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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [16 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Exercise is….?: A commentary response

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Michelle Fortier



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Physical activity, aging, and health in China: Addressing public health
           needs in the presence of continued economic growth and urbanization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li, Yu Liu, Peter Harmer



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Commentary on: “scientific evidence is just the starting point: a
           generalisable process for developing sports injury prevention
           interventions” by alex donaldson, et al.

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Eva Ageberg



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Misuse of the metabolic modulator meldonium in sports

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Camilla Mattiuzzi



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Step it up: Advancing physical activity research to promote healthy aging
           in China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ding Ding, Hua Fu, Adrian E. Bauman



      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • The Wingate anaerobic test cannot be used for the evaluation of GH
           secretion in children with short stature

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Nitzan Dror, Liat Oren, Michal Pantanowitz, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet
      Purpose To assess the growth hormone (GH) response to the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) among children with short stature and suspected GH deficiency. We hypothesized that the GH response to the WAnT would be similar to the GH response to a commonly used pharmacologic provocation test. Methods Ten children (6 males and 4 females, age range 9.0–14.9 years) participated in the study. Each participant performed 2 tests: a standard all-out WAnT, cycling for 30 s against constant resistance, and a standardized pharmacologic test (clonidine or glucagon). Blood samples for GH were collected before and 10, 30, 45, and 60 min after the beginning of exercise. In addition, we collected pre- and postexercise blood lactate levels. Results There was a significant increase in GH levels after the WAnT, yet in 9 of 10 participants, this increase was below the threshold for GH sufficiency. Peak GH after the WAnT was significantly lower compared to the pharmacologic GH provocation tests (with 9 of 10 demonstrating GH-sufficient response). Conclusion The traditional WAnT cannot be used as a GH provocation test. Further research is needed to develop anaerobic exercise protocols sufficient to promote GH secretion.


      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Obesity promotes oxidative stress and exacerbates blood-brain barrier
           disruption after high-intensity exercise

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and high-intensity acute exercise on oxidant-antioxidant status, neurotrophic factor expression, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Methods Twenty-four healthy, untrained men (12 nonobese [mean 14.9% body fat] and 12 obese subjects [mean 29.8% body fat]) performed 20 min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise at 85% maximal oxygen consumption. Blood sampling was performed to examine the oxidant-antioxidant status (reactive oxygen species [ROS] and superoxide dismutase [SOD]), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]), and BBB disruption (S100β and neuron-specific enolase) before and after acute exercise. Results The obese group showed significantly higher pre-exercise serum ROS levels and significantly lower serum SOD levels than the nonobese group (p < 0.05). Serum ROS, SOD, BDNF, NGF, and S100β levels were significantly increased postexercise compared with pre-exercise levels in both the nonobese and the obese groups (p < 0.05). The obese group showed significantly higher serum ROS, BDNF, NGF, and S100β levels postexercise compared to the nonobese group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our study suggests that episodic vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress and blood neurotrophic factor levels and induce disruption of the BBB. Moreover, high levels of neurotrophic factor in the blood after exercise in the obese group may be due to BBB disruption, and it is assumed that oxidative stress was the main cause of this BBB disruption.


      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Various performance-enhancing effects from the same intensity of
           whole-body vibration training

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Paohung Chung, Chiang Liu, Hsinghsiang Wang, Yu Liu, Longren Chuang, Tzyyyuang Shiang
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-week whole-body vibration training program in various frequency and amplitude settings under the same acceleration on the strength and power of the knee extensors. Methods Sixty-four young participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups with the same acceleration (4g): high frequency and low amplitude (n = 16, 32 Hz, 1 mm) group, medium frequency and medium amplitude (n = 16, 18 Hz, 3 mm) group, low frequency and high amplitude (n = 16, 3 Hz, 114 mm) group, and control (n = 16, no vibration) group. All participants underwent 8 weeks of training with body mass dynamic squats, 3 sessions a week. Results The results showed that the high frequency and low amplitude group increased significantly in isometric contraction strength and 120°/s isokinetic concentric contraction strength; the medium frequency and medium amplitude group increased significantly in 60°/s and 120°/s isokinetic strength of both concentric and eccentric contraction; and the low frequency and high amplitude group increased significantly in 60°/s and 120°/s isokinetic eccentric contraction strength. Conclusion All frequency and amplitude settings in the 8-week whole-body vibration training increased muscle strength, but different settings resulted in various neuromuscular adaptations despite the same intensity.


      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Effects of functional training on geometric indices of heart rate
           variability

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marianne P.C. de Rezende Barbosa, Jayme Netto Júnior, Bruna M. Cassemiro, Aline Fernanda B. Bernardo, Anne K. França da Silva, Franciele M. Vanderlei, Carlos Marcelo Pastre, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei
      Background Geometric methods provide an analysis of autonomic modulation using the geometric properties of the resulting pattern, and represent an interesting tool in the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of functional training on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy young women using the geometric indices of HRV. Methods Data were analyzed from 29 women, and were stratified into a functional training group (FTG, n = 13; 23.00 ± 2.51 years; 21.90 ± 2.82 kg/m2) and a control group (CG, n = 16; 20.56 ± 1.03 years; 22.12 ± 3.86 kg/m2). The FTG received periodized functional training for 12 weeks. The cardiac autonomic modulation of both groups was evaluated before and after this training, and a qualitative analysis was performed using the Poincaré plot. Results There was a significant increase in the difference of the triangular index (RRTri), SD1, SD2, and RR intervals in the FTG as compared to the CG, and the qualitative analysis from the Poincaré plot showed an increase in the dispersion of beat-to-beat and long-term RR intervals in the functional group after training. No changes were observed in the triangular interpolation of RR interval histogram (TINN) or SD1/SD2. Conclusion Functional training had a beneficial impact on autonomic modulation, as characterized by increased parasympathetic activity and overall variability, thus highlighting the clinical usefulness of this type of training.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Beneficial effects of fenugreek glycoside supplementation in male subjects
           during resistance training: A randomized controlled pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sachin Wankhede, Vishwaraman Mohan, Prasad Thakurdesai
      Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the glycoside fraction of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds (Fenu-FG) on physiological parameters related to muscle anabolism, androgenic hormones, and body fat in healthy male subjects during an 8-week resistance training program using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design. Methods Sixty healthy male subjects were randomized to ingest capsules of Fenu-FG (1 capsule of 300 mg, twice per day) or the matching placebo at a 1:1 ratio. The subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week resistance-training program for 8 weeks. The outcome measurements were recorded at recruitment (baseline) and at the end of the treatment (8 weeks). The efficacy outcome included serum testosterone (total and free) levels, muscle strength and repetitions to failure, metabolic markers for anabolic activity (serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and % body fat. The standard safety measurements such as adverse events monitoring, vital signs, hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis were performed. Results Fenu-FG supplementation demonstrated significant anabolic and androgenic activity as compared with the placebo. Fenu-FG treated subjects showed significant improvements in body fat without a reduction in muscle strength or repetitions to failure. The Fenu-FG supplementation was found to be safe and well-tolerated. Conclusion Fenu-FG supplementation showed beneficial effects in male subjects during resistance training without any clinical side effects.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Physical activity and health in the presence of China's economic growth:
           Meeting the public health challenges of the aging population

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li
      Three decades of rapid economic development in China have not only benefited millions of Chinese by improving their living standards but have also dramatically increased the number of people who are part of the country's aging population. However, economic growth has not been accompanied by sufficient attention given to important public health issues, including an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and a decline in physical activity (PA) that comes with an aging population. The rapid growth in China's older population will soon exert an impact on the nation's economy, population health status, and health behaviors, and will increase stress on its healthcare system. This review article provides a broad perspective on the impact of rapid economic development, industrialization, and urbanization on health-related behaviors, with a specific focus on PA among older adults. Specifically, the article offers an overview of the demographic context, significant public health challenges, evidence on PA and exercise interventions, and knowledge gaps and future directions for research.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Salsa dance and Zumba fitness: Acute responses during community-based
           classes

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Pablo A. Domene, Hannah J. Moir, Elizabeth Pummell, Chris Easton
      Background Research interest in both partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance has increased in recent years, likely a result of the gaining popularity of these types of instructor-led group classes among the mainstream dance and fitness audiences; however, the efficacy of these activities for the purposes of health promotion currently remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously assess the physiological responses and psychological experiences during salsa dance and Zumba fitness in a community sample of physically inactive women. Methods Twenty-four participants, aged 22–56 years, visited the laboratory to perform a graded exercise test for determination of maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate. The participants then attended 2 partnered salsa dance and 2 non-partnered Zumba fitness classes each in a counterbalanced order over a 2-week period. The 1-h classes were taught by certified instructors in established venues in the Royal Borough of Kingston and the surrounding communities of London, UK. Physiological data were collected using a wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X+ accelerometer with accompanying heart rate monitor and were processed using previously validated dance-specific techniques. Psychological experiences were measured via the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. Results There was a significantly higher (p < 0.001) total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (51.2 ± 3.1 vs. 32.6 ± 5.9 min), total energy expenditure (411 ± 66 vs. 210 ± 46 kcal), and total step count (6773 ± 556 vs. 4108 ± 781 steps) during Zumba fitness when compared to salsa dance. Significant pre- to post-class improvements in positive well-being (p < 0.01, partial η 2 = 0.41) and psychological distress (p < 0.001, partial η 2 = 0.72) were simultaneously observed for both salsa dance and Zumba fitness. Conclusion The acute responses to classes of partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance suggest that in physically inactive women participation is indeed efficacious in terms of community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Joshua M. Williams, Jody L. Langdon, James L. McMillan, Thomas A. Buckley
      Background Concussions are a common pathology in football and multiple misconceptions exist amongst the players and managers. To address these misconceptions, and potentially reduce concussion associated sequela, effective educational interventions need to be developed. However, the current knowledge and attitude status must be ascertained to appropriately develop these interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the concussion knowledge and attitude of English professional footballers. Methods Twenty-six participants from one English Football League Championship club completed the study. A mixed methods approach included the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS) and a semi-structured interview. The RoCKAS contains separate knowledge (0–25) and attitude (15–75) scores and was followed by a semi-structured interview consisting of concussion knowledge, attitude, and behavior related questions. Results The mean score on the RoCKAS knowledge was 16.4 ± 2.9 (range 11–22) and the attitude score was 59.6 ± 8.5 (range 41–71). The interview responses identified inconsistencies between the RoCKAS and the intended behaviors, endorsing multiple concussion misconceptions, and revealed barriers to concussion reporting. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football
           penalties

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Curtis Craig, Randy W. Overbeek, Miles V. Condon, Shannon B. Rinaldo
      Background Increased ambient temperature has been implicated in increased physical aggression, which has important practical consequences. The present study investigates this established relationship between aggressive behavior and ambient temperature in the highly aggressive context of professional football in the National Football League (NFL). Methods Using a publicly available dataset, authors conducted multiple hierarchical regression analyses on game-level data (2326 games). Results The analysis revealed that temperature positively predicted aggressive penalties in football, and that this relationship was significant for teams playing at home but not for visiting teams. Conclusion These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Imagery perspective among young athletes: Differentiation between external
           and internal visual imagery

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Qiu-Hua Yu, Amy S.N. Fu, Adeline Kho, Jie Li, Xiao-Hua Sun, Chetwyn C.H. Chan
      Purpose This study aimed to investigate the construct of external visual imagery (EVI) vs. internal visual imagery (IVI) by comparing the athletes' imagery ability with their levels of skill and types of sports. Methods Seventy-two young athletes in open (n = 45) or closed (n = 27) sports and with different skill levels completed 2 custom-designed tasks. The EVI task involved the subject generating and visualizing the rotated images of different body parts, whereas the IVI task involved the subject visualizing himself or herself performing specific movements. Results The significant Skill-Level × Sport Type interactions for the EVI task revealed that participants who specialized in open sports and had higher skill-levels had a higher accuracy rate as compared to the other subgroups. For the IVI task, the differences between the groups were less clear: those with higher skill-levels or open sports had a higher accuracy rate than those with lower skill-levels or closed sports. Conclusion EVI involves the visualization of others and the environment, and would be relevant to higher skill-level athletes who engage in open sports. IVI, in contrast, tends to be more self-oriented and would be relevant for utilization by higher skill-level athletes regardless of sport type.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Effects of core and non-dominant arm strength training on drive distance
           in elite golfers

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Dong Jun Sung, Seung Jun Park, Sojung Kim, Moon Seok Kwon, Young-Tae Lim
      Background Various training schemes have sought to improve golf-related athletic ability. In the golf swing motion, the muscle strengths of the core and arms play important roles, where a difference typically exists in the power of arm muscles between the dominant and non-dominant sides. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of exercises strengthening the core and non-dominant arm muscles of elite golf players (handicap < 3) on the increase in drive distance, and to present a corresponding training scheme aimed at improving golf performance ability. Methods Sixty elite golfers were randomized into the control group (CG, n = 20), core exercise group (CEG, n = 20), and group receiving a combination of muscle strengthening exercises of the non-dominant arm and the core (NCEG, n = 20). The 3 groups conducted the corresponding exercises for 8 weeks, after which the changes in drive distances and isokinetic strength were measured. Results Significant differences in the overall improvement of drive distance were observed among the groups (p < 0.001). Enhancement of the drive distance of NCEG was greater than both CG (p < 0.001) and CEG (p = 0.001). Except for trunk flexion, all variables of the measurements of isokinetic strength for NCEG also showed the highest values compared to the other groups. Examination of the correlation between drive distance and isokinetic strength revealed significant correlations of all variables except trunk flexion, wrist extension, and elbow extension. Conclusion The combination of core and non-dominant arm strength exercises can provide a more effective specialized training program than core alone training for golfers to increase their drive distances.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Resultant linear acceleration of an instrumented head form does not differ
           between junior and collegiate taekwondo athletes' kicks

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): David O'Sullivan, Gabriel P. Fife, Willy Pieter, Taehee Lim, Insik Shin
      Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various taekwondo kicks and age (school level) in absolute terms and relative body mass on the resultant linear acceleration (RLA) of an instrumented head form. Methods Forty-eight male (middle school: 16; high school: 16; university: 16) taekwondo athletes were recruited for this study. Subjects performed 10 turning, 10 jump spinning hook, and 10 jump back kicks on a Hybrid II head mounted on a height-adjustable frame. Results A 2-way (School × Kick) MANOVA was used to determine the differences in RLA between schools (age groups) by type of kick. There was no univariate School main effect for absolute RLA (η 2 = 0.06) and RLA relative to body mass (η 2 = 0.06). No univariate Kick main effects were found for absolute (η 2 = 0.06) and relative RLA (η 2 = 0.06). Conclusion It is of concern that RLA did not significantly differ between school levels, implying that young taekwondo athletes generate similar forces to their adult counterparts, possibly exposing young athletes to an increased risk for head injuries.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Effectiveness of quality physical education in improving students'
           manipulative skill competency

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Weiyun Chen, Weimo Zhu, Steve Mason, Austin Hammond-Bennett, Andrew Colombo-Dougovito
      Purpose This study aimed to examine the extent to which the quality physical education teaching (QPET) practices contributed to improving 4th- and 5th-grade students' manipulative skill competency. Methods Participants were 9 elementary physical education (PE) teachers and their 4th- and 5th-grade students (n = 2709–3420). The students' skill competency was assessed with 3 manipulative skills using PE metrics assessment rubrics. The PE teachers' levels of QPET were assessed by coding 63 videotaped lessons using the assessing quality teaching rubrics (AQTR), which consisted of 4 essential dimensions including task design, task presentation, class management, and instructional guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4%, 84.5%, and 94%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R 2 regression models, and independent sample t tests. Results This study indicated that the 4 essential dimensions of QPET were all significant contributors to students' manipulative skill competency. These predictors were significantly higher for boys than for girls in soccer and striking skills, while they were significantly higher for girls than for boys in throwing skill competency. Of the 4 essential dimensions of QPET, task presentation played the most significant role in contributing to all 3 skill competencies for both boys and girls. Further, students who experienced high QPET were significantly more skillfully competent than those students who did not have this experience. Conclusion It was concluded that the QPET practices played a significantly critical role in contributing to students' manipulative skill competency.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Impact of an active educational video game on children's motivation,
           science knowledge, and physical activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Haichun Sun, Yong Gao
      Background Active educational video games (AVGs) appear to have a positive effect on elementary school students' motivation leading to enhanced learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of an AVG on elementary school students' science knowledge learning, physical activity (PA) level, and interest-based motivation. Methods In this randomized controlled study, 53 elementary school students were assigned to an experimental condition or a comparison condition. The experimental condition provided an AVG learning environment, whereas the comparison condition was based on sedentary educational video games. Results The results of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the knowledge test showed that students in both groups performed better on the post-test than they did on the pre-test (p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.486), and their post-test scores did not differ significantly. The experimental condition provided a more active environment since the students' average heart rates (HRs) were in the Target-Heart-Rate-Zone (HR = 134 bpm), which was significantly higher than the average HR (103 bpm) from the comparison condition (t = 7.212, p < 0.001). Students in the experimental condition perceived a higher level of situational interest than their counterparts in the comparison group (p < 0.01, and η 2 = 0.301). Conclusion These results suggest that AVGs benefit children more in terms of PA and motivation than traditional video games by providing an enjoyable learning experience and sufficient PA.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Endurance swimming and increased risk of atrial fibrillation

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Andrew D. Schreiner, Brad A. Keith, Walter A. Brzezinski



      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Rhabdomyolysis from spinning exercise and ephedra-contained herbal
           medicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hoyoung Ryu, Hong Sup Kim, Heejung Choi, Jooyoung Kim, Dong Jun Sung



      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
  • Comparison of three types of warm-up upon sprint ability in experienced
           soccer players

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Roland van den Tillaar, Eirik Lerberg, Erna von Heimburg
      Purpose The study aims to compare the effects of a long general warm-up, a long specific warm-up, and a short specific warm-up upon sprint ability in soccer players. Methods Twelve male soccer players (age 18.3 ± 0.8 years, body mass 76.4 ± 7.2 kg, body height 1.79 ± 0.05 m) conducted 3 types of warm-ups with 1 week in between: a long general warm-up, a long specific warm-up, and a short specific warm-up followed by 3 sprints of 40 m each. The best, average, and total sprinting times together with heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion were measured. Results The sprint times (best, average, and total time) were significantly better when performing a long specific or short specific warm-up compared with the long general warm-up. The received perception exertion was significantly lower during the specific short warm-up (4.92 ± 0.90) compared with the longer ones (6.00 ± 0.74 and 6.25 ± 0.87). Conclusion Specificity is very important in a warm-up routine before sprint performance than the duration of the warm-up.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:36:34Z
       
  • Emotions and performance in rugby

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mickaël Campo, Stéphane Champely, Andrew M. Lane, Elisabeth Rosnet, Claude Ferrand, Benoît Louvet
      Purpose This study investigated emotion–performance relationships in rugby union. We identified which emotions rugby players experienced and the extent to which these emotions were associated with performance, considering how emotions unfold over the course of a game, and whether the game was played at home or away. Methods Data were gathered from 22 professional male rugby union players using auto-confrontation interviews to help identify situations within games when players experienced intense emotions. We assessed the intensity of emotions experienced before each discrete performance and therefore could assess the emotion–performance relationship within a competition. Results Players identified experiencing intense emotions at 189 time-points. Experts in rugby union rated the quality of each performance at these 189 time-points on a visual analog scale. A Linear Mixed Effects model to investigate emotion–performance relationships found additive effects of game location, game time, and emotions on individual performance. Conclusion Results showed 7 different pre-performance emotions, with high anxiety and anger associating with poor performance. Future research should continue to investigate emotion–performance relationships during performance using video-assisted recall and use a measure of performance that has face validity for players and coaches alike.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:36:34Z
       
  • Footfall patterns of a runner with an Achilles tendon rupture

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Daniel Jandacka, David Zahradnik, Roman Farana, Jaroslav Uchytil, Joseph Hamill
      Purpose This study aims to compare the load and the length of previously ruptured and healthy Achilles tendon (AT) of a recreational runner who used different footfall patterns on each limb during running. Methods A 41-year-old recreational athlete with a ruptured AT participated in this report. Two force plates and a high-speed motion capture system were used to collect ground reaction force and kinematic data in shod and barefoot running conditions. AT length was measured using ultrasonography and an infrared camera system. AT force was estimated as the active plantar flexion moment divided by AT moment arm during stance phase. Results The participant used a rearfoot pattern on the affected limb and a forefoot/midfoot pattern on the unaffected limb during shod running and a forefoot/midfoot pattern during barefoot running. There was no difference between the length of the affected and the unaffected AT. During shod running, the maximal AT force and loading rate was lower in the affected AT versus the unaffected AT. During barefoot running, the affected maximal AT force and loading rate was greater than the unaffected AT. Conclusion Footfall patterns can be an adaptation to reduce the loading on a previously injured AT. It appears that runners may consider using a rearfoot footfall pattern during running to reduce the stress on the AT.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:36:34Z
       
  • Effects of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on mental performance, physical
           capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy men

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ewa Jówko, Jerzy Sadowski, Barbara Długołęcka, Dariusz Gierczuk, Benedykt Opaszowski, Igor Cieśliński
      Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) supplementation on mental and physical performance, as well as hormonal and oxidative stress biomarkers. Methods Healthy male students received either R. rosea extract (600 mg/day; RR) or placebo (PL) in a randomized double-blind trial. Prior to supplementation (term I) and following 4 weeks of supplementation (term II), the students underwent psychomotor tests for simple and choice reaction time, included in the Vienna Test System. Also, the subjects performed VO2peak test. Blood samples were obtained before and after the test to measure the hormonal profile (cortisol, testosterone, and growth hormone), as well as the biomarkers of oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase) and muscle damage (creatine kinase). Results R. rosea ingestion shortened reaction time and total response time. Moreover, a greater relative increase in the number of correct responses was observed in RR group as compared to the PL group. No changes in endurance exercise capacity and hormonal profile were observed after R. rosea ingestion. R. rosea ingestion raised plasma total antioxidant capacity. It did not, however, affect other measured parameters. Conclusion Chronic R. rosea ingestion does not affect physical performance, but can improve the results of some psychomotor tests (simple and choice reaction time) in young, healthy, and physically active men. The improvements in mental performance, however, at least in our study, seem not to be related to changes in cortisol release or antioxidant activity of R. rosea extract. Thus, the specific mechanisms responsible for these effects still need to be elucidated.


      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:36:34Z
       
  • Does the McNeill Alexander model accurately predict maximum walking speed
           in novice and experienced race walkers?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Andrew J. Harrison, Patrick G. Molloy, Laura-Anne M. Furlong
      Background Mathematical models propose leg length as a limiting factor in determining the maximum walking velocity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a leg length-based model in predicting maximum walking velocity in an applied race walking situation, by comparing experienced and novice race walkers during conditions where strictly no flight time (FT) was permitted and in simulated competition conditions (i.e., FT ≤ 40 ms). Methods Thirty-four participants (18 experienced and 16 novice race walkers) were recruited for this investigation. An Optojump Next system (8 m) was used to determine walking velocity, step frequency, step length, ground contact time, and FT during race walking over a range of velocities. Comparisons were made between novice and experienced participants in predicted maximum velocity and actual velocities achieved with no flight and velocities with FT ≤ 40 ms. The technical effectiveness of the participants was assessed using the ratio of maximum velocity to predicted velocity. Results In novices, no significant difference was found between predicted and maximum walking speeds without flight time but there was a small 5.8% gain in maximum speed when FT ≤ 40 ms. In experienced race walkers, there was a significant reduction in maximum walking speed compared with predicted maximum (p < 0.01) and a 11.7% gain in maximum walking speed with FT ≤ 40 ms. Conclusion The analysis showed that leg length was a good predictor of maximal walking velocity in novice walkers but not a good predictor of maximum walking speed in well-trained walkers who appear to have optimised their walking technique to make use of non-visible flight periods of less than 40 ms. The gain in velocity above predicted maximum may be a useful index of race walking proficiency.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T05:06:38Z
       
  • Endurance exercise and gut microbiota: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Núria Mach, Dolors Fuster-Botella
      The physiological and biochemical demands of intense exercise elicit both muscle-based and systemic responses. The main adaptations to endurance exercise include the correction of electrolyte imbalance, a decrease in glycogen storage and the increase of oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, muscle damage, and systemic inflammatory response. Adaptations to exercise might be influenced by the gut microbiota, which plays an important role in the production, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from the diet as well as in inflammation, redox reactions, and hydration status. In this paper we reviewed literature that supports the hypothesis that intestinal microbiota might be able to provide a measureable, effective marker of an athlete's immune function and that microbial composition analysis might also be sensitive enough to detect exercise-induced stress and metabolic disorders. The review also supports the hypothesis that modifying the microbiota through the use of probiotics could be an important therapeutic tool to improve athletes' overall general health, performance, and energy availability while controlling inflammation and redox levels. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of how gut microbiota may have a key role in controlling the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses as well as improving metabolism and energy expenditure during intense exercise.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T05:06:38Z
       
  • The impact of perceived social support, loneliness, and physical activity
           on quality of life in South Korean older adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Hyun-Wook Kang, Meungguk Park, Juliane Poock Wallace (Hernandez)
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model that explains the interrelationships among perceived social support, loneliness, physical activity (PA), and quality of life (QoL) among active older adults in South Korea. Methods Data were collected from 332 individuals over the age of 65 using a systematic stratified convenience sampling method. Survey data were collected and analyzed using a structural equation model (SEM). Results Perceived social support had a significantly positive effect on PA (β = 0.14, p < 0.01) and QoL (β = 0.28, p < 0.001), while decreasing loneliness (β = −0.55, p < 0.001). PA had a significant positive effect on QoL (β = 0.12, p < 0.01), and loneliness had a negative effect on QoL (β = −0.37, p < 0.001). Loneliness mediated the relationship between perceived social support and QoL. Conclusion The SEM results of the current study support the proposed model that explained the interrelationships among perceived social support, loneliness, PA, and QoL among active older adults in South Korea. These findings suggest the importance of incorporating social support mechanisms for PA interventions in order to enhance QoL. The findings of this study can help create more effective health and physical education programs for the older generations in South Korea to enhance their QoL.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T05:06:38Z
       
  • Temporal changes in physiological and performance responses across
           game-specific simulated basketball activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Aaron T. Scanlan, Jordan L. Fox, Nattai R. Borges, Patrick S. Tucker, Vincent J. Dalbo
      Purpose The aims of this study were to: (1) provide a comprehensive physiological profile of simulated basketball activity and (2) identify temporal changes in player responses in controlled settings. Methods State-level male basketball players (n = 10) completed 4 × 10-min simulated quarters of basketball activity using a reliable and valid court-based test. A range of physiological (ratings of perceived exertion, blood lactate concentration ([BLa−]), blood glucose concentration ([BGlu]), heart rate (HR), and hydration) and physical (performance and fatigue indicators for sprint, circuit, and jump activity) measures were collected across testing. Results Significantly reduced [BLa−] (6.19 ± 2.30 vs. 4.57 ± 2.33 mmol/L; p = 0.016) and [BGlu] (6.91 ± 1.57 vs. 5.25 ± 0.81 mmol/L; p = 0.009) were evident in the second half. A mean HR of 180.1 ± 5.7 beats/min (90.8% ± 4.0% HRmax) was observed, with a significant increase in vigorous activity (77%–95% HRmax) (13.50 ± 6.75 vs. 11.31 ± 6.91 min; p = 0.024) and moderate decrease in near-maximal activity (>95% HRmax) (7.24 ± 7.45 vs. 5.01 ± 7.20 min) in the second half. Small increases in performance times accompanied by a significantly lower circuit decrement (11.67 ± 5.55 vs. 7.30 ± 2.16%; p = 0.032) were apparent in the second half. Conclusion These data indicate basketball activity imposes higher physiological demands than previously thought and temporal changes in responses might be due to adapted pacing strategies as well as fatigue-mediated mechanisms.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T05:06:38Z
       
  • Monitoring stress and recovery states: Structural and external stages of
           the short version of the RESTQ sport in elite swimmers before
           championships

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Michel Nicolas, Philippe Vacher, Guillaume Martinent, Laurent Mourot
      Background Psychological stress and recovery monitoring is a key issue for increasing athletes' health, well-being, and performance. This multi-study report examined changes and the dose–response relationships between recovery–stress psychological states, training load (TL), heart rate (HR), heart rate recovery (HRR), and heart rate variability (HRV) while providing evidence for the factorial validity of a short French version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-36-R-Sport). Methods Four hundred and seventy-three university athletes (Study 1), 72 full expert swimmers (Study 2) and 11 national to international swimmers (Study 3) participated in the study. Data were analyzed through confirmatory factor analyses (Study 1), repeated ANOVAs and correlational analyses (Study 2), t tests and correlational analyses (Study 3). Results Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses showed that the RESTQ-36-R-Sport scores were partially invariant across gender, type of sport, and practice level (Study 1). A dose–response relationship was performed between TL and RESTQ-36-R-Sport scores during an ecological training program (Study 2). Finally, relationships were found between physiological (HR-R) and psychological (RESTQ-36-R-Sport) states during an ecological tapering period leading to a national championship (Study 3). Conclusion As a whole, these findings provided evidence for the usefulness of the short version of the RESTQ-36-R-Sport for regular monitoring to prevent potential maladaptation due to intensive competitive sport practice.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T05:06:38Z
       
  • Relationships among hamstring muscle optimal length and hamstring
           flexibility and strength

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Xianglin Wan, Feng Qu, William E. Garrett, Hui Liu, Bing Yu
      Background Hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury) due to excessive muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in sports. The relationships among hamstring muscle optimal lengths and hamstring flexibility and strength were unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors for hamstring injury. This study was aimed at examining the relationships among hamstring muscle optimal lengths and flexibility and strength. Methods Hamstring flexibility and isokinetic strength data and three-dimensional (3D) kinematic data for hamstring isokinetic tests were collected for 11 male and 10 female recreational athletes. The maximal hamstring muscle forces, optimal lengths, and muscle lengths in standing were determined for each participant. Results Hamstring muscle optimal lengths were significantly correlated to hamstring flexibility score and gender, but not to hamstring strength. The greater the flexibility score, the longer the hamstring muscle optimal length. With the same flexibility score, females tend to have shorter hamstring optimal muscle lengths compared to males. Hamstring flexibility score and hamstring strength were not correlated. Hamstring muscle optimal lengths were longer than but not significantly correlated to corresponding hamstring muscle lengths in standing. Conclusion Hamstring flexibility may affect hamstring muscle maximum strain in movements. With similar hamstring flexibility, hamstring muscle maximal strain in a given movement may be different between genders. Hamstring muscle lengths in standing should not be used as an approximation of their optimal lengths in calculation of hamstring muscle strain in musculoskeletal system modeling.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T15:24:08Z
       
  • What is the most effective exercise protocol to improve cardiovascular
           fitness in overweight and obese subjects?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Eliane Aparecida Castro, Ana Belén Peinado, Pedro Jose Benito, Mercedes Galindo, Marcela González-Gross, Rocío Cupeiro
      Background Increased peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) can reduce cardiovascular risks associated with obesity. Our aim was to analyze the effect of a weight loss program on cardiovascular fitness in overweight (W) and obese (O) subjects. Methods One hundred sixty-seven subjects (77 males and 90 females), aged 18–50 years, performed a modified Bruce protocol before (pre) and after (post) a weight loss program of 24 weeks. This program combined physical training (strength, S; endurance, E; combined strength + endurance, SE; or physical activity recommendation, PA) 3 times per week, with a 25%-30 % caloric restriction diet. Results In overweight and obese males, VO2peak improved (pre and post values in L/min, respectively; W = 3.2 ± 0.6 vs. 3.7 ± 0.5, p < 0.001; O = 3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6, p = 0.013), as well as in overweight females (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.4, p < 0.001). VO2 in the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) increased for all 4 interventions in men (p < 0.05), except for S in the obese group (1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.7 ± 0.3, p = 0.141). In females, it increased in E (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3, p < 0.001), SE (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.003), and PA (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2, p = 0.006) overweight groups. Time-to-exhaustion improved in all subjects except for women in PA group (15.7 ± 0.3 vs. 15.9 ± 0.3, p = 0.495). Conclusion Our results suggest that all methods, including the recommendation of physical activity, can improve cardiovascular fitness in overweight subjects and obese males.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T15:24:08Z
       
  • Training session intensity affects plasma redox status in amateur rhythmic
           gymnasts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Marianna Bellafiore, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Battaglia, Maria Silvia Naccari, Giovanni Caramazza, Johnny Padulo, Karim Chamari, Antonio Paoli, Antonio Palma
      Purpose The aim of this study was to examine systemic responses of oxidant/antioxidant status following 2 training sessions of different intensity in amateur rhythmic gymnasts. Methods Before the experimental training, 10 female gymnasts performed a gradually increased exercise test to assess maximal heart rate, maximal oxygen consumption, and anaerobic threshold. They executed two intermittent training sessions separated by 48 h of recovery (48 h-post R): the first was performed at low-moderate intensity (LMI) and the second at high intensity (HI). Blood samples were collected immediately pre- and post-training and 48 h-post R. Hydroperoxide level (OxL) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were photometrically measured. Results OxL was significantly higher in post-training and 48 h-post R following HI than the same conditions after an LMI session [(HI vs. LMI post-training: 381.10 ± 46.17 U vs. 344.18 ± 27.94 U. Carratelli (CARR) 48 h-post R: 412.21 ± 26.61 U vs. 373.80 ± 36.08 U. CARR)]. There was no change in TAC between the 2 training sessions investigated. In LMI training, OxL significantly decreased in post-training and increased to reach the baseline at 48 h-post R, whereas TAC increased only at 48 h-post R. In HI training, OxL significantly increased to reach a high oxidative stress 48 h-post R, whereas TAC was lower in post-training than pretraining. Conclusion The pattern of OxL and TAC levels implies different regulation mechanisms by HI and LMI training sessions. High oxidative stress induced by an HI protocol might be associated with both insufficient TAC and recovery time at 48 h necessary to restore redox balance.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T15:24:08Z
       
  • National football promotion in China: Opportunities and challenges in
           public health

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jincheng Xu, Can Gao, Jiexiu Zhao



      PubDate: 2016-04-21T13:55:07Z
       
  • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic
           diseases—R1

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Leanna M. Ross, Ryan R. Porter, J. Larry Durstine
      Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and for maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT). HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.


      PubDate: 2016-04-16T13:36:34Z
       
  • Effect of aerobic exercise on insulin resistance and central adiposity
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Shenglong Le, Lijuan Mao, Dajiang Lu, Yifan Yang, Xiao Tan, Petri Wiklund, Sulin Cheng
      Purpose This study aimed to assess whether the benefits of exercise on central adiposity and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are maintained after discontinuation of intervention in the overweight/obese (OWOB) women. Methods The study subjects were from 2 independent studies with similar aerobic exercise (AE) intervention programs. In study I, 15 OWOB postmenopausal women with pre-diabetes (body mass index, BMI = 24–33 kg/m2, aged 52–65 years) completed an 8-month exercise intervention and were followed for 2 years after the intervention. In study II, 12 OWOB (BMI = 25–35 kg/m2, aged 30–50 years) premenopausal women participated in a 6-week AE and were followed for 4 years after the intervention. The exercise program consisted of progressive AE with intensity of 60 to 75% of initial fitness level, 30–60 min/time and 3–5 times/week. Fat mass (FM) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance device (Inbody 720; Study I) or Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA, Prodigy; Study II). Plasma glucose and insulin were assessed by chemiluminescent immunoassay and HOMA-IR was calculated. Results Both 8-month and 6-week moderate AE were effective in reducing HOMA-IR (–18.9%, p = 0.012 and –26.7%, p = 0.046, respectively), 8-month AE reduced FM at upper abdominal region (–6.2%, p = 0.021). However, these improvements did not maintain in either study at the follow-up. Conclusion The aerobic exercise program used in these studies was effective to reduce insulin resistance and/or fat mass in central body region among overweight and obese women. However, when exercise intervention was discontinued, the beneficial effects following both short- and long-term intervention disappeared. Thus maintaining exercise seems to be required if one wants to reap the benefits of exercise in the long-term.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T09:18:52Z
       
  • Targeting mitochondrial phenotypes for non-communicable diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zhengtang Qi, Shuzhe Ding
      The concept that “exercise is medicine” has been challenged by the rising prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). This is partly due to the fact that the underlying mechanisms of how exercise influences energy homeostasis and counteracts high-fat diets and physical inactivity is complex and remains relatively poorly understood on a molecular level. In addition to genetic polymorphisms in humans that lead to gross variations in responsiveness to exercise, adaptation in mitochondrial networks are central to physical activity, inactivity and diet. To harness the benefits of exercise for NCDs, much work still needs to be done to improve health effectively on a societal level such as developing personalized exercise interventions aided by advances in high-throughput genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We propose that understanding the mitochondrial phenotype according to the molecular information of genotypes, lifestyles and exercise responsiveness in individuals will optimize exercise effects for prevention of NCDs.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T09:18:52Z
       
  • Exercise is more than medicine: The working age population's wellbeing and
           productivity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gisela Sjøgaard, Jeanette Reffstrup Christensen, Just Bendix Justesen, Mike Murray, Tina Dalager, Gitte Fredslund, Karen Søgaard
      Background Physical activity (PA) includes muscle activity during exercise, manual work, and leisure time activities including sport. Conflicting results exist regarding health effects of PA that may deteriorate with manual work and elite sports, but improve when performed in moderation in accordance with international guidelines and may additionally enhance wellbeing and productivity. Methods In Denmark 15 randomized controlled trials have been conducted, introducing exercise at the workplace enrolling > 3 500 workers. The interventions lasted from 10 – 52 weeks and offered ~1 h weekly supervised exercise during working hours according to the concept of intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) that is based on evidenced sports sciences training principles and tailored to work exposure, employee health status, and physical capacity. Questionnaire surveys and health checks including blood and muscle sampling were performed at baseline and follow-up. The job groups included: Office and computer workers, dentists, industrial technicians, cleaning personnel, health care workers, construction workers, and fighter/helicopter pilots. Results In all job groups significant improvements were documented regarding health outcomes. These were job group specific: Neck pain was reduced among office and computer workers, dentists, industrial laboratory technicians, health care workers as well as fighter pilots. Cardio-respiratory fitness—a health risk indicator for cardio-metabolic diseases—was improved among office and computer workers, health care workers, and construction workers. Additionally, other improvements were evidenced such as increased muscle strength and balance control. Importantly, productivity increased with improved muscle strength and decreased body mass index. Conclusions In every study group outcomes of improved health were documented and the effect sizes were of clinical relevance. Thus, IPET does enhance health if a program with evidenced efficacy is implemented by expert trainees with support of the employer. Cost effectiveness estimates indicate acceptable cost relative to savings on health expenses and lost productivity.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T09:18:52Z
       
  • The role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight
           management: time for critical appraisal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Petri Wiklund
      The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically during the last three decades with devastating consequences to public health. Recommended strategies to reduce obesity have focused on healthier diet and physical activity. Clearly, these approaches have not been successful, but whether this is due failure to restrict energy intake or to maintain high levels of energy expenditure has been the subject of great controversy. Consequently, there has been a great deal of confusion about the role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight management. In this article, the theoretical basis for considering reduced physical activity and energy expenditure as the cause of obesity is appraised. Further, the role of physical activity in food intake and weight control is examined. The idea that obesity is caused by consistent decline in daily energy expenditure is not supported either by objective measures of energy expenditure or physiological theory of weight gain alone. However, since voluntary exercise is the most important discretionary component of total daily energy expenditure, it can affect energy balance. Therefore, physical activity and exercise hold potential as part of the solution for the ongoing obesity epidemic.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T09:18:52Z
       
  • Physical activity, sedentary behavior and long term cardiovascular risk in
           young people: A review and discussion of methodology in prospective
           studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jakob Tarp, Jan Christian Brønd, Lars Bo Andersen, Niels Christian Møller, Karsten Froberg, Anders Grøntved
      The long-term effects of physical activity or sedentary behavior on cardiovascular health in young people are not well understood. In this study, we use a narrative format to review the evidence for a prospective association with adiposity and other well-established biological cardiovascular risk factors in healthy young people, considering only studies with at least 2 years of follow-up. Physical activity appears to elicit a long-term beneficial effect on adiposity and particularly markers of cardiovascular health. With adiposity, however, a few studies also reported that higher levels of physical activity were associated with higher levels of adiposity. Time spent sedentary does not appear to be related to adiposity or markers of cardiovascular health independent of physical activity. We then discuss the uncertainties in the underlying causal chain and considered a number of alternative modeling strategies, which could improve our understanding of the relationship in future studies. Finally, we consider the current methodology for assessing physical activity and sedentary time.


      PubDate: 2016-04-06T09:09:53Z
       
  • Exercise for health: Serious fun for the whole person?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mark Stephen Nesti
      The suggestion that exercise can be viewed as medicine (Chen, 2012) 1 sounds a very appealing idea. In this paper an alternative view will be presented which argues that although the statement, exercise is medicine, makes sense biologically and physiologically speaking, it is more problematic from a behavioral perspective. Inactivity and declining levels of exercise in most countries in the developed world has been identified in studies, policy documents and reports throughout the last few decades. Efforts at turning this trend around by encouraging more people to exercise appear to be failing with few exceptions. Although there are numerous possible reasons behind this finding, I will propose that one of the most important is that for many, exercise is seen as hard work, unenjoyable and only concerned with physical fitness. In contrast, there is ample evidence that sport activity, at least for the vast majority who play for fun, is intrinsically motivating and can provide psychological, social and spiritual benefits in addition to physical. The arguments discussed in this paper for a greater emphasis on sport for health rather than exercise draw mainly on psychological theory. Focus is on those strands of the discipline that have been referred to as holistic, such as existential, humanistic and phenomenological perspectives.


      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
       
  • “Physical activity continuum throughout the lifespan: is exercise
           medicine or what?”

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sulin Cheng, Lijuan Mao



      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
       
  • Empowering youth sport environments: implications for daily
           moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and adiposity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sally A.M. Fenton, Joan L. Duda, Paul R. Appleton, Timothy G. Barrett
      Background Evidence suggests involvement in youth sport does not guarantee daily guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are met, and participation may not mitigate the risks associated with physical inactivity. The need to promote higher habitual MVPA engagement among children active in the youth sport context has therefore been underlined. Framed by self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was to examine the implications of the motivational climate created in youth sport, for children's daily engagement in MVPA and associated adiposity. Specifically, we sought to test a motivational sequence in which children's perceptions of an empowering coach-created motivational climate were related to autonomous and controlled motivation, which in turn predicted sport-related enjoyment. Finally, enjoyment is assumed to predict accelerometer assessed daily MVPA and, following this, adiposity Method Male and female youth sport participants aged 9-16 years (N = 112) completed multi-section questionnaires assessing their perceptions of the motivational climate created in youth sport (i.e., autonomy supportive, task involving, socially supportive), autonomous and controlled motivation, and sport-related enjoyment. Daily MVPA engagement was determined via 7 days of accelerometry. Percent body fat (BF%) was estimated using bio-electrical impedance analysis. Results Path analysis revealed perceptions of an empowering motivational climate positively predicted players' autonomous motivation, and in turn, sport-related enjoyment. Enjoyment was also significantly negatively related to players' BF%, via a positive association with daily MVPA. Conclusion Fostering more empowering youth sport environments may hold implications for the prevention of excess adiposity, through encouraging higher habitual MVPA engagement. Findings may inform the optimal design of youth sport settings for MVPA promotion, and contribute towards associated healthy weight maintenance among youth active in this context. Longitudinal and intervention studies are required to confirm these results.


      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
       
  • Exercise is recreation not medicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Andy Smith
      Purpose This paper responds to the question, is exercise medicine? It does so using a qualitative case study that proposes that exercise is recreation. The study (1) describes and reflects upon an exercise is recreation metaphor (2) establishes the principles and processes used to develop a sport park within which exercise is recreation and (3) presents a comparative analysis of the exercise is recreation approach with a UK quality framework for exercise referrals. Methods Four years of documentation were collated and placed into the 14 categories (1) university strategies; (2) plans of the site (3) policy documents; (4) minutes of a steering group (5) contemporary documents; (6) organisational charts; (7) responses to local government policies on sport; (8) consultation documents; (9) operational procedures; (10) facility specifications; (11) partnership agreements; (12) material relating to the university's work on events, (13) notes on the universities sport department and (14) timetables. These data were analysed through a four stage process which used recreation as the analytical theme for a comparative analysis. Results The characteristics of the exercise is recreation metaphor in this case are (1) a focus on the experience of the user; (2) the promotion of wellbeing; (3) the importance of community; (4) embracing inclusivity; (5) sport; (6) aesthetics and (7) leisure time. The principles and processes used to develop the sport park were (1) custodianship; (2) partnerships; (3) values; (4) inter-professional working; (5) local heritage; (6) change; (7) the natural park environment and (8) ‘riding the bike as you build it’. The comparative analysis with a UK quality framework for ‘exercise referrals’ clearly shows a difference from an exercise is recreation approach. Conclusion Exercise is recreation and may enable individuals and communities to reach a state of wellbeing.


      PubDate: 2016-04-01T09:03:45Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2016-03-17T08:50:33Z
       
  • The epistemic basis of distance running injury research: A historical
           perspective

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Adam Hulme, Caroline F. Finch



      PubDate: 2016-03-12T16:15:08Z
       
  • The problem with running injuries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog



      PubDate: 2016-03-12T16:15:08Z
       
  • Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical
           analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Scott W. Ducharme, Avelino Amado, Joseph Hamill
      Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1) maintain pattern stability, (2) transition into new states, and (3) are governed by short and long-term (fractal) correlational processes at different spatio-temporal scales. These different aspects of system dynamics are typically investigated using concepts related to variability, stability, complexity, and adaptability. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast these different concepts and demonstrate that, although related, these terms represent fundamentally different aspects of system dynamics. In particular, we argue that variability should not uniformly be equated with stability or complexity of movement. In addition, current dynamic stability measures based on nonlinear analysis methods (such as the finite maximal Lyapunov exponent) can reveal local instabilities in movement dynamics, but the degree to which these local instabilities relate to global postural and gait stability and the ability to resist external perturbations remains to be explored. Finally, systematic studies are needed to relate observed reductions in complexity with aging and disease to the adaptive capabilities of the movement system and how complexity changes as a function of different task constraints.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T13:11:51Z
       
  • Non-linearity in the dynamic world of human movement

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Li Li



      PubDate: 2016-01-10T18:46:48Z
       
 
 
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