and reliability of 3 in vivo methods of stiffness assessment using 1 cohort of participants. Methods To determine inter-day reliability, 15 female netballers were assessed for stiffness twice within 1 week using unilateral hopping (vertical stiffness), free oscillations of the calf, and myometry of various muscles of the triceps surae. To establish convergent construct validity, stiffness was compared to static and dynamic strength measurements. Results Test–retest stiffness results revealed that vertical stiffness produced moderate to high reliability results and myometry presented moderate to very high reliability. In contrast, the free oscillation technique displayed low to moderate reliability. Vertical stiffness demonstrated a significant correlation with rate of force development during a squat jump, whilst myometer stiffness measurements from 3 sites in the lower limb revealed significant correlations with isometric rate of force development. Further, significant negative correlations were evident between the eccentric utilisation ratio and various myometer stiffness results. No relationships were established between the free oscillation technique and any of the performance measurements. Conclusion These results suggest that vertical stiffness and myometry are valid and reliable methods for assessing stiffness.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.001
       
  • Comparing the effectiveness of karate and fitness training on cognitive
           functioning in older adults—A randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Kerstin Witte; Siegfried Kropf; Sabine Darius; Peter Emmermacher; Irina Böckelmann
      Pages: 484 - 490
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kerstin Witte, Siegfried Kropf, Sabine Darius, Peter Emmermacher, Irina Böckelmann
      Background Recent studies demonstrate a slowdown in deterioration of cognitive functioning in old age through aerobic training. There is evidence that the combination of aerobic, balance, and coordination exercises leads to an improvement or maintenance of cognitive functions. Such age-related exercises can especially be found in East Asian martial arts. The purpose of the current study is to verify whether karate training for older adults improves cognitive functioning and, if an improvement can be found, which cognitive fields are influenced. Methods Eighty-nine older women and men (mean age: 70 years) participated in this study. The participants were randomized into 2 intervention groups (karate group and fitness group, duration of intervention: 5 months) and a control group. All participants had to accomplish a cognitive test battery before and after the intervention. In a secondary study the karate group had an additional intervention for another 5 months. Results The results show that there is a significant improvement in motor reactivity, stress tolerance, and divided attention only after the 5-month karate training period. Additionally, the results of the secondary study indicate further improvements after 10 months. Conclusion The 5-month karate training can help to enhance attention, resilience, and motor reaction time, but a training period of 10 months is even more efficient.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.006
       
  • Manipulative skill competency and health-related physical fitness in
           elementary school students

    • Authors: Weiyun Chen; Steve Mason; Austin Hammond-Bennett; Sandy Zalmout
      Pages: 491 - 499
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Weiyun Chen, Steve Mason, Austin Hammond-Bennett, Sandy Zalmout
      Background Improving motor skill competency and enhancing health-related physical fitness are desired learning outcomes for school-aged children. Achieving motor skill competency and a healthy level of physical fitness lay a foundation for being a physically active person across a lifetime. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between levels of manipulative skill competency and physical fitness for elementary school boys and girls. Methods In this study, 565 fourth-grade students and their 9 physical education teachers were voluntary participants. The students were assessed in 4 basic specialized manipulative skills and 4 fitness components during regular physical education lessons. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, univariate analyses, and multiple R 2 liner regression methods. Results Boys were more proficient at the manipulative skills than girls, while girls had significant higher percentages for meeting the healthy fitness zone for the fitness tests than boys. Four manipulative skills significantly predicted progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER), push-up, and trunk lifts tests at p < 0.05 level, but not curl-up test for both boys and girls. Boys and girls in the skill-competent group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the skill-incompetent group on PACER, push-up, and trunk lifts tests at p < 0.05 level, with an exception of curl-up test. Conclusion The more competent in manipulative skills, the higher healthy level in cardiovascular endurance, upper-body muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility the students demonstrated. Demonstrating manipulative skill competence and maintaining a healthy level of physical fitness are 2 major desired learning outcomes for elementary school students to be able to achieve.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.03.007
       
  • The association between Tai Chi exercise and safe driving performance
           among older adults: An observational study

    • Authors: Sally Miller; Ruth Taylor-Piliae
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sally Miller, Ruth Taylor-Piliae
      Background Age-related cognitive and physical decline can impair safe driving performance. Tai Chi exercise benefits cognitive and physical function and may influence safe driving performance in older adults. The primary aim of this observational study was to compare cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance among older adult Tai Chi practitioners to normative reference values. Secondary aims were to examine relationships between Tai Chi exercise habits, cognitive processes, and physical function related to safe driving performance and to explore potential predictors of safe driving performance. Methods The DrivingHealth InventoryTM, the Driving Scenes Test, other driving-related cognitive and physical measures, and self-reported measures including the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Vitality Plus Scale (VPS) were collected from current Tai Chi practitioners (n = 58; age 72.9 ± 5.9 years, mean ± SD) with median >3 years Tai Chi practice. Results Compared to normative reference values, participants performed better on numerous cognitive measures including the Driving Scenes Test (p < 0.001, d = 1.63), Maze navigation (p = 0.017, d = 0.27), the Useful Field of View™ test (p < 0.001, r = 0.15), and on physical measures including the Rapid Walk Test (p < 0.001, r = 0.20), and the Right Foot Tapping test, (p < 0.001, r = 0.35). Participants scored higher than normative reference values on MAAS and VPS (p < 0.001, d = 0.75 and p = 0.002, d = 0.38, respectively). Statistically significant correlations were found between several study measures. The digit span backward test was the strongest predictor of safe driving performance (β = 0.34, p = 0.009). Conclusion Tai Chi exercise has the potential to impact cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance. Further study using randomized controlled trials, structured Tai Chi exercise doses, and driving simulator or on-road driving performance as outcome measures are warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T06:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.013
       
  • Comments to “mechanism of hamstring muscle strain injury in
           sprinting” by Yu et al.

    • Authors: Yu Liu; Yuliang Sun; Wenfei Zhu; Jiabin Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yu Liu, Yuliang Sun, Wenfei Zhu, Jiabin Yu


      PubDate: 2017-01-29T06:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.012
       
  • The late swing and early stance of sprinting are most hazardous for
           hamstring injuries

    • Authors: Yu Liu; Yuliang Sun; Wenfei Zhu; Jiabin Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yu Liu, Yuliang Sun, Wenfei Zhu, Jiabin Yu


      PubDate: 2017-01-29T06:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.011
       
  • Differential effects of physical activity and sleep duration on cognitive
           function in young adults

    • Authors: Kazuko Kato; Kunihiro Iwamoto; Naoko Kawano; Yukihiro Noda; Norio Ozaki; Akiko Noda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kazuko Kato, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Naoko Kawano, Yukihiro Noda, Norio Ozaki, Akiko Noda
      Purpose Although exercise and sleep duration habits are associated with cognitive function, their beneficial effects on cognitive function remain unclear. We aimed to examine the effect of sleep duration and daily physical activity on cognitive function, elucidating the neural mechanisms using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Methods A total of 23 healthy young adults (age 22.0 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Exercise amount was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer. We evaluated total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency by actigraphy. Cognitive function was tested using the N-back task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP), and the cortical oxygenated hemoglobin levels were measured with NIRS. Results Exercise amount was significantly correlated with reaction time on 0-back and 1-back tasks (r = -0.602, p = 0.002; r = -0.446, p = 0.033, respectively), whereas TST was significantly correlated with % corrects on the 2-back task (r = 0.486, p = 0.019). Multiple regression analysis, including exercise amount, TST, and sleep efficiency, revealed that exercise amount was the most significant factor for reaction time on 0-back and 1-back tasks (β = -0.634, p = 0.002; β = -0.454, p = 0.031, respectively), and TST was the most significant factor for % corrects on the 2-back task (β = 0.542, p = 0.014). The parameter measured by WCST and CPT-IP was not significantly correlated with TST or exercise amount. Exercise amount, but not TST, was significantly correlated with the mean area under the NIRS curve in the prefrontal area (r = 0.492, p = 0.017). Conclusion Exercise amount and TST had differential effects on working memory and cortical activation in the prefrontal area. Daily physical activity and appropriate sleep duration may play an important role in working memory.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T06:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.005
       
  • Determination of functional fitness age in women aged 50 and older

    • Authors: Edgar Johani Latorre-Rojas; Joan Antoni Prat-Subirana; Xavier Peirau-Terés; Sebastià Mas-Alòs; José Vicente Beltrán-Garrido; Antoni Planas-Anzano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Edgar Johani Latorre-Rojas, Joan Antoni Prat-Subirana, Xavier Peirau-Terés, Sebastià Mas-Alòs, José Vicente Beltrán-Garrido, Antoni Planas-Anzano
      Background The construction of useful and attainable indicators of fitness assessment deserves special attention in clinical practice. We aimed to construct an indicator of the functional fitness age (FFA) of women aged 50 and older by an equation using fitness outcomes and its correlation with chronological age, and to analyse the external validity of our results by comparing our sample to others. Methods Participants (n = 459, mean age: 70.3 SD ±7.9) were evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test battery. We applied a multiple regression and a subsequent Holt's exponential smoothing to analyse the outcomes. Results We obtained a statistically significant expression of F = 328.384; p < 0.0005 in which the coefficients of the equation explain the 81% of variability (R 2 corrected = 0.813). The equation correlates fitness assessment in women aged 50 and over with regards to chronological age: FFA = 40.146 + 0.350 × CS (stands) − 0.714 × AC (reps) − 0.110 × ST (steps) − 0.177 × CSR (cm) − 0.101 × BS (cm) + 8.835 × FUG (s) where CS means Chair Stand test, AC means Arm Curl test, ST means 2-Minute Step test, CSR means Chair Sit-and-Reach test, BS means Back Scratch test, FUG means 8-Foot Up-and-Go test. We compared this index with percentiles distribution from our sample and from other studies. Conclusion We suggest the use of FFA as a valid indicator of fitness in adult and senior women as well as a useful motivational tool to undertake exercise programs.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T06:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.010
       
  • The relationship of high-intensity cross-training with arterial stiffness

    • Authors: Jamie F. Burr; Jenny L. Beck; John J. Durocher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jamie F. Burr, Jenny L. Beck, John J. Durocher
      Purpose Central arterial stiffness is a cardiovascular risk factor that can be readily affected through engagement in physical exercise training, with resistance and aerobic exercise having disparate affects. Despite the growing popularity of high-intensity cross-training (HICT), little is currently known about the effects of this mixed modality exercise stimulus on arterial stiffness. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the arterial stiffness of habitual HICT participants versus aerobically active and sedentary controls using a cross-sectional design. Methods A total of 30 participants were recruited, comprising 10 middle-aged long term participants of HICT (CrossFit) and 20 age, sex, and height matched controls (10 recreationally active, 10 sedentary). Central and peripheral pulse wave velocity were measured for the carotid-femoral and femoral-dorsalis pedis arterial segments. Aerobic fitness (VO2max) was measured and typical exercise participation rates were self-reported for each group. Results HICT participants manifested central pulse wave velocity (5.3 ± 1.0 m/s) and VO2max (43 ± 6 mL/kg/min) values nearly identical to active controls. Both active groups had significantly better values than sedentary controls (7.1 ± 1.0 m/s p ≤ 0.001; and 32 ± 7 mL/kg/min, p = 0.01). No differences were observed in peripheral PWV between groups. Conclusion Habitual participation in HICT exercise was not associated with increased central nor peripheral arterial stiffness. Long-term HICT participants presented with similar fitness and arterial stiffness as compared with participants who practiced traditional aerobic exercise. Compared to sedentary living, HICT may offer musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health benefits without negatively impacting arterial stiffness.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T05:49:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.009
       
  • Comparison of daily physical activity parameters using objective methods
           between overweight and normal-weight children

    • Authors: Jonghoon Park; Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata; Sangjik Lee; Eunkyung Kim; Kiwon Lim; Hyungryul Kim; In-Sook Lee; Shigeho Tanaka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jonghoon Park, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Sangjik Lee, Eunkyung Kim, Kiwon Lim, Hyungryul Kim, In-Sook Lee, Shigeho Tanaka
      Purpose The main purpose of the present study was to determine whether there were any differences in various aspects of physical activity such as energy expenditure, intensity, and type of activity between normal-weight and overweight boys. Methods Children aged 9 − 12 years were recruited from 2 elementary schools located in different urban districts in Republic of Korea. The present study included 45 Korean boys, of which 19 were normal-weight and 26 were overweight. Daily physical activity was estimated over the same 1 week study period under free-living conditions using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and a tri-axial accelerometer. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured using the Douglas bag method and open-circuit indirect calorimetry. We calculated the physical activity level (PAL) as the total energy expenditure (TEE)/RMR. Results PAL was not significantly different between the groups. In the accelerometer data, time spent in locomotive moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly lower in overweight boys than in normal-weight subjects, whereas other variables including non-locomotive activity did not differ between groups. In addition, among all participants, time spent in total locomotive activity was significantly associated with PAL. Time spent in locomotive MVPA was significantly associated with PAL. Conclusion Overweight boys may be less physically active on the basis of locomotive MVPA, which was positively related with PAL. Our findings suggest that the contribution of locomotive MVPA to the increase in PAL was relatively significant.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T05:49:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.008
       
  • Patellar tendon stress between two variations of the forward step lunge

    • Authors: Matthew Zellmer; Thomas W. Kernozek; Naghmeh Gheidi; Jordan Hove; Michael Torry
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Matthew Zellmer, Thomas W. Kernozek, Naghmeh Gheidi, Jordan Hove, Michael Torry
      Background Patellar tendinopathy (PT) or “jumper's knee” is generally found in active populations that perform jumping activities. Graded exposure of patellar tendon stress through functional exercise has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of PT. However, no studies have compared how anterior knee displacement variations during the commonly performed forward step lunge (FSL) affects patellar tendon stress. Methods Twenty five subjects (age: 22.69 ± 0.74 years; height: 169.39 ± 6.44 cm; mass: 61.55 ± 9.74 kg) performed 2 variations of a forward step lunge with the anterior knee motion going in front of the toes (FSL-FT) and the knee remaining behind the toes (FSL-BT). Kinematic and kinetic data were used with an inverse dynamics based static optimization technique to estimate individual muscle forces to determine patellar tendon stress during both lunge techniques. A repeated measures multivariate analysis was used to analyze these data. Results The peak patellar tendon stress, stress impulse, quadriceps force, knee moment, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion angle were significantly greater (p < 0.001) during the FSL-FT as compared to the FSL-BT. The patellar tendon peak stress rate did not differ between the FSL-FT and FSL-BT. Conclusion The use of an FSL-FT as compared to an FSL-BT increased the load and stress on the patellar tendon. Since a graded exposure of patellar tendon loading with other closed kinetic chain exercises has proven to be effective in treating PT, consideration for the prescription of variations of the FSL and further clinical evaluation of this exercise is warranted in individuals with PT.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T05:49:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.12.005
       
  • Associations between walking parameters and subsequent sleep difficulty in
           older adults: a 2-year follow-up study

    • Authors: Li-Jung Chen; Kenneth R. Fox; Wen-Jung Sun; Pei-Shu Tsai; Po-Wen Ku; DaChen Chu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Li-Jung Chen, Kenneth R. Fox, Wen-Jung Sun, Pei-Shu Tsai, Po-Wen Ku, DaChen Chu
      Purpose This 2-year follow-up study aimed to examine the associations between total volume, frequency, duration, and speed of walking with subsequent sleep difficulty in older adults. Methods A total of 800 older adults aged 65 years and over participated in the first survey in 2012 and 511 of them were followed 2 years later. The 5-item Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-5) was used to measure sleep difficulty. Frequency, duration, and speed of outdoor walking were self-reported. Walking speed was assigned a metabolic equivalent value (MET) from 2.5 to 4.5. Total walking volume in MET-h/week was calculated as frequency×duration×speed. Negative binomial regressions were performed to examine the associations between volume and components of walking with subsequent sleep difficulty with covariates of age, sex, education, marital status, living arrangement, smoking, alcohol consumption, mental health, Charlson index, exercise (excluding walking), and sleep difficulty at baseline. Results Participants with low walking volume had a higher level of sleep difficulty 2 years later compared with those with high walking volume (incident rate ratios = 1.61, p = 0.004). When speed, frequency, and duration of walking were simultaneously entered into one model, only walking speed was significantly associated with subsequent sleep difficulty adjusting for covariates and baseline sleep difficulty. Sensitivity analyses showed that walking duration emerged as a significant predictor among 3 walking parameters with 2-year changes of sleep scores as dependent variable. Conclusion Total amount of walking (especially faster walking and lasting for more than 20 min) is associated with less subsequent sleep difficulty after 2 years among older adults.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T05:49:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.007
       
  • Eccentric vs. concentric muscle contraction: that is the question

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog


      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.006
       
  • Measurement invariance and latent mean differences of the chinese version
           physical activity self efficacy scale across gender and education levels

    • Authors: Han Chen; Jun Dai; Yong Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Han Chen, Jun Dai, Yong Gao
      Purpose Self-efficacy has been identified as an important determinant of youth's behavior change including physical activity (PA) participation. However, the dimensionality check of a PA self-efficacy scale has rarely been conducted in China. The current study aims to examine: 1) the unidimensionality of a shortened Chinese version of PA self-efficacy scale (S-PASESC); 2) the measurement invariance of S-PASESC across gender and levels of education; 3) the latent factor means difference between gender and levels of education; 4) the direct effects of self-efficacy on PA by different gender and education levels; and 5) the comparisons of the direct effects of self-efficacy on PA across gender and education levels Methods The participants were 5th through 11th grade public school students recruited from 7 cities located in different geographic regions of the Mainland of China. The final data include a total of 3003 participants (49.7% boys) who have completed the scales. Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) test supported the unidimensionality of S-PASESC. The S-PASESC is invariant across gender and 3 levels of education at both configural, full metric, and full scalar levels. Findings from latent mean comparisons showed that boys reported higher PA self-efficacy than girls. Students' perceived PA self-efficacy tend to decrease from elementary to high school. Finally, self-efficacy positively related to PA by groups of different gender and education levels and the relationship between self-efficacy and PA is stronger among middle school boys than girls. Conclusion Findings suggest S-PASESC is a valid scale for measuring Chinese students' PA self-efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.004
       
  • Impact of a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise and short-term
           interval training on interleukin-6, FNDC5, and METRNL mRNA expression in
           human skeletal muscle

    • Authors: Malcolm Eaton; Cesare Granata; Julianne Barry; Adeel Safdar; David Bishop; Jonathan P. Little
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Malcolm Eaton, Cesare Granata, Julianne Barry, Adeel Safdar, David Bishop, Jonathan P. Little
      Background Exercise promotes numerous phenotypic adaptations in skeletal muscle that contribute to improved function and metabolic capacity. An emerging body of evidence suggests that skeletal muscle also releases a myriad of factors during exercise, termed “myokines”. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the acute regulation of the mRNA expression of several myokines, including the prototypical myokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and recently identified myokines FNDC5/irisin and meteorin-like protein (METRNL). Methods Both before and after a 20-day period of twice-daily high-volume HIIT, 9 healthy males (20.5 ± 1.5 year performed a standardized bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 5 × 4min at ~80% pre-training peak power output) with skeletal muscle biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) obtained at rest, immediately following exercise, and at 3 h recovery. Results Before training, a single bout of HIIE increased IL-6 (p < 0.05) and METRNL (p < 0.05) mRNA expression measured at 3 h recovery when compared to rest. Following 20 days of HIIT, IL-6 and FNDC5 mRNA were increased at 3 h recovery from the standardized HIIE bout when compared to rest (both p < 0.05). Resting METRNL and FNDC5 mRNA expression were higher following training (p < 0.05), and there was an overall increase in FNDC5 mRNA post-training (main effect of training, p < 0.05). Conclusion In human skeletal muscle: 1) An acute bout of HIIE can induce upregulation of skeletal muscle IL-6 mRNA both before and after a period of intensified HIIT; 2) Resting and overall FNDC5 mRNA expression is increased by 20 days of HIIT; and 3) METRNL mRNA expression is responsive to both acute HIIE and short-term intense HIIT. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings at the protein and secretion level in humans.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.003
       
  • Egocentric social network correlates of physical activity

    • Authors: Sonja Mötteli; Simone Dohle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sonja Mötteli, Simone Dohle
      Background The social environment might play an important role in explaining people's physical activity (PA) behaviour. However, little is known regarding whether personal networks differ between physically active and physically inactive people. This study aimed to examine the relationship between personal network characteristics and adults' physical (in)activity. Methods An egocentric social network study was conducted in a random sample in Switzerland (N = 529, mean age of 53 years, 54% females). Individual and personal network measures were compared between regular exercisers and non-exercisers. The extent of these factors' association with PA levels was also examined. Results Non-exercisers (n = 183) had 70% non-exercising individuals in their personal networks, indicating homogeneity, whereas regular exercisers (n = 346) had 57% regularly exercising individuals in their networks, meaning more heterogeneous personal networks. Additionally, having more regular exercisers in personal networks was associated with higher PA levels, over and above individual factors. Respondents with an entirely active personal network reported, on average, one day of PA more per week than respondents who had a completely inactive personal network. Other personal network characteristics, such as network size or gender composition, were not associated with PA. Conclusion Non-exercisers seem to be clustered in inactive networks that provide fewer opportunities and resources, as well as less social support, for PA. To effectively promote PA, both individuals and personal networks need to be addressed, particularly the networks of inactive people (e.g., by promoting group activities).

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.002
       
  • Effects of compression garments on surface EMG and physiological responses
           during and after distance running

    • Authors: Wei-Chun Hsu; Li-Wen Tseng; Fu-Chun Chen; Li-Ju Wang; Wen-Wen Yang; Yi-Jia Lin; Chiang Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Wei-Chun Hsu, Li-Wen Tseng, Fu-Chun Chen, Li-Ju Wang, Wen-Wen Yang, Yi-Jia Lin, Chiang Liu
      Background Few previous studies focused on the effects of compression garments (CG) on distance running performance have simultaneously measured electromyogram, physiological and perceptual parameters. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of CG on muscle activation and median frequency during and after distance running, as well as blood-lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during distance running. Methods Eight healthy recreational male runners were recruited to randomly perform two 40min treadmill running trials, one with CG, and the other with control garment made of normal cloth. The RPE and the surface electromyography of 5 lower extremity muscles including gluteus maximus (GM), rectus femoris (RF), semitendinosus (ST), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GAS) were measured during the running trial. The blood-lactate levels before and after the running trial were measured. Results Wearing CG led to significant lower muscle activation (p < 0.05) in the GM (decreased 7.40%—14.31%), RF (decreased 4.39%—4.76%), and ST (decreased 3.42%—7.20%) muscles; moreover, significant higher median frequency (p < 0.05) in the GM (increased 5.57%) and ST (increased 10.58%) muscles. Wearing CG did not alter the RPE values or the blood-lactate levels (p > 0.05). Conclusion Wearing CG had significantly lower muscle activation and higher median frequency in the running-related key muscles during distance running. This finding suggested that wearing CG may improve muscle function, which might enhance running performance and prevent muscle fatigue.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.01.001
       
  • Children's expectancy beliefs and subjective task values through two years
           of school-based program and associated links to physical education
           enjoyment and physical activity

    • Authors: Arto
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 4
      Author(s): Arto Gråstén
      Purpose The present study examined the patterns of children's expectancy beliefs and subjective task values through the Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program and associated links to physical education enjoyment and total physical activity. Methods The sample comprised 401 children aged 9–13 years from 3 small towns located in North-East Finland. All children received school-based activities across 2-year program from Grades 5 to 7. The present data were collected using questionnaires across 3 measurement phases during 2012–2014. Results The levels of expectancy beliefs and subjective task values indicated to be relatively high and the development was stable through the program, especially in terms of expectancy beliefs, attainment value, and cost. In contrast, interest value and utility value decreased over the particular period of time. Boys believed they are physically more competent when compared to other students and valued physical education classes more important than girls. In addition, the higher the physical activity level the children reported, the higher the physical education enjoyment they perceived. Conclusion The current program including actions to increase physical activity through manipulation of psychological and physical school environment modifications indicated to be an effective strategy to prohibit declining levels of children's expectancy beliefs and task values.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:04:18Z
       
  • The effects of oral smokeless tobacco administration on endurance
           performance

    • Authors: Thomas Zandonai; Enrico Tam; Paolo Bruseghini; Fabio Pizzolato; Loretta Franceschi; Massimo Baraldo; Carlo Capelli; Paola Cesari; Cristiano Chiamulera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Thomas Zandonai, Enrico Tam, Paolo Bruseghini, Fabio Pizzolato, Loretta Franceschi, Massimo Baraldo, Carlo Capelli, Paola Cesari, Cristiano Chiamulera
      Background Smokeless tobacco is widely used by athletes to enhance performance. Nicotine is a central nervous-system stimulant and acts on cardio-circulatory and metabolic systems, involving tissue blood flow and circulatory vaso-reactivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the oral smokeless tobacco (Swedish Snus (SS)) on the perception of fatigue and time of exhaustion (TTE) during moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Methods Fourteen non-tobacco healthy male users were recruited for a double-blind controlled crossover design (SS vs. snus placebo (SP)). Subjects were tested for 3 sessions: experimental session 1 (Exp1) consisted of an incremental test to determine maximal aerobic power output (Wmax); Exp2 and Exp3 consisted of exercising at 65% of Wmax until exhaustion in SS or SP conditions. During Exp2 and Exp3, muscle and cerebral oxygenation was assessed by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded. Results Comparing SS with SP tests, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the values of cerebral (∼3%) and muscular tissues oxygenation (∼4%) in the first 30 minutes of exercise. RPE values were not significantly different between the two conditions (SS vs. SP). No significant difference was found in TTE (SS: 54.25 ± 21.84 min; SP: 50.01 ± 17.03 min). Conclusion This study showed that muscular and cerebral oxygenation increased significantly with snus administration during an endurance exercise until exhaustion, but this did not affect fatigue perception and TTE. The results showed that snus could not be considered an ergogenic substance in non-tobacco users.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T03:55:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.12.006
       
  • The longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the
           trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood
           

    • Authors: Chung Gun Lee; Seiyeong Park; Seunghyun Yoo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Chung Gun Lee, Seiyeong Park, Seunghyun Yoo
      Background One efficient way to increase physical activity is through sport participation because participation in sport activities inherently includes many enjoyable aspects, such as social interaction, competition, personal challenge, and goal achievement. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood. Methods The data used in this study is the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). It is a 4-wave longitudinal study that followed up a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students in the United States. The series of multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of parental support at wave 1 on the trajectory of sport participation from wave 1 to wave 4. Results The effect of parental support during adolescence on participants' sport participation lasted until they become young adults (wave 3) (p < 0.001). In male participants, parental support at wave 1 was a significant predictor for sport participation at wave 1, 2, and 3 (p < 0.001). However, a significant effect of parental support at wave 1 on sport participation in early young adulthood (wave 3) becomes insignificant when adjusting for self-esteem and depression. In female participants, parental support at wave 1 was a significant predictor for sport participation at wave 1, 2, and 3 (p < 0.01) even after depression and self-esteem were entered into the model. That is to say, unlike male participants, parental support during adolescence has an independent effect on sport participation from adolescence (wave 1) through early young adulthood (wave 3) over and above the effects of depression and self-esteem in female participants. Conclusion The results of this study are contributable to the literature by providing important information on the longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood using a nationally representative sample of participants transitioning from adolescence to young adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T03:55:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.12.004
       
  • How physically active are our children? A global view

    • Authors: Barbara Ainsworth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Barbara Ainsworth


      PubDate: 2016-12-18T02:48:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.12.003
       
  • Acknowledgment to reviewers—November 2015 to October 2016

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science


      PubDate: 2016-12-11T01:57:11Z
       
  • Assessing effect of interaction between the FTO A/T polymorphism
           (rs9939609) and Physical Activity on Obesity-related traits

    • Authors: Agata Leońska-Duniec; Zbigniew Jastrzębski; Aleksandra Zarębska; Agnieszka Maciejewska; Krzysztof Ficek; Paweł Cięszczyk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Agata Leońska-Duniec, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Zarębska, Agnieszka Maciejewska, Krzysztof Ficek, Paweł Cięszczyk
      Background The first described obesity-susceptibility gene was the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene. However, the knowledge of FTO's potential modifying effect on changes in body weight achieved through a training program is still limited. We have decided to check the association between the FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and obesity-related traits. Additionally, we have investigated if body mass and body composition, as well as metabolic variables observed in physically active participants will be modulated by the FTO polymorphism. Methods A group of 201 young Polish women were recruited for the study. The genotype distribution was examined in participants measured for selected changes before and after the completion of a 12-week training program. Results Our results confirm the association between the common FTO A/T polymorphism and increased body mass index (BMI). Subjects with AA and AT genotypes had higher BMI during the entire study period compared with the TT genotype. Although parameters such as body mass, BMI, basal metabolism rate (BMR), tissue independence, fat mass percentage (FM), fat mass, fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose changed significantly during the training program, none of the examined parameters changed significantly across the FTO genotypes (genotype × training interaction). Conclusions We confirm an association between the FTO A/T polymorphism and increased BMI, and it is thus a candidate to influence obesity and other disease-related phenotypes. Although, the gene × physical activity (PA) interaction was not shown, we want to point out that promoting PA is an important approach to controlling the presently increasing obesity epidemic.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T01:57:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.013
       
  • A systematic review of active video games on rehabilitative outcomes among
           older patients

    • Authors: Nan Zeng; Zachary Pope; Jung Eun Lee; Zan Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Nan Zeng, Zachary Pope, Jung Eun Lee, Zan Gao
      Background Although current research supports the use of active video games (AVGs) in rehabilitation, the evidence has yet to be systematically reviewed or synthesized. The current project systematically reviewed literature, summarized findings, and evaluated the effectiveness of AVGs as a therapeutic tool in improving physical, psychological, and cognitive rehabilitative outcomes among older adults with chronic diseases. Methods Seven databases (Academic Search Complete, Communication and Mass Media Complete, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, SportDiscus, and Medline) were searched for studies that evaluated the effectiveness of AVG-based rehabilitation among older patients. The initial search yielded 946 articles, after evaluating against inclusion criteria and removing duplicates, 19 studies of AVG-based rehabilitation remained. Results Most studies were quasi-experimental in design, with physical functioning the primary outcome investigated with regard to the use of AVGs in rehabilitation. Overall, 9 studies found significant improvements for all study outcomes while 9 studies were mixed, with significant improvements on several study outcomes but no effects were observed on other outcomes after AVG-based treatments. One study failed to find any benefits of AVG-based rehabilitation. Conclusion Findings indicate AVGs have the potential in rehabilitation for older patients, with several randomized-clinical trials reporting positive effects on rehabilitative outcomes. However, existing evidence is insufficient to support the advantages of AVGs over standard therapy. Given the limited number of studies and concerns with study design quality, more research is warranted to make more definitive conclusions regarding the ability of AVGs to improve rehabilitative outcomes in older patients.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T01:57:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.12.002
       
  • Does playing a sports active video game improve object-control skills of
           children with autism spectrum disorder?

    • Authors: Jacqueline Edwards; Sarah Jeffre; Sarah Jeffre; Nicole J Rinehart; Lisa M Barnett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jacqueline Edwards, Sarah Jeffre, Sarah Jeffre, Nicole J Rinehart, Lisa M Barnett
      Background Active video games (AVGs) encourage whole body movements to interact/control the gaming system, allowing the opportunity for skill development. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show decreased fundamental movement skills in comparison with their typically developing (TD) peers and might benefit from this approach. This pilot study investigates whether playing sports AVGs can increase the actual and perceived object control (OC) skills of 11 children with ASD aged 6-10 in comparison to 19 TD children of a similar age. Feasibility was a secondary aim. Methods Actual (Test of Gross Motor Development) and perceived OC skills (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence) were assessed before and after the intervention (6 × 45 min). Results Actual skill scores were not improved in either group. The ASD group improved in perceived skill. All children completed the required dose and parents reported the intervention was feasible. Conclusion The use of AVGs as a play based intervention may not provide enough opportunity for children to perform the correct movement patterns to influence skill. However, play of such games may influence perceptions of skill ability in children with ASD which could improve motivation to participate in physical activities.

      PubDate: 2016-12-04T01:15:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.004
       
  • Impact of exergaming on young children's school day energy expenditure and
           moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels

    • Authors: Zan Gao; Zachary Pope; Jung Eun Lee; David Stodden; Nida Roncesvalles; Denis Pasco; Charles C. Huang; Du Feng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zan Gao, Zachary Pope, Jung Eun Lee, David Stodden, Nida Roncesvalles, Denis Pasco, Charles C. Huang, Du Feng
      Background Although emerging research is demonstrating the potential health impact of exergaming, investigations have primarily been conducted in laboratory settings among small samples with short-term interventions. The effectiveness of exergaming on underserved children's objective physical activity (PA) in population-based settings is also scarce. Moreover, most empirical studies have only included 1 type of exergame in the intervention. Therefore, this study's purpose was to investigate the long-term impact of a multi-game exergaming intervention among underserved children integrated within school curricular. Specifically, this study examined the effect of exergaming on children's accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior (SB), light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and energy expenditure (EE) over 2 years as compared to regular physical education (PE) classes. Methods A total of 261 second and third grade children (134 girls, 127 boys; mean age 8.27 years) were recruited from 2 Texas elementary schools. Children's pre-test 3-day SB, light PA, MVPA, and EE at school was assessed in fall 2012. Participants were assigned to one of 2 groups: (1) exergaming/PE group (125 min weekly exergaming based PA program); and (2) comparison group (125 min weekly PE). PA (SB, light PA, MVPA) and EE outcome variables were assessed again in 2013 (post-test) and 2014 (follow-up). Results Significant Time effects were observed for SB (F(1, 162) = 25.0, p < 0.01, η 2 = 0.14), light PA (F(1, 162) = 9.6, p < 0.01, η 2 = 0.06), MVPA (F(1, 162) = 6.2, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.04) but not EE (F(1, 162) = 0.63, p > 0.05, η 2 = 0.004). Subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed significant increases from pre-test to post-test for light PA (p < 0.01), MVPA (p < 0.01), and EE (p = 0.02) with no changes in SB (p > 0.05). Conversely, significant decreases occurred to light PA (p < 0.01) from post-test to follow-up with no differences seen in MVPA (p = 0.08) and EE (p = 0.06) over the same time period. A significant increase was seen, however, for SB from post-test to follow-up. Conclusion Exergaming/PE can have the same positive effect on children's light PA, MVPA, and EE as PE. More research is necessary to discern how to promote long-term PA participation following intervention conclusion.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.008
       
  • Fight fire with fire? Promoting physical activity and health through
           active video games

    • Authors: Zan Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zan Gao


      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
       
  • The effects of a bike active video game on players' physical activity and
           motivation

    • Authors: Denis Pasco; Cédric Roure; Gilles Kermarrec; Zachary Pope; Zan Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Denis Pasco, Cédric Roure, Gilles Kermarrec, Zachary Pope, Zan Gao
      Background Players may not acquire adequate levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) when playing commercial video games. This study's goal was to evaluate the effects of an exercise bike video game played by using a mobile application-based exergame that was designed exclusively to promote participants' MVPA, with additional attention paid to this game's ability to promote greater situational interest. Methods An experimental design was used with 163 students (aged 20.31 ± 1.30, 18-26 years, 61.3% male) all of whom were randomly allocated into an experimental group and a control group. Physical activity(PA) levels were assessed with ActiGraph® GT3X+ accelerometers. The Situational Interest Scale was used to evaluate students' situational interest in both groups. MANOVA was conducted to examine the differences between sedentary behavior, PA levels, and situational interest between groups. Regression analyses were also used, with the purpose being to evaluate the strength of the relationship between PA and situational interest. Results Results revealed that the experimental group had higher sedentary behavior, light PA, total interest, instant enjoyment, exploration intention, attention demand, novelty, and challenge whereas the control group received higher scores for MVPA (control 95.01% vs. experiment 89.94%). Regression analysis indicated that instant enjoyment (β = 0.49, p < 0.01), exploration intention (β = 0.18, p < 0.05), and attention demand (β = 0.17, p < 0.05) were positive predictors for total interest, explaining 43% of its variance. Conclusion A newly designed mobile application-based exergame played via an exercise bike may enhance situational interest and provide decent level of PA for players.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.007
       
  • Exergaming: Hope for future physical activity? or blight on
           mankind?

    • Authors: Tom Baranowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Tom Baranowski


      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.006
       
  • Twelve weeks of dance exergaming in overweight and obese adolescent girls:
           transfer effects on physical activity, screen-time, and self-efficacy

    • Authors: Amanda E. Staiano; Robbie A. Beyl; Daniel S. Hsia; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert L. Newton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Amanda E. Staiano, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robert L. Newton
      Background. Given the low levels of physical activity (PA) among adolescent girls in the US, there is a need to identify tools to motivate increased PA. Although there is limited evidence that adolescents transfer PA from one context to another context, exergames (i.e., video games that require gross motor activity) may act as a gateway to promote overall PA outside of game play. The purpose of this study was to examine potential transfer effects (i.e., influences on external behaviors and psychological constructs) of a 12-week exergaming intervention on adolescent girls' PA, screen-time, and self-efficacy towards PA, as well as the intrinsic motivation of exergaming. Methods. Participants were 37 girls aged 14 -18 years (65% African American, 35% White) who were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) and were recruited from the community via school, physicians, news media, and social media sites. Adolescents were randomly assigned to a 12-week group exergaming intervention (thirty-six 60 min sessions of group-based dance exergaming in a research laboratory using Kinect for Xbox 360) or to a no-treatment control group. Outcome variables included objectively measured PA (total) and self-reported leisure-time PA (discretionary time only) 1-week before vs. 1-week after the intervention; selected type and intensity of PA when placed in a gym setting for 30 min (“cardio free choice”); screen-time; self-efficacy towards PA; and intrinsic motivation towards exergaming. Results. Attendance to the exergaming sessions was high (80%). Compared to the control group, the intervention group self-reported an increase in PA (p = 0.035) and fewer hours watching TV/videos (p = 0.01) after the intervention, but there were no significant differences in sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous PA measured by accelerometry. The intervention group significantly improved self-efficacy towards PA (p = 0.028). The intervention group highly rated intrinsic motivation towards exergaming. Conclusion. Twelve weeks of exergaming was associated with positive impacts on adolescent girls' self-reported PA, television viewing, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation. Future research is warranted to leverage exergames as an enjoyable, motivating, and effective PA tool.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.005
       
  • The Effect of Performance Demands on Lower Extremity Biomechanics during
           Landing and Cutting Tasks

    • Authors: Boyi Dai; William E. Garrett; Michael T. Gross; Darin A. Padua; Robin M. Queen; Bing Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Boyi Dai, William E. Garrett, Michael T. Gross, Darin A. Padua, Robin M. Queen, Bing Yu
      Purpose Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur during the early phase of landing and cutting tasks that involve sudden decelerations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of jump height and jump speed on lower extremity biomechanics during a stop-jump task and the effect of cutting speed on lower extremity biomechanics during a side-cutting task. Methods Thirty-six recreational athletes performed a stop-jump task under 3 conditions: jumping fast, jumping for maximum height, and jumping for 60% of maximum height. Participants also performed a side-cutting task under 2 conditions: cutting at maximum speed and cutting at 60% of maximum speed. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected. Results The jumping fast condition resulted in increased peak posterior ground reaction force (PPGRF), knee extension moment at PPGRF, and knee joint stiffness and decreased knee flexion angle compared with the jumping for maximum height condition. The jumping for 60% of maximum height condition resulted in decreased knee flexion angle compared with the jumping for maximum height condition. Participants demonstrated greater PPGRF, knee extension moment at PPGRF, knee valgus angle and varus moment at PPGRF, knee joint stiffness, and knee flexion angle during the cutting at maximum speed condition compared with the cutting at 60% maximum speed condition. Conclusion Performing jump-landing at an increased jump speed resulted in lower extremity movement patterns that have been previously associated with an increase in ACL loading. Cutting speed also affected lower extremity biomechanics. Jump speed and cutting speed need to be considered when designing ACL injury risk screening and injury prevention programs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T15:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.004
       
  • Physical activity and prevention of alzheimer's disease

    • Authors: Rena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rena Li


      PubDate: 2016-11-06T00:07:40Z
       
  • What do we know from clinical trials on exercise and Alzheimer's
           disease?

    • Authors: Yong Shen; Rena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yong Shen, Rena Li
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly with major symptoms of a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities impairment which are serous enough to interfere with daily life. While there is no treatment can prevent and revise the cognitive function impairment in AD, physical activity becomes a potential beneficial intervention for AD. Multiple evidences suggested that exercise in general plays beneficial roles in improving brain function. Most common mechanisms of exercise-induced enhancement of brain function are including alteration of neurogenesis, neuron plasticity, neuronal signaling and receptors, as well as neuronal networks. This mini review includes most recent clinical studies and focuses on the effects of physical exercise, cognitive stimulation and combination of both physical and cognitive training on protection and rescue cognitive decline in people with AD.

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T23:18:52Z
       
  • BACE1 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer disease

    • Authors: Robert Vassar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Robert Vassar


      PubDate: 2016-10-29T23:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.004
       
  • Regarding: examining the relationship between sport and health among U.S.
           women by pharr and lough

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog


      PubDate: 2016-09-24T14:38:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.001
       
 
 
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