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Journal Cover Journal of Sport and Health Science
  [SJR: 0.513]   [H-I: 9]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2095-2546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Physical activity, aging, and health in China: Addressing public health
           needs in the presence of continued economic growth and urbanization

    • Authors: Fuzhong Li; Yu Liu; Peter A. Harmer
      Pages: 253 - 254
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li, Yu Liu, Peter Harmer


      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Step it up: Advancing physical activity research to promote healthy aging
           in China

    • Authors: Ding Ding; Hua Fu; Adrian E. Bauman
      Pages: 255 - 257
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ding Ding, Hua Fu, Adrian E. Bauman


      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Health benefits of traditional chinese sports and physical activity for
           older adults: a systematic review of evidence

    • Authors: Yucheng Guo; Haiyang Shi; Dinghai Yu; Pixiang Qiu
      Pages: 270 - 280
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yucheng Guo, Haiyang Shi, Dinghai Yu, Pixiang Qiu
      Background Traditional Chinese sports and physical activities (PAs) have a long history and are practiced by millions of Chinese. However, relatively little systematic review of the scientific evidence for their health benefits, especially for older Chinese adults, has been undertaken. Evidence acquisition Between January and March 2016, a systematic search was conducted using the CNKI and PubMed databases to identify studies published between 2000 and 2015. Studies were selected for review if they were designed specifically to evaluate the health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and PAs in adults aged 50 years and older in the mainland of China. The studies included observational, uncontrolled, and randomized and controlled designs. Papers published without an English title or abstract were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search identified a total of 229 studies. After removing duplicates and studies that did not meet inclusion/exclusion criteria, 95 studies were selected for review. Special attention was given to studies of the most commonly practiced activities: Tai Ji Quan, Qigong, and Yangko exercises. A positive association between these types of exercise and health benefits was noted for healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases. Evidence on other types of activities was less clear due to the limited number of studies conducted. Conclusion There is promising evidence that traditional Chinese sports and PAs provide many health benefits for older Chinese adults. While additional scientifically rigorous research is warranted, promoting these traditional and culturally-based sports and PAs as forms of behavioral medicine in primary and secondary prevention of diseases among the aging Chinese population will help fulfill an urgent public health need.

      PubDate: 2016-07-13T15:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Physical activity among older Chinese adults living in urban and rural
           areas: A review

    • Authors: Wenfei Zhu; Aiping Chi; Yuliang Sun
      Pages: 281 - 286
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Wenfei Zhu, Aiping Chi, Yuliang Sun
      With an increase in rural-to-urban migration, a rapidly aging population, and the rising risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in China, it is important to understand the epidemiology of physical activity (PA) and health in the context of disease prevention and population health. Despite its public health importance, there is a significant lack of knowledge about PA in older Chinese adults that may hamper primary prevention efforts of health promotion in an increasingly aging population. To fill this gap, this article presents a narrative review of PA in the older Chinese adult population with a special focus on residential settings (i.e., urban and rural). Using existing studies, the review examines overall PA patterns and their correlates and discusses public health implications and future research. Although there are some preliminary indications of urban and rural differences in PA in the aging population in China, continued research efforts are needed to facilitate primary prevention efforts aimed at reducing noncommunicable diseases and promoting an active lifestyle among the largest population of older people in the world.

      PubDate: 2016-07-13T15:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Physical activity and cognitive function among older adults in china: a
           systematic review

    • Authors: Jiaojiao Lü; Weijie Fu; Yu Liu
      Pages: 287 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jiaojiao Lü, Weijie Fu, Yu Liu
      Background Physical activity has been shown to benefit cognitive function in older adults. However, the cognitive benefits of exercising for older Chinese adults have not been systematically documented. This study was to conduct a systematic review on evidence that physical activity (PA) is beneficial for cognitive functioning in older Chinese adults. Evidence acquisition Major databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WanFang, CNKI, and WeiPu, were searched for studies published in English or Chinese between January 2000 and December 2015. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies that evaluated PA and cognitive function among older Chinese adults were included in this review. Results Of 53 studies included and reviewed, 33 were observational (22 cross-sectional, 7 case-control, and 4 cohort) and 20 were experimental (15 randomized controlled trials, 5 nonrandomized control trials). Observational studies showed an association of reduced risk of cognitive-related diseases (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia) through PA, whereas experimental studies reported exercise-induced improvement in multiple domains of cognitive function (i.e., global cognitive function, memory, executive function, attention, language, and processing recourse). Conclusion This systematic review provides initial evidence that PA may benefit cognition in older Chinese adults. Further studies of individuals with cognitive impairments and prospective and randomized control trial studies having high scientific rigor are needed to corroborate the findings reported in this review.

      PubDate: 2016-07-13T15:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Effects of Tai Ji Quan training on gait kinematics in older Chinese women
           with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Qingguang Zhu; Lingyan Huang; Xie Wu; Lin Wang; Yunya Zhang; Min Fang; Yu Liu; Jing Xian Li
      Pages: 297 - 303
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Qingguang Zhu, Lingyan Huang, Xie Wu, Lin Wang, Yunya Zhang, Min Fang, Yu Liu, Jing Xian Li
      Background Although Tai Ji Quan has been shown to relieve pain and improve functional mobility in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA), little is known about its potential benefits on gait characteristics among older Chinese women who have a high prevalence of both radiographic and symptomatic knee OA. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a tailored Tai Ji Quan intervention on gait kinematics for older Chinese women with knee OA. Methods A randomized controlled trial involving 46 older women in Shanghai, China, with clinically diagnosed knee OA. Randomized (1:1) participants received either a 60 min Tai Ji Quan session (n = 23) 3 times weekly or a 60 min bi-weekly educational session (n = 23) for 24 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in gait kinematic measures from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes included changes in scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results After 24 weeks the Tai Ji Quan group demonstrated better performance in gait velocity (mean difference, 8.40 cm/s, p = 0.01), step length (mean difference, 3.52 cm, p = 0.004), initial contact angle (mean difference, 2.19°, p = 0.01), and maximal angle (mean difference, 2.61°, p = 0.003) of flexed knees during stance phase compared to the control group. In addition, the Tai Ji Quan group showed significant improvement in WOMAC scores (p < 0.01) (mean difference, −4.22 points in pain, p = 0.002; −2.41 points in stiffness, p < 0.001; −11.04 points in physical function, p = 0.006) and SPPB scores (mean difference, 1.22 points, p < 0.001). Conclusion Among older Chinese women with knee OA, a tailored Tai Ji Quan intervention improved gait outcomes. The intervention also improved overall function as indexed by the WOMAC and SPPB. These results support the use of Tai Ji Quan for older Chinese adults with knee OA to both improve their functional mobility and reduce pain symptomatology.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.02.003
       
  • Recruitment of older adults into randomized controlled trials: Issues and
           lessons learned from two community-based exercise interventions in
           Shanghai

    • Authors: Lingyan Huang; Jiaojiao Lü; Nan Chen; Yu Liu
      Pages: 308 - 314
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lingyan Huang, Jiaojiao Lü, Nan Chen, Yu Liu
      Background With the increasing need for high-quality exercise interventions in China, relatively little is known about issues and challenges related to recruitment of older Chinese adults into exercise-based disease prevention interventions. This study aims to describe the recruitment process and outcomes of 2 exercise interventions conducted in Shanghai, China. Methods Recruitment information was ascertained from 2 community-based randomized controlled trials for 2 exercise interventions, the first designed to improve health outcomes for older women with knee osteoarthritis and the second to study changes in cognitive function in adults with mild cognitive impairment. Results were summarized in terms of recruitment sources, number screened, screening-to-enrollment ratios, and costs. Results Recruitment was primarily achieved through working with local residential divisions (i.e., neighborhood associations and residential committees). Both studies achieved their planned target number of older adults (aged: 45-46 years) within a 1-year time frame, with a screening-to-randomized ratio of 5:1 and demonstrated excellent retention rates (range 87%-93%) at 6 months. The recruitment cost for the 2 studies averaged 189 RMB (about 30 USD) per initial recruit and 738 RMB (about119USD) per participant randomized. Some major issues encountered during the recruitment process included (1) the use of community neighborhoods to support the conduct of the projects, (2) access to participants, and (3) feasibility. Conclusion Analysis of the 2 randomized controlled trials has provided valuable insights into the recruitment process and identified resources that can help better planning and recruitment for future interventions. Recommendations aimed at increasing the success of future recruitment efforts are provided.

      PubDate: 2016-07-18T14:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.009
       
  • Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual
           physical activity among older Chinese adults: A social–ecological
           perspective

    • Authors: Xiangren Yi; Zachary Pope; Zan Gao; Shumei Wang; Fang Pan; Jingpeng Yan; Meng Liu; Peipei Wu; Jingjing Xu; Rui Wang
      Pages: 315 - 321
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Xiangren Yi, Zachary Pope, Zan Gao, Shumei Wang, Fang Pan, Jingpeng Yan, Meng Liu, Peipei Wu, Jingjing Xu, Rui Wang
      Purpose To examine, within a social–ecological framework, associations between multifaceted individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity (HPA) among older Chinese adults. Methods Through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, a survey instrument assessing various factors underlying 3 social–ecological dimensions of intrapersonal, interpersonal, community and environmental resources was developed. Using a cross-sectional design, older adults (n = 1,580, age 67 ± 7 years) recruited from 10 communities in Shandong province completed the social–ecological survey of HPA. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. Results Factors related to intrapersonal (medical knowledge, motivation, physical function, sport skills, socioeconomic status, education), interpersonal (social support, social activity, social norms), and community and physical environmental resources (safety, capacity, availability of and access to physical activity facilities) were found to be significantly associated with older adults' participation in HPA. Conclusion The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active.

      PubDate: 2016-07-03T12:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.06.010
       
  • Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis mechanisms and prevention: A literature
           review

    • Authors: Jooyoung Kim; Joohyung Lee; Sojung Kim; Ho Young Ryu; Kwang Suk Cha; Dong Jun Sung
      Pages: 324 - 333
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jooyoung Kim, Joohyung Lee, Sojung Kim, Ho Young Ryu, Kwang Suk Cha, Dong Jun Sung
      Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis (exRML), a pathophysiological condition of skeletal muscle cell damage that may cause acute renal failure and in some cases death. Increased Ca2+ level in cells along with functional degradation of cell signaling system and cell matrix have been suggested as the major pathological mechanisms associated with exRML. The onset of exRML may be exhibited in athletes as well as in general population. Previous studies have reported that possible causes of exRML were associated with excessive eccentric contractions in high temperature, abnormal electrolytes balance, and nutritional deficiencies possible genetic defects. However, the underlying mechanisms of exRML have not been clearly established among health professionals or sports medicine personnel. Therefore, we reviewed the possible mechanisms and correlated prevention of exRML, while providing useful and practical information for the athlete and general exercising population.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.012
       
  • Scientific evidence is just the starting point: A generalizable process
           for developing sports injury prevention interventions

    • Authors: Alex Donaldson; David G. Lloyd; Belinda J. Gabbe; Jill Cook; Warren Young; Peta White; Caroline F. Finch
      Pages: 334 - 341
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Belinda J. Gabbe, Jill Cook, Warren Young, Peta White, Caroline F. Finch
      Background The 2 most cited sports injury prevention research frameworks incorporate intervention development, yet little guidance is available in the sports science literature on how to undertake this complex process. This paper presents a generalizable process for developing implementable sports injury prevention interventions, including a case study applying the process to develop a lower limb injury prevention exercise training program (FootyFirst) for community Australian football. Methods The intervention development process is underpinned by 2 complementary premises: (1) that evidence-based practice integrates the best available scientific evidence with practitioner expertise and end-user values and (2) that research evidence alone is insufficient to develop implementable interventions. Results The generalizable 6-step intervention development process involves (1) compiling research evidence, clinical experience, and knowledge of the implementation context; (2) consulting with experts; (3) engaging with end users; (4) testing the intervention; (5) using theory; and (6) obtaining feedback from early implementers. Following each step, intervention content and presentation should be revised to ensure that the final intervention includes evidence-informed content that is likely to be adopted, properly implemented, and sustained over time by the targeted intervention deliverers. For FootyFirst, this process involved establishing a multidisciplinary intervention development group, conducting 2 targeted literature reviews, undertaking an online expert consensus process, conducting focus groups with program end users, testing the program multiple times in different contexts, and obtaining feedback from early implementers of the program. Conclusions This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.

      PubDate: 2016-08-06T19:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.003
       
  • The effect of high and low exercise intensity periods on a simple memory
           recognition test

    • Authors: Ben Rattray; Disa J. Smee
      Pages: 342 - 348
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ben Rattray, Disa J. Smee
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of variable intensities on a simple memory recognition task during exercise. Methods Twenty active participants took part in initial testing, a familiarization trial and then four 60 min cycling interventions in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of no exercise (control), constant exercise at 90% ventilatory threshold (constant) and 2 trials that initially mimicked the constant trial, but then included periods of high (∼90% VO 2 peak ) and low intensities (∼50% VO 2 peak ). Cardiorespiratory measures and capillary blood samples were taken throughout. A short tablet-based cognitive task was completed prior to and during (50 and 55 min into exercise) each intervention. Results The exercise conditions facilitated response time (p = 0.009), although the extent of this effect was not as strong in the variable exercise conditions (p = 0.011–0.089). High intensity exercise periods resulted in some cognitive regression back towards control trial performance. Elevations in cardiorespiratory measures and periods of hypocapnia could not explain changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion Changes in cognitive performance with variations in exercise intensity are likely to have implications for sport and occupational settings. The timing of cognitive tests to exercise intensity changes as well as use of short cognitive assessments will be important for future work.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.005
       
  • Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in
           Stockholm Marathon 1979–2014

    • Authors: Niklas Lehto
      Pages: 349 - 354
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Niklas Lehto
      Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the age-related changes in the endurance performance among male amateur marathon runners. Methods Subjects were taken from the 36 Stockholm Marathons held from 1979 through 2014, and age and finishing time were analyzed for a total of 312,342 male runners. Results The relation was found to be a second-order polynomial, t = a + bx + cx 2, which models 99.7% of the variation in the average running time t as a function of age x. The model shows that the marathon performance of the average runner improves up to age 34.3 ± 2.6 years, thereafter, the performance starts to decline. A quantification of the age's influence on running time shows that it accounts for 4.5% of the total variance seen in the performance data. Conclusion These outcomes indicate that the effect of age on performance in endurance running events is clearly measurable, quantifiable, and possible to describe. At the same time the findings indicate that other factors, such as training, affect the performance more. A comparison with the elite showed peak performance at the same age, but the rates of change in performance with age, improvement as well as degradation, was found to be higher among the elite.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.008
       
  • The effects of artificial surface temperature on mechanical properties and
           player kinematics during landing and acceleration

    • Authors: Laura Charalambous; Hans Christian von Lieres und Wilkau; Wolfgang Potthast; Gareth Irwin
      Pages: 355 - 360
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Laura Charalambous, Hans Christian von Lieres und Wilkau, Wolfgang Potthast, Gareth Irwin
      Background Artificial turf is considered a feasible global alternative to natural turf by many sports governing bodies. Consequently, its ability to provide a safe and consistent playing surface regardless of climate becomes essential. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of artificial surface temperature on: (1) mechanical properties of the turf and (2) the kinematics of a turf-sport related movement. Methods Two identical artificial turf pitches were tested: one with a cold surface temperature (1.8°C–2.4°C) and one with a warm surface temperature (14.5°C–15.2°C). Mechanical testing was performed to measure the surface properties. Four amateur soccer players performed a hurdle jump to sprint acceleration movement, with data (contact time, step length and hip, knee and ankle kinematics) collected using CODASport (200 Hz). Results The temperature difference had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of the artificial turf, including force absorption, energy restitution, rotational resistance, and the height where the head injury criterion was met. Both step length (p = 0.008) and contact time (p = 0.002) of the initial step after the landing were significantly longer on the warm surface. In addition, significant range of motion and joint angular velocity differences were found. Conclusion These findings highlight different demands placed on players due to the surface temperature and suggest a need for coaches, practitioners, and sports governing bodies to be aware of these differences.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.013
       
  • A comparison of base running and sliding techniques in collegiate baseball
           with implications for sliding into first base

    • Authors: Travis Ficklin; Jesus Dapena; Alexander Brunfeldt
      Pages: 361 - 367
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Travis Ficklin, Jesus Dapena, Alexander Brunfeldt
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare 4 techniques for arrival at a base after sprinting maximally to reach it: sliding head-first, sliding feet-first, running through the base without slowing, and stopping on the base. A secondary purpose of the study was to determine any advantage there may be to diving into first base to arrive sooner than running through the base. Methods Two high-definition video cameras were used to capture 3-dimensional kinematics of sliding techniques of 9 intercollegiate baseball players. Another video camera was used to time runs from first base to second in 4 counterbalanced conditions: running through the base, sliding head-first, sliding feet-first, and running to a stop. Mathematical modeling was used to simulate diving to first base such that the slide would begin when the hand touches the base. Results Based upon overall results, the quickest way to the base is by running through it, followed by head-first, feet-first, and running to a stop. Conclusion There was a non-significant trend toward an advantage for diving into first base over running through it, but more research is needed, and even if the advantage is real, the risks of executing this technique probably outweigh the miniscule gain.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.03.008
       
  • Nutritional supplements use in high-performance athletes is related with
           lower nutritional inadequacy from food

    • Authors: Mónica Sousa; Maria J. Fernandes; Pedro Carvalho; José Soares; Pedro Moreira; Vitor Hugo Teixeira
      Pages: 368 - 374
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mónica Sousa, Maria J. Fernandes, Pedro Carvalho, José Soares, Pedro Moreira, Vitor Hugo Teixeira
      Background The use of nutritional supplements (NS) among athletes is widespread. However, little is known about the relationship between nutritional adequacy and NS usage. The aims of this study were to evaluate the NS usage and to compare the nutritional intake from food and prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy (PMI) between NS users and non-users. Methods Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed an NS usage questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire assessing information over the previous 12 months. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was used to calculate PMI. General linear models were used to compare nutritional intake and NS usage. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were performed to study, respectively, relationships and associations between PMI and NS usage. Results From the 244 athletes (66% males, 13–37 years), 64% reported NS usage. After adjustment, NS users showed a higher intake from food (p < 0.05), for at least 1 gender, for energy, and for 7 of the 17 studied nutrients. The highest PMI were seen for vitamins D and E, calcium, folate, and magnesium. After adjustment, NS users, irrespective of gender, reported lower PMI for calcium (OR = 0.28, 95%CI: 0.12–0.65), and female users for magnesium (OR = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.00–0.98). Conclusion Athletes using NS reported a higher nutritional intake from food, and a lower PMI for several nutrients. Perhaps, those who were taking NS were probably the ones who would least benefit from it.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.006
       
  • Defensive pressure affects basketball technical actions but not the
           time-motion variables

    • Authors: Jaime Sampaio; Roland Leser; Arnold Baca; Julio Calleja-Gonzalez; Diogo Coutinho; Bruno Gonçalves; Nuno Leite
      Pages: 375 - 380
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jaime Sampaio, Roland Leser, Arnold Baca, Julio Calleja-Gonzalez, Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Nuno Leite
      Background Novel player tracking technologies can change the understanding of performance determinants in team sports by allowing to accurately measuring the activity demands. The aim of this study was to identify how the defensive pressure affects the time-motion variables and the technical actions in basketball. Methods Twenty international male players (age: 16.05 ± 2.09 years, weight: 73.13 ± 8.10 kg, height: 183.10 ± 5.88 cm) played two 10 min basketball quarters, where they used a man-to-man 1/4-court defense until the 4th min (F1/4), changed to man-to-man full court (FULL) for 3 min and, from the 7th to the 10th min returned to 1/4-court defense (S1/4). A computerized notational analysis was performed using Simi Scout and positional data were captured with the Ubisense Real Time Location System (mean sampling rate 3.74 ± 0.45 Hz per transmitter/player). Results The time-motion variables presented similar results between defensive conditions, showing a total distance covered around 90 m/min. However, results suggested possible vertical jump impairments in S1/4 periods. There was more distance covered while jogging in the offensive court (38.15 ± 12.17 m/min offensive court vs. 32.94 ± 10.84 m/min defensive court, p < 0.05) and more distance covered while running in the defensive court (16.41 ± 10.27 m/min offensive court vs. 19.56 ± 10.29 m/min defensive court, p < 0.05). Conclusion These results suggest how to improve task representativeness during specific conditioning or game-based training situations and also to help coaches' strategic decisions during the games.

      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.01.011
       
  • Does playing a sports active video game improve object-control skills of
           children with autism spectrum disorder?

    • Authors: Jacqueline Edwards; Sarah Jeffre; Sarah Jeffre; Nicole J Rinehart; Lisa M Barnett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jacqueline Edwards, Sarah Jeffre, Sarah Jeffre, Nicole J Rinehart, Lisa M Barnett
      Background Active video games (AVGs) encourage whole body movements to interact/control the gaming system, allowing the opportunity for skill development. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show decreased fundamental movement skills in comparison with their typically developing (TD) peers and might benefit from this approach. This pilot study investigates whether playing sports AVGs can increase the actual and perceived object control (OC) skills of 11 children with ASD aged 6-10 in comparison to 19 TD children of a similar age. Feasibility was a secondary aim. Methods Actual (Test of Gross Motor Development) and perceived OC skills (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence) were assessed before and after the intervention (6 × 45 min). Results Actual skill scores were not improved in either group. The ASD group improved in perceived skill. All children completed the required dose and parents reported the intervention was feasible. Conclusion The use of AVGs as a play based intervention may not provide enough opportunity for children to perform the correct movement patterns to influence skill. However, play of such games may influence perceptions of skill ability in children with ASD which could improve motivation to participate in physical activities.

      PubDate: 2016-12-04T01:15:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.004
       
  • Exergaming: Hope for future physical activity? or blight on
           mankind?

    • Authors: Tom Baranowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Tom Baranowski


      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.006
       
  • Twelve weeks of dance exergaming in overweight and obese adolescent girls:
           transfer effects on physical activity, screen-time, and self-efficacy

    • Authors: Amanda E. Staiano; Robbie A. Beyl; Daniel S. Hsia; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Robert L. Newton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Amanda E. Staiano, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robert L. Newton
      Background. Given the low levels of physical activity (PA) among adolescent girls in the US, there is a need to identify tools to motivate increased PA. Although there is limited evidence that adolescents transfer PA from one context to another context, exergames (i.e., video games that require gross motor activity) may act as a gateway to promote overall PA outside of game play. The purpose of this study was to examine potential transfer effects (i.e., influences on external behaviors and psychological constructs) of a 12-week exergaming intervention on adolescent girls' PA, screen-time, and self-efficacy towards PA, as well as the intrinsic motivation of exergaming. Methods. Participants were 37 girls aged 14 -18 years (65% African American, 35% White) who were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) and were recruited from the community via school, physicians, news media, and social media sites. Adolescents were randomly assigned to a 12-week group exergaming intervention (thirty-six 60 min sessions of group-based dance exergaming in a research laboratory using Kinect for Xbox 360) or to a no-treatment control group. Outcome variables included objectively measured PA (total) and self-reported leisure-time PA (discretionary time only) 1-week before vs. 1-week after the intervention; selected type and intensity of PA when placed in a gym setting for 30 min (“cardio free choice”); screen-time; self-efficacy towards PA; and intrinsic motivation towards exergaming. Results. Attendance to the exergaming sessions was high (80%). Compared to the control group, the intervention group self-reported an increase in PA (p = 0.035) and fewer hours watching TV/videos (p = 0.01) after the intervention, but there were no significant differences in sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous PA measured by accelerometry. The intervention group significantly improved self-efficacy towards PA (p = 0.028). The intervention group highly rated intrinsic motivation towards exergaming. Conclusion. Twelve weeks of exergaming was associated with positive impacts on adolescent girls' self-reported PA, television viewing, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation. Future research is warranted to leverage exergames as an enjoyable, motivating, and effective PA tool.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.005
       
  • The effects of a bike active video game on players' physical activity and
           motivation

    • Authors: Denis Pasco; Cédric Roure; Gilles Kermarrec; Zachary Pope; Zan Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Denis Pasco, Cédric Roure, Gilles Kermarrec, Zachary Pope, Zan Gao
      Background Players may not acquire adequate levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) when playing commercial video games. This study's goal was to evaluate the effects of an exercise bike video game played by using a mobile application-based exergame that was designed exclusively to promote participants' MVPA, with additional attention paid to this game's ability to promote greater situational interest. Methods An experimental design was used with 163 students (aged 20.31 ± 1.30, 18-26 years, 61.3% male) all of whom were randomly allocated into an experimental group and a control group. Physical activity(PA) levels were assessed with ActiGraph® GT3X+ accelerometers. The Situational Interest Scale was used to evaluate students' situational interest in both groups. MANOVA was conducted to examine the differences between sedentary behavior, PA levels, and situational interest between groups. Regression analyses were also used, with the purpose being to evaluate the strength of the relationship between PA and situational interest. Results Results revealed that the experimental group had higher sedentary behavior, light PA, total interest, instant enjoyment, exploration intention, attention demand, novelty, and challenge whereas the control group received higher scores for MVPA (control 95.01% vs. experiment 89.94%). Regression analysis indicated that instant enjoyment (β = 0.49, p < 0.01), exploration intention (β = 0.18, p < 0.05), and attention demand (β = 0.17, p < 0.05) were positive predictors for total interest, explaining 43% of its variance. Conclusion A newly designed mobile application-based exergame played via an exercise bike may enhance situational interest and provide decent level of PA for players.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.007
       
  • Fight fire with fire? Promoting physical activity and health through
           active video games

    • Authors: Zan Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zan Gao


      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
       
  • Impact of exergaming on young children's school day energy expenditure and
           moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels

    • Authors: Zan Gao; Zachary Pope; Jung Eun Lee; David Stodden; Nida Roncesvalles; Denis Pasco; Charles C. Huang; Du Feng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Zan Gao, Zachary Pope, Jung Eun Lee, David Stodden, Nida Roncesvalles, Denis Pasco, Charles C. Huang, Du Feng
      Background Although emerging research is demonstrating the potential health impact of exergaming, investigations have primarily been conducted in laboratory settings among small samples with short-term interventions. The effectiveness of exergaming on underserved children's objective physical activity (PA) in population-based settings is also scarce. Moreover, most empirical studies have only included 1 type of exergame in the intervention. Therefore, this study's purpose was to investigate the long-term impact of a multi-game exergaming intervention among underserved children integrated within school curricular. Specifically, this study examined the effect of exergaming on children's accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior (SB), light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and energy expenditure (EE) over 2 years as compared to regular physical education (PE) classes. Methods A total of 261 second and third grade children (134 girls, 127 boys; mean age 8.27 years) were recruited from 2 Texas elementary schools. Children's pre-test 3-day SB, light PA, MVPA, and EE at school was assessed in fall 2012. Participants were assigned to one of 2 groups: (1) exergaming/PE group (125 min weekly exergaming based PA program); and (2) comparison group (125 min weekly PE). PA (SB, light PA, MVPA) and EE outcome variables were assessed again in 2013 (post-test) and 2014 (follow-up). Results Significant Time effects were observed for SB (F(1, 162) = 25.0, p < 0.01, η 2 = 0.14), light PA (F(1, 162) = 9.6, p < 0.01, η 2 = 0.06), MVPA (F(1, 162) = 6.2, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.04) but not EE (F(1, 162) = 0.63, p > 0.05, η 2 = 0.004). Subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed significant increases from pre-test to post-test for light PA (p < 0.01), MVPA (p < 0.01), and EE (p = 0.02) with no changes in SB (p > 0.05). Conversely, significant decreases occurred to light PA (p < 0.01) from post-test to follow-up with no differences seen in MVPA (p = 0.08) and EE (p = 0.06) over the same time period. A significant increase was seen, however, for SB from post-test to follow-up. Conclusion Exergaming/PE can have the same positive effect on children's light PA, MVPA, and EE as PE. More research is necessary to discern how to promote long-term PA participation following intervention conclusion.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T16:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.008
       
  • Kinematic alterations after two high-intensity intermittent training
           protocols in endurance runners

    • Authors: Felipe García-Pinillos; Alejandro Molina-Molina; Juan A. Párraga-Montilla; Pedro A Latorre-Román
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Felipe García-Pinillos, Alejandro Molina-Molina, Juan A. Párraga-Montilla, Pedro A Latorre-Román
      Purpose This study aimed to evaluate running kinematic characteristics during the early and late stages of 2 high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) protocols with similar external load but different average running pace, as well as to compare the fatigue-induced changes during both HIIT protocols at kinematic level. Methods Eighteen endurance runners were tested on a track on 2 occasions: 10 runs of 400 m with 90–120s recovery between running bouts (10 × 400m), and 40 runs of 100 m with 25–30s recovery between runs (40 × 100m). Heart rate (HR) was monitored during both protocols; blood lactate accumulation (BLa) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after both exercises. A high-speed camera was used to measure sagittal-plane kinematics at the first and the last run during both HIIT protocols. The dependent variables were spatial-temporal parameters (step length, and contact and flight time), joint angles during support (relative angles of the hip, knee, and ankle), and foot strike pattern. Results High levels of exhaustion were reached by the athletes during both workouts (BLa>12 mmol/l; RPE>15; HRpeak>176 bpm). A within-protocol paired t test (first vs. last run) revealed no significant changes (p ≥ 0.05) in kinematic variables during any of the HIIT sessions. A between-protocol comparison with the first run of each protocol revealed the effect of running speed on kinematics: +2.44 km/h during the 40 × 100m: shorter contact and flight time (p ≤ 0.01), and longer step length (p = 0.001); greater hip flexion (p = 0.031) and ankle extension (p = 0.001) at initial contact;smaller knee and ankle flexion (p < 0.001) at mid-stance; greater hip extension at toe-off (p < 0.001). Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT sessions including runs for 15–90 s and performed at intensity above velocity associated to maximal oxygen uptake, did not consistently perturb the running kinematics of trained endurance runners.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T15:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.003
       
  • The Effect of Performance Demands on Lower Extremity Biomechanics during
           Landing and Cutting Tasks

    • Authors: Boyi Dai; William E. Garrett; Michael T. Gross; Darin A. Padua; Robin M. Queen; Bing Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Boyi Dai, William E. Garrett, Michael T. Gross, Darin A. Padua, Robin M. Queen, Bing Yu
      Purpose Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur during the early phase of landing and cutting tasks that involve sudden decelerations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of jump height and jump speed on lower extremity biomechanics during a stop-jump task and the effect of cutting speed on lower extremity biomechanics during a side-cutting task. Methods Thirty-six recreational athletes performed a stop-jump task under 3 conditions: jumping fast, jumping for maximum height, and jumping for 60% of maximum height. Participants also performed a side-cutting task under 2 conditions: cutting at maximum speed and cutting at 60% of maximum speed. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected. Results The jumping fast condition resulted in increased peak posterior ground reaction force (PPGRF), knee extension moment at PPGRF, and knee joint stiffness and decreased knee flexion angle compared with the jumping for maximum height condition. The jumping for 60% of maximum height condition resulted in decreased knee flexion angle compared with the jumping for maximum height condition. Participants demonstrated greater PPGRF, knee extension moment at PPGRF, knee valgus angle and varus moment at PPGRF, knee joint stiffness, and knee flexion angle during the cutting at maximum speed condition compared with the cutting at 60% maximum speed condition. Conclusion Performing jump-landing at an increased jump speed resulted in lower extremity movement patterns that have been previously associated with an increase in ACL loading. Cutting speed also affected lower extremity biomechanics. Jump speed and cutting speed need to be considered when designing ACL injury risk screening and injury prevention programs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T15:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.004
       
  • Isokinetic trunk flexion–extension protocol to assess trunk muscle
           strength and endurance: reliability, learning effect and sex differences

    • Authors: María Pilar García-Vaquero; David Barbado; Casto Juan-Recio; Lopez Valenciano; Francisco J. Vera-Garcia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): María Pilar García-Vaquero, David Barbado, Casto Juan-Recio, Lopez Valenciano, Francisco J. Vera-Garcia
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the learning effect of an isokinetic trunk flexion–extension protocol designed to simultaneously assess trunk muscle strength and endurance. In addition, the effect of the participants' sex on the reliability data was also examined. Methods Fifty-seven healthy and physically active young men (n = 28) and women (n = 29) performed the isokinetic protocol five times, separated by a week between each of the first four sessions and by a month between the last two sessions. The protocol consisted in performing four trials of fifteen maximum flexion–extension concentric exertions at 120°/s (range of trunk motion = 50°). The absolute and relative peak torque and total work were calculated to assess trunk flexion and extension strength. In addition, endurance ratio, modified endurance ratio, fatigue final ratio, recovery ratio and modified recovery ratio variables were used for the assessment of trunk muscle endurance in both directions. Results Regarding the absolute reliability, no relevant changes were found between paired-comparison sessions for most strength and endurance variables, except for total work and relative total work variables in the flexion movement in both sexes. In addition, the typical error of the isokinetic variables was lower than 10% in both males and females and minimum detectable changes ranged from 7% to 20%, with a tendency to be higher in females and in endurance variables. The strength variables showed high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC; > 0.74); however, for the endurance variables only the endurance ratio and the modified endurance ratio obtained moderate–high ICC values (0.57 < ICC < 0.82). In addition, the analysis of the variance reported no significant differences between consecutive pairs of sessions for most variables in both sexes. Conclusion Overall, these findings provide clinicians, trainers, and researchers with a 10 min single-session protocol to perform a reliable muscle strength and endurance evaluation of trunk flexor and extensor muscles, all within the same protocol.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T15:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.011
       
  • Influences of load carriage and physical activity history on tibia bone
           strain

    • Authors: He Wang; Mohammad Kia; D. Clark Dickin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): He Wang, Mohammad Kia, D. Clark Dickin
      Background Military recruits are often afflicted with stress fractures. The military's strenuous training programs involving load carriage may contribute to the high incidence of tibia stress fractures in the army. The purpose of this study was to assess the influences of incremented load carriage and history of physical activity on tibia bone strain and strain rate during walking. Methods Twenty recreational basketball players and twenty recreational runners performed 4 walking tasks while carrying 0kg, 15kg, 25kg, and 35kg loads, respectively. Tibia bone strain and strain rate were obtained through subject-specific multi-body dynamic simulations and finite element analyses. Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted. Results The means ± SEs of the runners' bone strain (µs) during load carriages (0kg, 15kg, 25kg, and 35kg) were 658.11±1.61, 804.41±1.96, 924.49±2.23, and 1011.15±2.71 in compression, respectively; and 458.33±1.45, 562.11±1.81, 669.82±2.05, and 733.40±2.52 in tension, respectively. For the basketball players, the incremented load carriages resulted in compressive strain of 634.30±1.56, 746.87±1.90, 842.18±2.16, and 958.24±2.63, respectively; and tensile strain of 440.04±1.41, 518.86±1.75, 597.63±1.99, and 700.15±2.47, respectively. A dose-response relationship exists between incremented load carriage and bone strain and strain rate. A history of regular basketball activity could result in reduced bone strain and strain rate. Conclusion In conclusion, load carriage is a risk factor of tibia stress fracture during basic training. Preventative exercise programs, such as basketball, that involved of multi-directional mechanical loading to the tibia bones can be implemented for military recruits before the basic training commences.

      PubDate: 2016-11-12T22:08:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.012
       
  • Fairness in Olympic sports: How can we control the increasing complexity
           of doping use in high performance sports?

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog


      PubDate: 2016-11-12T22:08:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.009
       
  • Does knowledge of physical activity recommendations increase physical
           activity among chinese college students? empirical investigations based on
           the transtheoretical model

    • Authors: Kahar Abula; Peter Gröpel; Kai Chen; Jürgen Beckmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Kahar Abula, Peter Gröpel, Kai Chen, Jürgen Beckmann
      Background Based on the transtheoretical model, the current study investigated whether awareness of physical activity (PA) recommendations had an impact on the stages of PA behavior change and levels of PA among Chinese college students. Methods In Study 1, with a cross-sectional study design, 9826 students were recruited and their knowledge of international PA recommendations, PA stage distribution and self-reported PA level were surveyed. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to test whether participants aware and not aware of PA guidelines were equally distributed across the stages of PA behavior, and independent ttest was conducted to test the group difference in the actual levels of PA. In Study 2, 279 students who were not aware of the PA recommendations were randomly allocated into either an intervention group or a control group, and only those in the intervention group were presented with international PA guidelines. In both groups, students' PA stages and PA level were examined before the test and then 4 months posttest. McNemar test for correlated proportions and repeated measures ANOVA were conducted to examine the changes in PA stage membership and PA level after the intervention. Results Study 1 results revealed that only 4.4% of the surveyed students had correct knowledge of PA recommendations. Those who were aware of the recommendations were in later stages of PA behavior( χ2(4) = 167.19, p < 0.001). They were also significantly more physically active than those who were not aware of the recommendations(t(443.71) = 9.00, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.53). Study 2 results demonstrated that the intervention group participants who were at the precontemplation and contemplation stages at the pretest each progressed further in the PA stages in the posttest( χ2(1) = 112.06, p < 0.001, χ2(1) = 118.76, p = 0.03, respectively), although no significant change in PA level was observed( t(139) < 1, p = 0.89). Conclusions The results showed that awareness of the PA recommendations was associated with higher stages and levels of PA behavior and a brief educational exposure of PA recommendations led to improved stages of PA behavior but no change in the levels of PA among Chinese college students. More effective public health campaign strategies are needed to promote the dissemination of the PA recommendations and to raise the awareness of the Chinese student population.

      PubDate: 2016-11-12T22:08:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.010
       
  • The effect of fitness level on the cardiac autonomic regulation, IL-6,
           total antioxidant capacity and muscle damage responses to a single bout of
           high-intensity interval training

    • Authors: Lukas Cipryan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Lukas Cipryan
      Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the cardiorespiratory fitness level on the response to high-intensity interval training (HIT) with an individually adjusted running speed of the same relative intensity. The evaluation focused on the acute cardiorespiratory response, post-exercise cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability, HRV) and biochemical markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle damage. Methods Thirty participants were divided into three subgroups: Well-trained, Moderately-trained and Untrained. All the participants performed 30min HIT composed of 6 x 2min interval exercise with work/relief ratio = 1 and work intensity 100% of individual velocity at Image 1 O2max. Acute cardiorespiratory variables, post-exercise HRV, lactate, interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin up to four hours after HIT were monitored. Results The differences in relatively expressed cardiorespiratory variables (HR, Image 2 O2) during HIT were at most moderate with the most pronounced between-group differences in absolute Image 3 O2 values. The disruption of the post-exercise HRV was the most pronounced in untrained individuals and this difference persisted one hour after HIT. The highest post-exercise IL-6 and TAC concentrations and the lowest changes of CK and myoglobin were revealed in well-trained individuals. Conclusion The higher fitness level was associated with the less pronounced post-exercise cardiac autonomic changes and their faster restoration even when there were similar acute cardiorespiratory responses. These findings were simultaneously accompanied by the higher post-exercise IL-6 and TAC concentrations and less significant changes in muscle damage biochemical markers in well-trained individuals.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T00:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.001
       
  • Use of the stepwise progression return-to-play protocol following
           concussion among practicing athletic trainers

    • Authors: Jessica Wallace; Tracey Covassin; Meghan Lafevor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Jessica Wallace, Tracey Covassin, Meghan Lafevor
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if practicing athletic trainers (ATs) were using the stepwise progression to make return-to-play (RTP) decisions following concussion and to determine what factors influenced their decision to use the stepwise progression. Methods A total of 166 ATs (response rate = 16.6%) completed a 21-item questionnaire that evaluated participant demographics, methods of concussion management and RTP decision-making using the stepwise progression. Descriptive statistics and a logistic regression were completed to analyze data. Results Demographic factors such as education level (p = 0.05) and number of concussions treated (p = 0.05) predicted use of the stepwise progression, whereas sex (p = 0.17), employment setting (p = 0.17), state law (p = 0.86), years practicing (p = 0.17) did not predict whether ATs were following the stepwise progression. Conclusion The majority of the ATs from this study are employing the stepwise progression to safely return athletes to play after sustaining a concussion. This demonstrates that ATs are providing a standard of care for concussed athletes across various athletic training settings, however having a graduate degree and treating more concussions per year are predictors of ATs following all steps of the stepwise progression.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T00:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.11.002
       
  • Physical activity and prevention of alzheimer's disease

    • Authors: Rena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Rena Li


      PubDate: 2016-11-06T00:07:40Z
       
  • Longitudinal trajectories of athlete burnout among young table-tennis
           players: a 3-wave study

    • Authors: Guillaume Martinent; Benoît Louvet; Jean-Claude Decret
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Guillaume Martinent, Benoît Louvet, Jean-Claude Decret
      Purpose the purposes were to examine the trajectories of athlete burnout across a 2-month period characterized by high physical, psychological, and social demands in order to explore: (a) if several subgroups of athletes representing distinct burnout trajectories emerged from the analyses; and (b) whether athlete burnout symptoms (reduced accomplishment, sport devaluation, and exhaustion) developed in tandem or if some burnout dimensions predicted downstream changes in other dimensions (causal ordering model). Methods One hundred and fifty-nine table tennis players in intensive training centers completed a self-reported athlete burnout measure across 3 time points within a2-month period characterized by high demands. Data were analysed through Latent Class Growth Analyses (LCGAs). Results Results of LCGAs showed 3 distinct trajectories for each athlete burnout dimension, not only indicating linear or quadratic change, but also stability in longitudinal athlete burnout perceptions. Results also suggested that the 3 dimensions of athlete burnout did not develop in tandem. Rather, the likelihoods of belonging to particular emerging trajectories of sport devaluation and physical/emotional exhaustion were significantly influenced by the athletes' perception of reduced accomplishment assessed at Time 1. Thus, reduced accomplishment predicted downstream changes in the 2 other athlete burnout dimensions. Conclusion As a whole, these results highlighted that the multinomial heterogeneity in longitudinal athlete burnout symptoms needs to be accounted for in future researches.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T00:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.003
       
  • Matched or non-matched interventions based on the transtheoretical modapel
           to promote physical activity. a meta-analysis of randomized controlled
           trials.

    • Authors: Ahmed Jerôme Romain; Catherine Bortolon; Mathieu Gourlan; Marion Carayol; Olivier Lareyre; Grégory Ninot; Julie Boiché; Paquito Bernard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Ahmed Jerôme Romain, Catherine Bortolon, Mathieu Gourlan, Marion Carayol, Olivier Lareyre, Grégory Ninot, Julie Boiché, Paquito Bernard
      The aim of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of transtheoretical model (TTM) based interventions on physical activity (PA) varied according to the following criteria: a) interventions targeted the actual stages of change (SOC) or did not; b) participants were selected according to their SOC or were not; c) its theoretical constructs (decisional balance, temptation, self-efficacy, processes of change).Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing TTM-based interventions promoting PA in adults were systematically identified. The between-group heterogeneity statistic (Qb) did not reveal any differential efficacy in interventions targeting the actual SOC compared to those that did not (Qb = 1.28, p = 0.22), nor in interventions selecting participants according to their SOC compared to those that did not (Qb = 0.01, p = 0.91). TTM-based interventions enhanced PA behavior whether they target the actual SOC (Cohen's d = 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.22-0.49))) or not (d = 0.23; 95%CI (0.09-0.38))) and whether they selected their participants according to their SOC (d = 0.33; 95% CI(0.13-0.53))) or not (d = 0.32; 95%CI(0.19-0.44))). The moderators of the efficacy of TTM-based interventions were the number of theoretical constructs used to tailor the intervention (Qb = 8.82, p = 0.003), the use of self-efficacy (Qb =6.09, p = 0.01) and the processes of change (Qb = 3.51, p = 0.06). TTM-based interventions significantly improved PA behavior and their efficacy was not moderated by SOC but by the TTM theoretical constructs .

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T23:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.007
       
  • Wearable monitors criterion validity for energy expenditure in sedentary
           and light activities

    • Authors: Florez-Pregonero Alberto; Meckes Nathanael; Buman Mathew; Ainsworth Barbara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Florez-Pregonero Alberto, Meckes Nathanael, Buman Mathew, Ainsworth Barbara
      Background Wearable monitors (WM) are used to estimate the time spent in sedentary behaviors (SB) and light intensity physical activities (LPA) and their associated energy cost; however, the accuracy of WM to measure behaviors on the lower end of the intensity spectrum is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of three WM (ActiGraph GT3X+, activPAL, and SenseWear 2) to estimate the intensity of SB and LPA in adults as compared with the criterion measure of oxygen uptake measured by indirect calorimetry (VO2). Methods Sixteen participants (mean age = 25.38 ± 8.58 years) wore the ActiGraph GT3X+, activPAL, and SenseWear during seven sedentary-to-light activities. VO2 (ml•kg-1•min-1) was estimated by a portable gas analyzer, Oxycon Mobile. All data were transformed into metabolic equivalents (METs) and analyzed using mean percent error (MPE), equivalence plots, Bland-Altman plots, Kappa statistics, and sensitivity/specificity. Results MPE was lowest for the activPAL for SB (14.9%) and LPA (9.3%) compared with other WM which were >21.2%. None of the WM fell within the equivalency range of ± 10% of the criterion mean value. Bland-Altman plots revealed narrower levels of agreement with all WM for SB than for LPA. Kappa statistics were low for all WM and sensitivity and specificity varied by WM type. Conclusion None of the WM tested in this study were equivalent with the criterion measure (VO2) to estimate sedentary-to-light activities; however, the ActivPAL had greater overall accuracy in measuring SB and LPA than ActiGraph and SenseWear.

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T23:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.005
       
  • Building a healthy China by enhancing physical activity: Priorities,
           challenges, and strategies

    • Authors: Sa Wu; Yufeng Luo; Xue Qiu; Mingxiao Bao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Sa Wu, Yufeng Luo, Xue Qiu, Mingxiao Bao


      PubDate: 2016-10-29T23:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.003
       
  • BACE1 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer disease

    • Authors: Robert Vassar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Robert Vassar


      PubDate: 2016-10-29T23:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.004
       
  • What do we know from clinical trials on exercise and Alzheimer's
           disease?

    • Authors: Yong Shen; Rena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Yong Shen, Rena Li
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly with major symptoms of a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities impairment which are serous enough to interfere with daily life. While there is no treatment can prevent and revise the cognitive function impairment in AD, physical activity becomes a potential beneficial intervention for AD. Multiple evidences suggested that exercise in general plays beneficial roles in improving brain function. Most common mechanisms of exercise-induced enhancement of brain function are including alteration of neurogenesis, neuron plasticity, neuronal signaling and receptors, as well as neuronal networks. This mini review includes most recent clinical studies and focuses on the effects of physical exercise, cognitive stimulation and combination of both physical and cognitive training on protection and rescue cognitive decline in people with AD.

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T23:18:52Z
       
  • Are we leveling the playing field? Trends and disparities in sports
           participation among sexual minority youth in Canada

    • Authors: Marion Doull; Ryan J. Watson; Annie Smith; Yuko Homma; Elizabeth Saewyc
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Marion Doull, Ryan J. Watson, Annie Smith, Yuko Homma, Elizabeth Saewyc
      Sports participation and physical fitness are widely beneficial for young people, yet activity levels among young people are declining. Despite growing popular media attention to the participation of sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) youth in sports and various campaigns to improve the often homophobic climate of sports, there is limited evidence that sexual minority youth participate in sports. In fact, existing evidence suggests that there are disparities in sports participation between sexual minority and heterosexual young people. This study examines trends in sports participation among sexual minority and heterosexual young people from 1998-2013 using population-level data from British Columbia, Canada (n = 99,373). We found an overall decline in sports participation and physical activity (PA) for all youth. Sexual minority students were less likely to participate in formal sports (with a coach) and informal sports (without a coach) compared to their heterosexual peers. The disparity in participating in informal sports between heterosexual and sexual minority youth has narrowed over time for some orientation groups whereas the disparity in participating in formal sports has widened over time in some cases. This study provides a comprehensive examination of sports participation among sexual minority youth over the last 15 years. Despite changing societal attitudes and laudable efforts to reduce homophobia in sports, results suggest that there are continued barriers to participation for sexual minority youth. Further research is needed to understand the factors that limit sports participation for sexual minority youth and inform program development. PA is critical to lifelong health and well-being and thus continued efforts are needed to increase the sports participation of sexual minority youth in particular.

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T23:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.10.006
       
  • Running slow or running fast; that is the question: the merits of high
           intensity interval training

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog


      PubDate: 2016-10-15T16:13:41Z
       
  • Regarding: examining the relationship between sport and health among U.S.
           women by pharr and lough

    • Authors: Walter Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter Herzog


      PubDate: 2016-09-24T14:38:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.001
       
  • Injuries in spanish female soccer players

    • Authors: Juan Del Coso; Helena Herrero; Juan J. Salinero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Juan Del Coso, Helena Herrero, Juan J. Salinero
      Background Epidemiological research is the first step for developing preventive policies, in order to know the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury. The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during one season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries were reported with an incidence rate of 0.083 injuries/player/season. Most injuries were located at the lower limbs (73.4%), mainly affecting knee (30.4%), and ankle joints (17.9%). Results The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (36.9%) than during trainings (11.4%; p< 0.001). Non-contact injuries were more frequently classified as severe than the contact injuries (51.0% vs. 42.6%; p < 0.001). A higher injury incidence rate was found in adult soccer players (≥18 years) vs. <18 years counterparts (0.093 vs. 0.073 injuries/player/year, respectively; p < 0.001). There were no differences between age groups in any other injury variable (e.g., type, mechanism, location, or severity; p > 0.05). Conclusion Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle, the injury mechanism was determinant for the time loss and player's age did not affect injury characteristics.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T14:38:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.002
       
  • The public health benefits of Tai Ji Quan—Addressing the unmet needs of
           aging populations in the 21st century

    • Authors: Fuzhong
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li


      PubDate: 2016-09-19T14:19:15Z
       
  • How does high-intensity intermittent training affect recreational
           endurance runners? Acute and chronic adaptations: A systematic review

    • Authors: Felipe García-Pinillos; Víctor M. Soto-Hermoso; Pedro A. Latorre-Román
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Felipe García-Pinillos, Víctor M. Soto-Hermoso, Pedro A. Latorre-Román
      Objective This systematic review aimed to critically analyze the literature to determine how high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) affects recreational endurance runners in the short- and long-term. Methods Electronic databases were searched for literature dating from January 2000 to October 2015. The search was conducted using the key words “high-intensity intermittent training” or “high-intensity interval exercise” or “interval running” or “sprint interval training” and “endurance runners” or “long distance runners”. A systematic approach was used to evaluate the 783 articles identified for initial review. Studies were included if they investigated HIIT in recreational endurance runners. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale (for intervention studies), and the modified Downs and Black Quality Index (for cross-sectional studies). Results Twenty-three studies met the inclusionary criteria for review. The results are presented in 2 parts: cross-sectional (n = 15) and intervention studies (n = 8). In the 15 cross-sectional studies selected, endurance runners performed at least 1 HIIT protocol, and the acute impact on physiological, neuromuscular, metabolic and/or biomechanical variables was assessed. Intervention studies lasted a minimum of 4 weeks, with 10 weeks being the longest intervention period, and included 2 to 4 HIIT sessions per week. Most of these studies combined HIIT sessions with continuous run (CR) sessions; 2 studies' subjects performed HIIT exclusively. Conclusions HIIT-based running plans (2 to 3 HIIT sessions per week, combining HIIT and CR runs) show athletic performance improvements in endurance runners by improving VO2max and running economy along with muscular and metabolic adaptations. To maximize the adaptations to training, both HIIT and CR must be part of training programs for endurance runners.

      PubDate: 2016-09-01T00:03:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.010
       
  • Biomarker guided classification scheme of neurodegenerative diseases

    • Authors: Filippo Baldacci; Simone Lista; Francesco Garaci; Ubaldo Bonuccelli; Nicola Toschi; Harald Hampel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista, Francesco Garaci, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Nicola Toschi, Harald Hampel


      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.007
       
  • Intention and automaticity toward physical and sedentary screen-based
           leisure activities in adolescents: A profile perspective

    • Authors: Gonzalo Marchant; Guillaume Chevance; Julie Boiché
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Gonzalo Marchant, Guillaume Chevance, Julie Boiché
      Purpose Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are increasingly considered independent health behaviors. Additionally, current research suggests that both controlled and automatic determinants account for their adoption. The purpose of this article is to identify intention–automaticity profiles toward PA and screen-based SB and to examine how those profiles are associated with different behavioral patterns. Method Two cross-sectional studies based on self-report questionnaires were conducted with French high school students (Study 1: n = 198; Study 2: n = 185). Results In all, 4 distinct motivational profiles appeared. The first 3 clusters emerged in both studies: “PA” (high levels of automaticity and intention for PA, low levels of automaticity and intention for screen-based SB); “screen” (high levels of automaticity and intention for screen-based SB, low levels of automaticity and intention for PA), and “mixed” (high levels of all variables), whereas the fourth cluster was observed only in Study 2: “high control” (below-mean levels of automaticity, high levels of intention toward both PA and screen-based SB). Adolescents with a screen profile displayed the least healthy behavioral pattern, whereas those in the PA profile demonstrated the most favorable behaviors. Conclusion Future research is needed to extend these results to other populations using complementary assessment methods of automatic psychological processes and PA and SB behaviors.

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.006
       
  • The microbiome, microbial generated pro-inflammatory neurotoxins, and
           Alzheimer's disease

    • Authors: Walter Lukiw
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Walter J. Lukiw


      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
       
  • Mechanism of neurodegeneration through tau and therapy for alzheimer's
           disease

    • Authors: Akihiko Takashima
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Akihiko Takashima


      PubDate: 2016-08-26T22:54:30Z
       
  • Commentary on: “scientific evidence is just the starting point: a
           generalisable process for developing sports injury prevention
           interventions” by alex donaldson, et al.

    • Authors: Eva Ageberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Eva Ageberg


      PubDate: 2016-06-29T12:08:08Z
       
  • Physical activity and health in the presence of China's economic growth:
           Meeting the public health challenges of the aging population

    • Authors: Fuzhong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Sport and Health Science
      Author(s): Fuzhong Li
      Three decades of rapid economic development in China have not only benefited millions of Chinese by improving their living standards but have also dramatically increased the number of people who are part of the country's aging population. However, economic growth has not been accompanied by sufficient attention given to important public health issues, including an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and a decline in physical activity (PA) that comes with an aging population. The rapid growth in China's older population will soon exert an impact on the nation's economy, population health status, and health behaviors, and will increase stress on its healthcare system. This review article provides a broad perspective on the impact of rapid economic development, industrialization, and urbanization on health-related behaviors, with a specific focus on PA among older adults. Specifically, the article offers an overview of the demographic context, significant public health challenges, evidence on PA and exercise interventions, and knowledge gaps and future directions for research.

      PubDate: 2016-06-24T11:13:40Z
       
 
 
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