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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [SJR: 0.513]   [H-I: 9]   [17 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • Physical activity, aging, and health in China: Addressing public health
           needs in the presence of continued economic growth and urbanization

    • Authors: Fuzhong Li; Yu Liu; Peter A. Harmer
      Pages: 253 - 254
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li, Yu Liu, Peter Harmer

      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
  • Step it up: Advancing physical activity research to promote healthy aging
           in China

    • Authors: Ding Ding; Hua Fu; Adrian E. Bauman
      Pages: 255 - 257
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ding Ding, Hua Fu, Adrian E. Bauman

      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
  • Health benefits of traditional chinese sports and physical activity for
           older adults: a systematic review of evidence

    • Authors: Yucheng Guo; Haiyang Shi; Dinghai Yu; Pixiang Qiu
      Pages: 270 - 280
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yucheng Guo, Haiyang Shi, Dinghai Yu, Pixiang Qiu
      Background Traditional Chinese sports and physical activities (PAs) have a long history and are practiced by millions of Chinese. However, relatively little systematic review of the scientific evidence for their health benefits, especially for older Chinese adults, has been undertaken. Evidence acquisition Between January and March 2016, a systematic search was conducted using the CNKI and PubMed databases to identify studies published between 2000 and 2015. Studies were selected for review if they were designed specifically to evaluate the health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and PAs in adults aged 50 years and older in the mainland of China. The studies included observational, uncontrolled, and randomized and controlled designs. Papers published without an English title or abstract were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search identified a total of 229 studies. After removing duplicates and studies that did not meet inclusion/exclusion criteria, 95 studies were selected for review. Special attention was given to studies of the most commonly practiced activities: Tai Ji Quan, Qigong, and Yangko exercises. A positive association between these types of exercise and health benefits was noted for healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases. Evidence on other types of activities was less clear due to the limited number of studies conducted. Conclusion There is promising evidence that traditional Chinese sports and PAs provide many health benefits for older Chinese adults. While additional scientifically rigorous research is warranted, promoting these traditional and culturally-based sports and PAs as forms of behavioral medicine in primary and secondary prevention of diseases among the aging Chinese population will help fulfill an urgent public health need.

      PubDate: 2016-07-13T15:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
  • Physical activity among older Chinese adults living in urban and rural
           areas: A review

    • Authors: Wenfei Zhu; Aiping Chi; Yuliang Sun
      Pages: 281 - 286
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Wenfei Zhu, Aiping Chi, Yuliang Sun
      With an increase in rural-to-urban migration, a rapidly aging population, and the rising risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in China, it is important to understand the epidemiology of physical activity (PA) and health in the context of disease prevention and population health. Despite its public health importance, there is a significant lack of knowledge about PA in older Chinese adults that may hamper primary prevention efforts of health promotion in an increasingly aging population. To fill this gap, this article presents a narrative review of PA in the older Chinese adult population with a special focus on residential settings (i.e., urban and rural). Using existing studies, the review examines overall PA patterns and their correlates and discusses public health implications and future research. Although there are some preliminary indications of urban and rural differences in PA in the aging population in China, continued research efforts are needed to facilitate primary prevention efforts aimed at reducing noncommunicable diseases and promoting an active lifestyle among the largest population of older people in the world.

      PubDate: 2016-07-13T15:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
  • Physical activity and cognitive function among older adults in china: a
           systematic review

    • Authors: Jiaojiao Lü; Weijie Fu; Yu Liu
      Pages: 287 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jiaojiao Lü, Weijie Fu, Yu Liu
      Background Physical activity has been shown to benefit cognitive function in older adults. However, the cognitive benefits of exercising for older Chinese adults have not been systematically documented. This study was to conduct a systematic review on evidence that physical activity (PA) is beneficial for cognitive functioning in older Chinese adults. Evidence acquisition Major databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WanFang, CNKI, and WeiPu, were searched for studies published in English or Chinese between January 2000 and December 2015. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies that evaluated PA and cognitive function among older Chinese adults were included in this review. Results Of 53 studies included and reviewed, 33 were observational (22 cross-sectional, 7 case-control, and 4 cohort) and 20 were experimental (15 randomized controlled trials, 5 nonrandomized control trials). Observational studies showed an association of reduced risk of cognitive-related diseases (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia) through PA, whereas experimental studies reported exercise-induced improvement in multiple domains of cognitive function (i.e., global cognitive function, memory, executive function, attention, language, and processing recourse). Conclusion This systematic review provides initial evidence that PA may benefit cognition in older Chinese adults. Further studies of individuals with cognitive impairments and prospective and randomized control trial studies having high scientific rigor are needed to corroborate the findings reported in this review.

      PubDate: 2016-07-13T15:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
  • Effects of Tai Ji Quan training on gait kinematics in older Chinese women
           with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Qingguang Zhu; Lingyan Huang; Xie Wu; Lin Wang; Yunya Zhang; Min Fang; Yu Liu; Jing Xian Li
      Pages: 297 - 303
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Qingguang Zhu, Lingyan Huang, Xie Wu, Lin Wang, Yunya Zhang, Min Fang, Yu Liu, Jing Xian Li
      Background Although Tai Ji Quan has been shown to relieve pain and improve functional mobility in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA), little is known about its potential benefits on gait characteristics among older Chinese women who have a high prevalence of both radiographic and symptomatic knee OA. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a tailored Tai Ji Quan intervention on gait kinematics for older Chinese women with knee OA. Methods A randomized controlled trial involving 46 older women in Shanghai, China, with clinically diagnosed knee OA. Randomized (1:1) participants received either a 60 min Tai Ji Quan session (n = 23) 3 times weekly or a 60 min bi-weekly educational session (n = 23) for 24 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in gait kinematic measures from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes included changes in scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results After 24 weeks the Tai Ji Quan group demonstrated better performance in gait velocity (mean difference, 8.40 cm/s, p = 0.01), step length (mean difference, 3.52 cm, p = 0.004), initial contact angle (mean difference, 2.19°, p = 0.01), and maximal angle (mean difference, 2.61°, p = 0.003) of flexed knees during stance phase compared to the control group. In addition, the Tai Ji Quan group showed significant improvement in WOMAC scores (p < 0.01) (mean difference, −4.22 points in pain, p = 0.002; −2.41 points in stiffness, p < 0.001; −11.04 points in physical function, p = 0.006) and SPPB scores (mean difference, 1.22 points, p < 0.001). Conclusion Among older Chinese women with knee OA, a tailored Tai Ji Quan intervention improved gait outcomes. The intervention also improved overall function as indexed by the WOMAC and SPPB. These results support the use of Tai Ji Quan for older Chinese adults with knee OA to both improve their functional mobility and reduce pain symptomatology.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.02.003
  • Recruitment of older adults into randomized controlled trials: Issues and
           lessons learned from two community-based exercise interventions in

    • Authors: Lingyan Huang; Jiaojiao Lü; Nan Chen; Yu Liu
      Pages: 308 - 314
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lingyan Huang, Jiaojiao Lü, Nan Chen, Yu Liu
      Background With the increasing need for high-quality exercise interventions in China, relatively little is known about issues and challenges related to recruitment of older Chinese adults into exercise-based disease prevention interventions. This study aims to describe the recruitment process and outcomes of 2 exercise interventions conducted in Shanghai, China. Methods Recruitment information was ascertained from 2 community-based randomized controlled trials for 2 exercise interventions, the first designed to improve health outcomes for older women with knee osteoarthritis and the second to study changes in cognitive function in adults with mild cognitive impairment. Results were summarized in terms of recruitment sources, number screened, screening-to-enrollment ratios, and costs. Results Recruitment was primarily achieved through working with local residential divisions (i.e., neighborhood associations and residential committees). Both studies achieved their planned target number of older adults (aged: 45-46 years) within a 1-year time frame, with a screening-to-randomized ratio of 5:1 and demonstrated excellent retention rates (range 87%-93%) at 6 months. The recruitment cost for the 2 studies averaged 189 RMB (about 30 USD) per initial recruit and 738 RMB (about119USD) per participant randomized. Some major issues encountered during the recruitment process included (1) the use of community neighborhoods to support the conduct of the projects, (2) access to participants, and (3) feasibility. Conclusion Analysis of the 2 randomized controlled trials has provided valuable insights into the recruitment process and identified resources that can help better planning and recruitment for future interventions. Recommendations aimed at increasing the success of future recruitment efforts are provided.

      PubDate: 2016-07-18T14:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.009
  • Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual
           physical activity among older Chinese adults: A social–ecological

    • Authors: Xiangren Yi; Zachary Pope; Zan Gao; Shumei Wang; Fang Pan; Jingpeng Yan; Meng Liu; Peipei Wu; Jingjing Xu; Rui Wang
      Pages: 315 - 321
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Xiangren Yi, Zachary Pope, Zan Gao, Shumei Wang, Fang Pan, Jingpeng Yan, Meng Liu, Peipei Wu, Jingjing Xu, Rui Wang
      Purpose To examine, within a social–ecological framework, associations between multifaceted individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity (HPA) among older Chinese adults. Methods Through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, a survey instrument assessing various factors underlying 3 social–ecological dimensions of intrapersonal, interpersonal, community and environmental resources was developed. Using a cross-sectional design, older adults (n = 1,580, age 67 ± 7 years) recruited from 10 communities in Shandong province completed the social–ecological survey of HPA. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. Results Factors related to intrapersonal (medical knowledge, motivation, physical function, sport skills, socioeconomic status, education), interpersonal (social support, social activity, social norms), and community and physical environmental resources (safety, capacity, availability of and access to physical activity facilities) were found to be significantly associated with older adults' participation in HPA. Conclusion The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active.

      PubDate: 2016-07-03T12:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.010
  • Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis mechanisms and prevention: A literature

    • Authors: Jooyoung Kim; Joohyung Lee; Sojung Kim; Ho Young Ryu; Kwang Suk Cha; Dong Jun Sung
      Pages: 324 - 333
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jooyoung Kim, Joohyung Lee, Sojung Kim, Ho Young Ryu, Kwang Suk Cha, Dong Jun Sung
      Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis (exRML), a pathophysiological condition of skeletal muscle cell damage that may cause acute renal failure and in some cases death. Increased Ca2+ level in cells along with functional degradation of cell signaling system and cell matrix have been suggested as the major pathological mechanisms associated with exRML. The onset of exRML may be exhibited in athletes as well as in general population. Previous studies have reported that possible causes of exRML were associated with excessive eccentric contractions in high temperature, abnormal electrolytes balance, and nutritional deficiencies possible genetic defects. However, the underlying mechanisms of exRML have not been clearly established among health professionals or sports medicine personnel. Therefore, we reviewed the possible mechanisms and correlated prevention of exRML, while providing useful and practical information for the athlete and general exercising population.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.012
  • Scientific evidence is just the starting point: A generalizable process
           for developing sports injury prevention interventions

    • Authors: Alex Donaldson; David G. Lloyd; Belinda J. Gabbe; Jill Cook; Warren Young; Peta White; Caroline F. Finch
      Pages: 334 - 341
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Belinda J. Gabbe, Jill Cook, Warren Young, Peta White, Caroline F. Finch
      Background The 2 most cited sports injury prevention research frameworks incorporate intervention development, yet little guidance is available in the sports science literature on how to undertake this complex process. This paper presents a generalizable process for developing implementable sports injury prevention interventions, including a case study applying the process to develop a lower limb injury prevention exercise training program (FootyFirst) for community Australian football. Methods The intervention development process is underpinned by 2 complementary premises: (1) that evidence-based practice integrates the best available scientific evidence with practitioner expertise and end-user values and (2) that research evidence alone is insufficient to develop implementable interventions. Results The generalizable 6-step intervention development process involves (1) compiling research evidence, clinical experience, and knowledge of the implementation context; (2) consulting with experts; (3) engaging with end users; (4) testing the intervention; (5) using theory; and (6) obtaining feedback from early implementers. Following each step, intervention content and presentation should be revised to ensure that the final intervention includes evidence-informed content that is likely to be adopted, properly implemented, and sustained over time by the targeted intervention deliverers. For FootyFirst, this process involved establishing a multidisciplinary intervention development group, conducting 2 targeted literature reviews, undertaking an online expert consensus process, conducting focus groups with program end users, testing the program multiple times in different contexts, and obtaining feedback from early implementers of the program. Conclusions This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.

      PubDate: 2016-08-06T19:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.003
  • The effect of high and low exercise intensity periods on a simple memory
           recognition test

    • Authors: Ben Rattray; Disa J. Smee
      Pages: 342 - 348
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ben Rattray, Disa J. Smee
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of variable intensities on a simple memory recognition task during exercise. Methods Twenty active participants took part in initial testing, a familiarization trial and then four 60 min cycling interventions in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of no exercise (control), constant exercise at 90% ventilatory threshold (constant) and 2 trials that initially mimicked the constant trial, but then included periods of high (∼90% VO 2 peak ) and low intensities (∼50% VO 2 peak ). Cardiorespiratory measures and capillary blood samples were taken throughout. A short tablet-based cognitive task was completed prior to and during (50 and 55 min into exercise) each intervention. Results The exercise conditions facilitated response time (p = 0.009), although the extent of this effect was not as strong in the variable exercise conditions (p = 0.011–0.089). High intensity exercise periods resulted in some cognitive regression back towards control trial performance. Elevations in cardiorespiratory measures and periods of hypocapnia could not explain changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion Changes in cognitive performance with variations in exercise intensity are likely to have implications for sport and occupational settings. The timing of cognitive tests to exercise intensity changes as well as use of short cognitive assessments will be important for future work.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.005
  • Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in
           Stockholm Marathon 1979–2014

    • Authors: Niklas Lehto
      Pages: 349 - 354
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Niklas Lehto
      Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the age-related changes in the endurance performance among male amateur marathon runners. Methods Subjects were taken from the 36 Stockholm Marathons held from 1979 through 2014, and age and finishing time were analyzed for a total of 312,342 male runners. Results The relation was found to be a second-order polynomial, t = a + bx + cx 2, which models 99.7% of the variation in the average running time t as a function of age x. The model shows that the marathon performance of the average runner improves up to age 34.3 ± 2.6 years, thereafter, the performance starts to decline. A quantification of the age's influence on running time shows that it accounts for 4.5% of the total variance seen in the performance data. Conclusion These outcomes indicate that the effect of age on performance in endurance running events is clearly measurable, quantifiable, and possible to describe. At the same time the findings indicate that other factors, such as training, affect the performance more. A comparison with the elite showed peak performance at the same age, but the rates of change in performance with age, improvement as well as degradation, was found to be higher among the elite.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.008
  • The effects of artificial surface temperature on mechanical properties and
           player kinematics during landing and acceleration

    • Authors: Laura Charalambous; Hans Christian von Lieres und Wilkau; Wolfgang Potthast; Gareth Irwin
      Pages: 355 - 360
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Laura Charalambous, Hans Christian von Lieres und Wilkau, Wolfgang Potthast, Gareth Irwin
      Background Artificial turf is considered a feasible global alternative to natural turf by many sports governing bodies. Consequently, its ability to provide a safe and consistent playing surface regardless of climate becomes essential. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of artificial surface temperature on: (1) mechanical properties of the turf and (2) the kinematics of a turf-sport related movement. Methods Two identical artificial turf pitches were tested: one with a cold surface temperature (1.8°C–2.4°C) and one with a warm surface temperature (14.5°C–15.2°C). Mechanical testing was performed to measure the surface properties. Four amateur soccer players performed a hurdle jump to sprint acceleration movement, with data (contact time, step length and hip, knee and ankle kinematics) collected using CODASport (200 Hz). Results The temperature difference had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of the artificial turf, including force absorption, energy restitution, rotational resistance, and the height where the head injury criterion was met. Both step length (p = 0.008) and contact time (p = 0.002) of the initial step after the landing were significantly longer on the warm surface. In addition, significant range of motion and joint angular velocity differences were found. Conclusion These findings highlight different demands placed on players due to the surface temperature and suggest a need for coaches, practitioners, and sports governing bodies to be aware of these differences.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.013
  • A comparison of base running and sliding techniques in collegiate baseball
           with implications for sliding into first base

    • Authors: Travis Ficklin; Jesus Dapena; Alexander Brunfeldt
      Pages: 361 - 367
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Travis Ficklin, Jesus Dapena, Alexander Brunfeldt
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare 4 techniques for arrival at a base after sprinting maximally to reach it: sliding head-first, sliding feet-first, running through the base without slowing, and stopping on the base. A secondary purpose of the study was to determine any advantage there may be to diving into first base to arrive sooner than running through the base. Methods Two high-definition video cameras were used to capture 3-dimensional kinematics of sliding techniques of 9 intercollegiate baseball players. Another video camera was used to time runs from first base to second in 4 counterbalanced conditions: running through the base, sliding head-first, sliding feet-first, and running to a stop. Mathematical modeling was used to simulate diving to first base such that the slide would begin when the hand touches the base. Results Based upon overall results, the quickest way to the base is by running through it, followed by head-first, feet-first, and running to a stop. Conclusion There was a non-significant trend toward an advantage for diving into first base over running through it, but more research is needed, and even if the advantage is real, the risks of executing this technique probably outweigh the miniscule gain.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.03.008
  • Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with
           lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    • Authors: Mónica Sousa; Maria J. Fernandes; Pedro Carvalho; José Soares; Pedro Moreira; Vitor Hugo Teixeira
      Pages: 368 - 374
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mónica Sousa, Maria J. Fernandes, Pedro Carvalho, José Soares, Pedro Moreira, Vitor Hugo Teixeira
      Background The use of nutritional supplements (NS) among athletes is widespread. However, little is known about the relationship between nutritional adequacy and NS usage. The aims of this study were to evaluate the NS usage and to compare the nutritional intake from food and prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy (PMI) between NS users and non-users. Methods Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed an NS usage questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire assessing information over the previous 12 months. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was used to calculate PMI. General linear models were used to compare nutritional intake and NS usage. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were performed to study, respectively, relationships and associations between PMI and NS usage. Results From the 244 athletes (66% males, 13–37 years), 64% reported NS usage. After adjustment, NS users showed a higher intake from food (p < 0.05), for at least 1 gender, for energy, and for 7 of the 17 studied nutrients. The highest PMI were seen for vitamins D and E, calcium, folate, and magnesium. After adjustment, NS users, irrespective of gender, reported lower PMI for calcium (OR = 0.28, 95%CI: 0.12–0.65), and female users for magnesium (OR = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.00–0.98). Conclusion Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.006
  • Defensive pressure affects basketball technical actions but not the
           time-motion variables

    • Authors: Jaime Sampaio; Roland Leser; Arnold Baca; Julio Calleja-Gonzalez; Diogo Coutinho; Bruno Gonçalves; Nuno Leite
      Pages: 375 - 380
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jaime Sampaio, Roland Leser, Arnold Baca, Julio Calleja-Gonzalez, Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Nuno Leite
      Background Novel player tracking technologies can change the understanding of performance determinants in team sports by allowing to accurately measuring the activity demands. The aim of this study was to identify how the defensive pressure affects the time-motion variables and the technical actions in basketball. Methods Twenty international male players (age: 16.05 ± 2.09 years, weight: 73.13 ± 8.10 kg, height: 183.10 ± 5.88 cm) played two 10 min basketball quarters, where they used a man-to-man 1/4-court defense until the 4th min (F1/4), changed to man-to-man full court (FULL) for 3 min and, from the 7th to the 10th min returned to 1/4-court defense (S1/4). A computerized notational analysis was performed using Simi Scout and positional data were captured with the Ubisense Real Time Location System (mean sampling rate 3.74 ± 0.45 Hz per transmitter/player). Results The time-motion variables presented similar results between defensive conditions, showing a total distance covered around 90 m/min. However, results suggested possible vertical jump impairments in S1/4 periods. There was more distance covered while jogging in the offensive court (38.15 ± 12.17 m/min offensive court vs. 32.94 ± 10.84 m/min defensive court, p < 0.05) and more distance covered while running in the defensive court (16.41 ± 10.27 m/min offensive court vs. 19.56 ± 10.29 m/min defensive court, p < 0.05). Conclusion These results suggest how to improve task representativeness during specific conditioning or game-based training situations and also to help coaches' strategic decisions during the games.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.011
  • “Physical activity continuum throughout the lifespan: is exercise
           medicine or what?”

    • Authors: Sulin Cheng; Lijuan Mao
      Pages: 127 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sulin Cheng, Lijuan Mao

      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.03.005
  • Exercise is recreation not medicine

    • Authors: Andy Smith
      Pages: 129 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Andy Smith
      Purpose This paper responds to the question, is exercise medicine? It does so using a qualitative case study that proposes that exercise is recreation. The study (1) describes and reflects upon an exercise is recreation metaphor (2) establishes the principles and processes used to develop a sport park within which exercise is recreation and (3) presents a comparative analysis of the exercise is recreation approach with a UK quality framework for exercise referrals. Methods Four years of documentation were collated and placed into the 14 categories (1) university strategies; (2) plans of the site (3) policy documents; (4) minutes of a steering group (5) contemporary documents; (6) organisational charts; (7) responses to local government policies on sport; (8) consultation documents; (9) operational procedures; (10) facility specifications; (11) partnership agreements; (12) material relating to the university's work on events, (13) notes on the universities sport department and (14) timetables. These data were analysed through a four stage process which used recreation as the analytical theme for a comparative analysis. Results The characteristics of the exercise is recreation metaphor in this case are (1) a focus on the experience of the user; (2) the promotion of wellbeing; (3) the importance of community; (4) embracing inclusivity; (5) sport; (6) aesthetics and (7) leisure time. The principles and processes used to develop the sport park were (1) custodianship; (2) partnerships; (3) values; (4) inter-professional working; (5) local heritage; (6) change; (7) the natural park environment and (8) ‘riding the bike as you build it’. The comparative analysis with a UK quality framework for ‘exercise referrals’ clearly shows a difference from an exercise is recreation approach. Conclusion Exercise is recreation and may enable individuals and communities to reach a state of wellbeing.

      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.03.002
  • Exercise for health: Serious fun for the whole person?

    • Authors: Mark Stephen Nesti
      Pages: 135 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mark Stephen Nesti
      The suggestion that exercise can be viewed as medicine (Chen, 2012) 1 sounds a very appealing idea. In this paper an alternative view will be presented which argues that although the statement, exercise is medicine, makes sense biologically and physiologically speaking, it is more problematic from a behavioral perspective. Inactivity and declining levels of exercise in most countries in the developed world has been identified in studies, policy documents and reports throughout the last few decades. Efforts at turning this trend around by encouraging more people to exercise appear to be failing with few exceptions. Although there are numerous possible reasons behind this finding, I will propose that one of the most important is that for many, exercise is seen as hard work, unenjoyable and only concerned with physical fitness. In contrast, there is ample evidence that sport activity, at least for the vast majority who play for fun, is intrinsically motivating and can provide psychological, social and spiritual benefits in addition to physical. The arguments discussed in this paper for a greater emphasis on sport for health rather than exercise draw mainly on psychological theory. Focus is on those strands of the discipline that have been referred to as holistic, such as existential, humanistic and phenomenological perspectives.

      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.03.003
  • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic

    • Authors: Leanna M. Ross; Ryan R. Porter; J. Larry Durstine
      Pages: 139 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Leanna M. Ross, Ryan R. Porter, J. Larry Durstine
      Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and for maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT). HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

      PubDate: 2016-04-16T13:36:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.04.005
  • Physical activity, sedentary behavior and long term cardiovascular risk in
           young people: A review and discussion of methodology in prospective

    • Authors: Jakob Tarp; Jan Christian Brønd; Lars Bo Andersen; Niels Christian Møller; Karsten Froberg; Anders Grøntved
      Pages: 145 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jakob Tarp, Jan Christian Brønd, Lars Bo Andersen, Niels Christian Møller, Karsten Froberg, Anders Grøntved
      The long-term effects of physical activity or sedentary behavior on cardiovascular health in young people are not well understood. In this study, we use a narrative format to review the evidence for a prospective association with adiposity and other well-established biological cardiovascular risk factors in healthy young people, considering only studies with at least 2 years of follow-up. Physical activity appears to elicit a long-term beneficial effect on adiposity and particularly markers of cardiovascular health. With adiposity, however, a few studies also reported that higher levels of physical activity were associated with higher levels of adiposity. Time spent sedentary does not appear to be related to adiposity or markers of cardiovascular health independent of physical activity. We then discuss the uncertainties in the underlying causal chain and considered a number of alternative modeling strategies, which could improve our understanding of the relationship in future studies. Finally, we consider the current methodology for assessing physical activity and sedentary time.

      PubDate: 2016-04-06T09:09:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.03.004
  • The role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight
           management: time for critical appraisal

    • Authors: Petri Wiklund
      Pages: 151 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Petri Wiklund
      The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically during the last three decades with devastating consequences to public health. Recommended strategies to reduce obesity have focused on healthier diet and physical activity. Clearly, these approaches have not been successful, but whether this is due failure to restrict energy intake or to maintain high levels of energy expenditure has been the subject of great controversy. Consequently, there has been a great deal of confusion about the role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight management. In this article, the theoretical basis for considering reduced physical activity and energy expenditure as the cause of obesity is appraised. Further, the role of physical activity in food intake and weight control is examined. The idea that obesity is caused by consistent decline in daily energy expenditure is not supported either by objective measures of energy expenditure or physiological theory of weight gain alone. However, since voluntary exercise is the most important discretionary component of total daily energy expenditure, it can affect energy balance. Therefore, physical activity and exercise hold potential as part of the solution for the ongoing obesity epidemic.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T09:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.04.001
  • Running slow or running fast; that is the question: the merits of high
           intensity interval training

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog

      PubDate: 2016-10-15T16:13:41Z
  • Regarding: examining the relationship between sport and health among U.S.
           women by pharr and lough

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T14:38:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.001
  • Injuries in spanish female soccer players

    • Authors: Juan Del Coso; Helena Herrero; Juan J. Salinero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Juan Del Coso, Helena Herrero, Juan J. Salinero
      Background Epidemiological research is the first step for developing preventive policies, in order to know the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury. The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during one season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries were reported with an incidence rate of 0.083 injuries/player/season. Most injuries were located at the lower limbs (73.4%), mainly affecting knee (30.4%), and ankle joints (17.9%). Results The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (36.9%) than during trainings (11.4%; p< 0.001). Non-contact injuries were more frequently classified as severe than the contact injuries (51.0% vs. 42.6%; p < 0.001). A higher injury incidence rate was found in adult soccer players (≥18 years) vs. <18 years counterparts (0.093 vs. 0.073 injuries/player/year, respectively; p < 0.001). There were no differences between age groups in any other injury variable (e.g., type, mechanism, location, or severity; p > 0.05). Conclusion Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle, the injury mechanism was determinant for the time loss and player's age did not affect injury characteristics.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T14:38:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.002
  • The public health benefits of Tai Ji Quan—Addressing the unmet needs of
           aging populations in the 21st century

    • Authors: Fuzhong
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
  • How does high-intensity intermittent training affect recreational
           endurance runners? Acute and chronic adaptations: A systematic review

    • Authors: Felipe García-Pinillos; Víctor M. Soto-Hermoso; Pedro A. Latorre-Román
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Felipe García-Pinillos, Víctor M. Soto-Hermoso, Pedro A. Latorre-Román
      Objective This systematic review aimed to critically analyze the literature to determine how high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) affects recreational endurance runners in the short- and long-term. Methods Electronic databases were searched for literature dating from January 2000 to October 2015. The search was conducted using the key words “high-intensity intermittent training” or “high-intensity interval exercise” or “interval running” or “sprint interval training” and “endurance runners” or “long distance runners”. A systematic approach was used to evaluate the 783 articles identified for initial review. Studies were included if they investigated HIIT in recreational endurance runners. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale (for intervention studies), and the modified Downs and Black Quality Index (for cross-sectional studies). Results Twenty-three studies met the inclusionary criteria for review. The results are presented in 2 parts: cross-sectional (n = 15) and intervention studies (n = 8). In the 15 cross-sectional studies selected, endurance runners performed at least 1 HIIT protocol, and the acute impact on physiological, neuromuscular, metabolic and/or biomechanical variables was assessed. Intervention studies lasted a minimum of 4 weeks, with 10 weeks being the longest intervention period, and included 2 to 4 HIIT sessions per week. Most of these studies combined HIIT sessions with continuous run (CR) sessions; 2 studies' subjects performed HIIT exclusively. Conclusions HIIT-based running plans (2 to 3 HIIT sessions per week, combining HIIT and CR runs) show athletic performance improvements in endurance runners by improving VO2max and running economy along with muscular and metabolic adaptations. To maximize the adaptations to training, both HIIT and CR must be part of training programs for endurance runners.

      PubDate: 2016-09-01T00:03:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.010
  • Biomarker guided classification scheme of neurodegenerative diseases

    • Authors: Filippo Baldacci; Simone Lista; Francesco Garaci; Ubaldo Bonuccelli; Nicola Toschi; Harald Hampel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista, Francesco Garaci, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Nicola Toschi, Harald Hampel

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.007
  • Intention and automaticity toward physical and sedentary screen-based
           leisure activities in adolescents: A profile perspective

    • Authors: Gonzalo Marchant; Guillaume Chevance; Julie Boiché
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gonzalo Marchant, Guillaume Chevance, Julie Boiché
      Purpose Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are increasingly considered independent health behaviors. Additionally, current research suggests that both controlled and automatic determinants account for their adoption. The purpose of this article is to identify intention–automaticity profiles toward PA and screen-based SB and to examine how those profiles are associated with different behavioral patterns. Method Two cross-sectional studies based on self-report questionnaires were conducted with French high school students (Study 1: n = 198; Study 2: n = 185). Results In all, 4 distinct motivational profiles appeared. The first 3 clusters emerged in both studies: “PA” (high levels of automaticity and intention for PA, low levels of automaticity and intention for screen-based SB); “screen” (high levels of automaticity and intention for screen-based SB, low levels of automaticity and intention for PA), and “mixed” (high levels of all variables), whereas the fourth cluster was observed only in Study 2: “high control” (below-mean levels of automaticity, high levels of intention toward both PA and screen-based SB). Adolescents with a screen profile displayed the least healthy behavioral pattern, whereas those in the PA profile demonstrated the most favorable behaviors. Conclusion Future research is needed to extend these results to other populations using complementary assessment methods of automatic psychological processes and PA and SB behaviors.

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.006
  • The microbiome, microbial generated pro-inflammatory neurotoxins, and
           Alzheimer's disease

    • Authors: Walter Lukiw
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter J. Lukiw

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
  • Mechanism of neurodegeneration through tau and therapy for alzheimer's

    • Authors: Akihiko Takashima
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Akihiko Takashima

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
  • Effects of intermittent sprint and plyometric training on endurance
           running performance

    • Authors: Danny Lum; Frankie Tan; Joel Pang; Tiago M. Barbosa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Danny Lum, Frankie Tan, Joel Pang, Tiago M Barbosa
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intermittent sprint training (IST) and plyometric training (PT) on endurance running performance. Methods Fourteen male moderately-trained endurance runners were allocated into either IST group (n = 7) or PT group (n = 7). The preliminary tests required subjects to perform a treadmill graded exercise test, countermovement jump test for peak power measurement and 10-km time trial. Training included 12 sessions of either intermittent sprint or plyometric training carried out twice per week. Upon completion of the intervention, post-tests were conducted. Both groups showed significant reduction in weekly training mileage from pre-intervention and during intervention period. Results There were significant improvement in 10-km time trial performance and peak power. There was also significant improvement in relative peak power for both groups. The 10-km time trial performance and relative peak power showed a moderate inverse correlation. Conclusion These findings showed that both intermittent sprint and plyometric training resulted in improved 10-km running performance despite reduction in training mileage. The improvement in running performance was accompanied by an improvement in peak power and showed an inverse relation with relative peak power.

      PubDate: 2016-08-21T22:01:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.005
  • Reliability and validity of the French version of the global physical
           activity questionnaire

    • Authors: Fabien Rivière; Fatima Zahra Widad; Elodie Speyer; Marie-Line Erpelding; Hélène Escalon; Anne Vuillemin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fabien Rivière, Fatima Zahra Widad, Elodie Speyer, Marie-Line Erpelding, Hélène Escalon, Anne Vuillemin
      Background The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) has been used to measure physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in France, but no study has assessed its psychometric properties. This study aimed to compare the reliability as well as criterion and concurrent validity of the French version of the GPAQ with the French International PA Questionnaire long form (IPAQ-LF) and use of an accelerometer in a general adult population. Methods We included 92 participants (students or staff) from the Medicine Campus at the University of Lorraine, Nancy (north-eastern France). The French GPAQ was completed twice, 7 days apart, to study test-retest reliability. The IPAQ-LF was used to assess concurrent validity of the GPAQ, and participants wore an accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+) for 7 days to study criterion validity. Reliability as well as concurrent and criterion validity of the GPAQ was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Spearman correlation coefficient for quantitative variables, and Kappa and Phi coefficients for qualitative variables. Both concurrent and criterion validity of GPAQ were assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Results The GPAQ showed poor to good reliability (ICC = 0.37-0.94; Kappa = 0.50-0.62) and concurrent validity (Spearman r = 0.41-0.86), but only poor criterion validity (Spearman r = 0.22-0.42). Limits of agreement for the GPAQ and accelerometer were wide, with differences between 286.5 and 601.3 min/day. Conclusions The French version of the GPAQ provides limited but acceptable reliability and validity for the measurement of PA and sedentary time. It may be used for assessing PA and sedentary time in a French adult population.

      PubDate: 2016-08-16T21:10:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.004
  • Effect of different intensities of physical activity on cardiometabolic
           markers and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats fed with a
           high-fat high-carbohydrate diet

    • Authors: Romeo B. Batacan; Mitch J. Duncan; Vincent J. Dalbo; Geraldine L. Buitrago; Andrew S. Fenning
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Romeo B. Batacan, Mitch J. Duncan, Vincent J. Dalbo, Geraldine L. Buitrago, Andrew S. Fenning
      Background Physical activity (PA) and diet are 2 lifestyle factors that affect cardiometabolic risk. However, data on how a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet influences the effect of different intensities of PA on cardiometabolic health and cardiovascular function in a controlled setting are yet to be fully established. This study investigated the effect of sedentary behavior, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic markers and vascular and cardiac function in HFHC-fed adult rats. Methods Twelve-week-old Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups (12 rats/group): control (CTL), sedentary (SED), light-intensity training (LIT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Biometric indices, glucose and lipid control, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, vascular reactivity, and cardiac electrophysiology of the experimental groups were examined after 12 weeks of HFHC-diet feeding and PA interventions. Results The SED group had slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.0426) and greater thoracic aortic contractile responses (p < 0.05) compared with the CTL group. The LIT group showed improved cardiac conduction compared with the SED group (p = 0.0003), and the HIIT group showed decreased mesenteric artery contractile responses compared with all other groups and improved endothelium-dependent mesenteric artery relaxation compared with the LIT group (p < 0.05). The LIT and HIIT groups had lower visceral (p = 0.0057 for LIT, p = 0.0120 for HIIT) and epididymal fat (p < 0.0001 for LIT, p = 0.0002 for HIIT) compared with the CTL group. Conclusion LIT induced positive adaptations on fat accumulation and cardiac conduction, and HIIT induced a positive effect on fat accumulation, mesenteric artery contraction, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. No other differences were observed between groups. These findings suggest that few positive health effects can be achieved through LIT and HIIT when consuming a chronic and sustained HFHC diet.

      PubDate: 2016-08-06T19:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.001
  • Determinants of inspiratory muscle function in healthy children

    • Authors: Theodore Dassios; Gabriel Dimitriou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Theodore Dassios, Gabriel Dimitriou
      Background Children are affected by disorders that impact on the respiratory muscles. Inspiratory muscle function can be assessed by the non-invasive Tension-Time Index of the inspiratory muscles (TTImus). Our objectives were to identify the determinants of TTImus in healthy children and to report normal values of TTImus in this population. Methods We measured weight, height, upper arm muscle area (UAMA), and TTImus in 96 children aged 6-18 years. The level and frequency of aerobic activity was assessed by questionnaire. Results TTImus was significantly lower in male subjects (0.095 ± 0.038, mean ± SD)) compared to female subjects (0.126 ± 0.056) (p = 0.002). TTImus was significantly lower in regularly exercising (0.093 ± 0.040) compared to non-exercising subjects (0.130 ± 0.053), (p < 0.001). TTImus was significantly negatively related to age (r = −0.239, p = 0.019), weight (r = −0.214, p = 0.037), height (r = −0.355, p < 0.001), and UAMA (r = −0.222, p = 0.030). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that height and aerobic exercise were significantly related to TTImus independently of age, weight, and UAMA. Predictive regression equation for TTImus in male subjects was: TTImus = 0.228 − 0.001 × height (cm), and in female subjects: TTImus = 0.320 − 0.001 × height (cm) . Conclusion Gender, age, anthropometry, skeletal muscularity, and aerobic exercise are significantly associated with indices of inspiratory muscle function in children. Normal values of TTImus in healthy children are reported.

      PubDate: 2016-08-06T19:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.002
  • The effects of aerobic exercise training on oxidant-antioxidant balance,
           neurotrophic factor levels, and blood-brain barrier function in obese and
           nonobese men

    • Authors: Hee-Tae Roh; Wi-Young So
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Hee-Tae Roh, Wi-Young So
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and aerobic exercise training on oxidant-antioxidant balance, neurotrophic factor levels, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Methods Ten nonobese healthy men (body mass index < 25 kg/m2) and 10 obese men (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) were included in the study. Both groups performed treadmill exercise for 40 min 3 times weekly for 8 weeks at 70% heart rate reserve. Blood samples were collected to examine oxidant-antioxidant balance (reactive oxygen species [ROS] and superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity levels), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], nerve growth factor, and glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor levels), and BBB function (S100β and neuron-specific enolase [NSE] levels) before and after exercise training. Results The obese group showed significantly greater changes than the nonobese group in serum ROS (−0.46 ± 0.31 mmol/L vs. −0.10 ± 0.17 mmol/L, respectively) (p = 0.005), serum S100β levels (−8.50 ± 5.92 ng/L vs. −0.78 ± 5.45 ng/L, respectively) (p = 0.007), and serum NSE levels (−0.89 ± 0.54 µg/L vs. −0.01 ± 0.74 µg/L, respectively) (p = 0.007) after training. At baseline, the obese group showed significantly higher serum ROS and S100β levels and significantly lower serum SOD activity and BDNF levels than the nonobese group (p < 0.05). The obese group showed significantly lower serum ROS, S100β, and NSE levels and significantly higher serum SOD activity and BDNF levels after training compared with the nonobese group (p < 0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that obesity can reduce serum neurotrophic factor levels and can induce BBB dysfunction. On the other hand, aerobic exercise can improve an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in obese subjects and limit BBB dysfunction.

      PubDate: 2016-07-26T23:18:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.006
  • Examining the relationship between sport and health among USA women: An
           analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    • Authors: Jennifer R. Pharr; Nancy L. Lough
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jennifer R. Pharr, Nancy L. Lough
      Background Research has been conducted linking sports participation and health in childhood and adolescence; however, little is known about the contribution of sport to women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport and women's health in the USA by analyzing data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Methods This study was a secondary data analysis of the 2013 national BRFSS survey. Unlike the BRFSS core component from previous years, in 2013, participants were questioned extensively about their physical activity behaviors. Seventy-six different activities were identified by the participants. Two researchers categorized the 76 activities as sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, or household tasks based on previously identified categories. Logistic regression was utilized to calculate odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases based on physical activity category. Results Women who participated in sport had better health outcomes with significantly lower odds for all chronic diseases except asthma and better general health than women who participated in conditioning exercise, household tasks, or recreation, and many of the significant differences remained after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusion Sport participation was associated with more positive health outcomes among women in the USA compared with the other categories. As a means to improve health of women, the USA could focus on efforts to increase sport participation among women.

      PubDate: 2016-07-26T23:18:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.005
  • Effectiveness and time-course adaptation of resistance training vs.
           plyometric training in prepubertal soccer players

    • Authors: Yassine Negra; Helmi Chaabene; Thomas Stöggl; Mehréz Hammami; Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly; Younés Hachana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yassine Negra, Helmi Chaabène, Thomas Stöggl, Mehréz Hammami, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly, Younés Hachana
      Purpose This study assessed the effectiveness and time course for improvements in explosive actions through resistance training (RT) vs. plyometric training (PT) in prepubertal soccer players. Methods Thirty-four male subjects were assigned to a control group (n = 11; age = 12.8 ± 0.3 years; height = 153.2 ± 8.6 cm; weight = 42.5 ± 5.5 kg; body mass index (BMI) = 18.1 ± 1.4 kg/m; 5 regular soccer training sessions per week), an RT group (RTG) (n = 12; age = 12.8 ± 0.3 years; height = 159.3 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 47.8 ± 6.8 kg; BMI = 18.9 ± 2.4 kg/m; 3 soccer training sessions and 2 RT sessions per week), and a PT group (PTG) (n = 11; age = 12.7 ± 0.3 years; height = 156.4 ± 9.5 cm; weight = 45.9 ± 8.4 kg; BMI = 18.6 ± 1.3 kg/m; 3 soccer training sessions and 2 PT sessions per week). Results The RTG showed an improvement in the half-squat (Δ13%; d = 1.3, p < 0.01) and countermovement jump (Δ9%; d = 2.4, p < 0.001) at Week 4, whereas improvements in the 20-m sprint (20 m), change of direction (CoD), multiple 5 bounds, standing long jump, and squat jump were evident at Week 8 (Δ4.3%, d = 1.1, p < 0.05; Δ3.8%, d = 2.1, p < 0.05; Δ5%, d = 1.5, p < 0.05; Δ7%, d = 1.2, p < 0.01; and Δ19.6%, d = 1.5, p < 0.01, respectively). The PTG showed improvements in CoD, standing long jump, countermovement jump, and squat jump at Week 8 (Δ2.1%, d = 1.3, p < 0.05; Δ9.3%, d = 1.1, p < 0.05; Δ16%, d = 1.2; p < 0.05, and Δ16.6%, d = 1.5, p < 0.01, respectively), whereas improvements in the 20 m and multiple 5 bounds were evident only after Week 12 (Δ4%, d = 1.2, p < 0.05 and Δ7.4%, d = 0.7, p < 0.001, respectively). The RT and PT groups showed improvements in all sprint, CoD, and jump tests (p < 0.05) and in half-squat performance, for which improvement was only shown within the RTG (p < 0.001). Conclusion RT and PT conducted in combination with regular soccer training are safe and feasible interventions for prepubertal soccer players. In addition, these interventions were shown to be effective training tools to improve explosive actions with different time courses of improvements, which manifested earlier in the RTG than in the PTG. These outcomes may help coaches and fitness trainers set out clear and concise goals of training according to the specific time course of improvement difference between RT and PT on proxies of athletic performance of prepubertal soccer players.

      PubDate: 2016-07-18T14:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.008
  • The impact of weather on summer and winter exercise behaviors

    • Authors: Abram L. Wagner; Florian Keusch; Ting Yan; Philippa J. Clarke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Abram L. Wagner, Florian Keusch, Ting Yan, Philippa J. Clarke
      Background Outdoor exercise is an enjoyable way for individuals to improve fitness, but it is dependent on weather conditions. This study examines the association between weather conditions and outdoor exercise after adjustment for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Methods We used data representative of American adults from the University of Michigan/Thomson Reuters June 2013 surveys of consumers (core and supplement) to investigate self-reported exercise behavior in summer and winter. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models estimated the odds of delayed or indoor exercise compared with outdoor exercise. Results Of the 502 respondents, 16.3% did not regularly exercise outdoors (i.e., at least once a week), and many would delay exercise both in summer (51.8%) and winter (43.9%). Individuals listing rain as the predominant adverse weather condition had 3.29 times higher odds of exercising indoors (95%CI, 1.33-8.17) and 3.49 times higher odds of delaying exercise (95%CI, 1.33-8.17) compared with those mentioning heat as the predominant adverse condition. Individuals for whom ice or snow was an adverse winter weather condition were more likely to delay exercise (OR: 3.22; 95%CI: 1.14-9.08), compared with those concerned with cold. Conclusion This study found that race, age, and education exacerbate the negative effects of adverse weather conditions on the decision to exercise outdoors. Accordingly, any recommendation for an individual to exercise outdoors should be combined with an evaluation of the individual's outdoor environment along with strategies for the individual to continue exercising, indoors or outdoors, when adverse weather is present.

      PubDate: 2016-07-18T14:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.007
  • Stiffness of individual quadriceps muscle assessed using ultrasound shear
           wave elastography during passive stretching

    • Authors: Jingfei Xu; François Hug; Siu Ngor Fu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jingfei Xu, François Hug, Siu Ngor Fu
      Background Until recently it has not been possible to isolate the mechanical behavior of individual muscles during passive stretching. Muscle shear modulus (an index of muscle stiffness) measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography can be used to estimate changes in stiffness of an individual muscle. The aims of the present study were (1) to determine the shear modulus–knee angle relationship and the slack angle of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles; (2) to determine whether this differs between the muscles. Methods Nine male rowers took part in the study. The shear modulus of VMO, RF, and VL muscles was measured while the quadriceps was passively stretched at 3°/s. The relationship between the muscle shear modulus and knee angle was plotted as shear modulus–angle curve through which the slack angle of each muscle was determined. Results The shear modulus of RF was higher than that of VMO and VL when the muscles were stretched over 54° (all p < 0.01). No significant difference was found between the VMO and VL (all p > 0.055). The slack angle was similar among the muscles: 41.3° ± 10.6°, 44.3° ± 9.1°, and 44.3° ± 5.6° of knee flexion for VMO, RF, and VL, respectively (p = 0.626). Conclusion This is the first study to experimentally determine the muscle mechanical behavior of individual heads of the quadriceps during passive stretching. Different pattern of passive tension was observed between mono- and bi-articular muscles. Further research is needed to determine whether changes in muscle stiffness are muscle-specific in pathological conditions or after interventions such as stretching protocols.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T14:00:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.001
  • Evaluation of a concept-based physical education unit for energy balance

    • Authors: Senlin Chen; Xihe Zhu; Jared Androzzi; Yoon Ho Nam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Senlin Chen, Xihe Zhu, Jared Androzzi, Yoon Ho Nam
      Background Physical education (PE) is a key channel that impacts children's decisions and behaviors for healthful living. This study evaluated the effects of a concept-based PE (CBPE) instructional unit, featured by energy balance (EB) education, on students' knowledge learning, situational interest, cognitive and physical engagements as well as teachers' perceptions. Methods Fourth and 5th grade students (N = 468) in a mid-western state of the United States were recruited as the participants. Four elementary schools were randomized to the CBPE or control groups. Students' EB knowledge, situational interest, cognitive engagement, and physical engagement were measured by a knowledge test, the Situational Interest Scale – Elementary, written task sheets, and accelerometers, respectively, while teachers' perceptions of the CBPE unit were captured by individual interviews at the end of the experiment. Results The CBPE group showed a significant increase in EB knowledge, while the control did not. Both groups showed a similar increasing trend for situational interest over time, although the statistical results favored the control group. For physical engagement, the CBPE group demonstrated a statistically different but substantively similar level of in-class physical activity compared to the control. The CBPE group also showed a moderate level of cognitive engagement throughout the unit. The PE teachers reported overall positive perceptions about teaching the CBPE unit. Conclusion These results support the utility of the CBPE unit in enhancing EB education along with facilitating positive student interest and engagement as well as positive teaching experiences.

      PubDate: 2016-07-03T12:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.011
  • Exercise is….?: A commentary response

    • Authors: Jennifer Robertson-Wilson; Michelle Fortier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Michelle Fortier

      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.006
  • Commentary on: “scientific evidence is just the starting point: a
           generalisable process for developing sports injury prevention
           interventions” by alex donaldson, et al.

    • Authors: Eva Ageberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Eva Ageberg

      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
  • Misuse of the metabolic modulator meldonium in sports

    • Authors: Giuseppe Lippi; Camilla Mattiuzzi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Camilla Mattiuzzi

      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.008
  • The Wingate anaerobic test cannot be used for the evaluation of GH
           secretion in children with short stature

    • Authors: Nitzan Dror; Liat Oren; Michal Pantanowitz; Alon Eliakim; Dan Nemet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Nitzan Dror, Liat Oren, Michal Pantanowitz, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet
      Purpose To assess the growth hormone (GH) response to the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) among children with short stature and suspected GH deficiency. We hypothesized that the GH response to the WAnT would be similar to the GH response to a commonly used pharmacologic provocation test. Methods Ten children (6 males and 4 females, age range 9.0–14.9 years) participated in the study. Each participant performed 2 tests: a standard all-out WAnT, cycling for 30 s against constant resistance, and a standardized pharmacologic test (clonidine or glucagon). Blood samples for GH were collected before and 10, 30, 45, and 60 min after the beginning of exercise. In addition, we collected pre- and postexercise blood lactate levels. Results There was a significant increase in GH levels after the WAnT, yet in 9 of 10 participants, this increase was below the threshold for GH sufficiency. Peak GH after the WAnT was significantly lower compared to the pharmacologic GH provocation tests (with 9 of 10 demonstrating GH-sufficient response). Conclusion The traditional WAnT cannot be used as a GH provocation test. Further research is needed to develop anaerobic exercise protocols sufficient to promote GH secretion.

      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.002
  • Obesity promotes oxidative stress and exacerbates blood-brain barrier
           disruption after high-intensity exercise

    • Authors: Hee-Tae Roh; Su-Youn Cho; Wi-Young So
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and high-intensity acute exercise on oxidant-antioxidant status, neurotrophic factor expression, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Methods Twenty-four healthy, untrained men (12 nonobese [mean 14.9% body fat] and 12 obese subjects [mean 29.8% body fat]) performed 20 min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise at 85% maximal oxygen consumption. Blood sampling was performed to examine the oxidant-antioxidant status (reactive oxygen species [ROS] and superoxide dismutase [SOD]), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]), and BBB disruption (S100β and neuron-specific enolase) before and after acute exercise. Results The obese group showed significantly higher pre-exercise serum ROS levels and significantly lower serum SOD levels than the nonobese group (p < 0.05). Serum ROS, SOD, BDNF, NGF, and S100β levels were significantly increased postexercise compared with pre-exercise levels in both the nonobese and the obese groups (p < 0.05). The obese group showed significantly higher serum ROS, BDNF, NGF, and S100β levels postexercise compared to the nonobese group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our study suggests that episodic vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress and blood neurotrophic factor levels and induce disruption of the BBB. Moreover, high levels of neurotrophic factor in the blood after exercise in the obese group may be due to BBB disruption, and it is assumed that oxidative stress was the main cause of this BBB disruption.

      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.005
  • Various performance-enhancing effects from the same intensity of
           whole-body vibration training

    • Authors: Paohung Chung; Chiang Liu; Hsinghsiang Wang; Yu Liu; Longren Chuang; Tzyy-Yuang Shiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Paohung Chung, Chiang Liu, Hsinghsiang Wang, Yu Liu, Longren Chuang, Tzyyyuang Shiang
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-week whole-body vibration training program in various frequency and amplitude settings under the same acceleration on the strength and power of the knee extensors. Methods Sixty-four young participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups with the same acceleration (4g): high frequency and low amplitude (n = 16, 32 Hz, 1 mm) group, medium frequency and medium amplitude (n = 16, 18 Hz, 3 mm) group, low frequency and high amplitude (n = 16, 3 Hz, 114 mm) group, and control (n = 16, no vibration) group. All participants underwent 8 weeks of training with body mass dynamic squats, 3 sessions a week. Results The results showed that the high frequency and low amplitude group increased significantly in isometric contraction strength and 120°/s isokinetic concentric contraction strength; the medium frequency and medium amplitude group increased significantly in 60°/s and 120°/s isokinetic strength of both concentric and eccentric contraction; and the low frequency and high amplitude group increased significantly in 60°/s and 120°/s isokinetic eccentric contraction strength. Conclusion All frequency and amplitude settings in the 8-week whole-body vibration training increased muscle strength, but different settings resulted in various neuromuscular adaptations despite the same intensity.

      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.001
  • Physical activity and health in the presence of China's economic growth:
           Meeting the public health challenges of the aging population

    • Authors: Fuzhong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li
      Three decades of rapid economic development in China have not only benefited millions of Chinese by improving their living standards but have also dramatically increased the number of people who are part of the country's aging population. However, economic growth has not been accompanied by sufficient attention given to important public health issues, including an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and a decline in physical activity (PA) that comes with an aging population. The rapid growth in China's older population will soon exert an impact on the nation's economy, population health status, and health behaviors, and will increase stress on its healthcare system. This review article provides a broad perspective on the impact of rapid economic development, industrialization, and urbanization on health-related behaviors, with a specific focus on PA among older adults. Specifically, the article offers an overview of the demographic context, significant public health challenges, evidence on PA and exercise interventions, and knowledge gaps and future directions for research.

      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
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