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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
   [12 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]
  • Introduction: The past, present, and future of research on running
           barefoot and in minimal shoes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Daniel E. Lieberman , Irene S. Davis , Benno M. Nigg



      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Strike type variation among Tarahumara Indians in minimal sandals versus
           conventional running shoes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Daniel E. Lieberman
      Purpose This study examined variation in foot strike types, lower extremity kinematics, and arch height and stiffness among Tarahumara Indians from the Sierra Tarahumara, Mexico. Methods High speed video was used to study the kinematics of 23 individuals, 13 who habitually wear traditional minimal running sandals (huaraches), and 10 who habitually wear modern, conventional running shoes with elevated, cushioned heels and arch support. Measurements of foot shape and arch stiffness were taken on these individuals plus an additional sample of 12 individuals. Results Minimally shod Tarahumara exhibit much variation with 40% primarily using midfoot strikes, 30% primarily using forefoot strikes, and 30% primarily using rearfoot strikes. In contrast, 75% of the conventionally shod Tarahumara primarily used rearfoot strikes, and 25% primarily used midfoot strikes. Individuals who used forefoot or midfoot strikes landed with significantly more plantarflexed ankles, flexed knees, and flexed hips than runners who used rearfoot strikes. Foot measurements indicate that conventionally shod Tarahumara also have significantly less stiff arches than those wearing minimal shoes. Conclusion These data reinforce earlier studies that there is variation among foot strike patterns among minimally shod runners, but also support the hypothesis that foot stiffness and important aspects of running form, including foot strike, differ between runners who grow up using minimal versus modern, conventional footwear.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David Hryvniak , Jay Dicharry , Robert Wilder
      Background Running is becoming an increasingly popular activity among Americans with over 50 million participants. Running shoe research and technology has continued to advance with no decrease in overall running injury rates. A growing group of runners are making the choice to try the minimal or barefoot running styles of the pre-modern running shoe era. There is some evidence of decreased forces and torques on the lower extremities with barefoot running, but no clear data regarding how this corresponds with injuries. The purpose of this survey study was to examine factors related to performance and injury in runners who have tried barefoot running. Methods The University of Virginia Center for Endurance Sport created a 10-question survey regarding barefoot running that was posted on a variety of running blogs and FaceBook pages. Percentages were calculated for each question across all surveys. Five hundred and nine participants responded with over 93% of them incorporating some type of barefoot running into their weekly mileage. Results A majority of the participants (53%) viewed barefoot running as a training tool to improve specific aspects of their running. However, close to half (46%) viewed barefoot training as a viable alternative to shoes for logging their miles. A large portion of runners initially tried barefoot running due to the promise of improved efficiency (60%), an attempt to get past injury (53%) and/or the recent media hype around the practice (52%). A large majority (68%) of runners participating in the study experienced no new injuries after starting barefoot running. In fact, most respondents (69%) actually had their previous injuries go away after starting barefoot running. Runners responded that their previous knee (46%), foot (19%), ankle (17%), hip (14%), and low back (14%) injuries all proceeded to improve after starting barefoot running. Conclusion Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Muscle activity and kinematics of forefoot and rearfoot strike runners

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): A.N. Ahn , C. Brayton , T. Bhatia , P. Martin
      Background Forefoot strike (FFS) and rearfoot strike (RFS) runners differ in their kinematics, force loading rates, and joint loading patterns, but the timing of their muscle activation patterns are less clear. Methods Forty recreational and highly trained runners ran at four speeds barefoot and shod on a motorized treadmill. “Barefoot” runners wore thin, five-toed socks and shod runners wore neutral running shoes. Subjects were instructed to run comfortably at each speed with no instructions about foot strike patterns. Results Eleven runners landed with an FFS when barefoot and shod and eleven runners landed with an RFS when barefoot and shod. The 18 remaining runners shifted from an FFS when barefoot to an RFS when shod (shifters). Shod shifters ran with a lower stride frequency and greater stride length than all other runners. All FFS runners landed with more plantarflexed ankles and more vertical lower legs at the beginning of stance compared to RFS runners. All FFS runners activated their plantarflexor muscles 11% earlier and 10% longer than RFS runners. Conclusion This earlier and longer relative activation of the plantarflexors likely enhances the capacity for the passive structures of the foot and ankle to store elastic energy, and may also enhance the performance of the active muscle by increasing the storage of elastic strain energy in the cross-bridges and activated titin.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • The effect of minimal shoes on arch structure and intrinsic foot muscle
           strength

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Elizabeth E. Miller , Katherine K. Whitcome , Daniel E. Lieberman , Heather L. Norton , Rachael E. Dyer
      Background This prospective study explored the effects of endurance running (ER) in minimal versus standard running shoes on the foot’s superficial layer intrinsic muscles and the function of the longitudinal arch. Our hypothesis was that running in minimal shoes would cause hypertrophy in these muscles and lead to higher, stronger, stiffer arches. Methods The hypothesis was tested using a sample of 33 healthy runners randomized into two groups, a control group shod in traditional running footwear and an experimental group shod in minimal support footwear, whose feet were scanned in an MRI before and after a 12-week training regime. Running kinematics as well as arch stiffness and height were also assessed before and after the treatment period. Results Analysis of anatomical cross-sectional areas and muscle volumes indicate that the flexor digitorum brevis muscle became larger in both groups by 11% and 21%, respectively, but only the minimally shod runners had significant areal and volumetric increases of the abductor digiti minimi of 18% and 22%, respectively, and significantly increased longitudinal arch stiffness (60%). Conclusion These results suggest that endurance running in minimal support footwear with 4 mm offset or less makes greater use of the spring-like function of the longitudinal arch, thus leading to greater demands on the intrinsic muscles that support the arch, thereby strengthening the foot.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Reduction in ground reaction force variables with instructed barefoot
           running

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Cynthia D. Samaan , Michael J. Rainbow , Irene S. Davis
      Backgound Barefoot (BF) running has recently increased in popularity with claims that it is more natural and may result in fewer injuries due to a reduction in impact loading. However, novice BF runners do not necessarily immediately switch to a forefoot strike pattern. This may increase mechanical parameters such as loading rate, which has been associated with certain running-related injuries, specifically, tibial stress fractures, patellofemoral pain, and plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in loading parameters between typical shod running and instructed BF running with real-time force feedback. Methods Forty-nine patients seeking treatment for a lower extremity injury ran on a force-sensing treadmill in their typical shod condition and then BF at the same speed. While BF they received verbal instruction and real-time feedback of vertical ground reaction forces. Results While 92% of subjects (n = 45) demonstrated a rearfoot strike pattern when shod, only 2% (n = 1) did during the instructed BF run. Additionally, while BF 47% (n = 23) eliminated the vertical impact transient in all eight steps analyzed. All loading variables of interest were significantly reduced from the shod to instructed BF condition. These included maximum instantaneous and average vertical loading rates of the ground reaction force (p < 0.0001), stiffness during initial loading (p < 0.0001), and peak medial (p = 0.001) and lateral ground reaction forces (p < 0.0001) and impulses in the vertical (p < 0.0001), medial (p = 0.047), and lateral (p < 0.0001) directions. Conclusion As impact loading has been associated with certain running-related injuries, instruction and feedback on the proper forefoot strike pattern may help reduce the injury risk associated with transitioning to BF running.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Foot strike patterns and hind limb joint angles during running in Hadza
           hunter-gatherers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Herman Pontzer , Kelly Suchman , David A. Raichlen , Brian M. Wood , Audax Z.P. Mabulla , Frank W. Marlowe
      Background Investigations of running gait among barefoot and populations have revealed a diversity of foot strike behaviors, with some preferentially employing a rear-foot strike (RFS) as the foot touches down while others employ a mid-foot strike (MFS) or fore-foot strike (FFS). Here, we report foot strike behavior and joint angles among traditional Hadza hunter-gatherers living in Northern Tanzania. Methods Hadza adults (n = 26) and juveniles (n = 14) ran at a range of speeds (adults: mean 3.4 ± 0.7 m/s, juveniles: mean 3.2 ± 0.5) over an outdoor trackway while being recorded via high-speed digital video. Foot strike type (RFS, MFS, or FFS) and hind limb segment angles at foot strike were recorded. Results Hadza men preferentially employed MFS (86.7% of men), while Hadza women and juveniles preferentially employed RFS (90.9% and 85.7% of women and juveniles, respectively). No FFS were recorded. Speed, the presence of footwear (sandals versus barefoot), and trial duration had no effect on foot strike type. Conclusion Unlike other habitually barefoot populations which prefer FFS while running, Hadza men preferred MFS, and Hadza women and juveniles preferred RFS. Sex and age differences in foot strike behavior among Hadza adults may reflect differences in running experience, with men learning to prefer MFS as they accumulate more running experience.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • The effect of shoe type on gait in forefoot strike runners during a 50-km
           run

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mark E. Kasmer , Nicholas C. Ketchum , Xue-cheng Liu
      Purpose To observe the relative change in foot-strike pattern, pressure characteristics, surface EMG (sEMG) recordings, and stride characteristics in forefoot strike runners wearing both minimalist and traditional shoes during a 50-km run. Methods Four experienced minimalist runners were enrolled in this study. Each runner ran a 50-km simulated run in both minimalist shoes and traditional shoes. Pressure data, sEMG recordings, and limited 3D motion capture data were collected during the initial 0.8 km and final 0.8 km for each trial. Results Three runners in the traditional shoe type condition and one runner in the minimalist shoe type condition demonstrated a more posterior initial contact area (midfoot strike (MFS) pattern) after the 50-km run, which was supported by increased activity of the tibialis anterior in the pre-contact phase (as per root mean square (RMS) values). In addition, in both pre- and post-run conditions, there were increased peak pressures in the minimalist shoe type, specifically in the medial forefoot. Muscle fatigue as defined by a decreased median frequency observed in isometric, constant force contractions did not correspond with our hypothesis in relation to the observed foot strike change pattern. Finally, step rate increased and step length decreased after the 50-km run in both shoe type conditions. Conclusion More runners adopted a more posterior initial contact area after the 50-km run in the traditional shoe type than in the minimalist shoe type. The runners who adopted a more posterior initial contact area were more closely associated with an increased median frequency of the medial gastrocnemius, which suggests there may be a change in motor unit recruitment pattern during long-distance, sustained velocity running. The increased peak pressures observed in the medial forefoot in the minimalist shoe type may predispose to metatarsal stress fractures in the setting of improper training.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Impact shock frequency components and attenuation in rearfoot and forefoot
           running

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Allison H. Gruber , Katherine A. Boyer , Timothy R. Derrick , Joseph Hamill
      Background The forefoot running footfall pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of developing running related overuse injuries due to a reduction of impact related variables compared with the rearfoot running footfall pattern. However, only time-domain impact variables have been compared between footfall patterns. The frequency content of the impact shock and the degree to which it is attenuated may be of greater importance for injury risk and prevention than time-domain variables. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the differences in head and tibial acceleration signal power and shock attenuation between rearfoot and forefoot running. Methods Nineteen habitual rearfoot runners and 19 habitual forefoot runners ran on a treadmill at 3.5 m/s using their preferred footfall patterns while tibial and head acceleration data were collected. The magnitude of the first and second head acceleration peaks, and peak positive tibial acceleration were calculated. The power spectral density of each signal was calculated to transform the head and tibial accelerations in the frequency domain. Shock attenuation was calculated by a transfer function of the head signal relative to the tibia. Results Peak positive tibial acceleration and signal power in the lower and higher ranges were significantly greater during rearfoot than forefoot running (p < 0.05). The first and second head acceleration peaks and head signal power were not statistically different between patterns (p > 0.05). Rearfoot running resulted in significantly greater shock attenuation for the lower and higher frequency ranges as a result of greater tibial acceleration (p < 0.05). Conclusion The difference in impact shock frequency content between footfall patterns suggests that the primary mechanisms for attenuation may differ. The relationship between shock attenuation mechanisms and injury is not clear but given the differences in impact frequency content, neither footfall pattern may be more beneficial for injury, rather the type of injury sustained may vary with footfall pattern preference.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Comparison of foot strike patterns of barefoot and minimally shod runners
           in a recreational road race

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peter Larson
      Background Previous studies of foot strike patterns of distance runners in road races have typically found that the overwhelming majority of shod runners initially contact the ground on the rearfoot. However, none of these studies has attempted to quantify foot strike patterns of barefoot or minimally shod runners. This study classifies foot strike patterns of barefoot and minimally shod runners in a recreational road race. Methods High-speed video footage was obtained of 169 barefoot and 42 minimally shod distance runners at the 2011 New York City Barefoot Run. Foot strike patterns were classified for each runner, and frequencies of forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot striking were compared between the barefoot and minimally shod groups. Results A total of 59.2% of barefoot runners were forefoot strikers, 20.1% were midfoot strikers, and 20.7% were rearfoot strikers. For minimally shod runners, 33.3% were forefoot strikers, 19.1% were midfoot strikers, and 47.6% were rearfoot strikers. Foot strike distributions for barefoot and minimally shod runners were significantly different both from one another and from previously reported foot strike distributions of shod road racers. Conclusion Foot strike patterns differ between barefoot and minimally shod runners, with forefoot striking being more common, and rearfoot striking less common in the barefoot group.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Can minimal running shoes imitate barefoot heel-toe running patterns?
           A comparison of lower leg kinematics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Tobias Hein , Stefan Grau
      Background Numerous studies about the interaction between footwear (and barefoot) and kinematic and kinetic outcomes have been published over the last few years. Recent studies however lead to the conclusion that the assumed interactions depend mainly on the subjects' experience of barefoot (BF) walking/running, the preferred running strike pattern, the speed, the hardness of the surface, the thickness of the midsole material and the runners' level of ability. The aim of the present study was to investigate lower leg kinematics of BF running and running in a minimal running shoe (MRS) to assess comparability of BF kinematics in both conditions. To systematically compare both conditions we monitored the influencing variables described above in our measurement setup. We hypothesized that running in an MRS does not alter lower leg kinematics compared to BF running. Methods Thirty-seven subjects, injury-free and active in sports, ran BF on an EVA foam runway, and also ran shod wearing Nike Free 3.0 on a tartan indoor track. Lower-leg 3D kinematics was measured to quantify rearfoot and ankle movements. Skin markers were used in both shod and BF running. Results All runners revealed rearfoot strike pattern when running barefoot. Differences between BF and MRS running occurred particularly during the initial stance phase of running, both in the sagittal and the frontal planes. BF running revealed a flatter foot placement, a more plantar flexed ankle joint and less inverted rearfoot at touchdown compared to MRS running. Conclusion Barefoot running does not change the landing automatically to forefoot running, especially after a systematic exclusion of surface and other influencing factors. The Nike Free 3.0 mimics some BF features. Nevertheless, changes in design of the Nike Free should be considered in order to mimic BF movement even more closely.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Participation in some sports, not running, increases risk of knee and hip
           osteoarthritis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Songning Zhang



      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Effects of latissimus dorsi length on shoulder flexion in canoeists,
           swimmers, rugby players, and controls

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Lee Herrington , Ian Horsley
      Background Shoulder flexion requires an optimal length of the latissimus dorsi muscle in order to allow full lateral rotation of the humerus and upward scapular rotation. If shoulder flexion (in an externally rotated position) is restricted, this may predispose the individual to shoulder pathology. Sports such as swimming and canoeing have increased shoulder injuries and require high levels of latissimus dorsi muscle activity, which may create muscle hypertrophy and increased stiffness, resulting in a loss of muscle length. The objective of this study was to investigate if differences are present in shoulder flexion in internally and externally rotated positions across different sports (swimming, canoeing, and rugby) and a non-sporting control group. Methods One hundred subjects (40 physically active controls, 25 professional Rugby Union players, 20 elite, national-level canoeists (slalom), and 15 elite, national-level swimmers) participated in this study. Shoulder flexion range of motion was measured using a standard goniometer, with the arm elevated in either full external or internal rotation. Results A significant difference in shoulder flexion range was observed between canoeists and swimmers, canoeists and controls, rugby players and canoeists, rugby players and swimmers, and controls and swimmers in the external rotation position (p < 0.017), but not between controls and rugby players (p = 0.12). For the internal rotation position, swimmers significantly differed from canoeists, rugby players, and controls (p < 0.017), but there were no significant differences between rugby players, canoeists, and controls (p > 0.07). Conclusion This study found that the length of the latissimus dorsi differs between sports and controls in accordance with the specific physical demands of their sport.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Overhead shoulder press – In-front of the head or behind the
           head?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mark R. McKean , Brendan J. Burkett
      Background Using a cross-sectional design comparison, two overhead press techniques (in-front of the head or behind the head) were compared. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of behind the head or in-front of the head overhead pressing technique on shoulder range of movement (ROM) and spine posture. The overhead press is commonly prescribed exercise. The two techniques (in-front of the head or behind the head) may influence joint mechanics and therefore require an objective analysis. Methods Passive shoulder ROM quantified using goniometric measures, dynamic ROM utilised three dimensional (3D) biomechanical measures (120 Hz) of 33 participants performing overhead pressing in a seated position. The timing and synchronisation of the upper limb shoulder and spine segments were quantified and influence of each technique was investigated. Results The in-front technique commenced in lordotic position, whilst behind the head technique commenced in kyphotic position. Behind the head technique started with less thoracic extension than in-front condition. The thoracic spine remained extended and moved between 12° and 15° regardless of gender or technique. The techniques resulted in a significant difference between genders. Males were able to maintain a flat or normal lumbar lordosis, whereas females tended to kyphotic. Conclusion Shoulder ROM was within passive ROM for all measures except external rotation for males with the behind the head technique. To avoid possible injury passive ROM should be increased prior to behind the head protocol. Females showed greater spine movements, suggesting trunk strengthening may assist overhead pressing techniques. For participants with normal trunk stability and ideal shoulder ROM, overhead pressing is a safe exercise (for the shoulder and spine) when performed either in-front or behind the head.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Changes in the number of circulating CD34+ cells after eccentric exercise
           of the elbow flexors in relation to muscle damage

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ho Seong Lee , Makii Muthalib , Takayuki Akimoto , Kazunori Nosaka
      Background It has been reported that strenuous exercise increases the number of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells such as CD34+ cells in the blood, but no previous studies have investigated the changes in circulating CD34+ cells following resistance exercise. This study tested the hypothesis that the number of CD34+ cells in the blood would increase after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors, but decrease in recovery, and the magnitude of the changes would be dependent on the magnitude of muscle damage. Methods Nine men (28.0 ± 6.6 years) performed exercises consisting of 10 sets of six maximal voluntary eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors with their non-dominant arm. Six of them performed the same exercise with the same arm 4 weeks later. Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage were measured before, within 10 min after, and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after eccentric exercise. Differential leukocyte counts (total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes) and CD34+ cells in the blood were measured before, immediately after, and at 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following the exercises. Results After eccentric exercise, significant (p < 0.05) decreases in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque and increases in delayed onset muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were observed. However, no significant changes in leukocytes and CD34+ cells were evident. The changes in muscle damage markers were significantly (p < 0.05) smaller following the second exercise session as compared with the first exercise session, but the changes in leukocytes and CD34+ cells were not significantly different between sessions. Conclusion These results did not support the hypothesis, and showed that eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage to the elbow flexors did not influence the number of circulating CD34+ cells.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • A meta-analytic review of the approach-avoidance achievement goals and
           performance relationships in the sport psychology literature

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Marc Lochbaum , Jarrett Gottardy
      Purpose To summarize the approach-avoidance achievement goal and performance in the sport psychology literature. Methods A total of 17 published studies, two of which provided two samples, were located. Accepted meta-analytic procedures were used with Hedges' g as the effect size metric. From the 17 studies, 73 effect sizes were calculated. Results Results based on a random effects model indicated that the performance goal contrast had the largest facilitative impact on performance followed by the mastery and performance approach goals. Both of the avoidance goals performance and mastery had small non-significant and detrimental effects on performance. The homogeneity statistics revealed significant heterogeneity for the approach and avoidance performance goals. Categorical moderator variables were examined for study sex composition (male, female, or mixed), mean age of sample (<18 years or ≥18 years), study setting (lab or naturalistic), and nature of performance variable (objective or subjective). Conclusion The performance goal contrast holds value for sport performance research. Contrary to approach-avoidance predictions, the mastery-approach goal and performance effect size was significant and of equal magnitude as the performance approach goal and performance effect size. Thus, future research should closely test the efficacy of both the mastery- and performance contrasts in impacting performance of sport tasks. Last, the significant effect sizes reported in this review are in stark contrast to contemporary meta-analytic findings in education. Differences in the approach-avoidance goals in sport and education relative to performance should be researched further.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic
           sleep complaints

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Carmen Erlacher , Daniel Erlacher , Michael Schredl
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent the observed effects on self-rated sleep in a previous study using a combined treatment program with physical exercise and sleep education can be attributed by the physical activity (PA) component. Methods The present study reports supplementary analysis of an already described and published study. Data was provided by a nonclinical sample of 98 normal-active adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints. The additional analysis included sleep log, exercise log, and daily pedometer data which was collected during a baseline week and 6-week of a combined intervention. Results The results indicate that the number of steps (p = 0.02) and the duration of PA (p = 0.01) is significantly related to the improvement in subjective sleep measures and therefore reveal an independent effect within this combined sleep program. Sleep diary data (recuperation of sleep, number of awakenings after sleep onset, and wake time after sleep onset time) improved significant (all p < 0.01) over the intervention program. About 50% of the participants stated that the PA had an effect on their improvement. Conclusion Improvements on subjective sleep quality after a combined intervention cannot be attributed to the cognitive component alone, but PA has an independent effect. Adults with chronic sleep complaints benefit from exercise. Therefore structured PA should be implemented in any sleep management programs.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • High school sports programs differentially impact participation by sex

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Keith M. Drake , Meghan R. Longacre , Todd MacKenzie , Linda J. Titus , Michael L. Beach , Andrew G. Rundle , Madeline A. Dalton
      Background Among numerous health benefits, sports participation has been shown to reduce the risk of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Schools represent an ideal environment for increasing sports participation, but it is unclear how access and choice influence participation and whether characteristics of the school sports program differentially influence boys' and girls' participation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of high school athletic programs and determine the extent to which these characteristics influenced boys' and girls' sports team participation. Methods Longitudinal telephone surveys were conducted with 1,244 New Hampshire and Vermont students. Students self-reported their sports team participation at baseline (elementary school) and follow-up (high school). High school personnel were surveyed to assess sports opportunities, which were defined for this analysis as the number of sports offered per 100 students (i.e., choice) and the percent of sports offered that did not restrict the number of players (i.e., access). Results Approximately 70% of children participated on at least one sports team, including 73% of boys and 66% of girls. We detected statistically significant interactions between sex and two school opportunity variables: 1) the number of sports offered per 100 students (i.e., choice) and 2) the percent of sports offered that did not restrict the number of players (i.e., access). After controlling for children's baseline sports participation and other covariates, boys were more likely to play on at least one sports team per year if their school did not restrict participation in the most popular sports (RR = 1.12, p < 0.01); in contrast, girls were more likely to play on at least one sports team per year if their school offered a wider variety of sports (RR = 1.47, p < 0.001). Conclusion Sports participation has previously been shown to confer a number of health benefits; as such, school sports programs may be an important, effective, and underused target for public health efforts, including obesity prevention programs. Efforts to increase physical activity among youth should consider both access and choice in school athletic programs. Schools may need to use different strategies to increase sports participation in boys and girls.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T21:30:03Z
       
  • Validation of a method to predict hammer speed from cable force

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sara Bricea , Kevin Ness , Doug Rosemond
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method that would facilitate immediate feedback on linear hammer speed during training. Methods Three-dimensional hammer head positional data were measured and used to calculate linear speed (calculated speed) and cable force. These data were used to develop two linear regression models (shifted and non-shifted) that would allow prediction of hammer speed from measured cable force data (predicted speed). The accuracy of the two models was assessed by comparing the predicted and calculated speeds. Averages of the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) and the root mean square (RMS) of the difference between the predicted and calculated speeds for each throw of each participant were used to assess the level of accuracy of the predicted speeds. Results Both regression models had high CMC values (0.96 and 0.97) and relatively low RMS values (1.27 m/s and 1.05 m/s) for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. In addition, the average percentage differences between the predicted and calculated speeds were 6.6% and 4.7% for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. The RMS differences between release speeds attained via the two regression models and those attained via three-dimensional positional data were also computed. The RMS differences between the predicted and calculated release speeds were 0.69 m/s and 0.46 m/s for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. Conclusion This study successfully derived and validated a method that allows prediction of linear hammer speed from directly measured cable force data. Two linear regression models were developed and it was found that either model would be capable of predicting accurate speeds. However, data predicted using the shifted regression model were more accurate.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T05:00:46Z
       
  • A quantification of the treadmill 6-min walk test using the MyWellness
           Key™ accelerometer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): S. Andy Sparks , Nathan P. Hilton
      Background Accelerometers have been suggested to provide additional information during the 6-min walk test which may be useful in evaluating changes in functional exercise capacity. The aim of the study was to identify whether the additional information measured by the MyWellness Key™ (MWK) accelerometer during a treadmill 6-min walk test (6MWT) was related to currently used outcome measures. Methods Fifteen participants (9 males, 6 females) performed a self-paced treadmill 6-min walk test. Respiratory gas analysis and walking distance were measured whilst wearing the MWK. Results A significant correlation was established between activity counts and 6-min walk distance (r = −0.847, p < 0.001) yet not 6-min walk work (r = −0.337, p = 0.220). Energy expenditure estimated by the MWK was strongly correlated to 6-min walk work (r = 0.938, p < 0.001) but not 6-min walk distance (r = 0.477, p = 0.072). The MWK significantly underestimated energy expenditure (36.73, CI = 33.9–39.7 kcal) compared to gas analysis (54.35, CI = 46.2–61.4 kcal) demonstrating poor agreement between the two analyses (Bias = −17.61 kcal, Limits of agreement = −37.4, +2.2 kcal). Measurement of time spent undertaking light, moderate and vigorous physical activity was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the MWK and gas analysis. Conclusion Estimated energy expenditure provided by the MWK was strongly correlated to 6-min walk work; however, MWK underestimated energy expenditure as measured by gas analysis. The MWK may provide outcome data that supplements that currently provided by the 6MWD for functional capacity assessment during the treadmill 6MWT.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T05:00:46Z
       
  • The effect of active sitting on trunk motion

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Henry Wang , Kaitlyn J. Weiss , Mason C. Haggerty , Jacqueline E. Heath
      Background Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for low-back pain. The primary purpose of this study is to determine if prolonged active sitting will result in increased trunk motion. Methods Fifteen healthy female participants volunteered to sit for 30 min on each of three surfaces including an air-cushion, a stability ball, and a hard surface. Trunk motion was monitored using a Vicon motion capture system, and foot center of pressure was collected with two AMTI force plates. Results Our findings indicated that the average speed of the trunk center of mass significantly increased with seating surface compliance. There were significant differences in right and left foot centers of pressure in the antero-posterior direction between the ball and air-cushion conditions and the ball and chair conditions. Conclusion Active sitting results in increased trunk motion and could have a positive effect on low-back health.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T05:00:46Z
       
  • Sleep quality improved following a single session of moderate-intensity
           aerobic exercise in older women: Results from a pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Xuewen Wang , Shawn D. Youngstedt
      Background Poor sleep quality is associated with adverse effects on health outcomes. It is not clear whether exercise can improve sleep quality and whether intensity of exercise affects any of the effects. Methods Fifteen healthy, non-obese (body mass index = 24.4 ± 2.1 kg/m2, mean ± SD), sedentary (<20 min of exercise on no more than 3 times/week) older women (66.1 ± 3.9 years) volunteered for the study. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was evaluated using a graded exercise test on a treadmill with a metabolic cart. Following a 7-day baseline period, each participant completed two exercise sessions (separated by 1 week) with equal caloric expenditure, but at different intensities (60% and 45% VO2peak, sequence randomized) between 9 and 11 am. A wrist ActiGraph monitor was used to assess sleep at baseline and two nights following each exercise session. Results The average duration of the exercise was 54 and 72 min, respectively at 60% (moderate-intensity) and 45% VO2peak (light-intensity). Wake time after sleep onset was significantly shorter (p = 0.016), the number of awakenings was less (p = 0.046), and total activity counts were lower (p = 0.05) after the moderate-intensity exercise compared to baseline no-exercise condition. Conclusion Our data showed that a single moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session improved sleep quality in older women.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T07:44:57Z
       
  • Sport specificity background affects the principal component structure of
           vertical squat jump performance of young adult female athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos , Nikolaos Papachatzis , Iraklis A. Kollias
      Purpose Long-term training specificity is thought to alter performance in tests evaluating strength and power production capability. The aim of the present study was to provide additional information to the limited existing knowledge concerning the possible differences of the force/time profile of squat jumping among different groups of young female athletes. Methods One hundred and seventy-three adult women (20.1 ± 2.8 years, 1.71 ± 0.09 m, 65.6 ± 10.3 kg, mean ± SD for age, height, and mass, respectively) engaged in track and field (TF), volleyball (VO), handball (HA), basketball (BA) and physical education students (PE) executed maximal squat jumps (SQJ) on a force plate. Pearson's correlation was used to identify the relationship between SQJ performance, the anthropometric characteristics and the biomechanical paremeters. Differences concerning the biomechanical parameters among groups were investigated with analysis of variance, while the force- (FPD) or time- (TPD) dependency of SQJ execution was examined using principal components analysis (PCA). Results SQJ was unrelated to body height but significantly correlated with body mass (r = −0.26, p = 0.001). TF jumped higher and produced larger peak body power output compared to all the other groups (p < 0.05). All athletes were superior to PE since they performed the SQJ with a longer (p < 0.05) vertical body center of mass trajectory during the propulsion phase. PCA results revealed that TF significantly differentiated than the other groups by relying on FPD. Conclusion Various different profiles of FPD and TPD were detected due to different sporting background in young female athletes. Since TF superiority in SQJ was relied on the larger power production and a greater FPD, female indoor team sport athletes are suggested to execute jumping exercises adopting the jumping strategies utilized by TF.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T07:44:57Z
       
  • Effect of minimal shoes and slope on vertical and leg stiffness during
           running

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Thibault Lussiana , Kim Hébert-Losier , Laurent Mourot
      Purpose This study was designed to characterize and compare the vertical (k vert) and leg (k leg) stiffness measured during running in two different footwear conditions on negative, level and positive slopes, using kinematic data only. Methods Fourteen male recreational runners (age 23.4 ± 4.4 years, height 177.5 ± 5.2 cm and body mass 69.5 ± 5.3 kg) were tested on 2 separate days within 1 week. At each session, subjects ran seven 5-min trials on a treadmill at 10 km/h, interspersed with 5 min of sitting passive recovery. Each trial was performed on a different slope gradient, ranging from -8% (downhill) to +8% (uphill), assigned in a random order. Furthermore, each subject ran one 5-min trial wearing minimal shoes (MS) and the subsequent trial wearing traditional shoes (TS) in a counter-balanced randomized order ensuring that each slope was ran once in MS and once in TS. Kinematic data were collected using a photocell measuring system and high-speed video camera, with k vert and k leg stiffness being calculated from these data. Results Leg compression, contact times, and vertical displacement of the centre of mass during running were significantly smaller in MS compared to TS across all slopes. In the two footwear conditions, step frequency significantly increased with a (positive) increase in slope. Kinematic analyses indicated that k leg was greater when running in MS than TS and this between-footwear difference remained similar across slopes. On the contrary, k vert did not change on the basis of footwear, but increased with positive increases in slope. Conclusion This study showed that k vert and k leg during running respond differently to change in footwear and/or slope. These two stiffness measures can hence provide a unique insight on the biomechanical adaptations of running under varying conditions and their respective quantification may assist in furthering our understanding of training, performance and/or injury in this sport.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T07:44:57Z
       
  • The financial burden of physical inactivity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Li Li



      PubDate: 2014-01-08T06:10:07Z
       
  • Can an evidence-based fall prevention program be translated for use in
           culturally diverse communities?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David A. Sleet , Grant T. Baldwin



      PubDate: 2014-01-04T21:04:35Z
       
  • Implementing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance in real-world
           settings: success and challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jade Leung



      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • So much research, so little application: Barriers to dissemination and
           practical implementation of Tai Ji Quan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Peter A. Harmer
      Despite the large number of articles published in the medical literature advocating the use of Tai Ji Quan for a wide variety of health-related outcomes, there has been little systematic broad-scale implementation of these programs. It may be argued that the lack of funding from organizations capable of implementing and overseeing large-scale programs, such as governmental health agencies or national non-governmental organizations concerned with healthcare for older adults, is to blame. However, the evidence these organizations need to justify underwriting such programs is in short supply because of conflicting priorities and standards related to determining the efficacy and effectiveness of Tai Ji Quan. Establishing efficacy through acceptable designs such as randomized controlled trials involves strict protocols to ensure meaningful internal validity but different approaches are needed to demonstrate meaningful effectiveness (external validity) outside the study setting. By examining the quality, quantity, and relative proportions of the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and dissemination studies reported in the medical literature, this paper highlights the disparity in emphasis between efficacy and effectiveness research that has impeded the development of a cohesive literature on Tai Ji Quan and concludes that until more researchers develop a systematic, long-range commitment to investigating its health-related benefits, the research related will remain fractured and sporadic, limiting the incentive of large funding agencies to support its wide-spread use.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan: an overview of its history, health benefits, and cultural
           value

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Guo Yucheng , Qiu Pixiang , Liu Taoguang
      Tai Ji Quan is considered to be a part of traditional Chinese Wushu (a martial art) and comprises various styles that have evolved historically from the Chen, Yang, Wǔ, Wú, and Sun families (schools). Recent simplification of the original classic styles has made Tai Ji Quan easier to adopt in practice. Thus, the traditional legacy of using Tai Ji Quan for self-defense, mindful nurturing of well-being, and fitness enhancement has been expanded to more contemporary applications that focus on promoting physical and mental health, enhancing general well-being, preventing chronic diseases, and being an effective clinical intervention for diverse medical conditions. As the impact of Tai Ji Quan on physical performance and health continues to grow, there is a need to better understand its historical impact and current status. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of Tai Ji Quan in China, its functional utility, and the scientific evidence of its health benefits, as well as how it has been a vehicle for enhancing cultural understanding and exchange between East and West.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan: From traditional applications to contemporary practice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li , Peter Harmer



      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage cardiovascular
           disease: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
      Background Regular exercise is beneficial for adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors. Tai Ji Quan is popular among older adults and may offer additional exercise options. The present article aims to review the scientific literature published within the past decade on Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage CVD. Methods An electronic literature search of four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and AMED) was conducted from April 2003 through March 2013. Studies that examined Tai Ji Quan, were published in English, and specified a target study population of participants with a known CVD condition (e.g., coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, or stroke) or studies conducted among participants with a CVD risk factor (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, or impaired glucose metabolism) were included. Results A total of 20 studies met the inclusion criteria: 11 randomized clinical trials, seven quasi-experimental studies and two cross-sectional studies. The effect of Tai Ji Quan was examined on more than 20 different study variables among persons with coronary artery disease (n = 5 studies), chronic heart failure (n = 5 studies), stroke (n = 4 studies), and CVD risk factors (n = 6 studies). These studies were conducted primarily in Asia (n = 9, 45%) or the United States (n = 8, 40%). Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Ji Quan had better outcomes, though mixed results were reported. Conclusion Collectively, these studies indicate that Tai Ji Quan is a safe form of exercise to prevent and manage CVD. Further research is needed with more rigorous study designs, larger sample sizes, adequate Tai Ji Quan exercise doses, and carefully chosen outcome measures that assess the mechanisms as well as the effects of Tai Ji Quan, before widespread recommendations can be made.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan for the aging cancer survivor: Mitigating the accelerated
           development of disability, falls, and cardiovascular disease from cancer
           treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kerri Winters-Stone
      Currently there are more than 13.7 million cancer survivors living in the U.S., and that figure is projected to increase by 31% in the next decade, adding another 4 million cancer survivors into the healthcare system. Cancer is largely a disease of aging, and the aging of the population will sharply raise the proportion of older cancer survivors, many of whom will be long-term survivors (5 + years post diagnosis). This review will address the potential utility of exercise to address three health problems that are of particular concern for the aging cancer survivor and the healthcare system, i.e., disability, falls, and cardiovascular disease, because the development of these age-related problems may be accelerated by cancer treatment. While there are many different modes of exercise that each produce specific adaptations, Tai Ji Quan may be a particularly suitable strategy to mitigate the development of age- and cancer-treatment-related problems. Based on studies in older adults without cancer, Tai Ji Quan produces musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic adaptations and is more easily performed by older adults due to its low energy cost and slower movement patterns. Since cancer survivors are mostly older, inactive, and often physically limited by the lingering side effects of treatment, they need to engage in safe, practical, and effective modes of exercise. The dearth of published controlled trials examining the efficacy of Tai Ji Quan to mitigate cancer-treatment-related musculoskeletal and cardiovascular side effects points to ample research opportunities to explore the application of this non-Western exercise modality to improve long-term outcomes for aging cancer survivors.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Implementing an evidence-based Tai Ji Quan program in a multicultural
           setting: A pilot dissemination project

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): David Fink , Kate Houston
      Falls in older adults are a significant public health issue and a particularly significant health risk in Minnesota. With accumulating research evidence suggesting that falls can be prevented through exercise, there is an increased public health effort among organizations serving older adults to translate and disseminate evidence-based programs into the community. Such efforts, however, face additional challenges if they are implemented in communities with older adults from different cultural backgrounds and languages. This paper briefly describes a pilot community-based dissemination project, including the initiation, implementation, process, and outcomes, of an evidence-based fall prevention (Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance formerly known as Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance) through a local Area Agency on Aging in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area in Minnesota (USA). Overall, the program was successfully implemented resulting in adoption by local community organizations serving Asian and, to a lesser degree, East African non-English speaking older adults. Bilingual community instructors were trained to lead the classes resulting in broad participation and improved physical performance by the older adults targeted for the intervention. The results from this pilot study indicate that Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance can be implemented with positive results in non-English speaking community settings using bilingual leaders.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Tai Ji Quan, the brain, and cognition in older adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yu-Kai Chang , Yu-Hsiang Nien , Ai-Guo Chen , Jun Yan
      The relationship between physical activity (PA) and cognition has received much attention recently. While evidence of improved cognition following PA has consistently been observed, the majority of studies have spotlighted aerobic exercise and the effects of other modes of PA, such as Tai Ji Quan, on cognition have received limited attention. This article provides a brief review of the literature concerning the influence of Tai Ji Quan on cognition in older adults, including those with intact cognition and those with cognitive impairment. In addition, this review proposes potential mechanisms (cardiovascular fitness, motor fitness, movement coordination, social interaction, and meditation statuses as well brain structure and function) evaluated from a neuroimaging perspective that may explain the Tai Ji Quan–cognition relationship. Finally, we present suggestions for future research. In conclusion, Tai Ji Quan, with its multi-faceted characteristics, shows promise as a mode of PA for enhancing cognition, as well as brain health, in older adults. Based on the findings in this review, further exploration of the effects of Tai Ji Quan on cognition in older adults is warranted.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Preventing falls with Tai Ji Quan: A public health perspective

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Judy A. Stevens , Alexander Voukelatos , Heidi Ehrenreich
      Falls among people aged 65 and older are a significant public health problem and one that is expected to increase as the population ages. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that Tai Ji Quan can reduce falls and associated injuries among older adults. In this paper, we describe how Tai Ji Quan community programs are being utilized by public health and aging services organizations to reduce older adult falls. We conclude that, to have a population-level impact on reducing falls and improving the health of older adults, Tai Ji Quan interventions must be translated into community programs that meet the needs and abilities of older adults. These programs must be adapted to fit into existing community structures, disseminated through multiple delivery channels, adopted and implemented broadly by organizations, and institutionalized to ensure sustainability.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement
           therapy—Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li
      Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T05:11:24Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 2, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2013-12-08T11:21:26Z
       
  • Association between hip abductor function, rear-foot dynamic alignment and
           dynamic knee valgus during single-leg squats and drop landings

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yoshinori Kagaya , Yasunari Fujii , Hidetsugu Nishizono
      Background Preventing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is very important for athletes and dynamic knee valgus is considered a risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, little is known about whether the functions of the hip abductor and rear-foot increase dynamic knee valgus. A two-dimensional (2D) video-based screening test focused on hip abductor and rear-foot functions among factors involved in dynamic knee valgus. The present study determined associations between hip and rear-foot dynamic alignment and dynamic knee valgus. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 130 female basketball players (258 legs) from nine high-school teams. The players performed single-leg squats and single-leg drop landings to provide knee-in (KID) and hip-out (HOD) distances on 2D video images. Hip and rear-foot dynamic alignment was evaluated using a dynamic Trendelenburg test (DTT) and a dynamic heel-floor test (HFT). Results The Chi-square test revealed no significant difference in the prevalence of DTT-positivity between single-leg squats (28.7%) and single-leg drop landings (23.3%). The prevalence of HFT-positivity was significantly greater during landings (51.4%) than during single-leg squats (31.0%, p < 0.01). The KID values for both single-leg squats and single-leg drop landings were greater in the DTT-positive than in the DTT-negative group (15.1 ± 5.4 cm and 20.2 ± 7.5 cm, p < 0.001). The HOD values were similarly greater (15.2 ± 1.9 cm and 17.6 ± 2.8 cm, p < 0.001) in the DTT-positive group. The KID values for both single-leg squats and single-leg drop landings were greater in the HFT-positive than in the HFT-negative group (12.2 ± 5.1 cm, p < 0.01 and 14.7 ± 7.2 cm, p < 0.001), whereas HOD values for these tasks did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusion Dynamic hip mal-alignment might be associated with both greater KID and HOD, whereas rear-foot eversion is associated only with greater KID. Hip abductor and rear-foot dysfunction are important factors for dynamic knee valgus and thus evaluating DTT and HFT will help to prevent dynamic knee valgus.


      PubDate: 2013-11-09T22:38:55Z
       
  • Analysis of the TCM theory of traditional Chinese health exercise

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yan Jiang , Jun Zou
      The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory of traditional Chinese health exercise (TCHE) is analyzed. The effect of meridians and acupoints contained in TCHE is summarized, the treatment methods of tonifying deficiencies and reducing excesses applied in TCHE are discussed, the regulation of Zang-fu organs are emphasized, and the leading role of Qi is introduced. The exercise prescription and proper timing of TCHE are described and reported. TCHE, such as Baduanjin, Liuzijue and Tai Chi possess strong TCM characteristics.


      PubDate: 2013-10-22T22:07:33Z
       
  • The effects of Tai Chi exercise on cognitive function in older adults: A
           meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yin Wu , Yongtai Wang , Elisabeth O. Burgess , Jerry Wu
      Backgrounds Cognitive impairment is prevalent among older adults and results in degraded quality of life for older adults. As the population ages, this may cause a huge burden to society. Research has demonstrated that physical exercise is beneficial to cognitive function. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to critically assess the effect of Tai Chi exercise on global cognitive, executive, and memory functions in older adults. Methods After a thorough electronic search and selection, eight studies were included in this meta-analysis with two cross-sectional and six intervention studies. Nine variables included in this meta-analysis were: mini mental status examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), trailmaking test part A (TMA), trailmaking test part B (TMB), digit span test forward (DSF), digit span test backward (DSB), visual span test backward (VSB), verbal fluency test (VFT), and word delay recall test (WDR). The effect sizes and forest plots of these nine variables were generated. Results Four (MMSE, DSB, VSB, and VFT) out of nine variables were significantly improved after Tai Chi exercise with the effect sizes ranged from 0.20 to 0.46 (small to medium). MMSE represented global cognitive function, and DSB, VSB, and VFT represented memory function. Conclusion Tai Chi as a mind-body exercise has the positive effects on global cognitive, and memory functions, and more consistent positive effects were found on memory function, especially verbal working memory.


      PubDate: 2013-09-28T05:27:11Z
       
  • Using Sensewear armband and diet journal to promote adolescents' energy
           balance knowledge and motivation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Senlin Chen , Xihe Zhu , Gregory J. Welk , Youngwon Kim , Jungmin Lee , Nathan F. Meier
      Purpose Educating adolescents about energy balance (EB) is essential for effective weight control. This study utilized the Sensewear (SWA) armband and a diet journal to promote adolescents' EB knowledge and motivation. Methods Ninety sixth graders were randomly assigned into the experimental group (n = 46) who utilized SWA and diet journal for 7 consecutive days or the control group (n = 44) who did not. Both groups were pre- and post-measured on EB knowledge, situational interest, and weight. The experimental group was tracked on motivation effort, energy expenditure (EE), and energy intake (EI). Results EB knowledge significantly increased and situational interest remained stable (except for total interest and enjoyment) over time, but these changes did not favor the experimental group. Situational interest and motivation effort were correlated with EE, EI, and/or EB. Conclusion Tracking EB using the SWA and diet journal is motivating but has limited efficacy in promoting adolescents' EB knowledge. Using these two tools as educational technology in conjunction with a focused, systematic, and educational approach has the potential to leverage adolescents' EB knowledge, motivation, as well as behaviors for living an energy-balanced lifestyle.


      PubDate: 2013-09-28T05:27:11Z
       
  • The ActiGraph GT3X determined variations in “free-living”
           standing, lying and sitting duration among sedentary adults in different
           BMI categories

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Faisal A. Barwais , Thomas F. Cuddihy , Jerome N. Rachele , Tracy L. Washington
      Background Overweight and obesity has become a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. Studies suggest that making small changes in daily activity levels such as “breaking-up” sedentary time (i.e., standing) may help mitigate the health risks of sedentary behavior. The aim of the present study was to examine time spent in standing (determined by count threshold), lying, and sitting postures (determined by inclinometer function) via the ActiGraph GT3X among sedentary adults with differing weight status based on body mass index (BMI) categories. Methods Participants included 22 sedentary adults (14 men, 8 women; mean age 26.5 ± 4.1 years). All subjects completed the self-report International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to determine time spent sitting over the previous 7 days. Participants were included if they spent seven or more hours sitting per day. Postures were determined with the ActiGraph GT3X inclinometer function. Participants were instructed to wear the accelerometer for 7 consecutive days (24 h a day). BMI was categorized as: 18.5 to <25 kg/m2 as normal, 25 to <30 kg/m2 as overweight, and >30 kg/m2 as obese. Results Participants in the normal weight (n = 10) and overweight (n = 6) groups spent significantly more time standing (after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and wear-time) (6.7 and 7.3 h respectively) and less time sitting (7.1 and 6.9 h respectively) than those in obese (n = 6) categories (5.5 h and 8.0 h respectively) after adjustment for wear-time (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in standing and sitting time between normal weight and overweight groups (p = 0.051 and p = 0.670 respectively). Differences were not significant among groups for lying time (p = 0.55). Conclusion This study described postural allocations standing, lying and sitting among normal weight, overweight and obese sedentary adults. The results provide additional evidence for the use of increasing standing time in obesity prevention strategies.


      PubDate: 2013-08-21T01:46:05Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 2, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2013-08-12T01:44:32Z
       
  • Human neuromuscular structure and function in old age: A brief review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Geoffrey A. Power , Brian H. Dalton , Charles L. Rice
      Natural adult aging is associated with many functional impairments of the human neuromuscular system. One of the more observable alterations is the loss of contractile muscle mass, termed sarcopenia. The loss of muscle mass occurs primarily due to a progressive loss of viable motor units, and accompanying atrophy of remaining muscle fibers. Not only does the loss of muscle mass contribute to impaired function in old age, but alterations in fiber type and myosin heavy chain isoform expression also contribute to weaker, slower, and less powerful contracting muscles. This review will focus on motor unit loss associated with natural adult aging, age-related fatigability, and the age-related differences in strength across contractile muscle actions.


      PubDate: 2013-08-03T16:48:10Z
       
  • Process and outcome evaluation of the “No more smoking! It's time
           for physical activity” program

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Mary Hassandra , Nikos Zourbanos , Georgia Kofou , Konstantinos Gourgoulianis , Yiannis Theodorakis
      Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the program “No more smoking! It's time for physical activity”, with a mixed methods design, in order to collect information to improve the program for future applications. Methods Forty patients across five anti-smoking clinics in Central Greece completed the program. Counselors' records and participants' questionnaires and interviews were used as data in order to evaluate the programs' process and outcome. Results Quantitative measures before and after the program revealed significant differences on smoking behavior, physical activity (PA) behavior, self-efficacy and smoking habit measures. Qualitative data implied that the promotion of PA as a cessation aid was perceived as positive by the participants and both participants' and counselors' statements were encouraging for the effectiveness of PA promotion during the program as a cessation-aid technique. Conclusion Strengths, weaknesses, and implications for further improvements of the program are further discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-07-18T18:19:06Z
       
  • A 6-week diet and exercise intervention alters metabolic syndrome risk
           factors in obese Chinese children aged 11–13 years

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Beibei Luo , Yang Yang , David C. Nieman , Yajun Zhang , Jie Wang , Ru Wang , Peijie Chen
      Purpose A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine whether a 6-week low calorie diet and aerobic exercise intervention could alter metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in pre-pubescent obese Chinese children. Methods The subjects were randomized into diet and exercise (DE) and control (C) groups. The DE group ingested 1,600–2,000 kcal/day adjusted to each participant's basal metabolic rate, and engaged in high-volume aerobic exercise (6 days/week, twice daily, for 3 h per session) for 6 weeks. A total of 215 obese children between the ages of 11 and 13 years were recruited into the study, with 167 subjects (DE, n = 95; C, n = 72) completing all phases. Pre- and post-study measures included body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure and other MetS-related markers from fasting blood samples (serum cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose). Results Compared to controls, the DE subjects experienced significantly reduced levels for all outcome markers (p < 0.05), except for fasting blood glucose in boys (p = 0.09). Conclusion An intensive, 6-week diet and exercise intervention had favorable effects in altering MetS risk factors in obese Chinese children aged 11 to 13.


      PubDate: 2013-07-01T21:37:03Z
       
  • Current concepts in sport concussion management: A multifaceted approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ashley Littleton , Kevin Guskiewicz
      Sport-related concussion is a common neurological injury that occurs in all levels of athletic participation. Concussions may actually go undiagnosed, as they do not always display outward signs and athletes may fail to report symptoms of concussion, either because they do not know the symptoms, or for fear of removal from play. Inappropriate management of concussion can lead to increased risk of subsequent injury. This article outlines various aspects of sport-related concussion management, including preparation/planning, education, evaluation, management, return to play decisions, and long term effects of concussion. Preparation and education are the first steps that must be taken to minimize the potentially negative consequences of concussion. If a concussion is suspected, it must be stressed that the evaluation should include a multifaceted approach, with a physical examination and assessment of signs and symptoms, neurocognition and balance. The management of concussion should include both physical and cognitive rest and factors such as transportation, sleep, work, and academics should be taken into consideration. Return to play following concussion should follow a graduated return to play protocol, with careful monitoring of symptoms. Sports medicine clinicians should stay up to date with information regarding concussion management and take a conservative approach, because there are recent reports of various cumulative effects of multiple concussions.


      PubDate: 2013-05-17T10:32:43Z
       
  • Effects of exergaming and the physical education curriculum

    • Abstract: Available online 21 March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science




      PubDate: 2013-03-21T18:34:50Z
       
  • Effects of resistance and Tai Ji training on mobility and symptoms in knee
           osteoarthritis patients

    • Abstract: Available online 1 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science

      Background No studies have compared effectiveness of resistance training and Tai Ji exercise on relieving symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of the study was to evaluate effects of a 10-week Tai Ji and resistance training intervention on improving OA symptoms and mobility in seniors with knee OA. Methods Thirty-one seniors (60–85 years) were randomly assigned to a Tai Ji program (n = 12), a resistance training program (n = 13), and a control group (n = 6). All participants completed the Western Ontario and MacMaster (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index and performed three physical performance tests (6-min walk, timed up-and-go, and timed stair climb and descent) before and after the 10-week interventions. Results The participants in the resistance training group significantly improved on the timed up-and-go test (p = 0.001), the WOMAC pain sub-score (p = 0.006), WOMAC stiffness sub-score (p 
      PubDate: 2013-02-04T22:34:40Z
       
 
 
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