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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [SJR: 0.513]   [H-I: 9]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Twelve weeks of dance exergaming in overweight and obese adolescent girls:
           Transfer effects on physical activity, screen time, and self-efficacy

    • Authors: Amanda E. Staiano; Robbie A. Beyl; Daniel S. Hsia; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert L. Newton
      Pages: 4 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Amanda E. Staiano, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robert L. Newton
      Background Given the low levels of physical activity (PA) among adolescent girls in the US, there is a need to identify tools to motivate increased PA. Although there is limited evidence that adolescents transfer PA from one context to another, exergames (i.e., video games that require gross motor activity) may act as a gateway to promote overall PA outside game play. The purpose of this study was to examine potential transfer effects (i.e., influences on external behaviors and psychological constructs) of a 12-week exergaming intervention on adolescent girls' PA, screen time, and self-efficacy toward PA, as well as the intrinsic motivation of exergaming. Methods Participants were 37 girls aged 14–18 years (65% African American, 35% white) who were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) and were recruited from the community via school, physicians, news media, and social media websites. Adolescents were randomly assigned to a 12-week group exergaming intervention (thirty-six 60 min sessions of group-based dance exergaming in a research laboratory using Kinect for Xbox 360 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA)) or to a no-treatment control group. Outcome variables included objectively measured PA (total) and self-reported leisure-time PA (discretionary time only) 1 week before vs. 1 week after the intervention; selected type and intensity of PA when placed in a gym setting for 30 min (“cardio free choice”); screen time; self-efficacy toward PA; and intrinsic motivation toward exergaming. Results Attendance at the exergaming sessions was high (80%). Compared with the control group, the intervention group self-reported an increase in PA (p = 0.035) and fewer hours watching television or videos (p = 0.01) after the intervention, but there were no significant differences in sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous PA measured by accelerometry. The intervention group significantly improved self-efficacy toward PA (p = 0.028). The intervention group highly rated intrinsic motivation toward exergaming. Conclusion Exergaming for 12 weeks was associated with positive impacts on adolescent girls' self-reported PA, television viewing, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation. Future research is warranted to leverage exergames as an enjoyable, motivating, and effective PA tool.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.005
       
  • Impact of exergaming on young children's school day energy expenditure and
           moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels

    • Authors: Zan Gao; Zachary Pope; Jung Eun Lee; David Stodden; Nida Roncesvalles; Denis Pasco; Charles C. Huang; Du Feng
      Pages: 11 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zan Gao, Zachary Pope, Jung Eun Lee, David Stodden, Nida Roncesvalles, Denis Pasco, Charles C. Huang, Du Feng
      Background Although emerging research is demonstrating the potential health impact of exergaming, investigations have primarily been conducted in laboratory settings among small samples with short-term interventions. Information on the effectiveness of exergaming in underserved children's objective physical activity (PA) in population-based settings is also scarce. Moreover, most empirical studies have only included 1 type of exergame in the intervention. Therefore, this study's purpose was to investigate the long-term impact of a multigame exergaming intervention among underserved children integrated within school curricula. Specifically, this study examined the effect of exergaming on children's accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior (SB), light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and energy expenditure (EE) over 2 years as compared with regular physical education (PE) classes. Methods A total of 261 second- and third-grade children (134 girls, 127 boys; mean age 8.27 years) were recruited from 2 Texas elementary schools. Children's pre-test 3-day SB, light PA, MVPA, and EE at school were assessed in the fall of 2012. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) exergaming/PE group (125 min weekly of exergaming-based PA program) and (2) comparison group (125 min weekly of PE). PA (SB, light PA, and MVPA) and EE outcome variables were assessed again in 2013 (post-test) and 2014 (follow-up). Results Significant time effects were observed for SB (F(1, 162) = 25.0, p < 0.01, η 2 = 0.14), light PA (F(1, 162) = 9.6, p < 0.01, η 2 = 0.06), and MVPA (F(1, 162) = 6.2, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.04) but not for EE (F(1, 162) = 0.63, p > 0.05, η 2 = 0.004). Subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed significant increases from pre- to post-test for light PA (p < 0.01), MVPA (p < 0.01), and EE (p = 0.02) with no changes in SB (p > 0.05). Conversely, significant decreases occurred in light PA (p < 0.01) from post-test to follow-up with no differences seen in MVPA (p = 0.08) and EE (p = 0.06) over the same time period. A significant increase was seen, however, for SB from post-test to follow-up. Conclusion Exergaming PE can have the same positive effect on children's light PA, MVPA, and EE as regular PE. More research is necessary to discern how to promote long-term PA participation after conclusion of the intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.008
       
  • Does playing a sports active video game improve object control skills of
           children with autism spectrum disorder?

    • Authors: Jacqueline Edwards; Sarah Jeffrey; Tamara May; Nicole J. Rinehart; Lisa M. Barnett
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jacqueline Edwards, Sarah Jeffrey, Tamara May, Nicole J. Rinehart, Lisa M. Barnett
      Background Active video games (AVGs) encourage whole body movements to interact or control the gaming system, allowing the opportunity for skill development. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show decreased fundamental movement skills in comparison with their typically developing (TD) peers and might benefit from this approach. This pilot study investigates whether playing sports AVGs can increase the actual and perceived object control (OC) skills of 11 children with ASD aged 6–10 years in comparison to 19 TD children of a similar age. Feasibility was a secondary aim. Methods Actual (Test of Gross Motor Development) and perceived OC skills (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children) were assessed before and after the intervention (6 × 45 min). Results Actual skill scores were not improved in either group. The ASD group improved in perceived skill. All children completed the required dose and parents reported the intervention was feasible. Conclusion The use of AVGs as a play-based intervention may not provide enough opportunity for children to perform the correct movement patterns to influence skill. However, play of such games may influence perceptions of skill ability in children with ASD, which could improve motivation to participate in physical activities.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.004
       
  • The effects of a bike active video game on players' physical activity and
           motivation

    • Authors: Denis Pasco; Cédric Roure; Gilles Kermarrec; Zachary Pope; Zan Gao
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Denis Pasco, Cédric Roure, Gilles Kermarrec, Zachary Pope, Zan Gao
      Background Players may not acquire adequate levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) when playing commercial video games. This study's goal was to evaluate the effects of an exercise bike video game played by using a mobile application-based exergame that was designed exclusively to promote participants' MVPA, with additional attention paid to this game's ability to promote greater situational interest. Methods An experimental design was used with 163 students (aged 20.31 ± 1.30, 18–26 years, 61.3% male), all of whom were randomly allocated into an experimental group and a control group. Physical activity (PA) levels were assessed with ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph Inc., Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA) accelerometers. The situational interest scale was used to evaluate students' situational interest in both groups. Multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to examine the differences between sedentary behavior, PA levels, and situational interest between groups. Regression analyses were also used, with the purpose being to evaluate the strength of the relationship between PA and situational interest. Results Results revealed that the experimental group had higher degrees of sedentary behavior, light PA, total interest, instant enjoyment, exploration intention, attention demand, novelty, and challenge, whereas the control group received higher scores for MVPA (control 95.01% vs. experimental group 89.94%). Regression analysis indicated that instant enjoyment (β = 0.49, p < 0.01), exploration intention (β = 0.18, p < 0.05), and attention demand (β = 0.17, p < 0.05) were positive predictors for total interest, explaining 43% of its variance. Conclusion A newly designed mobile application-based exergame played via an exercise bike may enhance situational interest and provide a decent level of PA for players.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.007
       
  • Exergaming: Hope for future physical activity? or blight on
           mankind?

    • Authors: Tom Baranowski
      Pages: 44 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Tom Baranowski


      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.006
       
  • Fairness in Olympic sports: How can we control the increasing complexity
           of doping use in high performance sports?

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Walter Herzog


      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.009
       
  • Running slow or running fast; that is the question: The merits of
           high-intensity interval training

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Walter Herzog


      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.001
       
  • Misuse of the metabolic modulator meldonium in sports

    • Authors: Giuseppe Lippi; Camilla Mattiuzzi
      Pages: 49 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Camilla Mattiuzzi


      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.008
       
  • Exercise is…?: A commentary response

    • Authors: Jennifer Robertson-Wilson; Michelle Fortier
      Pages: 52 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Michelle Fortier


      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.006
       
  • How does high-intensity intermittent training affect recreational
           endurance runners? Acute and chronic adaptations: A systematic review

    • Authors: Felipe García-Pinillos; Víctor M. Soto-Hermoso; Pedro A. Latorre-Román
      Pages: 54 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Felipe García-Pinillos, Víctor M. Soto-Hermoso, Pedro A. Latorre-Román
      Objective This systematic review aimed to critically analyze the literature to determine how high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) affects recreational endurance runners in the short- and long-term. Methods Electronic databases were searched for literature dating from January 2000 to October 2015. The search was conducted using the key words “high-intensity intermittent training” or “high-intensity interval exercise” or “interval running” or “sprint interval training” and “endurance runners” or “long distance runners”. A systematic approach was used to evaluate the 783 articles identified for initial review. Studies were included if they investigated HIIT in recreational endurance runners. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale (for intervention studies) and the modified Downs and Black Quality Index (for cross-sectional studies). Results Twenty-three studies met the inclusionary criteria for review. The results are presented in 2 parts: cross-sectional (n = 15) and intervention studies (n = 8). In the 15 cross-sectional studies selected, endurance runners performed at least 1 HIIT protocol, and the acute impact on physiological, neuromuscular, metabolic and/or biomechanical variables was assessed. Intervention studies lasted a minimum of 4 weeks, with 10 weeks being the longest intervention period, and included 2 to 4 HIIT sessions per week. Most of these studies combined HIIT sessions with continuous run (CR) sessions; 2 studies' subjects performed HIIT exclusively. Conclusion HIIT-based running plans (2 to 3 HIIT sessions per week, combining HIIT and CR runs) show athletic performance improvements in endurance runners by improving maximal oxygen uptake and running economy along with muscular and metabolic adaptations. To maximize the adaptations to training, both HIIT and CR must be part of training programs for endurance runners.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.010
       
  • A meta-analytic review of Elliot's (1999) Hierarchical Model of Approach
           and Avoidance Motivation in the sport, physical activity, and physical
           education literature

    • Authors: Marc Lochbaum; Javan Jean-Noel; Colleen Pinar; Todd Gilson
      Pages: 68 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Marc Lochbaum, Javan Jean-Noel, Colleen Pinar, Todd Gilson
      Purpose The purpose of this quantitative review was to summarize the state of Elliot's Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Motivation, specifically the antecedents of the 2 × 2 achievement goals in the sport, physical activity, and physical education literature. In addition, the intercorrelations amongst the 2 × 2 goals were also examined. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Meta-analytic procedures were used with the mean weighted sample correlation (r w) as the effect size metric. The antecedents were coded by Elliot's (1999) antecedent categories. A number of moderators were coded a priori. Results Based on a fixed effects model from 47 published studies (total unique n = 15,413) that met inclusion criteria, the 2 × 2 achievement goals were significantly correlated amongst each other ranging from small to medium to large in meaningfulness. Concerning the antecedents, overall they were theoretically correct in associations, but only a few of the relationships were medium in meaningfulness. Most relationships were small in meaningfulness. Heterogeneity was present for the interrcorrelation and antecedent analyses. Conclusion Future research is encouraged to grow and enrich the understanding of achievement goals within Elliot's complete Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Motivation to include both antecedents and outcomes simultaneously to improve upon the understanding of achievement motivation in sport, exercise, and physical activity settings.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.07.008
       
  • Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity
           exercise

    • Authors: Enoch C. Chow; Jennifer L. Etnier
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Enoch C. Chow, Jennifer L. Etnier
      Background Dissociative attentional stimuli (e.g., music, video) are effective in decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-to-moderate intensity exercise, but have inconsistent results during exercise at higher intensity. The purpose of this study was to assess attentional focus and RPE during high-intensity exercise as a function of being exposed to music, video, both (music and video), or a no-treatment control condition. Methods During the first session, healthy men (n = 15) completed a maximal fitness test to determine the workload necessary for high-intensity exercise (operationalized as 125% ventilatory threshold) to be performed during subsequent sessions. On 4 subsequent days, they completed 20 min of high-intensity exercise in a no-treatment control condition or while listening to music, watching a video, or both. Attentional focus, RPE, heart rate, and distance covered were measured every 4 min during the exercise. Results Music and video in combination resulted in significantly lower RPE across time (partial η 2 = 0.36) and the size of the effect increased over time (partial η 2 = 0.14). Additionally, music and video in combination resulted in a significantly more dissociative focus than the other conditions (partial η 2 = 0.29). Conclusion Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation. Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.007
       
  • Relationship between mode of sport training and general cognitive
           performance

    • Authors: Erik Chih-Hung Chang; Chien-Heng Chu; Costas I. Karageorghis; Chun-Chih Wang; Jack Han-Chao Tsai; Yung-Shun Wang; Yu-Kai Chang
      Pages: 89 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Erik Chih-Hung Chang, Chien-Heng Chu, Costas I. Karageorghis, Chun-Chih Wang, Jack Han-Chao Tsai, Yung-Shun Wang, Yu-Kai Chang
      Purpose To investigate whether athletes who engage in different modes of sports training correspondingly exhibit different patterns of performance on general cognition tasks. Methods Sixty participants were recruited into an endurance, motorically complex, or control group, and were administered a series of physical tests and neuropsychological assessments. Results Athletes in the endurance group demonstrated the highest levels of cardiovascular fitness and those in the motorically complex group exhibited the highest levels of motor fitness. Nonetheless, no differences in cognitive performance were observed between the 3 groups. Conclusion These findings indicate that the mode of sport training, which results in either high cardiovascular or high motor fitness, bears no relationship to measures of general cognition in elite athletes. The present findings suggest that coaches and athletic trainers should be encouraged to monitor athletes' stress levels during training in order to maximize the beneficial effects of such training on general cognitive performance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.07.007
       
  • Neighborhood environment, physical activity, and quality of life in
           adults: Intermediary effects of personal and psychosocial factors

    • Authors: Eleni Theodoropoulou; Nektarios A.M. Stavrou; Konstantinos Karteroliotis
      Pages: 96 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Eleni Theodoropoulou, Nektarios A.M. Stavrou, Konstantinos Karteroliotis
      Background Studies have indicated that there is a positive and indirect relationship between physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL). The current study examined this relationship through a social cognitive model with consideration to the intermediary effects of exercise self-efficacy, and physical (PCS, physical component summary) and psychological (MCS, mental component summary) health. Additionally, this model was widened to include concepts from the ecological theory, and any causal associations among neighborhood environment, PA, and QoL. Methods Six hundred and eighty-four physically active adults (39.16 ± 13.52 years, mean ± SD), living in Athens, Greece, completed a series of questionnaires measuring PA, QoL, exercise self-efficacy, PCS, MCS, neighborhood environment, and family and friend support for PA. The examined models were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results The social cognitive and ecological models proved to be of appropriate fit. Within the social cognitive model, PA positively affected QoL through the mediating effects of exercise self-efficacy, PCS, and MCS. With regards to the ecological model, neighborhood environment positively influenced QoL through the intermediary effects of family support for PA, exercise self-efficacy, PA, PCS, and MCS. Conclusion Results indicated that the most important mediators in the examined models were exercise self-efficacy and health. Further, findings demonstrated the role of neighborhood environment in enhancing PA and QoL. Future studies should be carried out applying longitudinal data for a better understanding of these associations over time.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.021
       
  • Wearable monitors criterion validity for energy expenditure in sedentary
           and light activities

    • Authors: Florez-Pregonero Alberto; Meckes Nathanael; Buman Mathew; Barbara E. Ainsworth
      Pages: 103 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Florez-Pregonero Alberto, Meckes Nathanael, Buman Mathew, Barbara E. Ainsworth
      Background Wearable monitors (WMs) are used to estimate the time spent in sedentary behaviors (SBs) and light-intensity physical activities (LPAs) and their associated energy cost; however, the accuracy of WMs in measuring behaviors on the lower end of the intensity spectrum is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of 3 WMs (ActiGraph GT3X+; activPAL, and SenseWear 2) in estimating the intensity of SB and LPA in adults as compared with the criterion measure of oxygen uptake (VO2) measured by indirect calorimetry. Methods Sixteen participants (age: 25.38 ± 8.58 years) wore the ActiGraph GT3X+, activPAL, and SenseWear 2 devices during 7 sedentary-to-light activities. VO2 (mL/kg/min) was estimated by means of a portable gas analyzer, Oxycon Mobile (Carefusion, Yorba Linda, CA, USA). All data were transformed into metabolic equivalents and analyzed using mean percentage error, equivalence plots, Bland-Altman plots, kappa statistics, and sensitivity/specificity. Results Mean percentage error was lowest for the activPAL for SB (14.9%) and LPA (9.3%) compared with other WMs, which were >21.2%. None of the WMs fell within the equivalency range of ±10% of the criterion mean value. Bland-Altman plots revealed narrower levels of agreement with all WMs for SB than for LPA. Kappa statistics were low for all WMs, and sensitivity and specificity varied by WM type. Conclusion None of the WMs tested in this study were equivalent with the criterion measure (VO2) in estimating sedentary-to-light activities; however, the activPAL had greater overall accuracy in measuring SB and LPA than did the ActiGraph and SenseWear 2 monitors.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.005
       
  • Comparison of the effects of cold water and ice ingestion on endurance
           cycling capacity in the heat

    • Authors: Takashi Naito; Tetsuro Ogaki
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Takashi Naito, Tetsuro Ogaki
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pre-cooling and fluid replacement with either crushed ice or cold water. Methods On 2 separate occasions, in a counterbalanced order, 9 recreationally-trained males ingested 1.25 g/kg (80–100 g) of either crushed ice (0.5°C) or cold water (4°C) every 5 min for 30 min before exercise. They also ingested 2.0 g/kg (130–160 g) of the same treatment drink at 15 min, 30 min, and 45 min after the commencement of cycling to exhaustion at 60%VO2max until voluntary exhaustion in a hot environment (35°C and 30% relative humidity). Results The cycling time to exhaustion in the crushed ice trial (50.0 ± 12.2 min) was longer than the cold water trial (42.2 ± 10.1 min; p = 0.02). Although the rectal temperature fell by 0.37°C ± 0.03°C (p = 0.01) at the end of the resting period after the crushed ice ingestion, the rates of rise in rectal temperature during the exercise period were not significantly different between these 2 conditions (crushed ice: 0.23°C ± 0.07°C, 5 min; cold water: 0.22°C ± 0.07°C, 5 min; p = 0.94). Conclusion Crushed ice ingestion before and during exercise in a hot environment may be a preferred and effective approach for minimizing thermal strain, and for improving endurance performance as compared with cold water ingestion.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.002
       
  • “Excessive muscle strain as the direct cause of injury” should not be
           generalized to hamstring muscle strain injury in sprinting

    • Authors: Mianfang Ruan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mianfang Ruan


      PubDate: 2017-05-24T09:20:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.006
       
  • What do coaches want to know about sports-related concussion? A needs
           assessment study

    • Authors: Lindsay Sullivan; Michal Molcho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lindsay Sullivan, Michal Molcho
      Purpose This study aims to identify the concussion-related training and education needs of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) coaches in Ireland, as well as the preferred method of concussion education delivery. Methods We used a self-report questionnaire to collect data from a convenience sample of 108 GAA coaches in Ireland. Data were captured on (1) informational needs and desires, (2) preferred methods of delivery, and (3) concussion practices and procedures. Questionnaires were completed electronically from June 3rd-September 29th, 2015. Results Coaches indicated that they were most interested in receiving information about the (1) signs and symptoms of concussion, (2) assessment of concussion, and (3) return-to-play guidelines. Over two-thirds of participants indicated that in-person training would be the most effective mode of delivery of concussion education for this population. Additionally, only 10% coaches reported that before the start of the season they talked to their athletes about concussion management and safety, and this was more common among coaches who reported being formally educated about concussion. Conclusion Our findings reveal a disconnect between the concussion education needs and the education that is currently provided to GAA coaches, in terms of content and delivery modality. Our results suggest a need for a multi-faceted approach to concussion education, tailored to the needs and learning preferences of the target population.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T19:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.003
       
  • An Analysis of the Size and Direction of the Association between Mental
           Toughness and Olympic Distance Personal Best Triathlon Times

    • Authors: Martin I. Jones; John K. Parker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Martin I. Jones, John K. Parker
      Background Athletes, coaches, sport psychology practitioners, and researchers suggest that mental toughness represents an important construct that is associated with athletic performance. Unfortunately, the absence of real-world performance as a dependent variable has limited our ability to substantiate this claim. The concern of a lack of ecologically valid measures of sports performance might be addressed by examining the relationship between mental toughness and sports performance using a standardized measure of personal best (PB) triathlon time and a validated unidimensional measure of mental toughness. Methods Three hundred and sixteen triathletes completed the 8-item mental toughness index (MTI), reported their age, and provided a PB Olympic distance triathlon time and the total number of triathlons they had completed to date. Given that males are typically quicker than females, a standardized time was calculated by dividing the PB by the current Olympic record for gender; we also hypothesized that more experienced triathletes would report quicker PB times because of greater frequency and duration of training. Once we had controlled for gender and experience, we predicted that mental toughness would be negatively associated with triathlon time and the size of the relationship would be of a moderate magnitude. Results Results revealed small to moderate sized negative relationships between both completed number of triathlons and mental toughness with standardized PB time. Conclusion The hierarchical regression analysis showed that mental toughness provided a unique contribution to the variability in standardized Olympic triathlon PB after controlling for the total number of triathlons completed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T19:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.005
       
  • Catherine Dunnington Ennis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science


      PubDate: 2017-05-13T19:25:13Z
       
  • Sociodemographic, biological, and psychosocial correlates of light-and
           moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity during school time,
           recesses, and physical education classes

    • Authors: Bruno G G da Costa; Kelly S da Silva; Jaqueline A da Silva; Giseli Minatto; Luiz R A de Lima; Édio L Petroski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Bruno G G da Costa, Kelly S da Silva, Jaqueline A da Silva, Giseli Minatto, Luiz R A de Lima, Édio L Petroski
      Background Identifying factors associated with physical activity (PA) is useful in planning interventions and policies. The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic, biological, and psychosocial factors associated with PA performed in school settings. Methods Data retrieved for the present study included gender, age, socioeconomic status, body fat, aerobic fitness, self-efficacy, attitudes, peer and parental support, and perception of school environment. Dependent variables were light-intensity PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) performed during school time, recesses, and physical education (PE) classes. Multiple regression analyses were performed. Results Participating adolescents (n = 567, 53% female, 12.9 ± 5.3 years) spent 5% of school time in MVPA and 27% in LPA, 15% of recesses in MVPA and 44% in LPA, and 16% of PE classes in MVPA and 41% in LPA. Boys engaged in more MVPA in all categories. Age was inversely related with MVPA and LPA in all periods, whereas body fat was inversely related with MVPA in school time and PE classes. Attitude was inversely related with MVPA in all periods and with LPA in recesses. Considering PA to be good and enjoyable was positively associated with MVPA in school time. Conclusion Adolescents spent little time in PA during school. Future interventions should implement enjoyable activities at school.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T19:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.002
       
  • Risk factors for hamstring injuries in Australian male professional
           cricket players

    • Authors: John Orchard; Alex Kountouris; Kevin Sims
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): John Orchard, Alex Kountouris, Kevin Sims
      Background Injuries to the hamstring are relatively common in professional cricketers (as they are in many team sports) and have increased in incidence in the “T20 era” (introduction of 20-over matches) of cricket since 2006. Methods This study analysed incidence of hamstring injury in the various elite male match types over a 20-year period (1995-1996 to 2014-2015). Risk factors for hamstring strain were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis technique. Results There were 276 match time-loss hamstring injuries recorded over a 20-year period at Australian state or national player level, of which 170 occurred in one of 40,145 player match sets. The overall rate of match onset rate was 22.5 hamstring injuries per 1000 team days. Fast bowling onset injuries were the highest subcategory at a rate of 10.9 injuries per 1000 team days, although batting onset injuries were particularly common in 50-over one day international matches. Significant risk factors in logistic regression analysis, in addition to hamstring injury history, were being a fast bowler relative risk (RR) 2.5 (95%CI: 1.3-4.5) and playing a match in Australia RR 2.3 (95%CI: 1.3-3.9). Conclusion Fast bowlers suffer more hamstring injuries than other playing roles in cricket, particularly in First Class (multi-day) cricket. Batsmen are more likely to get injured in 50-over (one day) cricket. Playing in Australia (compared to overseas venues) leads to increased risk of hamstring injury.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T19:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.004
       
  • Erratum to “A systematic review of active video games on rehabilitative
           outcomes among older patients” [J Sport Health Sci 6 (2017) 33–43]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science


      PubDate: 2017-05-08T19:23:10Z
       
  • Erratum to “Children's expectancy beliefs and subjective task values
           through two years of school-based program and associated links to physical
           education enjoyment and physical activity” [J Sport Health Sci 5 (2016)
           500–508]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science


      PubDate: 2017-05-08T19:23:10Z
       
  • Erratum to “Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during
           high-intensity exercise” [J Sport Health Sci 6 (2017) 81–88]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science


      PubDate: 2017-05-08T19:23:10Z
       
  • Visual function, performance and processing of basketball players versus
           sedentary individuals

    • Authors: Jesús Vera; Raimundo Jiménez; David Cárdenas; Beatriz Redondo; José Antonio García
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jesús Vera, Raimundo Jiménez, David Cárdenas, Beatriz Redondo, José Antonio García
      Background Athletes tend to have better visuo-motor performance than do sedentary individuals. However, several basic visual-function and perceptual parameters remain unexplored to date. In this study, we investigate whether differences exist in visual function, performance, and processing between basketball players and individuals without a sport-involvement background. Methods A total of 33 healthy men with no visual impairment or pathology were divided into 2 groups depending on the involvement in sport (semi-professional basketball players and sedentary individuals). We tested their baseline heart-rate variability (HRV) in the resting position apart from subjective questionnaires to determine their physical fitness level, and checked their visual function, performance, and processing through an extended battery of optometric tests. Results The 2 groups differed in resting HRV parameters (p < 0.001), confirming their dissimilarities in regular time practising sports per week. The basketball players showed a closer breakpoint and recovery near point of convergence (NPC), higher fusional-vergence rate, better discriminability halos, and eye-hand coordination (all p values < 0.05). Conclusion These results evidence that athletes, basketball players in this case, exhibit better performance in several visual abilities in comparison with a group of individuals without sporting backgrounds, suggesting an improvement due to the systematic involvement of those skills during basketball practice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T19:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.05.001
       
  • Collegiate athletes' mental health services utilization: a systematic
           review of conceptualizations, operationalizations, facilitators, and
           barriers

    • Authors: Jennifer J. Moreland; Kathryn A. Coxe; Jingzhen “Ginger” Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jennifer J. Moreland, Kathryn A. Coxe, Jingzhen “Ginger” Yang
      Background While mental health among collegiate athletes is receiving increased attention, research on factors surrounding collegiate athletes' decision to seek mental health services is limited. The goal of the present review was to analyze and synthesize the current literature concerning collegiate athletes' utilization of mental health services, including the facilitators of and barriers to use of these services. Methods The analysis was guided and organized using a socio-ecological framework, considering the unique context in which collegiate athletes study and perform. A total of 21 articles, published between 2005 and 2016 concerning U.S. collegiate athletes' mental health services utilization (MHSU) were selected and included for the final analysis. Conceptualizations and operationalizations of MHSU were compared and contrasted. Facilitators of and barriers to athletes MHSU were examined and summarized while appropriately considering the proximity of each factor (facilitator and/or barrier) to the athletes. Results Results showed variations in conceptualizations and operationalizations of MHSU in the articles analyzed, making interpretation and cross comparison difficult. Collegiate athletes are willing to utilize mental health services, but gender, perceived stigma, peer norms—for athletes and coaches—plus service availability impact their MHSU. Conclusion Key stakeholders, administrators, and public health officials should partner to eliminate MHSU barriers, emphasis facilitators, and generally empower collegiate athletes to actively manage their mental health.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T18:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.009
       
  • Responses to oral glucose challenge differ by physical activity volume and
           intensity: a pilot study

    • Authors: Trevor N. Simper; Cecile Morris; Anthony Lynn; Ciara O'Hagan; Karen Kilner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Trevor N. Simper, Cecile Morris, Anthony Lynn, Ciara O'Hagan, Karen Kilner
      Background One hour postprandial hyperglycaemia is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity (PA) has short-term beneficial effects on post-meal glucose response. This study compared the oral glucose tolerance test results of 3 groups of people with habitually different levels of PA. Methods Thirty-one adults without diabetes (age 25.9 ± 6.6 years; body mass index (BMI) 23.8 ± 3.8 kg/m) were recruited into 3 groups based on self-reported PA volume and intensity: low activity < 30 min/day of moderate-intensity activity (n = 11), moderately active ≥ 30 min/day of moderate-intensity PA (n = 10), and very active ≥ 60 min/day of intense-PA (n = 10). Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (50 g glucose) with capillary blood samples obtained at baseline, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min post-ingestion. Results There were no significant differences between groups for age or percentage body fat or glycated haemoglobin (p > 0.05). The groups were significantly different in terms of baseline glucose, gender, and BMI and this was accounted for in the analysis. There was a statistically significant effect of PA on the 1 h postprandial glucose results (p = 0.029), with differences between very active and low activity groups (p = 0.008) but not between the moderately active and low activity groups (p = 0.360), even when baseline glucose and gender differences were accounted for. For incremental area under the curve there was no significant effect of activity group once gender and percentage body fat had been accounted for. Those in the low activity group took an average 13.2 min (95% confidence interval: 2.8 – 23.5) longer to reach peak glucose level than those in the very active group and this was significant (p = 0.015). Conclusion The results suggest that high levels of PA have a beneficial effect on postprandial blood glucose profiles when compared to low and moderate levels of activity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T18:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.010
       
  • Time for a paradigm shift in the classification of muscle injuries

    • Authors: Bruce Hamilton; Juan-Manual Alonso; Thomas M. Best
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Bruce Hamilton, Juan-Manual Alonso, Thomas M. Best
      Muscle injuries remain one of the most common injuries in sport, yet despite this there is little consensus on how to either effectively describe, or determine the prognosis of a specific muscle injury. Numerous approaches to muscle classification and grading have been applied over the last century of medicine, but over the last decade the limitations of historic approaches have been recognised. As a consequence in the past 10 years, clinical research groups have begun to question the historic approaches and reconsider the way muscle injuries are classified and described. Using a narrative approach, this manuscript describes several of the most recent attempts to classify and grade muscle injuries, highlighting the relative strengths and weaknesses of each system. While each of the new classification and grading systems have strengths, there remains little consensus on a system which is both comprehensive and evidence based. Few of the currently identified features within the grading systems have relevance to accurately determining prognosis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T18:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.011
       
  • PM2.5: A barrier to fitness and health promotion in China

    • Authors: Jincheng Xu; Can Gao; Jason Kai Wei Lee; Jiexiu Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jincheng Xu, Can Gao, Jason Kai Wei Lee, Jiexiu Zhao


      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.010
       
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of an ankle instability
           questionnaire for use in chinese-speaking population

    • Authors: Yumeng Li; Li Guan; Jupil Ko; Shuqi Zhang; Cathleen N. Brown; Kathy J. Simpson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yumeng Li, Li Guan, Jupil Ko, Shuqi Zhang, Cathleen N. Brown, Kathy J. Simpson
      Background The Identification of Functional Ankle Instability (IdFAI) is a valid and reliable tool to identify chronic ankle instability; however, it was developed in English, thus limiting its usage only to those who can read/write in English. The objectives of our study were to (1) cross-culturally adapt a Chinese (Mandarin) version of the IdFAI; and (2) determine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version IdFAI. Methods The cross-cultural adaptation procedures used by the investigators and/or translators followed previously published guidelines and included 6 stages:(1) initial translation, (2) synthesis of the translations, (3) back translation, (4) developing the pre-final version for field testing, (5) testing the pre-final version, and (6) finalizing the Chinese IdFAI (IdFAI-C). Five psychometric properties of the IdFAI-C were assessed from results of 2 participant groups: bilingual (n = 20) and Chinese (n = 625). Results A high degree of agreement was found between the English and IdFAI-C (ICC2,1 = 0.995). An excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.89), test–retest reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.970) and construct validity (r (625)= 0.67) was also found for the IdFAI-C. In addition, the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that ankle instability was the only construct measured from the IdFAI. Conclusion the IdFAI-C is a highly reliable and valid self-report questionnaire that can be used to assess ankle instability. Therefore, we suggest that it can be used to effectively and accurately assess chronic ankle instability in clinical settings for Chinese-speaking individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.003
       
  • Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    • Authors: Lauren N. Erickson; Marc A. Sherry
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lauren N. Erickson, Marc A. Sherry
      Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present a challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T23:49:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.001
       
  • Construct and correlates of basic motor competencies in primary
           school-aged children

    • Authors: Christian Herrmann; Christopher Heim; Harald Seelig
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Christian Herrmann, Christopher Heim, Harald Seelig
      Purpose A central aim of physical education is the promotion of basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen; MOBAK), which are prerequisites for children's active participation in sports culture. This article introduces the MOBAK-1 test instrument for 6- to 8-year-old children and determines the construct validity of this test instrument. In addition, the relationship between MOBAK and motor ability (i.e. strength) as well as body mass index (BMI), sex, and age is investigated. Method We analyzed data of 923 first and second graders (422 girls, 501 boys, age = 6.80±0.44 years, mean ± SD). The children's basic motor competencies were assessed by the MOBAK-1 test instrument. Besides analyses of frequency, correlation, and variance, 3 confirmatory factor analyses with covariates were performed. Results We found 2 MOBAK factors consisting of 4 items each. The first factor, locomotion, included the items balancing, rolling, jumping, and side stepping; the second factor, object control, included the items throwing, catching, bouncing, and dribbling. The motor ability strength had a significant influence on the factors locomotion (β = 0.60) and object control (β = 0.50). Older pupils achieved better results than younger pupils on object control (β = 0.29). Boys performed better on object control (β = −0.44), whereas girls achieved better results in locomotion (β = 0.07). Pupils with a high BMI achieved lower performance only on the factor locomotion (β = −0.28). Conclusion The MOBAK-1 test instrument developed for this study meets psychometric validity demands and is suitable to evaluate effects of sports and physical education.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T23:49:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.002
       
  • Waist circumference thresholds and cardiorespiratory fitness

    • Authors: Sindre M. Dyrstad; Elisabeth Edvardsen; Bjørge H. Hansen; Sigmund A. Anderssen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sindre M. Dyrstad, Elisabeth Edvardsen, Bjørge H. Hansen, Sigmund A. Anderssen
      Purpose The study's purpose was to examine whether established risk categories of waist circumference (WC); normal, high risk, and very high health risk, reflected significant differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) level. CRF was directly measured as maximal oxygen uptake during a progressive graded treadmill test to exhaustion in 722 individuals (349 women) aged 20–85 years. Methods WC was measured between the lower rib and the iliac crest. Objectively measured PA was assessed using accelerometer. Results Men in the normal risk group (WC < 94 cm) had a 31% higher CRF and 43% higher level of moderate to vigorous PA than men in the very high risk group (with a WC > 102 cm). Corresponding numbers for women within normal (WC < 80 cm) and very high risk group (WC > 88 cm) were 25% and 18% (p < 0.05). There was a high negative correlation between CRF and WC in men (r = –0.68), and a moderate correlation for women (r = –0.49;p < 0.001). For each cm increase in WC, CRF was reduced by 0.48 and 0.27 mL/kg/min in men and women, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion The recommended WC thresholds for abdominal obesity reflected significant differences in CRF for both men and women, and could serve as a useful instrument for estimating health related differences in CRF.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T23:49:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.011
       
  • Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery profiles in individuals with
           intellectual disability

    • Authors: Rihab Borji; Firas Zghal; Nidhal Zarrouk; Vincent Martin; Sonia Sahli; Haithem Rebai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rihab Borji, Firas Zghal, Nidhal Zarrouk, Vincent Martin, Sonia Sahli, Haithem Rebai
      Purpose This study aimed to explore neuromuscular fatigue and recovery profiles in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) after exhausting submaximal contraction. Methods Ten men with ID were compared to 10 men without ID. The evaluation of neuromuscular function consisted in brief (3 s) isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC) of the knee extension superimposed with electrical nerve stimulation before, immediately after, and during 33 min after an exhausting submaximal isometric task at 15% of the IMVC. Force, voluntary activation level (VAL), potentiated resting twitch (Ptw), and electromyography (EMG) signals were measured during IMVC and then analyzed. Results Individuals with ID developed lower baseline IMVC, VAL, Ptw, and RMS/Mmax ratio than controls (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, the time to task failure was significantly longer in ID vs. controls (p < 0.05). The 2groups presented similar IMVC decline and recovery kinetics after the fatiguing exercise. However, individuals with ID presented higher VAL and RMS/Mmax ratio declines but lower Ptw decline compared to those without ID. Moreover, individuals with ID demonstrated a persisted central fatigue but faster recovery from peripheral fatigue. Conclusion These differences in neuromuscular fatigue profiles and recovery kinetics should be acknowledged when prescribing training programs for individuals with ID.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.015
       
  • Why forefoot striking in minimal shoes might positively change the course
           of running injuries

    • Authors: Irene S. Davis; Hannah M. Rice; Scott C. Wearing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Irene S. Davis, Hannah M. Rice, Scott C. Wearing
      It is believed that human ancestors evolved the ability to run bipedally approximately 2 million years ago. This form of locomotion may have been important to our survival and likely has influenced the evolution of our body form. As our bodies have adapted to run, it seems unusual that up to 79% of modern day runners are injured annually. The etiology of these injuries is clearly multifactorial. However, one aspect of running that has significantly changed over the past 50 years is the footwear we use. Modern running shoes have become increasingly cushioned and supportive, and have changed the way we run. In particular, they have altered our footstrike pattern from a predominant forefoot strike (FFS) landing to a predominant rearfoot strike (RFS) landing. This alters the way in which the body is loaded and may be contributing to the high rate of injuries runners experience, engaging in an activity they were adapted for. In this paper, we will examine the benefits of barefoot running (typically an FFS pattern), and compare the lower extremity mechanics between FFS and RFS. The implications of these mechanical differences, in terms of injury will be discussed. We will then provide evidence to support that forefoot striking provides an optimal mechanical environment for specific foot and ankle structures, such as the heel pad, the plantar fascia and the Achilles tendon. The importance of footwear will then be addressed, highlighting its interaction with strike pattern on mechanics. This will underscore why footwear matters when assessing mechanics. Finally, proper preparation and safe transition to an FFs pattern in minimal shoes will be emphasized. Through the discussion of the current literature, we will develop a justification for returning to running in the way we were adapted for in order to reduce running-related injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.013
       
  • Promoting physical activity among Chinese youth: no time to wait

    • Authors: Yang Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yang Liu


      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
       
  • Fight fire with fire? Promoting physical activity and health through
           active video games

    • Authors: Zan Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zan Gao


      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:15:31Z
       
  • The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in
           sprinting

    • Authors: Xianglin Wan; Feng Qu; William E. Garrett; Hui Liu; Bing Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Xianglin Wan, Feng Qu, William E. Garrett, Hui Liu, Bing Yu
      Background The effect of hamstring flexibility on the peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting still remained unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors of hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury). As a continuation of our previous study, this study was aimed to examine the relationship between hamstring flexibility and peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting. Methods Ten male and 10 female college students participated in this study. Hamstring flexibility, isokinetic strength data, three-dimensional (3D)kinematic data in a hamstring isokinetic test, and kinematic data in a sprinting test were collected for each participant. The optimal hamstring muscle lengths and peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting were determined for each participant. Results The muscle strain of each of the 3 biarticulate hamstring muscles reached a peak during the late swing phase. Peak hamstring muscle strains were negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility (0.1179 ≤ R 2 ≤ 0.4519, p = 0.001) but not to hip and knee joint positions at the time of peak hamstring muscle strains. Peak hamstring muscle strains were not different for different genders. Peak muscle strains of biceps long head (0.071 ± 0.059) and semitendinosus (0.070 ± 0.055) were significantly greater than that of semimembranosus (0.064 ± 0.054). Conclusion A potential for hamstring injury exists during the late swing phase of sprinting. Peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting are negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility across individuals. The magnitude of peak muscle strains are different among hamstring muscles in sprinting, which may explain the different injury rate among hamstring muscles.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T00:02:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.012
       
  • Concussion in contact sport: a challenging area to tackle

    • Authors: Samuel Stuart; Aodhan Hickey; Rosie Morris; Karol O'Donovan; Alan Godfrey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Samuel Stuart, Aodhan Hickey, Rosie Morris, Karol O'Donovan, Alan Godfrey


      PubDate: 2017-03-29T00:02:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.009
       
  • Sedentary behavior and physical activity predicting depressive symptoms in
           adolescents beyond attributes of health-related physical fitness

    • Authors: Gene L. Farren; Tao Zhang; Xiangli Gu; Katherine T. Thomas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gene L. Farren, Tao Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Katherine T. Thomas
      Background Sedentary behavior, physical activity (PA), and attributes of physical fitness have been shown to be related to depressive symptoms in adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether sedentary behavior and fitness-producing activity predicted depression in active adolescents over and above gender and fitness attributes. Methods Participants were 249 adolescents (Age: 12.85 ± 0.89) from 3 public middle schools who wore Actical accelerometers to assess their sedentary behavior and PA. Participants also completed the FITNESSGRAM® health-related fitness assessment and a brief depression questionnaire. A 3-step hierarchical regression analysis was conducted with gender and fitness attributes (i.e., body mass index (BMI), maximal volume oxygen uptake (VO2max), curlups, and pushups), moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity, and sedentary behavior entered in respective steps. Results Regression analysis indicated activity variables (i.e., moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity) significantly predicted depression (ΔR2 = 0.12, p < 0.01) beyond gender and fitness attributes. Overall, gender, fitness attributes, activity variables, sedentary behavior explained 31% of the variance in depression. Structure coefficients revealed VO2max (rs = -0.77), moderate-intensity activity (rs = -0.67), vigorous-intensity activity (rs = -0.81), and sedentary behavior (rs = 0.57) were substantially correlated with the criterion variable; thus, they were the strongest predictors of depression. Conclusion The findings of the current study indicated sedentary behavior and PA were both significant predictors of depression; however, sufficient fitness-producing activity and adequate cardiorespiratory fitness may nullify the negative influence of sedentary behavior on depressive symptoms in active adolescents.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T00:02:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.008
       
  • Innovative running related researches

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Li Li


      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:31:17Z
       
  • Using physical examinations to estimate age in elementary school children:
           a chinese population-based study

    • Authors: Lei Shi; Fan Jiang; Fengxiu Ouyang; Jun Zhang; Xiaoming Shen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lei Shi, Fan Jiang, Fengxiu Ouyang, Jun Zhang, Xiaoming Shen
      Background Designing a simple and accessible approach to age estimation in children and youth is a great challenge in the fields of sports and physical activity. This study was designed to develop and validate a physical-examination-based method of estimating age in young children. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2014, we performed physical examinations and assessed physical activity among 14,970 elementary school children 7-12 years old in Shanghai, China. Additional biological information on the children's height and birth date was ascertained through their parents. Two indicators were applied to develop a gender-specific age estimation equation: the Percentage of Predicted Mature Height (PPMH) and the Tanner stage. The equation was validated through a k-fold cross-validation approach. To check for estimation accuracy, the association between the discrepancy of estimated age and chronological age and physical activity was examined. Results The gender-specific equations of estimated age (EA) were: EAboy = -6.071 + 6.559 Tanner 2 + 13.315 Tanner 3 + 14.130 Tanner 4 + 0.190 PPMH – 0.071 Tanner 2×PPMH – 0.146 Tanner 3×PPMH – 0.155 Tanner 4×PPMH; EAgirl = -4.524 – 1.251 Tanner 2 + 2.504 Tanner 3 + 8.751 Tanner 4 + 11.893 Tanner 5 + 0.158 PPMH + 0.017 Tanner 2×PPMH – 0.024 Tanner 3×PPMH – 0.087 Tanner 4×PPMH – 0.118 Tanner 5×PPMH. The mean absolute error was 0.60 years for boys and 0.59 years for girls. The discrepancy score was negatively and weakly associated with self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in both genders (r boy = -0.09, p < 0.001; and r girl = -0.12, p < 0.001). Conclusion Findings suggest that physical examinations could provide a valid and reliable approach for estimating age in young Chinese children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:31:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.005
       
  • Gender differences in non-linear motor performance following concussion

    • Authors: Breanna E. Studenka; Adam Raikes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Breanna E. Studenka, Adam Raikes
      Purpose To quantify differences in non-linear aspects of performance on a seated visual-motor tracking task between clinically asymptomatic males and females with and without a self-reported mTBI history. Methods Seventy-three individuals with a self-reported concussion history (age: 21.40 ± 2.25 years) and 75 without (age: 21.50 ± 2.00 years) completed the visual-motor tracking task. Participants pressed an index finger against a force sensor, tracing a line across a computer screen (visual-motor tracking). The produced signal's root mean square error (RMSE), sample entropy (SampEn, a measure of regularity), and average power (AvP) between 0 and12Hz were calculated. Results Males with a history of 0 or 1 concussion had greater RMSE (worse performance) than females with 0 (p < 0.0001) and one concussion (p = 0.052). Additionally, females with 2+ concussions exhibited lower SampEn than females with no history (p = 0.001) or a history of one concussion (p = 0.026). Finally, females with 2+ concussions had lower 8-12 Hz AvP than males with 2+ concussions (p = 0.031). Few differences were observed in the male participants. Conclusion Females with a self-reported history of multiple concussions exhibited lower sample entropy in the visual-motor tracking task force output structure as compared to those with no reported history of concussion and their male counterparts. Lower sample entropy and lower power between 8-12 Hz indicated persistent impairment in visual processing and feed-forward/predictive motor control systems.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T02:31:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.006
       
  • The ethics of exercise in eating disorders: can an ethical principles
           approach guide the next generation of research and clinical practice?

    • Authors: Brian Cook; Lisa Leininger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Brian Cook, Lisa Leininger


      PubDate: 2017-03-16T07:27:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.004
       
  • Could titin have a role in strain-induced injuries?

    • Authors: Craig Perrin; Kazunori Nosaka; James Steele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Craig Perrin, Kazunori Nosaka, James Steele


      PubDate: 2017-03-16T07:27:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.003
       
  • Parallel and cross sectional hamstring injuries in sprint running

    • Authors: Li Li; Donghai Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Li Li, Donghai Wang


      PubDate: 2017-03-08T03:16:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.002
       
  • School-based physical activity interventions for children and youth: keys
           for success

    • Authors: Arto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Arto Gråstén


      PubDate: 2017-03-08T03:16:46Z
       
  • A systematic review of active video games on rehabilitative outcomes among
           older patients

    • Authors: Nan Zeng; Zachary Pope; Jung Eun Lee; Zan Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Nan Zeng, Zachary Pope, Jung Eun Lee, Zan Gao
      Background Although current research supports the use of active video games (AVGs) in rehabilitation, the evidence has yet to be systematically reviewed or synthesized. The current project systematically reviewed literature, summarized findings, and evaluated the effectiveness of AVGs as a therapeutic tool in improving physical, psychological, and cognitive rehabilitative outcomes among older adults with chronic diseases. Methods Seven databases (Academic Search Complete, Communication and Mass Media Complete, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, SportDiscus, and Medline) were searched for studies that evaluated the effectiveness of AVG-based rehabilitation among older patients. The initial search yielded 946 articles, after evaluating against inclusion criteria and removing duplicates, 19 studies of AVG-based rehabilitation remained. Results Most studies were quasi-experimental in design, with physical functioning the primary outcome investigated with regard to the use of AVGs in rehabilitation. Overall, 9 studies found significant improvements for all study outcomes while 9 studies were mixed, with significant improvements on several study outcomes but no effects were observed on other outcomes after AVG-based treatments. One study failed to find any benefits of AVG-based rehabilitation. Conclusion Findings indicate AVGs have the potential in rehabilitation for older patients, with several randomized-clinical trials reporting positive effects on rehabilitative outcomes. However, existing evidence is insufficient to support the advantages of AVGs over standard therapy. Given the limited number of studies and concerns with study design quality, more research is warranted to make more definitive conclusions regarding the ability of AVGs to improve rehabilitative outcomes in older patients.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T01:57:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.12.002
       
 
 
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