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Journal Cover   Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [15 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2589 journals]
  • Impact of an active educational video game on children's motivation,
           science knowledge, and physical activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Haichun Sun , Yong Gao
      Background Active educational video games (AVGs) appear to have a positive effect on elementary school students' motivation leading to enhanced learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of an AVG on elementary school students' science knowledge learning, physical activity (PA) level, and interest-based motivation. Methods In this randomized controlled study, 53 elementary school students were assigned to an experimental condition or a comparison condition. The experimental condition provided an active educational video game learning environment, whereas the comparison condition was based on sedentary educational video games. Results The results of repeated measures ANOVA on the knowledge test showed that students in both groups performed better on the post-test than they did on the pre-test (p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.486), and their posttest scores did not differ significantly. The experimental condition provided a more active environment since the students' average heart rates (HRs) were in the Target-Heart-Rate-Zone (HR = 134 bpm), which was significantly higher than the average HR (103 bpm) from the comparison condition (t = 7.212, p < 0.001). Students in the experimental condition perceived a higher level of situational interest than their counterparts in the comparison group (p < 0.01, and η 2 = 0.301). Conclusion These results suggest that AVGs benefit children more in terms of PA and motivation than traditional video games by providing an enjoyable learning experience and sufficient PA.


      PubDate: 2015-02-22T18:10:17Z
       
  • Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase
           in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage: A pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zekine Punduk , Onur Oral , Nadir Ozkayin , Khalid Rahman , Rana Varol
      Backgrounds Platelet rich plasma (PRP) therapy is widely used in enhancing the recovery of skeletal muscle from injury. However, the impact of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses has not been fully elucidated in exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this investigation the effects of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses and recovery strategy muscle damage induced by high intensity muscle exercise (EIMD). Methods Moderately active male volunteers participated in this study and were assigned to a control group (control, n = 6) and PRP administration group (PRP, n = 6). The subjects performed exercise with a load of 80%one repetition maximum (1RM) maximal voluntary contraction of the elbow flexors until point of exhaustion of the non-dominant arm was reached. The arms were treated with saline or autologous PRP post-24 h EIMD. Venous blood samples were obtained in the morning to establish a baseline value and 1–4 days post-exercise and were analyzed for serum ferritin, iron, iron binding capacity (IBC), creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results The baseline levels of plasma iron, ferritin, IBC, CK, LDH, AST, and ALT were similar in both the control and PRP groups. However, 24-h following exercise a significant increase in these parameters was observed in both groups between 1 and 4 days during the recovery period. Interestingly, PRP administration decreased plasma iron levels compared to the control on the second daypost-exercise. Plasma IBC increased in PRP group from day 2 to 4 post-exercise compared to the control group whilst PRP administration had no effect on plasma ferritin, CK, AST, ALT, or LDH. Conclusion Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP administration improves inflammation by reversing the increasein the iron levels post-exercise without displaying any myotoxicity and may have a role to play in therecovery of exercise-induced muscle damage.


      PubDate: 2015-02-22T18:10:17Z
       
  • Effect of a combined inversion and plantarflexion surface on ankle
           kinematics and EMG activities in landing

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Divya Bhaskaran , Michael Wortley , Qingjian Chen , Clare E. Milner , Eugene C. Fitzhugh , Songning Zhang
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of landing on a combined inversion and plantarflexion surface on the ankle kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of medial gastrocnemius (MG), peroneus longus (PL), and anterior tibialis (TA) muscles. Methods Twelve recreational athletes performed five drop landings from an overhead bar of 30 cm height on to three surfaces:a flat surface, a 25° inversion surface, and a combined surface of 25° inversion and 25° plantarflexion. The kinematic variables and integrated EMG (IEMG) of the three muscles were assessed using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA and a 3 × 3 (surface × muscle) ANOVA, respectively (p< 0.05). Results The IEMG results showed a significant muscle by surface interaction. The flat surface induced higher TA activity than the two tilted surfaces. The inverted surface produced significantly higher inversion peak angle and velocity than the flat surface, but similar PL activity across the surfaces. The MG IEMG, ankle plantarflexion angle and inversion range of motion were significantly higher for the combined surface compared to the inverted surface. Conclusion These findings suggest that compared to the inversion surface, the combined plantarflexion and inversion surface seems to provide a more unstable surface condition for lateral ankle sprains during landing.


      PubDate: 2015-02-05T19:33:11Z
       
  • Assessing proprioception: A critical review of methods

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jia Han , Gordon Waddington , Roger Adams , Judith Anson , Yu Liu
      To control movement, the brain has to integrate proprioceptive information from a variety of mechanoreceptors. The role of proprioception in daily activities, exercise and sport has been extensively investigated, using different techniques, yet the proprioceptive mechanisms underlying human movement control are still unclear. In the current work we have reviewed understanding of proprioception and the three testing methods: threshold to detection of passive motion, joint position reproduction, and active movement extent discrimination, all of which have been used for assessing proprioception. The origin of the methods, the different testing apparatus, and the procedures and protocols used in each approach are compared and discussed. Recommendations are made for choosing an appropriate technique when assessing proprioceptive mechanisms in different contexts.


      PubDate: 2015-02-05T19:33:11Z
       
  • The effects of fluid loss on physical performance: A critical review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Andrew Carlton , Robin Marc Orr
      Purpose The purpose of this review was to critically analyse the current evidence investigating the effect of an athlete’s hydration status on physical performance. Methods A literature search of multiple databases was used to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review. The included studies were then critically appraised using the Downs and Black protocol. Results Nine articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria, with an average score of 79% for methodological quality representative of a “high”standard of research. Discussion The evidence suggests that dehydration has a negative impact on physical performance for activities lasting more than 30 s in duration. However dehydration was found to have no significant impact on physical performance for activities lasting less than 15 s in duration.


      PubDate: 2015-02-05T19:33:11Z
       
  • The use of the greater trochanter marker in the thigh segment model:
           Implications for hip and knee frontal and transverse plane motion

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Valentina Graci , Gretchen B. Salsich
      Background The greater trochanter marker is commonly used in 3-dimensional (3D) models; however, its influence on hip and knee kinematics during gait is unclear. Understanding the influence of the greater trochanter marker is important when quantifying frontal and transverse plane hip and knee kinematics, parameters which are particularly relevant to investigate in individuals with conditions such as patellofemoral pain, knee osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and hip pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of including the greater trochanter in the construction of the thigh segment on hip and knee kinematics during gait. Methods 3D kinematics were collected in 19 healthy subjects during walking using a surface marker system. Hip and knee angles were compared across two thigh segment definitions (with and without greater trochanter) at two time points during stance: peak knee flexion (PKF) and minimum knee flexion (MinKF). Results Hip and knee angles differed in magnitude and direction in the transverse plane at both time points. In the thigh model with the greater trochanter the hip was more externally rotated than in the thigh model without the greater trochanter (PKF: -9.34° ± 5.21° vs. 1.40° ± 5.22°; MinKF: -5.68° ± 4.24° vs. 5.01° ± 4.86°; p < 0.001). In the thigh model with the greater trochanter, the knee angle was more internally rotated compared to the knee angle calculated using the thigh definition without the greater trochanter (PKF: 14.67° ± 6.78° vs. 4.33° ± 4.18°; MinKF: 10.54° ± 6.71° vs. -0.01° ± 2.69°; p < 0.001). Small but significant differences were detected in the sagittal and frontal plane angles at both time points (p < 0.001). Conclusion Hip and knee kinematics differed across different segment definitions including or excluding the greater trochanter marker, especially in the transverse plane. Therefore when considering whether to include the greater trochanter in the thigh segment model when using a surface markers to calculate 3D kinematics for movement assessment, it is important to have a clear understanding of the effect of different marker sets and segment models in use.


      PubDate: 2015-01-22T18:20:04Z
       
  • Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP
           study using the stop-signal task

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Chien-Heng Chu , Brandon L. Alderman , Gao-Xia Wei , Kuei-Hui Chan , Yu-Kai Chang
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute exercise on motor response inhibition using both behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. Methods The P3 and N1 event-related potential (ERP) components were recorded while performing a stop-signal task in 21 college students following a moderately intense acute exercise bout for 30 min and a sedentary control session that involved reading. Results Acute exercise induced a shorter stop signal response time (SSRT) as compared to control; however, the go response time (Go RT) remained unchanged. In examining the ERP data, acute exercise increased both P3 amplitude and latency but did not affect the N1 component. Conclusion Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • Effects of acute aerobic exercise on response preparation in a Go/No Go
           task in children with ADHD: An ERP study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lan-Ya Chuang , Yu-Jung Tsai , Yu-Kai Chang , Chung-Ju Huang , Tsung-Min Hung
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of acute exercise on reaction time, and response preparation during a Go/No Go task in children with ADHD. Methods Nineteen children with ADHD (aged between 8 and 12 years old) undertook a 30-min intervention that consisted of treadmill running or video-watching presented in a counterbalanced order on different days. A Go/No Go task was administrated after exercise or video-watching. Results The results indicated a shorter reaction time and smaller CNV 2 amplitude following exercise relative to the video-watching. For ERP analyses, greater CNV 1 and CNV 2 amplitudes in response to No Go stimuli in comparison to Go stimuli was observed in the video-watching session only. Conclusion These findings suggest that acute exercise may benefit children with ADHD by developing appropriate response preparation, particularly in maintaining a stable motor preparatory set prior to performing the given task.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • Determine an effective golf swing by swing speed and impact precision
           tests

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jiann-Jyh Wang , Pei-Feng Yang , Wei-Hua Ho , Tzyy-Yuang Shiang
      Background To understand an effective golf swing, both swing speed and impact precision must be thoroughly and simultaneously examined. The aim of this study was to perform both swing speed test and impact precision test to ascertain what swing type determines an effective impact. Methods Seven golfers from a college team (handicap: 0–12) were recruited to complete a swing speed test and impact precision test using a 5 iron club. A force plate and electromyography (EMG) system were used to collect data in the swing speed test to compare the difference between two motion sequences. High speed video cameras were used to determine the displacement of rotation center for impact precision test. Results The results showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) in clubhead speed with different motion sequences and muscle contraction patterns. In the impact precision test, the displacement of the rotation center which defined as the inner center point of the C7 was significantly different (p < 0.05) between different ball impacted marks on club face. Conclusion The vertical peak ground reaction force on left foot occurring before impact and the left latissimus dorsi contracting prior to the right pectoralis major represent a superior skill by allowing the club to strike the ball with normal collision at a faster speed.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and
           without ADHD

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Aaron T. Piepmeier , Chia-Hao Shih , Margaret Whedon , Lauren Williams , Matthew Davis , David Henning , SeYun Park , Susan D. Calkins , Jennifer L. Etnier
      Background Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that affects approximately 11% of children in the United States. Research supports that a single session of exercise benefits cognitive performance by children, and a limited number of studies have demonstrated that these effects can also be realized by children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance by children with and without ADHD. Method Children with and without ADHD were asked to perform cognitive tasks on two days following treatment conditions that were assigned in a random, counterbalanced order. The treatment conditions consisted of a 30-min control condition on one day and a moderate intensity exercise condition on the other day. Results Exercise significantly benefited performance on all three conditions of the Stroop task, but did not significantly affect performance on the Tower of London or the Trail Making Test. Conclusion children with and without ADHD realize benefits in speed of processing and inhibitory control in response to a session of acute exercise, but do not experience benefits in planning or set shifting.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football
           penalties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Curtis Craig , Randy W. Overbeek , Miles V. Condon , Shannon B. Rinaldo
      Purpose Increased ambient temperature has been implicated in increased physical aggression, which has important practical consequences. The present study investigates this established relationship between aggressive behavior and ambient temperature in the highly aggressive context of professional football in the national football league (NFL). Methods Using a publicly available dataset, authors conducted multiple hierarchical regression analyses on game-level data (2326 games). Results The analysis revealed that temperature positively predicted aggressive penalties in football, and that this relationship was significant for teams playing at home but not for visiting teams. Conclusion These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • Acute exercise is associated with specific executive functions in college
           students with ADHD: A preliminary study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jennifer Gapin , Jeffrey D. Labban , Sara C. Bohall , Joshua S. Wooten , Yu-Kai Chang
      Purpose The relationship between acute exercise and executive functions in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has not been clearly established. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the difference in cognitive performance between college students with and without ADHD and to explore the effects of acute exercise on multiple aspects of executive functions and on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Methods College students (normal: n = 10; ADHD: n = 10) performed the Stroop Test, Trail Making Test, and Digit Span Test prior to and after an acute exercise intervention. Blood samples were obtained prior to the pre-test cognitive test performance and then again after exercise and prior to the post-test cognitive test performance. Results Students with ADHD exhibited impaired executive functions, particularly on inhibition. Additionally, while acute exercise improved all aspects of executive functions in those without ADHD, acute exercise only improved inhibitory performance for those with ADHD. Further, BDNF was not influenced by acute exercise regardless of the subjects' ADHD status. Conclusion These results provide preliminary evidence for exercise as a potential adjunct treatment for benefitting inhibition in college students with ADHD.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T17:47:18Z
       
  • Sleep quality improved following a single session of moderate-intensity
           aerobic exercise in older women: Results from a pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 4
      Author(s): Xuewen Wang , Shawn D. Youngstedt
      Background Poor sleep quality is associated with adverse effects on health outcomes. It is not clear whether exercise can improve sleep quality and whether intensity of exercise affects any of the effects. Methods Fifteen healthy, non-obese (body mass index = 24.4 ± 2.1 kg/m2, mean ± SD), sedentary (<20 min of exercise on no more than 3 times/week) older women (66.1 ± 3.9 years) volunteered for the study. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was evaluated using a graded exercise test on a treadmill with a metabolic cart. Following a 7-day baseline period, each participant completed two exercise sessions (separated by 1 week) with equal caloric expenditure, but at different intensities (60% and 45% VO2peak, sequence randomized) between 9:00 and 11:00 am. A wrist ActiGraph monitor was used to assess sleep at baseline and two nights following each exercise session. Results The average duration of the exercise was 54 and 72 min, respectively at 60% (moderate-intensity) and 45% VO2peak (light-intensity). Wake time after sleep onset was significantly shorter (p = 0.016), the number of awakenings was less (p = 0.046), and total activity counts were lower (p = 0.05) after the moderate-intensity exercise compared to baseline no-exercise condition. Conclusion Our data showed that a single moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session improved sleep quality in older women.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • The effect of active sitting on trunk motion

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 4
      Author(s): Henry Wang , Kaitlyn J. Weiss , Mason C. Haggerty , Jacqueline E. Heath
      Background Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for low-back pain. The primary purpose of this study is to determine if prolonged active sitting will result in increased trunk motion. Methods Fifteen healthy female participants volunteered to sit for 30 min on each of three surfaces including an air-cushion, a stability ball, and a hard surface. Trunk motion was monitored using a Vicon motion capture system, and foot center of pressure was collected with two AMTI force plates. Results Our findings indicated that the average speed of the trunk center of mass significantly increased with seating surface compliance. There were significant differences in right and left foot centers of pressure in the antero-posterior direction between the ball and air-cushion conditions and the ball and chair conditions. Conclusion Active sitting results in increased trunk motion and could have a positive effect on low-back health.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Using Sensewear armband and diet journal to promote adolescents' energy
           balance knowledge and motivation

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 4
      Author(s): Senlin Chen , Xihe Zhu , Gregory J. Welk , Youngwon Kim , Jungmin Lee , Nathan F. Meier
      Purpose Educating adolescents about energy balance (EB) is essential for effective weight control. This study utilized the Sensewear (SWA) armband and a diet journal to promote adolescents' EB knowledge and motivation. Methods Ninety sixth graders were randomly assigned into the experimental group (n = 46) who utilized SWA and diet journal for 7 consecutive days or the control group (n = 44) who did not. Both groups were pre- and post-measured on EB knowledge, situational interest, and weight. The experimental group was tracked on motivation effort, energy expenditure (EE), and energy intake (EI). Results EB knowledge significantly increased and situational interest remained stable (except for total interest and enjoyment) over time, but these changes did not favor the experimental group. Situational interest and motivation effort were correlated with EE, EI, and/or EB. Conclusion Tracking EB using the SWA and diet journal is motivating but has limited efficacy in promoting adolescents' EB knowledge. Using these two tools as educational technology in conjunction with a focused, systematic, and educational approach has the potential to leverage adolescents' EB knowledge, motivation, as well as behaviors for living an energy-balanced lifestyle.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Parental perceptions of the effects of exercise on behavior in children
           and adolescents with ADHD

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jennifer I. Gapin , Jennifer L. Etnier
      Background Anecdotally, parents often report that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who engage in regular physical activity (PA) experience positive behavioral changes. The purpose of this study was to examine this anecdotal relationship to provide preliminary evidence relevant to the potential benefits of PA on ADHD symptoms. Methods Parents (n = 68) of children diagnosed with ADHD completed an Internet survey assessing perceptions of how PA influences their child's symptoms. Results A significantly greater percentage of parents reported that regular PA positively impacted symptoms. However, there were no uniform effects for all types of ADHD symptoms. The results indicate that there may be more positive benefits for symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity than for those of impulsivity. Conclusion This is the first study to empirically document parents' perceptions of how PA influences ADHD and suggests that PA can be a viable strategy for reducing symptoms. PA may have greater benefits for specific symptoms of ADHD, providing critical information for developing PA interventions for children and adolescents.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • The strength model of self-control revisited: Linking acute and chronic
           effects of exercise on executive functions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Michel Audiffren , Nathalie André
      Since the 1960’s, hundreds of articles have been published on the effects of exercise on cognition and more recently on executive functions. A large variety of effects have been observed: acute or long-lasting, facilitating or debilitating. Several theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain these effects with plausible mechanisms. However, as yet none of these models has succeeded in unifying all the observations in a single framework that subsumes all effects. The aim of the present review is to revisit the strength model of self-control initiated by Baumeister and his colleagues in the 1990’s in order to extend its assumptions to exercise psychology. This model provides a heuristic framework that can explain and predict the effects of acute and chronic exercise on effortful tasks tapping self-regulation or executive functions. A reconsideration of exercise as a self-control task results from this perspective. A new avenue for future research is delineated besides more traditional approaches.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Acute exercise and cognitive function: emerging research issues

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yu-Kai Chang , Jennifer L. Etnier



      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Is there an acute exercise-induced physiological/biochemical threshold
           which triggers increased speed of cognitive functioning? A
           meta-analytic investigation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Terry McMorris , Beverley J. Hale
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytic measures, the evidence regarding the optimal exercise intensity at which improvements in speed of cognitive function are triggered. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the catecholamine, lactate and ventilatory thresholds is the point at which significant improvements in speed of cognitive function are observed. Methods We compared mean effect sizes for threshold studies and for those studies where exercise intensity was classed as moderate (40%–79% VO2max or equivalent) but in which the thresholds were not measured. Results Random effects meta-analysis showed significant, moderate, mean effect sizes for studies at the threshold (g = 0.58, Z = 2.98, p < 0.003) and for those during moderate intensity exercise but in which the threshold was not measured (g = 0.54, Z = 5.01, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between mean effect sizes, which suggests that the thresholds are unlikely to represent a trigger point. Conclusion It was concluded that moderate intensity exercise, even below the thresholds, can induce improved speed of cognition, possibly due to a combination of increased peripheral catecholamine concentrations inducing vagal/nucleus tractus solitarii pathway activation and central increases due to perceptions of stress.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a potential mechanism of the
           effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Aaron T. Piepmeier , Jennifer L. Etnier
      The literature shows that improvements in cognitive performance may be observed following an acute bout of exercise. However, evidence in support of the biological mechanisms of this effect is still limited. Findings from both rodent and human studies suggest brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a potential mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on memory. The molecular properties of BDNF allow this protein to be assessed in the periphery (pBDNF) (i.e., blood serum, blood plasma), making measurements of acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentration relatively accessible. Studies exploring the acute exercise-pBDNF-cognitive performance relationship have had mixed findings, but this may be more reflective of methodological differences between studies than it is a statement about the role of BDNF. For example, significant associations have been observed between acute exercise-induced changes in pBDNF concentration and cognitive performance in studies assessing memory, and non-significant associations have been found in studies assessing non-memory cognitive domains. Three suggestions are made for future research aimed at understanding the role of BDNF as a biological mechanism of this relationship. 1) Assessments of cognitive performance may benefit from a focus on various types of memory (e.g., relational, spatial, long-term). 2) More fine-grained measurements of pBDNF will allow for the assessment of concentrations of specific isoforms of the BDNF protein (i.e., immature, mature). 3) Statistical techniques designed to test the mediating role of pBDNF in the acute exercise-cognitive performance relationship should be utilized in order to make causal inferences.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation probes the excitability of the primary
           motor cortex: A framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute
           whole-body exercise on motor processes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Karen Davranche , John Temesi , Samuel Verges , Thierry Hasbroucq
      The effects of exercise on decision-making performance have been studied using a wide variety of cognitive tasks and exercise interventions. Although the current literature supports a beneficial influence of acute exercise on cognitive performance, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. We review studies that used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe the excitability of motor structures during whole-body exercise and present a framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute exercise on motor processes. Recent results suggest that, even in the absence of fatigue, the increase in corticospinal excitability classically reported during submaximal and exhausting exercises may be accompanied by a reduction in intracortical inhibition. We propose that reduced intracortical inhibition elicits an adaptive central mechanism that counteracts the progressive reduction in muscle responsiveness caused by peripheral fatigue. Such a reduction would render the motor cortex more sensitive to upstream influences, thus causing increased corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, reduction of intracortical inhibition may account for the more efficient descending drive and for the improvement of reaction time performance during exercise. The adaptive modulation in intracortical inhibition could be implemented through a general increase in reticular activation that would further account for enhanced sensory sensitivity.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Exercise and children’s cognition: The role of exercise
           characteristics and a place for metacognition

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Phillip D. Tomporowski , Bryan McCullick , Daniel M. Pendleton , Caterina Pesce
      Definitive conclusions concerning the impact of exercise interventions on children’s mental functioning are difficult to ascertain because of procedural differences among studies. A narrative review of studies was conducted to evaluate the role of two types of exercise interventions on children’s cognition. Acute and chronic exercise interventions were classified as quantitative or qualitative on the basis of manipulations of task complexity and, by inference, mental engagement. Both types of interventions enhance aspects of children’s cognition; however, their effects on metacognitive processes are unknown. The role of metacognitive processes and their regulation of children’s behavior and academic performance are highlighted.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Where are the limits of the effects of exercise intensity on cognitive
           control?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Karen Davranche , Jeanick Brisswalter , Rémi Radel
      Purpose This study aimed to investigate whether workload intensity modulates exercise-induced effect on reaction time (RT) performances, and more specifically to clarify whether cognitive control that plays a crucial role in rapid decision making is altered. Methods Fourteen participants performed a Simon task while cycling 20 min at a light (first ventilatory threshold,VT1–20%), moderate (VT1) or very hard (VT1+20%) level of exercise. Results After 15 min of cycling, RT are faster than during the first 5 min of exercise. This benefit does not fluctuate with the intensity of exercise and enlarges as RT lengthens. Despite a numerical difference suggesting a greater facilitation during moderate exercise (-16 ms) than during a light exercise (-10 ms), the benefit is not statistically different. Interestingly, we did not observe any signs of worsening on RT or on accuracy during very hard exercise. Conclusion Cognitive control is extremely robust and appears not to be affected by the intensity of exercise. The selective inhibition and the between trials adjustments are effective from the beginning to the end of exercise, regardless of the workload output.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function
           assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Chun-Chih Wang , Chia-Hao Shih , Caterina Pesce , Tai-Fen Song , Tsung-Min Hung , Yu-Kai Chang
      Purpose Acute exercise has been linked to the facilitation of executive function, but little is known regarding executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The present research consisted of two experiments aimed to determine whether acute aerobic exercise influences successive WCST performance. Methods In Study 1, 27 young adults were randomly assigned to the exercise or reading control group and then instructed to perform the WCST before and after assigned treatment. In exercise group, participants completed a single bout aerobic exercise with moderate intensity for 20 min on a stationary bike. A similar experimental protocol was replicated in Study 2 with 24 late middle-aged adults to look for age differences during adulthood and control for a potential ceiling effect at young adult age. Results Although a significant time effect was observed in young adults, both studies revealed that there was no main effect for treatment or an interaction between treatment and time on any of the WCST indices. Conclusion Acute aerobic exercise failed to influence executive function as assessed by the WCST, revealing that this classical neuropsychological test tapping executive function may not be sensitive to acute exercise. Our findings suggest that acute exercise does not broadly affect the entire family of executive functions, or its effect on a specific aspect of executive function may be task dependent, as proposed by Etnier and Chang (2009).


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T17:06:54Z
       
  • Sports medician and science in soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Donald T. Kirkendall , Bing Yu



      PubDate: 2014-11-12T10:57:39Z
       
  • Evaluation of the test–retest repeatability of the Injury Severity
           Perception score in patients with acute whiplash-associated disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Robert Ferrari
      Objective To determine the test–retest repeatability of the Injury Severity Perception (ISP) score in participants with acute whiplash-associated disorders. Methods Consecutive patients with whiplash-associated disorder, presenting in the acute stage to a primary care center, were asked to complete the ISP score. ISP was measured with a numerical rating scale that ranged from 0 to 10, on which subjects were asked to rate how severe (in terms of damage) they thought their injury was. The anchors were labeled ‘‘no damage’’ (0) and ‘‘severe, and maybe permanent damage” (10). The ISP questionnaire was administered to the participants at the time of recruitment and again 7 days later. Repeatability was evaluated by calculating percentage agreement and Cohen kappa statistic between the two time points of measurement. Results A total of 94 subjects (34 males, 60 females, mean age 40.6 ± 10.0 years, range 19–60years) were included. The mean ISP score was 4.9 ± 1.7 (range 2–9 out of 10) at the time of recruitment and 5.1 ± 2.1 (range 2–9 out of 10) 7 days later. The percentage agreement between the two repeat measures of the ISP was 86% and the kappa coefficient was 0.79. Conclusions This study suggests that the test–retest repeatability for the ISP is high and that it is thus likely to have a low risk of classification bias in prognostic studies. The ISP likely has adequate reliability for use in epidemiological research of whiplash-associated disorders.


      PubDate: 2014-11-12T10:57:39Z
       
  • Daily heart rate variability of Paralympic gold medallist swimmers: A
           17-week investigation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rohan Edmonds , Anthony Leicht , Mark McKean , Brendan Burkett
      Objectives Heart rate variability (HRV) can be a simple, non-invasive method of gauging cardiac autonomic nervous system fluctuations across periodised training workloads and taper in elite athlete populations. The purpose of these three case studies was to examine daily cardiac autonomic variations in Paralympic athletes leading in to the Paralympic games. Methods Three Paralympic gold medallist swimmers were monitored daily for their resting HRV over a 17 week monitoring period leading up to the Paralympic games. Specific time- and frequency-domain measures, along with non-linear indices of HRV were calculated for all analyses. All HRV data were analysed individually using daily values, weekly average values, and average values for rest and training phases. Results A significant difference in HRV was seen for all variables between athlete 1 and athletes 2 and 3 (amputee disabilities) during the entire monitoring period. Conclusion Despite minimal long-term changes, both swimming classification and disability type significantly influence HRV during athlete monitoring. An increased understanding of individual responses to training, travel and other outside influences affecting Paralympic athletes could potentially lead to improved management and monitoring of training workloads for enhanced performance.


      PubDate: 2014-11-12T10:57:39Z
       
  • Women’s football: Player characteristics and demands of the game

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Vanessa Martinez-Lagunas , Margot Niessen , Ulrich Hartmann
      The number of scientific investigations on women’s football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game have considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women’s game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men’s football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women’s football was still in its infancy and there were only a few studies to report on. The other review is more recent. Nonetheless, its main focus was on the game and training demands of senior elite female players. Thus, information on female footballers of lower competitive levels and younger age groups was not included. Consequently, an updated review is needed in this area. The present article therefore aims to provide an overview of a series of studies that have been published so far on the specific characteristics of female football players and the demands of match-play. Mean values reported in the literature for age (12-27 years), body height (155-174 cm), body mass (48-72 kg), percent body fat (13%-29%), maximal oxygen uptake (45.1-55.5 mL/kg/min), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (780-1379 m), maximum heart rate (189-202 bpm), 30-m sprint times (4.34-4.96 s), and counter-movement jump or vertical jump (28-50 cm) vary mostly according to the players’ competitive level and positional role. There are also some special considerations that coaches and other practitioners should be aware of when working with female athletes such as the menstrual cycle, potential pregnancy and lactation, common injury risks (particularly knee and head injuries) and health concerns (e.g., female athlete triad, iron deficiency, and anemia) that may affect players’ football performance, health or return to play. Reported mean values for total distance covered (4-13 km), distance covered at high-speed (0.2-1.7 km), average/peak heart rate (74%-87%/94%-99% HRmax), average/peak oxygen uptake (52%-77%/96%-98% VO2max), and blood lactate (2.2-7.3 mmol/L) during women’s football match-play vary according to the players’ competitive level and positional role. Methodological differences may account for the discrepancy of the reported values as well. Finally, this review also aims to identify literature gaps that require further scientific research in women’s football and to derive a few practical recommendations. The information presented in this report provides an objective point of reference about player characteristics and game demands at various levels of women’s football, which can help coaches and sport scientists to design more effective training programs and science-based strategies for the further improvement of players’ football performance, health, game standards, and positive image of this sport.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T04:27:34Z
       
  • Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high
           school baseball players

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Elizabeth E. Hibberd , Casey E. Shutt , Sakiko Oyama , J. Troy Blackburn , Joseph B. Myers
      Background Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is a risk factor for shoulder and elbow injury in baseball players. Although this evidence forms a basis for recommending stretching, clinical measures of internal rotation range of motion (ROM) do not differentiate if GIRD is due to muscular, capsuloligamentous, or osseous factors. Understanding the contributions of these structures to GIRD is important for the development of targeted interventions. We hypothesize that the osseous component will have the greatest relative contribution to GIRD, followed by muscle stiffness and posterior capsule thickness. Methods Internal rotation ROM, muscle stiffness (teres minor, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid), posterior capsule thickness, and humeral retrotorsion was evaluated on 156 baseball players. A side-to-side difference was calculated for each variable. Variables were entered into a multivariable linear regression to determine the significant predictors of GIRD. Results The regression model was statistically significant (R 2 = 0.134, F(1, 156) = 24.0 p < 0.01) with only humeral retrotorsion difference remaining as a significant predictor (β = -0.243, t 156 = -4.9, p < 0.01). A greater humeral retrotorsion side-to-side difference was associated with more GIRD. Conclusion Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence-based evaluations and intervention programs to decrease the risk of injury in baseball players.


      PubDate: 2014-09-26T02:22:45Z
       
  • Acute short-term dim light exposure can lower muscle strength endurance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Arnold G. Nelson , Joke Kokkonen , Megan Mickenberg
      Background Since it has been shown that spending 18 h under dim light conditions can result in reduced handgrip endurance, it was questioned whether or not a shorter exposure to dim light (i.e., 1 h) would have similar influence upon muscular endurance. Therefore this study compared the number of weighted knee extension lifts that could be done after spending 1 h in either dim or bright light. Methods Participants (5 women, 11 men, college students 19-26 years) performed knee extension lifts to exhaustion with a load approximating 40% of their body weight. The lifts to exhaustion were measured immediately following 1 h of exposure to each of the following three conditions: dark (DL), room light (RL) and room light plus 5 mg melatonin (RLM). A minimum of 48 h separated each condition, and all participants started the exposures in a rested fed condition. Results Average (±SD) number of knee extension lifts for RL (62.0 ± 22.0) was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than DL (51.4 ± 14.7) and RLM (57.8 ± 22.9). The number of RLM knee extension lifts was not significantly different from DL. Exposure to 1 h of dim light immediately prior to activity can result in a reduction in thigh muscle endurance. The decline in performance to short-term dim light exposure was similar to that found following longer-term exposure. Conclusion It appears that light intensity can influence muscle endurance, however, at this time this effect cannot be directly related to endogenous melatonin production.


      PubDate: 2014-09-26T02:22:45Z
       
  • Validity and reliability of eating disorder assessments used with
           athletes: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zachary Pope , Yong Gao , Nicole Bolter , Mary Pritchard
      Background Prevalence of eating disorders (ED) among college-aged athletes has risen in recent years. Although measures exist for assessing ED, these measures have not been thoroughly reviewed in athletes. This study reviewed the validity and reliability evidence of the commonly used measures for assessing ED in athlete populations aged 18-26 years. Methods Databases were searched for studies of regarding ED on male and/or female athletes. Inclusion criteria stated the study (a) assessed ED in an athlete population 18-26 years of age and (b) investigated ED using a psychometric measure found valid and/or reliable in a non-athlete population and/or athlete population. Results Fifty studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven and 22 articles, respectively, studied eating disorder behaviors in male and female athletes whereas 21 articles studied ED in combined-gender samples. The five most commonly used measures were the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R), Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (QEDD), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Conclusion Only seven studies calculated validity coefficients within the study whereas 47 cited the validity coefficient. Twenty-six calculated a reliability coefficient whereas 47 cited the reliability of the eating disorder measures. Four studies found validity evidence for the EAT, EDI, BULIT-R, QEDD, and EDE-Q in an athlete population. Few studies reviewed calculated validity and reliability coefficients of eating disorder measures. Cross-validation of these measures in athlete populations is clearly needed.


      PubDate: 2014-09-22T02:19:50Z
       
  • An 8-week reactive balance training program in older healthy adults: A
           preliminary investigation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Max R. Paquette , Yuhua Li , Joseph Hoekstra , Joshua Bravo
      Background This preliminary study examined the effects of an 8-week supervised reactive balance training program on reaction time and foot speed, static balance and balance confidence in healthy older adults compared to an exercise control group. Methods Twenty-five older adults were randomly assigned to a reactive balance training group (QuickBoard; n = 12; 71.0 ± 8.6 years) or a stationary cycling group (control; n = 13; 70.2 ± 6.0 years). Both groups were tested for foot reaction time, foot speed, static balance, and balance confidence at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 4-week follow-up. Results Results indicated significant improvements in QuickBoard foot reaction time and speed in both groups with greater improvements in the QuickBoard group. However, no group difference was found in static balance performance. Conclusion Although the improvements in reaction time and foot speed may be beneficial for fall and trip prevention, the implications of the current findings for trip avoidance and performance of daily tasks are unclear.


      PubDate: 2014-09-22T02:19:50Z
       
  • Effect of different stretching strategies on the kinetics of vertical
           jumping in female volleyball athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Nicholas T. Kruse , Marcus W. Barr , Roger M. Gilders , Michael R. Kushnick , Sharon R. Rana
      Purpose The present study aimed to examine the effect of static stretching (SS) and a sport-specific dynamic stretching (DS) session at two specific post-stretch time intervals in highly trained female athletes (age 19.9 ± 1.60 years; height 1.80 ± 0.06 m; mass 76.87 ± 9.95 kg) on kinetic parameters of peak force, time-to-takeoff and rate of force development. Methods The data were collected over 3 days (randomized within subject design with control session). Following each stretch session (SS vs. DS vs. control) of equal duration (7 min total: 30 s per targeted muscle group) participants performed countermovement jumping on a force platform at 1 and 15 min after stretching. Results The DS session significantly improved upon kinetic variables of rate of force development, peak force and time-to-takeoff relative to SS at 1 min after stretching. No significant effect was found at 15 min. Conclusions Together these findings suggest that when training and competing to jump quickly and maximally the female athlete should incorporate DS instead of SS as part of their pre-competition warm-up, but conduct performance within 15 min of their warm-up to elicit maximal gains.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T00:45:00Z
       
  • Editorial board

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 3, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2014-09-01T23:39:19Z
       
  • Concussion management in soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jason P. Mihalik , Robert C. Lynall , Elizabeth F. Teel , Kevin A. Carneiro
      Brain injuries in sports drew more and more public attentions in recent years. Brain injuries vary by name, type, and severity in the athletic setting. It should be noted, however, that these injuries are not isolated to only the athletic arena, as non-athletic mechanisms (e.g., motor vehicle crashes) are more common causes of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among teenagers. Notwithstanding, as many as 1.6 and 3.8 million TBI result from sports each year in the United States alone. These injuries are extremely costly to the global health care system, and make TBI among the most expensive conditions to treat in children. This article serves to define common brain injuries in sport; describe their prevalence, what happens to the brain following injury, how to recognize and manage these injuries, and what you can expect as the athlete recovers. Some return-to-activity considerations for the brain-injured athlete will also be discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-08-11T21:54:16Z
       
  • Effect of turf on the cutting movement of female football players

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gerda Strutzenberger , Hue-Man Cao , Janina Koussev , Wolfgang Potthast , Gareth Irwin
      Purpose The globalisation of artificial turf and the increase in player participation has driven the need to examine injury risk in the sport of football. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface-player interaction in female football players between natural and artificial turf. Methods Eight university level female football players performed an unanticipated cutting manoeuver at an angle of 30° and 60°, on a regulation natural grass pitch (NT) and a 3G artificial turf pitch (AT). An automated active maker system (CodaSport CXS System, 200Hz) quantified 3D joint angles at the ankle and knee during the early deceleration phase of the cutting, defined from foot strike to weight acceptance at 20% of the stance phase. Differences were statistically examined using a two-way (cutting angle, surface) ANOVA, with an α level of p < 0.05 and Cohen’s d effect size reported. Results A trend was observed on the AT, with a reduction in knee valgus and internal rotation, suggesting a reduced risk of knee injury. This findings highlight that AT is no worse than NT and may have the potential to reduce the risk of knee injury. The ankle joint during foot strike showed large effects for an increase dorsiflexion and inversion on AT. A large effect for an increase during weight acceptance was observed for ankle inversion and external rotation on AT. Conclusion These findings provide some support for the use of AT in female football, with no evidence to suggests that there is an increased risk of injury when performing on an artificial turf. The ankle response was less clear and further research is warranted. This initial study provides a platform for more detailed analysis, and highlights the importance of exploring the biomechanical changes in performance and injury risk with the introduction of AT.


      PubDate: 2014-08-11T21:54:16Z
       
  • Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition,
           aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20-45

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Luke J. Connolly , Suzanne Scott , Magni Mohr , Giorgos Ermidis , Ross Julian , Jens Bangsbo , Sarah R. Jackman , Joanna L. Bowtell , Rosemary C. Davies , Susan J. Hopkins , Richard Seymour , Karen M. Knapp , Peter Krustrup , Jonathan Fulford
      Purpose The present study investigated the effects of 16 weeks of small-volume, small-sided soccer training (soccer group (SG) n = 13) and oscillating whole-body vibration training (vibration group (VG) n = 17) on body composition, aerobic fitness and muscle PCr kinetics in healthy inactive premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group (CO) (n = 14). Methods Training for SG and VG consisted of twice-weekly 15-min sessions with average heart rates (HR) of ∼155 and 90 bpm respectively. Pre- and post-measurements of body composition (DXA), phosphocreatine (PCr) on- and off-kinetics and HR measurements during standardised submaximal exercise were performed. Results After 16 weeks of training in SG, fat percentage was lowered (p = 0.03) by 1.7% ± 2.4 % from 37.5% ± 6.9% to 35.8% ± 6.2% and the PCr decrease in the quadriceps during knee-extension ramp exercise was attenuated (4% ± 8%, p = 0.04), with no changes in VG or CO (time-group effect: p = 0.03 and p = 0.03). Submaximal exercise HR was also reduced in SG after 16 weeks of training (7% ± 5% of HRmax, p = 0.01). Conclusion Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.


      PubDate: 2014-08-11T21:54:16Z
       
  • Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk
           factors, and prevention programs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Boyi Dai , Dewei Mao , William E. Garrett , Bing Yu
      Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that is connected to ACL loading mechanisms, and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.


      PubDate: 2014-07-31T20:49:39Z
       
  • The relative age effect has no influence on match outcome in youth soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Donald T. Kirkendall
      Purpose In age-restricted youth sport, the over-selection of athletes born in the first quarter of the year and under-selection of athletes born in the last quarter of the year has been called the relative age effect (RAE). Its existence in youth sports like soccer is well established. Why it occurs has not been identified, however, one thought is that older players, generally taller and heavier, are thought to improve the team’s chances of winning. To test this assumption, birth dates and match outcome were correlated to see if teams with the oldest mean age had a systematic advantage against teams with younger mean ages. Methods Player birth dates and team records (n = 5943 players on 371 teams; both genders; U11-U16) were obtained from the North Carolina Youth Soccer Association for the highest level of statewide youth competition. Results The presence of an RAE was demonstrated with significant oversampling from players born in the 1st vs. the 4th quarter (overall: 29.6% vs. 20.9% respectively, p < 0.0001). Mean team age was regressed on match outcomes (winning %, points/match, points/goal, and goals for, against, and goal difference), but there was no evidence of any systematic influence of mean team age and match outcomes, except possibly in U11 males. Conclusion Selecting players based on physical maturity (and subsequently, on age) does not appear to have any systematic influence on match outcome or season record in youth soccer suggesting that the selection process should be focused on player ability and not on physical maturation.


      PubDate: 2014-07-31T20:49:39Z
       
  • Principle and practices of training for soccer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ryland Morgans , Patrick Orme , Liam Anderson , Barry Drust
      The complexity of the physical demands of soccer requires the completion of a multi-component training programme. The development, planning, and implementation of such a programme is difficult due partly to the practical constraints related to the competitive schedule at the top level. The effective planning and organisation of training is therefore crucial to the effective delivery of the training stimulus for both individual players and the team. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the principles of training that can be used to prepare players for the physical demands of soccer. Information relating to periodisation is supported by an outline of the strategies used to deliver the acute training stress in a soccer environment. The importance of monitoring to support the planning process is also reviewed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-31T20:49:39Z
       
  • Effects of carbohydrate supplements on exercise-induced menstrual
           dysfunction and ovarian subcellular structural changes in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Can Zhao , Xiao-Li Liu , Run-Xiao Hong , He Li , Rena Li , Ren-Wei Wang
      Background Exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (EAMD) is a common health problem in female athletes as a part of female athlete triad (FAT), a condition related to low energy availability. In this study, we explored the possibility that carbohydrate supplements can improve the status of EAMD and prevent exercise-induced ovarian injury in a FAT rat model. This research aimed to provide experimental evidence with regard to the relationship of energy intervention and EAMD. Methods Forty-five female Sprague–Dawley rats (2 months old) were randomly divided into five experimental groups: control group (C), 9-week exercise as model for EAMD (E), post-EAMD recovery group (R), oligosaccharide intervention group (O), and glucose intervention group (G). All rats were sacrificed at the end of 9 weeks. Serum samples were collected for measuring gonadotropin releasing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, 17β-estradiol and progesterone levels. The ovaries were taken for investigation of exercise- and carbohydrate-induced follicular subcellular structure changes. Results Exercise induced irregular menstrual cycles and ovary subcellular structural damages, such as swollenness of mitochondrial in rats from groups E and R. Both glucose and oligosaccharide supplements restored well-differentiated mitochondria in the ovarian follicular cells, and a significant improvement of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi in swollenness in theca cells in groups O and G compared to groups C, E, and R. There was no difference in mitochondria subcellular structural changes between groups O and G. Group E showed attenuation of serum levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone compared to C. There were no differences of 17β-estradiol serum levels among groups O, G, and R, while group G showed a lower level of progesterone than C. Conclusion Female adult rats with 9-week continuous exercise can cause menstrual dysregulation as a model for EAMD. Post-EAMD intervention with glucose and oligosaccharide intake can normalize the menstrual cycle, restore the follicular subcellular structure, and reverse the exercise-induced reduction of ovary sex hormones. It suggests a positive feedback of hypothalamus–pituitary–ovarian axis might be involved in the molecular mechanisms of energy intake in treating EAMD.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Women's health in exercise and aging: What do we know?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rena Li



      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve
           cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kiran Chaudhari , Jessica M. Wong , Philip H. Vann , Nathalie Sumien
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if antioxidant supplementation, moderate exercise, and the combination of both treatments could ameliorate cognitive performance in adult mice and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype as well as sex could influence the functional outcomes of the treatments. Methods For a period of 16 weeks, separate groups of male and female mice expressing either the human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms were fed either a control diet (NIH-31) or the control diet supplemented with vitamins E and C (1.12 IU/g diet α-tocopheryl acetate and 1.65 mg/g ascorbic acid). The mice were further separated into a sedentary group or a group that followed a daily exercise regimen. After 8 weeks on the treatments, the mice were administered a battery of functional tests including tests to measure cognitive and affective function. Results There was no effect of genotype or treatment on the learning performance in the Morris water maze. In the discriminated avoidance task, APOE4 mice performed better in learning the discrimination component of the task. Overall, exercise improved performance of APOE4 and APOE3 mice on various aspects of the active avoidance task. Antioxidant supplementation improved performance only in the APOE4 mice. On the test for anxiety, APOE4 mice spent more time in the open arms and supplementation with antioxidant reversed that effect. Conclusion Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Sex differences in exercise and drug addiction: A mini review of animal
           studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yuehui Zhou , Chenglin Zhou , Rena Li
      Growing literature has demonstrated that exercise may be an effective prevention and treatment option for drug addiction. In the past few years, many studies have suggested that there were sex differences in all phases of drug addiction. However, very limited research has investigated sex differences in the effectiveness of exercise intervention in drug addiction and rehabilitation. In this mini review, we summarize the effect of sex on the results of using exercise to prevent and treat drug addiction. The studies we consider span various animal models and use multiple types of exercise to examine the effectiveness of exercise on the neurobiological mechanism of exercise rehabilitation. We believe that exercise as an adjuvant intervention strategy can be applied better in drug addiction prevention and recovery.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Women and exercise in aging

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kristina L. Kendall , Ciaran M. Fairman
      Aging is associated with physiological declines, notably a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and lean body mass, with a concurrent increase in body fat and central adiposity. Interest in women and aging is of particular interest partly as a result of gender specific responses to aging, particularly as a result of menopause. It is possible that the onset of menopause may augment the physiological decline associated with aging and inactivity. More so, a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (an accumulation of cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose) has been shown in middle-aged women during the postmenopausal period. This is due in part to the drastic changes in body composition, as previously discussed, but also a change in physical activity (PA) levels. Sarcopenia is an age related decrease in the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle fibers that consequently leads to a decline in physical function, gait speed, balance, coordination, decreased BMD, and quality of life. PA plays an essential role in combating physiological decline associated with aging. Maintenance of adequate levels of PA can result in increased longevity, and a reduced risk for metabolic disease along with other chronic diseases. The aim of this paper is to review relevant literature, examine current PA guidelines, and provide recommendations specific to women based on current research.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Why women see differently from the way men see? A review of sex
           differences in cognition and sports

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rena Li
      The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire life span. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory – especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Muscle capacity and physical function in older women: What are the impacts
           of resistance training?

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Anne O. Brady , Chad R. Straight
      The number of older adults (individuals ≥65 years), particularly women, in our society is increasing and understanding the impact of exercise on muscle capacity (e.g., strength and power) and subsequently physical function is of utmost importance to prevent disability and maintain independence. Muscle capacity declines with age and this change negatively impacts physical function in older women. Exercise, specifically resistance training, is recommended to counteract these declines; however, the synergistic relationships between exercise, muscle capacity, and physical function are poorly understood. This review will summarize the literature regarding age-related changes in the aforementioned variables and review the research on the impact of resistance training interventions on muscle capacity and physical function in older women. Recommendations for future research in this area will be discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • The acute effects of vibration stimulus following FIFA 11+ on agility and
           reactive strength in collegiate soccer players

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ross Cloak , Alan Nevill , Julian Smith , Matthew Wyon
      Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effects of combining the FIFA 11+ and acute vibration training on reactive strength index (RSI) and 505 agility. Methods Seventy-four male collegiate soccer players took part in the study and were randomly assigned to FIFA 11+ with acute vibration group (FIFA + WBV), FIFA 11+ with isometric squat group (FIFA + IS) or a control group consisting of the FIFA 11+ alone (Con). The warm-up consisted of the FIFA 11+ and was administered to all participants. The participants in the acute vibration group were exposed to 30 s whole body vibration in squat position immediately post warm-up. The isometric group completed an isometric squat for 30 s immediately post warm-up. Results RSI significantly improved pre- to post- intervention amongst FIFA + WBV (p < 0.001) due to a decrease in contact time (p < 0.001) in comparison to FIFA + IS and Con, but 505 agility was not affected. Conclusion The results of this study suggest the inclusion of an acute bout of WBV post FIFA 11+ warm-up produces a neuromuscular response leading to an improvement in RSI. Future research is required to examine the exact mechanisms behind these improvements amongst other populations and over time course of the performance.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
  • Stress hormonal analysis in elite soccer players during a season

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yiannis Michailidis
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in some hormonal parameters (cortisol, testosterone, ratio of testosterone/cortisol) in professional soccer players during a season. Methods Fifteen professional players from a soccer club of the first division of the Greek soccer league participated. All sport medical examinations were conducted four times: before the re-building period, post re-building period, mid-season, and after finishing the competition phase. Results For testosterone, significant differences were observed between the end season and post re-building period (11.6%; p < 0.05) and mid-season (12.1%; p < 0.05). The cortisol concentration increased at mid-season by approximately 23%, and this change differed significantly from all other measurements for this hormone. The T/C ratio increased at the post re-building period and decreased at the middle of the season. Conclusion These hormones and their ratios could be used as stress and recovery state indicators. Coaches can use these parameters in combination with other indicators to optimize workloads, and to avoid overreaching and overtraining.


      PubDate: 2014-07-25T20:28:35Z
       
 
 
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