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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [SJR: 0.513]   [H-I: 9]   [19 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Empowering youth sport environments: Implications for daily
           moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and adiposity

    • Authors: Sally A.M. Fenton; Joan L. Duda; Paul R. Appleton; Timothy G. Barrett
      Pages: 423 - 433
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sally A.M. Fenton, Joan L. Duda, Paul R. Appleton, Timothy G. Barrett
      Background Evidence suggests involvement in youth sport does not guarantee daily guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are met, and participation may not mitigate the risks associated with physical inactivity. The need to promote higher habitual MVPA engagement amongst children active in the youth sport context has therefore been underlined. Framed by self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was to examine the implications of the motivational climate created in youth sport, for children's daily engagement in MVPA and associated adiposity. Specifically, we sought to test a motivational sequence in which children's perceptions of an empowering coach-created motivational climate were related to autonomous and controlled motivation, which in turn predicted sport-related enjoyment. Finally, enjoyment was assumed to predict accelerometer assessed daily MVPA and, following this, adiposity. Methods Male and female youth sport participants aged 9–16 years (n = 112) completed multi-section questionnaires assessing their perceptions of the motivational climate created in youth sport (i.e., autonomy supportive, task involving, socially supportive), autonomous and controlled motivation, and sport-related enjoyment. Daily MVPA engagement was determined via 7 days of accelerometry. Percent body fat (BF%) was estimated using bio-electrical impedance analysis. Results Path analysis revealed perceptions of an empowering motivational climate positively predicted players' autonomous motivation, and in turn, sport-related enjoyment. Enjoyment was also significantly negatively related to players' BF%, via a positive association with daily MVPA. Conclusion Fostering more empowering youth sport environments may hold implications for the prevention of excess adiposity, through encouraging higher habitual MVPA engagement. Findings may inform the optimal design of youth sport settings for MVPA promotion, and contribute towards associated healthy weight maintenance amongst youth active in this context. Longitudinal and intervention studies are required to confirm these results.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.03.006
  • Correlates of long-term physical activity adherence in women

    • Authors: Haichun Sun; Cheryl A. Vamos; Sara S.B. Flory; Rita DeBate; Erika L. Thompson; Jennifer Bleck
      Pages: 434 - 442
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Haichun Sun, Cheryl A. Vamos, Sara S.B. Flory, Rita DeBate, Erika L. Thompson, Jennifer Bleck
      Background Little is known about the factors that may influence women's adherence to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using longitudinal data. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of long-term physical activity (PA) participation among women. Methods Female data from Waves I, III, and IV (n = 5381) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used for the analysis. The outcome of PA adherence was operationalized as (1) consistently physically active (at least 5 instances during the week) in both Waves III and IV (during adulthood), and (2) consistently not physically active or only physically active in either Wave III or IV. Predictor variables from Wave I (during adolescence) included race/ethnicity, PA level, self-perception of being physically fit, general health status, attempt to change weight, parents' income level, parents' education, well-being, depression, access to PA resources, days of physical education (PE), and grade level. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the outcome variable. Results PA levels during adolescence significantly predicted PA adherence (aOR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.35–2.05). Additionally, wanting to lose weight (aOR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.20–1.85), using fitness center in the neighborhood (aOR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.05–1.58), and having 5 days of PE a week (aOR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.09–2.02) were significant predictors. Women who did not perceive being physically fit (aOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.44–0.95) and Black, non-Hispanics (aOR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.44–0.82) were less likely to adhere to PA. Conclusion The findings suggested that physically active adolescents were more likely to become active adults. Future research should address interventions (e.g., PE program, community resources) that may promote lifetime PA in women, with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.009
  • The Wingate anaerobic test cannot be used for the evaluation of growth
           hormone secretion in children with short stature

    • Authors: Nitzan Dror; Liat Oren; Michal Pantanowitz; Alon Eliakim; Dan Nemet
      Pages: 443 - 446
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Nitzan Dror, Liat Oren, Michal Pantanowitz, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet
      Purpose To assess the growth hormone (GH) response to the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) among children with short stature and suspected GH deficiency. We hypothesized that the GH response to the WAnT would be similar to the GH response to a commonly used pharmacologic provocation test. Methods Ten children (6 males and 4 females, age range 9.0–14.9 years) participated in the study. Each participant performed 2 tests: a standard all-out WAnT, cycling for 30 s against constant resistance, and a standardized pharmacologic test (clonidine or glucagon). Blood samples for GH were collected before and 10, 30, 45, and 60 min after the beginning of exercise. In addition, we collected pre- and post-exercise blood lactate levels. Results There was a significant increase in GH levels after the WAnT, yet in 9 of 10 participants, this increase was below the threshold for GH sufficiency. Peak GH after the WAnT was significantly lower compared to the pharmacologic GH provocation tests (with 9 of 10 demonstrating GH-sufficient response). Conclusion The traditional WAnT cannot be used as a GH provocation test. Further research is needed to develop anaerobic exercise protocols sufficient to promote GH secretion.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.002
  • The effects of aerobic exercise training on oxidant–antioxidant balance,
           neurotrophic factor levels, and blood–brain barrier function in obese
           and non-obese men

    • Authors: Hee-Tae Roh; Wi-Young So
      Pages: 447 - 453
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Hee-Tae Roh, Wi-Young So
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and aerobic exercise training on oxidant–antioxidant balance, neurotrophic factor levels, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) function. Methods Ten non-obese healthy men (body mass index < 25 kg/m2) and 10 obese men (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) were included in the study. Both groups performed treadmill exercise for 40 min 3 times weekly for 8 weeks at 70% heart rate reserve. Blood samples were collected to examine oxidant–antioxidant balance (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels), and BBB function (S100β and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels) before and after exercise training. Results The obese group showed significantly greater changes than the non-obese group in serum ROS (−0.46 ± 0.31 mmol/L vs. −0.10 ± 0.17 mmol/L, p = 0.005), serum S100β levels (−8.50 ± 5.92 ng/L vs. −0.78 ± 5.45 ng/L, p = 0.007), and serum NSE levels (−0.89 ± 0.54 µg/L vs. −0.01 ± 0.74 µg/L, p = 0.007) after training. At baseline, the obese group showed significantly higher serum ROS and S100β levels and significantly lower serum SOD activity and BDNF levels than the non-obese group (p < 0.05). The obese group showed significantly lower serum ROS, S100β, and NSE levels and significantly higher serum SOD activity and BDNF levels after training compared with baseline (p < 0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that obesity can reduce serum neurotrophic factor levels and can induce BBB dysfunction. On the other hand, aerobic exercise can improve an oxidant–antioxidant imbalance in obese subjects and limit BBB dysfunction.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.006
  • What is the most effective exercise protocol to improve cardiovascular
           fitness in overweight and obese subjects'

    • Authors: Eliane Aparecida Castro; Ana Belén Peinado; Pedro Jose Benito; Mercedes Galindo; Marcela González-Gross; Rocío Cupeiro
      Pages: 454 - 461
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Eliane Aparecida Castro, Ana Belén Peinado, Pedro Jose Benito, Mercedes Galindo, Marcela González-Gross, Rocío Cupeiro
      Background Increased peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) can reduce cardiovascular risks associated with obesity. Our aim was to analyze the effect of a weight loss program on cardiovascular fitness in overweight (W) and obese (O) subjects. Methods One hundred and sixty-seven subjects (77 males and 90 females), aged 18–50 years, performed a modified Bruce protocol before (pre) and after (post) a weight loss program of 24 weeks. This program combined physical training (strength, S; endurance, E; combined strength + endurance, SE; or physical activity recommendation, PA) 3 times per week, with a 25%–30% caloric restriction diet. Results VO2peak improved in overweight and obese males (pre and post values in L/min, respectively; W = 3.2 ± 0.6 vs. 3.7 ± 0.5, p < 0.001; O = 3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6, p = 0.013) as well as in overweight females (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.4, p < 0.001). VO2peak in the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) increased for all 4 interventions in males (p < 0.05), except for S in the obese group (1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.7 ± 0.3, p = 0.141). In females, it increased in E (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3, p < 0.001), SE (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.003), and PA (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2, p = 0.006) in overweight groups. Time-to-exhaustion improved in all subjects except for females in PA group (15.7 ± 0.3 min vs. 15.9 ± 0.3 min, p = 0.495). Conclusion Our results suggest that all methods, including the recommendation of physical activity, can improve cardiovascular fitness in overweight subjects and obese males.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.04.007
  • The influence of different exercise intensities on kicking accuracy and
           velocity in soccer players

    • Authors: Ricardo Ferraz; Roland van den Tillar; Mario C. Marques
      Pages: 462 - 467
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ricardo Ferraz, Roland van den Tillar, Mario C. Marques
      Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different exercise intensities induced by a soccer specific protocol on kicking performance in soccer players. Methods Twelve semi-professional male soccer players participated in this study and performed maximal instep kicks before and after the implementation of an exercise protocol to determine the influence of different intensities upon kicking ball velocity and the target-hitting accuracy. Results Analysis of variance designs with repeated measures showed that maximal ball velocity was affected only after the most intense circuit (F(6, 66) = 2.3; p = 0.041; η 2 = 0.18), while accuracy was not affected in the protocol (F(6, 66) = 0.19; p = 0.98; η 2 = 0.02). Low and moderate intensities did not affect accuracy or kicking ball velocity. Conclusion These findings suggest that kicking ball velocity is influenced by high-exercise intensities. Low and moderate exercise intensities do not affect the performance of the kick, and intensity does not influence accuracy. Otherwise, it is possible that other mechanisms (not only physiological) may influence players during the exercise.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.10.001
  • Heart rate variability to assess ventilatory thresholds in professional
           basketball players

    • Authors: Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo; Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias; Vicente Ávila-Gandía; Cristian Marín-Pagán; Antonio Luque; Pedro E. Alcaraz
      Pages: 468 - 473
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Antonio Luque, Pedro E. Alcaraz
      Purpose The aim of this study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV) during incremental test could be used to estimate ventilatory threshold (VT) in professional basketball players, with sufficient precision to be used in their training. Furthermore, the second aim was to analyse the association between HRV and 3 methods of VT determination by gas analysis. Methods Twenty-four professional basketball players (age: 23.4 ± 4.9 years; height: 195.4 ± 9.8 cm; body mass: 92.2 ± 11.9 kg) performed an incremental running test to exhaustion. First ventilatory threshold (VT1) was determined by ventilatory equivalent (VE) and HRV and second ventilatory threshold (VT2) was determined by 3 methods of gases analysis (V-slope, VE and gas exchange ratio (R), and HRV). Pearson's coefficient (r) was used to detect differences between data and the strength of each relationship. The mean of absolute differences and Bland–Altman analysis were used to evaluate whether there was agreement. Results The results showed no significant differences in HR and oxygen consumption (VO2) at VT1 between the 2 methods. Furthermore, no significant differences among the methods of gases analysis and HRV were observed in speed, HR, and VO2 at VT2. Moreover, VTs estimated using HRV and gas methods were significantly correlated. Correlation in HR values was higher between R and HRV (r = 0.96) and VE and HRV (r = 0.96) than V-slope and HRV (r = 0.90). Conclusion These findings provide a practical, inexpensive approach for evaluating specific training loads when determining VT2 in basketball players. Therefore, HRV is an alternative method to determine VT2 without the application of expensive technology that limits its use to laboratories.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.002
  • Tribulus terrestris extracts alleviate muscle damage and promote anaerobic
           performance of trained male boxers and its mechanisms: Roles of androgen,
           IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3

    • Authors: Yiming Ma; Zhicheng Guo; Xiaohui Wang
      Pages: 474 - 481
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yiming Ma, Zhicheng Guo, Xiaohui Wang
      Purpose To investigate the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extracts on muscle mass, muscle damage, and anaerobic performances of trained male boxers and its mechanisms: roles of plasma androgen, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Methods Fifteen male boxers were divided into exercise group (E, n = 7) and exercise plus TT group (E + TT, n = 8). The 2 groups both undertook 3-week high-intensity and 3-week high-volume trainings separated by a 4-week rest. TT extracts (1250 mg/day) were orally administered by boxers in E + TT group. TT extract compositions were detected by UHPLC–Q-TOF/MS. Before and at the end of the 2 trainings, muscle mass, anaerobic performance, and blood indicators were explored. Results Compared with E group, decreases of plasma CK (1591.5 ± 909.6 U/L vs. 2719.9 ± 832.5 U/L) and IGFBP-3 (3075.5 ± 1072.5 ng/mL vs. 3950.8 ± 479.3 ng/mL) as well as increases of mean power (MP, 459.4 ± 122.3 W vs. 434.6 ± 69.5 W) and MP/body weight (MP/BW, 7.5 ± 0.9 W/kg vs. 7.1 ± 1.1 W/kg) were detected in E + TT group after a high-intensity training. For high-volume training, reduction of IGFBP-3 (2946.4 ± 974.1 ng/mL vs. 3632.7 ± 470.1 ng/mL) and increases of MP (508.7 ± 103.2 W vs. 477.8 ± 49.9 W) and MP/BW (8.2 ± 0.3 W/kg vs. 7.5 ± 0.9 W/kg) were detected in E + TT group, compared with E group. Muscle mass, blood levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and IGF-1 were not signifiantly changed between the 2 groups. Conclusion Taking 1250 mg capsules containing TT extracts did not change muscle mass and plasma levels of testosterone, DHT, and IGF-1 but significantly alleviated muscle damage and promoted anaerobic performance of trained male boxers, which may be related to the decrease of plasma IGFBP-3 rather than androgen in plasma.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.003
  • Shock attenuation, spatio-temporal and physiological parameter comparisons
           between land treadmill and water treadmill running

    • Authors: Paul W. Macdermid; Philip W. Fink; Stephen R. Stannard
      Pages: 482 - 488
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Paul W. Macdermid, Philip W. Fink, Stephen R. Stannard
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare shock attenuation, spatio-temporal and physiological parameters during water immersed (depth: anterior superior iliac spine) aquatic treadmill (ATM) running and land based treadmill (LTM) running matched for speed. Methods Six participants completed 15 min running under 2 conditions (LTM and ATM) in a randomised and balanced order, matched for speed. Synchronised tri-axial accelerometers placed at the distal tibia, lumbar region, and forehead were used to identify running dynamics and measure acceleration on impact and its attenuation. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate were sampled on a breath-by-breath basis for physiological variable collection throughout each trial. Results Participants experienced reduced accelerations on impact at the distal tibia (p < 0.0001) but not the lower back (p = 0.1363) or forehead (p = 0.0551) during ATM compared to LTM. Consequently, large reductions in shock attenuation occurred during the ATM compared to LTM (p = 0.0001). Stride frequency was greater (p < 0.0001) and stride length was shorter (p = 0.0341) as a result of reduced swing time (p = 0.0201) for LTM, whilst ATM running increased physiological demand for both heart rate (p < 0.0001) and O2 (p < 0.0001) compared to LTM. Conclusion These findings show ATM reduces impact stress on the passive structures of the lower limbs whilst increasing physiological demand when running at matched speeds.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.12.006
  • Three-dimensional impact kinetics with foot-strike manipulations during

    • Authors: Andrew D. Nordin; Janet S. Dufek; John A. Mercer
      Pages: 489 - 497
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Andrew D. Nordin, Janet S. Dufek, John A. Mercer
      Background Lack of an observable vertical impact peak in fore/mid-foot running has been suggested as a means of reducing lower extremity impact forces, although it is unclear if impact characteristics exist in other axes. The purpose of the investigation was to compare three-dimensional (3D) impact kinetics among foot-strike conditions in over-ground running using instantaneous loading rate–time profiles. Methods Impact characteristics were assessed by identifying peak loading rates in each direction (medial–lateral (ML), anterior–posterior (AP), vertical, and 3D resultant) following foot-strike instructions (fore-foot, mid-foot, subtle heel, and obvious heel strike). Kinematic and kinetic data were analyzed among 9 male participants in each foot-strike condition. Results Loading rate peaks were observed in each direction and foot-strike condition, differing in magnitude by direction (3D resultant and vertical > AP > ML, p ≤ 0.031) and foot-strike: ML (fore-foot and mid-foot strike > obvious heel strike, p ≤ 0.032), AP (fore-foot and mid-foot strikes > subtle-heel and obvious heel strikes, p ≤ 0.023). In each direction, the first loading rate peak occurred later during heel strike running relative to fore-foot (p ≤ 0.019), with vertical and 3D resultant impact durations exceeding shear (ML and AP, p ≤ 0.007) in each condition. Conclusion Loading rate–time assessment identified contrasting impact characteristics in each direction and the 3D resultant following foot-strike manipulations, with potential implications for lower extremity structures in running.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.11.003
  • Footfall patterns of a runner with an Achilles tendon rupture

    • Authors: Daniel Jandacka; David Zahradnik; Roman Farana; Jaroslav Uchytil; Joseph Hamill
      Pages: 498 - 502
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 4
      Author(s): Daniel Jandacka, David Zahradnik, Roman Farana, Jaroslav Uchytil, Joseph Hamill
      Purpose This study aims to compare the load and the length of previously ruptured and healthy Achilles tendon (AT) of a recreational runner who used different footfall patterns on each limb during running. Methods A 41-year-old recreational athlete with a ruptured AT participated in this report. Two force plates and a high-speed motion capture system were used to collect ground reaction force and kinematic data in shod and barefoot running conditions. AT length was measured using ultrasonography and an infrared camera system. AT force was estimated as the active plantar flexion moment divided by AT moment arm during stance phase. Results The participant used a rearfoot pattern on the affected limb and a forefoot/midfoot pattern on the unaffected limb during shod running, and a forefoot/midfoot pattern during barefoot running. There was no difference between the length of the affected and the unaffected AT. During shod running, the maximal AT force and loading rate were lower in the affected AT versus the unaffected AT. During barefoot running, the affected maximal AT force and loading rate were greater than the unaffected AT. Conclusion Footfall patterns can be an adaptation to reduce the loading on a previously injured AT. It appears that runners may consider using a rearfoot footfall pattern during running to reduce the stress on the AT.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.05.004
  • Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    • Authors: Lauren N. Erickson; Marc A. Sherry
      Pages: 262 - 270
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Lauren N. Erickson, Marc A. Sherry
      Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.001
  • Relationships among hamstring muscle optimal length and hamstring
           flexibility and strength

    • Authors: Xianglin Wan; Feng Qu; William E. Garrett; Hui Liu; Bing Yu
      Pages: 275 - 282
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xianglin Wan, Feng Qu, William E. Garrett, Hui Liu, Bing Yu
      Background Hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury) due to excessive muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in sports. The relationships among hamstring muscle optimal lengths and hamstring flexibility and strength were unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors for hamstring injury. This study was aimed at examining the relationships among hamstring muscle optimal length and flexibility and strength. Methods Hamstring flexibility and isokinetic strength data and three-dimensional kinematic data for hamstring isokinetic tests were collected for 11 male and 10 female recreational athletes. The maximal hamstring muscle forces, optimal lengths, and muscle lengths in standing were determined for each participant. Results Hamstring muscle optimal lengths were significantly correlated to hamstring flexibility score and gender, but not to hamstring strength. The greater the flexibility score, the longer the hamstring muscle optimal length. With the same flexibility score, females tend to have shorter hamstring optimal muscle lengths compared to males. Hamstring flexibility score and hamstring strength were not correlated. Hamstring muscle optimal lengths were longer than but not significantly correlated to corresponding hamstring muscle lengths in standing. Conclusion Hamstring flexibility may affect hamstring muscle maximum strain in movements. With similar hamstring flexibility, hamstring muscle maximal strain in a given movement may be different between genders. Hamstring muscle lengths in standing should not be used as an approximation of their optimal lengths in calculation of hamstring muscle strain in musculoskeletal system modeling.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.04.009
  • The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in

    • Authors: Xianglin Wan; Feng Qu; William E. Garrett; Hui Liu; Bing Yu
      Pages: 283 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xianglin Wan, Feng Qu, William E. Garrett, Hui Liu, Bing Yu
      Background The effect of hamstring flexibility on the peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting, until now, remained unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors of hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury). As a continuation of our previous study, this study was aimed to examine the relationship between hamstring flexibility and peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting. Methods Ten male and 10 female college students participated in this study. Hamstring flexibility, isokinetic strength data, three-dimensional (3D) kinematic data in a hamstring isokinetic test, and kinematic data in a sprinting test were collected for each participant. The optimal hamstring muscle lengths and peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting were determined for each participant. Results The muscle strain of each of the 3 biarticulated hamstring muscles reached a peak during the late swing phase. Peak hamstring muscle strains were negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility (0.1179 ≤ R 2 ≤ 0.4519, p = 0.001) but not to hip and knee joint positions at the time of peak hamstring muscle strains. Peak hamstring muscle strains were not different for different genders. Peak muscle strains of biceps long head (0.071 ± 0.059) and semitendinosus (0.070 ± 0.055) were significantly greater than that of semimembranosus (0.064 ± 0.054). Conclusion A potential for hamstring injury exists during the late swing phase of sprinting. Peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting are negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility across individuals. The magnitude of peak muscle strains is different among hamstring muscles in sprinting, which may explain the different injury rate among hamstring muscles.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.012
  • The ethics of exercise in eating disorders: Can an ethical principles

    • Authors: Brian Cook; Lisa Leininger
      Pages: 295 - 298
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Brian Cook, Lisa Leininger

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.004
  • Concussion in contact sport: A challenging area to tackle

    • Authors: Samuel Stuart; Aodhan Hickey; Rosie Morris; Karol O'Donovan; Alan Godfrey
      Pages: 299 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Samuel Stuart, Aodhan Hickey, Rosie Morris, Karol O'Donovan, Alan Godfrey

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.009
  • Motivation dimensions for running a marathon: A new model emerging from
           the Motivation of Marathon Scale (MOMS)

    • Authors: Sima Zach; Yan Xia; Aviva Zeev; Michal Arnon; Noa Choresh; Gershon Tenenbaum
      Pages: 302 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sima Zach, Yan Xia, Aviva Zeev, Michal Arnon, Noa Choresh, Gershon Tenenbaum
      Purpose The aim of this study was to test and expand the Motivation of Marathoners Scale (MOMS) model (Masters et al., 1993). Methods The MOMS questionnaire was distributed to 306 male and female marathon runners (age range: 20–77 years) with experience in marathon running (range: 1–44 runs). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the original model failed to fit the data. Hence, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to test the best factorial solution for the current data, and a subsequent CFA was performed on the revised factorial structure. Then, a series of EFAs using maximum likelihood factor extraction method were performed. Results The best structure solution for model-data fit resulted in 11 factors: psychological coping—emotional-related coping, psychological coping—everyday-life management, life meaning, self-esteem, recognition, affiliation, weight concerns, general health orientation—reduced disease prevalence and longevity, general health orientation—keep fit, competition, and personal goal achievement. Conclusion This study provides a sound and solid framework for studying motivation for physically demanding tasks such as marathon runs, and needs to be similarly applied and tested in studies incorporating physical tasks which vary in mental demands.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.10.003
  • Assessing acceptance in mindfulness with direct-worded items: The
           development and initial validation of the Athlete Mindfulness

    • Authors: Chun-Qing Zhang; Pak-Kwong Chung; Gangyan Si
      Pages: 311 - 320
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Chun-Qing Zhang, Pak-Kwong Chung, Gangyan Si
      Purpose The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate a sport-specific mindfulness measure, the Athlete Mindfulness Questionnaire (AMQ), through 5 related studies using 4 separate samples of Chinese athletes. The AMQ is a 3-factor measure designed to assess mindfulness that reflects present-moment attention, awareness, and acceptance in a sport context. Methods In Study 1, an initial pool of items was generated based on previous literature, existing mindfulness scales, as well as interviews with and feedback from the athletes, coaches, and mindfulness experts. Initial support for the 3-factor structure of the AMQ was established via exploratory factor analysis in Study 2, and cross-validated through confirmatory factor analysis in Studies 3 and 4. In Study 5, a modified 3-factor AMQ with direct-worded acceptance items was examined in a fourth independent sample. Results Convergent and concurrent validities of the acceptance subscale failed to be established in Studies 3 and 4 which may be due to the inattention and confusion of the athletes whilst interpreting the reverse-worded items. A modified 16-item AMQ in Study 5 displayed satisfactory model fit and acceptable internal consistencies. Most importantly, convergent and concurrent validities of the 16-item AMQ were supported. The 3 subscales showed significant positive associations with mindfulness, flow, well-being, and positive affect and significant negative associations with experiential avoidance, burnout, and negative affect. Conclusion The AMQ is a psychometrically sound measure of mindfulness in a sport context. The importance of using direct-worded acceptance items is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.010
  • Implementation and assessment of diverse strategies for physical activity
           promotion in Vietnam—A case report

    • Authors: Gabriella Beckvid-Henriksson; Hoai Thu Nguyen; Julia Kilhed; Agnes Nordström; Sofie Svensson; Huong Thi Thanh Tran; Ingeborg Van Der Ploeg; Carl Johan Sundberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gabriella Beckvid-Henriksson, Hoai Thu Nguyen, Julia Kilhed, Agnes Nordström, Sofie Svensson, Huong Thi Thanh Tran, Ingeborg Van Der Ploeg, Carl Johan Sundberg
      Background Regular physical activity (PA) has documented effects in prevention and treatment of many non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Physical inactivity is recognized as the fourth leading risk factor for premature death, worldwide. Despite these facts, physical inactivity is increasing, not only in high-income, but also in middle- and low-income countries. To address this negative trend, evidence-based methods to increase PA are needed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation and assessment of 4 strategies designed to increase PA in Vietnam. Methods Four strategies were used: i) introduction and evaluation of an education and training programme on the Swedish method of Physical Activity on Prescription (PAP) among healthcare professionals, ii) translation of the PAP evidence-based handbook, Physical Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease (called FYSS in Swedish) into Vietnamese, iii) launch of a mass media campaign to promote PA, and iv) advocacy to support development of PA guidelines in Vietnam. Results The evaluation indicated that the participating healthcare professionals had a positive attitude to PAP. However, they also reported uncertainty in prescribing PA. FYSS was translated and disseminated successfully to healthcare professionals. A mass-media campaign identified the beneficial effects of PA to healthcare professionals, journalists, policy makers, and the public. Last, the process of developing national guidelines on PA was initiated. Conclusion This project led to enhanced awareness and appreciation of PA in the prevention and treatment of NCDs among healthcare professionals as well as initiation of national PA guidelines. Important lessons also were learned in the presentation of PAP, which will be considered when designing similar projects in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.11.004
  • The built environment correlates of objectively measured physical activity
           in Norwegian adults: A cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Ane Kristiansen Solbraa; Sigmund Alfred Anderssen; Ingar Morten Holme; Elin Kolle; Bjørge Herman Hansen; Maureen C. Ashe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ane Kristiansen Solbraa, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen, Ingar Morten Holme, Elin Kolle, Bjørge Herman Hansen, Maureen C. Ashe
      Background Built environments that are designed to provide accessible, attractive, and convenient locales promote regular physical activity (PA). Norway has great variability in its geographic, natural, and built environment features. Urban areas have well-developed built environment features, whereas the rural areas are less walkable and this may influence the mode of transport. In general, active transport is more common in urban centers. Further, public transportation is more developed in urban areas, whereas motorized transport may be more widespread in the rural areas. Despite this, in Sogn & Fjordane, a rural county in western Norway, high PA levels are frequently observed. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) explore perceived built environment features and characterize their associations with objectively measured PA levels in Norwegian adults and (2) explore the differences in these correlates between Sogn & Fjordane and the rest of Norway. Methods In this cross-sectional study, participants used questionnaires to rate perceptions of their built environments, and their PA was objectively measured for 7 consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. There were 972 Norwegian adults who were included in the study. The average age was 46.9 ± 6.5 years and 43.8% of participants were men. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results Total PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were both associated with perceived walkability, the community perception score, and active transport for commuting (all p ≤ 0.004). We also observed geographic-area-specific associations: the community perception score was negatively associated with total PA and MVPA in the rest of Norway (p ≤ 0.012) but not in Sogn & Fjordane. Public transport for commuting was positively associated with MVPA in Sogn & Fjordane (p = 0.03) but not in the rest of Norway. Conclusion Total PA level and MVPA were associated with built environment factors, such as perceptions of community, perceived walkability, and engaging in active transport for commuting. Geographic differences in the PA correlates were observed, and thus, locally customized environmental population approaches aimed at increasing PA levels may be essential complements to individual behavior and lifestyle strategies. Further, objective measures of Norwegian built environments, such as geographic information system data, and validated walk- and bike-scores would advance the field.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.11.002
  • Applying the socio-ecological model to barriers to implementation of ACL
           injury prevention programs: a systematic review

    • Authors: Rima L. Bogardus; Ryan J. Martin; Alice R. Richman; Anthony S. Kulas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rima L. Bogardus, Ryan J. Martin, Alice R. Richman, Anthony S. Kulas
      Background Preventing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is important to avoid long-term adverse health consequences. Identifying barriers to implementation of these prevention programs is crucial to reducing the incidence of these injuries. Our purpose was to identify barriers of implementation for ACL injury prevention programs and suggest mechanisms for reducing the barriers through application of a Socio-Ecological Model (SEM). Methods Studies investigating ACL prevention program effectiveness were searched in Medline via PubMed and the Cochrane Library, and a subsequent from references of identified articles yielded 15 articles total. Inclusion criteria were: prospective controlled trials, published in English, and ACL injuries as the primary outcome. Studies were independently appraised by two reviewers for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Barriers to implementation were identified when reported in at least two separate studies. A SEM was used to suggest ways to reduce the identified barriers. Results Five barriers were identified: motivation, time requirements, skill requirements for program facilitators, compliance, and cost. The SEM suggested ways to minimize the barriers at all levels of the model from the individual through policy levels. Conclusion Identification of barriers to program implementation and suggesting how to reduce them through the SEM is a critical first step towards enabling ACL prevention programs to be more effective and ultimately reducing the incidence of these injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T02:57:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.11.001
  • Acknowledgment to reviewers—November 2016 to October 2017

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T02:53:00Z
  • Sport burnout inventory — dual career form for student-athletes:
           assessing validity and reliability in a finnish sample of adolescent

    • Authors: Matilda Sorkkila; Tatiana. V. Ryba; Kaisa Aunola; Harri Selänne; Katariina Salmela-Aro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Matilda Sorkkila, Tatiana. V. Ryba, Kaisa Aunola, Harri Selänne, Katariina Salmela-Aro
      Background The pressure of pursuing an athletic career simultaneously with education may set adolescent student-athletes at risk for sport and school burnout. Although the 2 life domains of student-athletes are strongly intertwined, so far, there has not been an instrument for investigating sport burnout parallel to school burnout. The aim of the present study was to introduce a sport burnout measure for adolescents in a dual career context and investigate its validity and reliability by using confirmatory factor analysis. Methods The participants were 391 student-athletes (51% females) who filled in a questionnaire of sport burnout and background variables in the beginning of upper secondary school. Results A 3-factor model or a second-order-factor model described the data better and gave better reliability indices than a 1-factor model. The 3 dimensions of sport burnout were shown to be separate, but closely related constructs. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity was obtained by correlating the 3 sport burnout dimensions with depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sport task values. Conclusion The results suggest that Sport Burnout Inventory - Dual Career Form (SpBI-DC) is a valid and reliable instrument for investigating sport burnout among adolescent student-athletes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.006
  • Promoting physical activity in a public health context

    • Authors: Caroline A. Macera; Barbara E. Ainsworth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Barbara E. Ainsworth, Caroline A. Macera

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.004
  • Translating science to inform global policy on physical activity

    • Authors: Fiona Bull
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fiona Bull

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.005
  • Research highlights from the status report for step it up! the surgeon
           general's call to action to promote walking and walkable communities

    • Authors: David R. Brown; Susan A. Carlson; Gayathri S. Kumar; Janet E. Fulton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David R. Brown, Susan A. Carlson, Gayathri S. Kumar, Janet E. Fulton

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T23:31:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.10.003
  • Improving school physical education to increase physical activity and
           promote healthy growth of chinese school-aged children – time for action

    • Authors: Dengfeng Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Dengfeng Wang

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
  • Addressing the public health concerns of physical inactivity, low levels
           of fitness, and unhealthy weight among chinese school-aged children

    • Authors: Fuzhong Peiji; Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li, Peiji Chen

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
  • Validation and adaptation of the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES)
           in fitness group exercisers

    • Authors: Pedro Teques; Luís Calmeiro; Carlos Silva; Carla Borrego
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Carlos Silva, Carla Borrego
      Background Recently, Mullen et al. (2011) presented an 8-item version of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) providing a valid instrument for assessing enjoyment in physical activity. The present paper investigated the psychometric properties of a Portuguese adaptation of PACES. Methods After a process of back-to-back translation into Portuguese, 395 members of fitness centers who ranged in age from 18 to 66 years (31.11 ± 8.90, mean ± SD) completed the translated version of the PACES. On average, participants had 3.2 years of experience in fitness group classes and practiced for approximately 3.3 times per week. Results An initial exploratory factor analysis (n = 139) revealed a unidimensional structure with factor loadings ranging from 0.79 to 0.89. Results also showed acceptable internal consistency. A confirmatory factor analysis in an independent sample (n = 256) provided additional support for the unidimensional structure of the questionnaire. In addition, moderate positive correlations between enjoyment and intrinsic and identified regulation, and moderate negative correlations between enjoyment and external and amotivation demonstrate the convergent validity of the instrument. Finally, measurement invariance between two independent samples was also found. Conclusion The 8-item Portuguese version of PACES is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring enjoyment of physical activity in Portuguese adult's fitness exercisers, therefore suitable to use as a measure of affect in exercise adherence interventions studies.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.010
  • Effects of a 3-month vigorous physical activity intervention on eating
           behaviors and body composition in overweight and obese boys and girls

    • Authors: María Martín-García; Luis M. Alegre Durán; Beatriz García-Cuartero; Eleanor J. Bryant; Bernard Gutin; Ignacio Ara Royo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): María Martín-García, Luis M. Alegre Durán, Beatriz García-Cuartero, Eleanor J. Bryant, Bernard Gutin, Ignacio Ara Royo
      Purpose This study analyzes the effects of a 3-month vigorous physical activity (VPA) intervention on eating behavior and body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods Forty-seven participants (7–16 years) took part in the study: 28 were assigned to the intervention group (IG) (10 boys and 18 girls) and 19 in a control group (CG) (8 boys and 11 girls). Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), anthropometrics (body mass, height and body mass index (BMI)) and eating behavior traits (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21C) were determined before and after the VPA intervention. Results A decrease in the percentage of body fat (%BF) and BMI (–2.8% and –1.8%, respectively), and an increase in lean mass variables were found in the IG (all p ≤ 0.05). In relation to the eating behavior traits, IG subjects showed a 14 % reduction in the Emotional Eating score (p = 0.04), while Cognitive Restraint score did not change after the VPA intervention. The baseline factors of the questionnaire predicted changes in body mass and fat mass variables only in the CG. Conclusion A 3-month VPA intervention influenced eating behaviors of overweight or obese young, especially the Emotional Eating factor in the presence of favorable body composition changes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.012
  • Step it up: Promoting physical activity in school-aged children and
           adolescents in China

    • Authors: Barbara E. Ainsworth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Barbara E. Ainsworth

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.013
  • Physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index in the Chinese
           child and adolescent populations: an update from the 2016 physical
           activity and fitness in China – the youth study

    • Authors: Peijjie Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peijjie Chen

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.011
  • Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared
           with young and elderly untrained men

    • Authors: Marie Hagman; Eva Wulff Helge; Therese Hornstrup; Bjørn Fristrup; Jens Jung Nielsen; Niklas Rye Jørgensen; Jesper Løvind Andersen; Jørn Wulff Helge; Peter Krustrup
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Marie Hagman, Eva Wulff Helge, Therese Hornstrup, Bjørn Fristrup, Jens Jung Nielsen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Jørn Wulff Helge, Peter Krustrup
      Purpose The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age-matched men. Methods One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players aged 65-80 years (FTE, n = 35), elite football players aged 18-30 years (FTY, n = 35), as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35) and young (UY, n = 35) men. All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and sclerostin were measured. Results FTE had 7.3%–12.9% higher (p < 0.05) BMD of the femoral neck, wards, shaft and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UE, and 9.3%–9.7% higher (p < 0.05) BMD in femoral trochanter in both legs compared to UY. FTY had 24.3%–37.4% higher (p < 0.001) BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p < 0.05) leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p < 0.001) whole-body BMD and 18.2% higher (p < 0.001) leg BMD compared to UY. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin, CTX-1, and P1NP were 29%, 53%, and 52% higher (p < 0.01), respectively, in FTY compared to UY. Conclusion BMD of the proximal femur, and whole-body BMD, are markedly higher in lifelong trained male football players aged 65-80 years and young elite football players aged 18-30 years compared to age-matched untrained men. Elderly football players even show higher BMD in femoral trochanter and leg BMD than untrained young despite an age difference of 47 years.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.009
  • Fitness and health benefits of team handball training for young untrained
           women – a cross-disciplinary rct on physiological adaptations and
           motivational aspects

    • Authors: Therese Hornstrup; Johan M. Wikman; Bjørn Fristrup; Susana Póvoas; Eva W. Helge; Signe H. Nielsen; Jørn W. Helge; Jesper L. Andersen; Lars Nybo; Peter Krustrup
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Therese Hornstrup, Johan M. Wikman, Bjørn Fristrup, Susana Póvoas, Eva W. Helge, Signe H. Nielsen, Jørn W. Helge, Jesper L. Andersen, Lars Nybo, Peter Krustrup
      Objective The present study evaluated the effects of regular participation in small-sided team handball training on body composition, osteogenic response, physical performance and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as well-being and motivation, in young untrained women. Methods Twenty-eight untrained 20–30-year-old women were randomised to a handball training group (HG; n = 14, height 170 ± 5 cm, weight 73 ± 11 kg, VO2peak 37.7 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg) that trained 1.7 ± 0.3 time per week over 12 weeks (70 min 4v4 handball sessions) or an inactive control group (CG; n = 14, 169 ± 5 cm, 71 ± 12 kg, 38.1 ± 3.7 mL/min/kg). Physiological and psychological/motivational training adaptations were assessed pre- and post-intervention by DXA scans, blood sampling, physical tests and questionnaires. Results The average heart rate over all training sessions was equal to 85% ± 6%HRmax. Between-group intervention effects were observed in favor of HG for muscle mass (2.1%, p = 0.024), proximal femur bone mineral density (0.8%, p = 0.041), Yo-Yo IE1 performance (35%, p < 0.001), and incremental treadmill test performance (11.5%, p = 0.003), but not total fat mass (p = 0.176), mean arterial blood pressure (p = 0.328), resting heart rate (p = 0.219), or blood lipids (p = 0.298-0.854). In CG, no changes were observed in any of the measured physiological variables after the training period. Compared to CG, HG had an increase in intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001) and in the well-being subscale “energy” (p = 0.010). Conclusion Participation in regular recreational team handball training organised as small-sided games has marked beneficial effects on physical performance, musculoskeletal fitness, well-being, and motivation in untrained young women.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.007
  • School-based physical activity interventions for children and youth: Keys
           for success

    • Authors: Arto
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 6, Issue 3
      Author(s): Arto Gråstén

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T13:34:17Z
  • Effects of 3 months of full-court and half-court street basketball
           training on health profile in untrained men

    • Authors: Morten B. Randers; Marie Hagman; Jonathan Brix; Jesper F. Christensen; Jens Jung Nielsen; Mogens T. Pedersen; Peter Krustrup
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Morten B. Randers, Marie Hagman, Jonathan Brix, Jesper F. Christensen, Jens Jung Nielsen, Mogens T. Pedersen, Peter Krustrup
      Purpose The aim of the present study was to investigate whether street basketball organised as 3v3 on either a half court (HC) with 1 basket or a full court (FC) with 2 baskets could improve fitness and health profiles in untrained men after 3 months of supervised training. Methods Thirty-five untrained men (aged 20–42 years) completed the pre- and post-intervention testing (FC: n = 13, HC: n = 12, CO (control): n = 10). The training attendance was 2.0 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.3 time per week in FC and HC, respectively. Mean HR was 83.8 ± 6.0 and 84.5 ± 2.9%HRmax in FC and HC, respectively. Results The 3 months of street basketball training on a FC with 2 baskets increased maximal oxygen uptake (2.4 (95%CI: 1.0–3.9) mL/min/kg), time to exhaustion (47 (95%CI: 26–67) s), lean body mass (0.8 (95%CI: 0.1–1.5) kg) and bone mineral density (0.021 (95%CI: 0.011–0.031) g/cm2), whereas mean arterial pressure (-5.6 (95%CI: -7.5 to 3.7) mmHg), body fat percentage (-1.6 (95%CI: -2.5 to -0.7)%,), heart rate (-18 (95%CI: -24 to -12) bpm) and blood lactate during submaximal running were lowered. The changes were less pronounced after the training period when playing on an HC with one basket, but increases in maximal oxygen uptake 1.8 (95%CI: -0.1 to 3.3] ml/min/kg, time to exhaustion (28 (95%CI: 9 to 47) s), lean body mass (1.3 (95%CI: 0.3 to 2.4) kg) and lower body fat percentage (-0.9 95%CI: -1.9 to -0.1)%) were observed in this group. Conclusion Three months of 3v3 street basketball improved fitness and led to broad-spectrum improvements in variables related to overall health profile, with the most marked effects observed when playing on an HC with 2 baskets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T13:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.09.004
  • Research in prevention and rehabilitation of hamstring muscle strain

    • Authors: Bing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Bing Yu, Li Li

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T12:51:58Z
  • Time for a paradigm shift in the classification of muscle injuries

    • Authors: Bruce Hamilton; Juan-Manual Alonso; Thomas M. Best
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Bruce Hamilton, Juan-Manual Alonso, Thomas M. Best
      Muscle injuries remain one of the most common injuries in sport, yet despite this there is little consensus on how to either effectively describe, or determine the prognosis of a specific muscle injury. Numerous approaches to muscle classification and grading have been applied over the last century of medicine, but over the last decade the limitations of historic approaches have been recognised. As a consequence in the past 10 years, clinical research groups have begun to question the historic approaches and reconsider the way muscle injuries are classified and described. Using a narrative approach, this manuscript describes several of the most recent attempts to classify and grade muscle injuries, highlighting the relative strengths and weaknesses of each system. While each of the new classification and grading systems have strengths, there remains little consensus on a system which is both comprehensive and evidence based. Few of the currently identified features within the grading systems have relevance to accurately determining prognosis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T18:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.04.011
  • PM2.5: A barrier to fitness and health promotion in China

    • Authors: Jincheng Xu; Can Gao; Jason Kai Wei Lee; Jiexiu Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jincheng Xu, Can Gao, Jason Kai Wei Lee, Jiexiu Zhao

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T17:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2017.03.010
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