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International Journal of Research in Computer and Communication Technology
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [4 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2320-5156
     Published by Suryansh Publications Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Minimizing Network Overhead In Manet Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    • Authors: B.Santhi Sri, C.Subash Chandra, G.Aruna Rekha
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose and implement a new intrusion-detection system named Enhanced Adaptive AC Knowledgment  specially designed for MANETs. The self-configuring ability of nodes in MANET made it popular among critical mission applications like military use or emergency recovery. However, the open medium and wide distribution of nodes make MANET vulnerable to malicious attackers. In this case, it is crucial to develop efficient intrusion-detection mechanisms to protect MANET from attacks. With the improvements of the technology and cut in hardware costs, we are witnessing a current trend of expanding MANETs into industrial applications. To adjust to such trend, we strongly believe that it is vital to address its potential security issues. Compared to contemporary approaches, EAACK demonstrates higher malicious-behavior-detection rates in certain circumstances while does not greatly affect the network performances. proposing and implement a brand new intrusion detection and prevention system named Enhanced Adaptive ACKnowledgment based Intrusion Detection and prevention system using ECC approach specially designed for MANET. Among all the contemporary wireless networks, Mobile Ad hoc Network is one of the most important and unique applications.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • MCLOUD: Effective Data Sharing In Multiple-Groups

    • Authors: P. Sreenivas, T.Rajendra Prasad
      Abstract: Cloud computing is an emerging computing paradigm. It provides an economical and efficient solution for sharing group resource among cloud users. Due to frequent change of members in multi owner group, preserving user data and their identity privacy becomes a challenging issue in cloud. In this paper, we propose a secure multi-owner data sharing scheme, for dynamic groups in the cloud. By including group signature and stateless broadcast encryption techniques, any cloud user can anonymously share data with others. Meanwhile, the storage overhead, length of the signature and the running time of the signing algorithm are independent with the number of group members.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Co-Operative Riskless Data Publishing Using Cpdp In Multi Colud

    • Authors: Ambica Sri Ramya M, Ashok Nutalapati
      Abstract: Cloud computing is a new and fast growing technology that offers an innovative, efficient and scalable business model for organizations to adopt various information technology (IT) resources i.e. software, hardware, network, storage, bandwidth etc. Although almost every business organization is going to adopt this technology due to its various advantages. It has the capability to incorporate multiple internal and external cloud services together to provide high interoperability there can be multiple accounts associated with a single or multiple service provider (SPs). So, Security in terms of integrity is most important aspects in cloud computing environment. Cooperative Provable data possession (CPDP) is a technique for ensuring the integrity of data in storage outsourcing[1]. Therefore, we address the construction of an efficient CPDP scheme and dynamic audit service for distributed cloud storage as well verifying the integrity guarantee of an entrusted and outsourced storage which support the scalability of service and data migration [6].
      PubDate: 2014-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Scent Rupture Nodes Using DCD In Wireless Sensor Networks

    • Authors: G Tirumala Vikram, Venugopal Boppana
      Abstract: A cut is nothing but a part of wireless sensor networks which is splited into different connection components because of some node failures in the network. This paper proposes a new algorithm to detect these cuts by the help of remaining nodes. This algorithm works in two different ways those are every node to detect a specially designated node has been lost and one or more nodes that are connected to the special node after the cut to detect the occurrence of the cut. The algorithm works based on a imaginative “electrical potential” of the nodes which is an iterative method and the convergence rate of the scheme is independent of the network.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Vigorous Source Apportionment via Simulated Technologies for Cloud
           Computing Environment

    • Authors: B Maruthi Prasad, Barigala Srikanth, Saritha Seelam
      Abstract: Dynamic resource allocation is very much popular research area in cloud environment due to its   live application in data center.Becasue of dynamic and heterogeneous nature of cloud,  allocation of virtual machine is affected by various parameters like QOS, time consumption, cost,  carbon effect etc. Grouping of virtual machine which is communicate to each other to execute one  large request is comes into affinity group. Here we will study details of allocation method, affinity of virtual machine and how it will give good performance over non-affinity group and give some idea about new technique to improve performance which we will implement in future.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Bankruptcy Prediction of Financially Distressed Companies using
           Independent Component Analysis and Fuzzy Support Vector Machines

    • Authors: Nidhi Arora, JatinderKumar R. Saini
      Abstract: The aim of research is to model the dependency of enterprises on their financial ratios for predicting bankruptcy using artificial neural networks combined with fuzzy logic. A sample of companies which are financially distressed but not yet bankrupt is considered for conducting experiments. The data extracted from financial reports of financially distressed companies for past five year forms the basis for carrying out prediction. Independent Component Analysis has been applied on the input dataset comprising of financial ratios to choose the most significant ratios to be considered as input to the neuro-fuzzy network. A data set of size 1030 consisting of five variables was used for training and of size 350 was used for testing the network’s performance. In this way the model predicts the bankruptcy status of the enterprises with minimal training errors. A linguistic diagnosis of failure or financial problems of the enterprises is done using the fuzzy rule-base for support vector machines. The proposed model can be utilized by stakeholders of a financial distressed company for determining its future status. It can also be used by managers of the enterprises to take preventive measures to deal with financial crises.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Secure Mona Protocol for Data Sharing In Un-Trusted Cloud

    • Authors: Vennapusa Prakash Reddy, B.Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy
      Abstract: Cloud computing provides different services economically and efficiently to share many resources among cloud users with low maintenance cost. But unfortunately, during this sharing process data preservation and data integration became a challenging issue for the researcher. This paper, we propose aSecure monaprotocol  for data sharing in un-trusted cloud scheme called Mona protocol, for dynamic cloud groups by introducing group signature, file security key and dynamic encryption techniques.This technique helps all thecloud user to share data with others. This presents an efficient result to support the authors claim that it gives an best result as compare to the existing encryption technique. 
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Novel Grid Synchronization System under Adverse Grid Conditions

    • Authors: L. Kranthi Kumar, S. Vishwanath, M. Nagaraju
      Abstract: Grid synchronization algorithms are of great importance in the control of grid-connected power converters, as fast and accurate detection of the grid voltage parameters is crucial in order to implement stable control strategies under generic grid conditions. This paper presents a new grid synchronization method for three-phase three-wire networks, namely dual second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) frequency-locked loop. The method is based on two adaptive filters, implemented by using a SOGI on the stationary αβ reference frame, and it is able to perform an excellent estimation of the instantaneous symmetrical components of the grid voltage under unbalanced and distorted grid conditions. This paper analyses the performance of the proposed synchronization method including different design issues. Moreover, the behaviour of the method for synchronizing with highly unbalanced grid is proven by means of simulation demonstrating its excellent performance.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • E-IHRB Decoder Architectures for Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    • Authors: Kalyani Madamsetti, Suseela M
      Abstract: In the information theory, the non- binary low density parity check  (NB-LDPC) code is a linear error correcting code, a method of transmitting message over a noisy transmission channel. LDPCcodes are capacity-approaching codes, which  means  that  practical constructions exist  that allow the noise threshold to be set very close to the theoretical maximum for a symmetric memory less channel.Using iterative belief propagation techniques, NB-LDPC codes can be decoded in time linear to their block length. Non-binary low-density parity-check codes can achieve higher performance than their binary counterparts. Recently, two algorithms were developed for decoding NB-LDPC codes: iterative hard reliability-based majority-logic decoding (IHRB-MLGD) and iterative soft reliability-based majority-logic decoding (ISRB-MLGD has better performance-complexity tradeoffs than previous algorithms. This paper first proposes message-passing in such a way that we can reduce the memory consumption to a greater extent at the same time there should not be performance loss. By using enhanced iterative reliability-based majority-logic decoding algorithms we can achieve effective complexity-performance and noise free design. Compared to previous designs, our proposed decoders have at least tens of times lower complexity with moderate coding gain loss.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Streaming of High Quality videos using Cloud

    • Authors: M. Nagesh, B.Naresh Achari
      Abstract: Recently many mobile entertaining applications have been launched, but most popular app like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube have large demand among users. But these media applications are limited by the unstable wireless connectivity and limited battery lifetime of mobile devices. Due to these problems the quality of service encountered by the users of the Smartphone is not up to the mark. In order to overcome these problems cloud computing technology has been used. In this paper we review the design of the Streaming of high quality videos using Cloud platform.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • SSUT: A new approach for privacy of source unknown in wireless sensor
           networks

    • Authors: Geddada Rajakumari, Chinnam Yuvaraju
      Abstract: Sensor Networks which is different compared to other networks which is deployed in unattended area used to sense and monitor the events that are reported to sink. But the locations of events delivered by sensor networks needs to remain unknown. Unauthorized parties revealing source of events by analyzing network traffic. in order to overcome this problem I present new Framework with two effective components one component is quantitative measure evaluate source unknown in sensor networks. Second one is binary hypothesis testing with nuisance parameters. Finally our proposed technique is effective providing privacy to source in sensor networks.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Scalable Access Control for User Revocation Of Attribute Set In Data
           Sharing

    • Authors: Diana Susan D’Roza, P.Bala Krishna Prasad, G.Guru Kesava Das
      Abstract: The key generation center could decrypt any messages addressed to specific users by generating their private keys. This is not suitable for data sharing scenarios where the data owner would like to make their private data only accessible to designated users key. So to overcome this problem we propose a novel CP-ABE scheme for a data sharing system by manipulating the specific of the system architecture. The proposed gains are 1) the key escrow problem could be resolved by escrow-free key issuing protocol, it is constructed using the secure two-party computation between the key generation center and the data-storing center, and 2) fine-grained user revocation per each attribute could be done by proxy encryption which takes advantage of the selective attribute group key distribution on top of the ABE.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • AODV, DSDV Performance Analysis with TCP Reno, TCP New Reno, TCP Vegas And
           TCP Tahoe on Mobile Ad-hoc Networks using NS2

    • Authors: V.S.V.S. Murthy, Routhu Praveen Kumar, KiranKumar .Velala
      Abstract: A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a network that doesn’t needany infrastructure which is capable of communicating betweennodes without any centralized administration. MANET is the bestchoice which is of less cost and can be deployed easily. .In the research  work, we will proceed by doing investigation onMANET protocols like Ad hoc on demand routing protocol(AODV),Destination Sequence distance vector(DSDV) protocols by using thedifferent TCP variants like TCP Reno, TCP New Reno,TCP Vegas and TCP Tahoe using NS2. . The TCP variantsanalysis is done based on these performance metrics:TCP Throughput, Packet Loss, Packet Delivery Ratio and Jitter. 
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Achieving QOSGuarantee’s over IP Networks Using Differentiated
           Services

    • Authors: Tatarao vana, Nagamani Korada
      Abstract: Now a day’s internet is providing the best service .different applications contains, that doesn’t differentiate among packets that may be having different performance requirement .this kind of occurs a problem for real time applications. That’s why we require small amount of resources operate effectively, such as multimedia applications(telephony and audio, video etc).so avoid this problem  International Electro technical Commission (IEC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards are cooperates with Internet Engineering Task Force(IETF) proposed as differentiated services architecture model classes are differentiation in the inter-networking system. The main aim of this paper is to elaborate the performance of differentiate services as prevent to the internet service provider’s.In this paper I’m implemented this concept of simulator is GRPHICAL NETWORK SIMULATOR (GNS3).
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Traffic Protection against Link and Node Failures Using Fast Re-Route for
           MPLS Networks

    • Authors: Kanakeswari Devara, Chokkapu Narayanarao
      Abstract: The increase of data transfer over the Internet is complexity process for providing internet services as badly affected the quality of service and the dataflow. To reduce this problem, in this paper I am introducing a concept called Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) will combines the scalability of IP protocol and the efficiency of label switching improve network data transfer. In this paper I propose an algorithm in MPLS based networks to evaluate a fast re-route path maintain. The main advantage of this algorithm is satisfies all the performance criteria deploys effectively base on the conditions of this fault. In this paper I simulated the scenario by using GNS3.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Performance Analysis of AOMDV, OLSR and DSR Routing Protocols Using UDP
           agents in MANETS

    • Authors: P.V. Venkateswara Rao, S. SrinadhRaju, Sowjanya Kumari Nalam
      Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network and are capable of communicating with each other without the use of a network infrastructure or any centralized administration. In real time scenario there is more demand in multimedia, due to this reason need to provide the best quality of service(QOS). In this paper we have studied QOS for different routing protocols in MANET. In this we apply performance metrics to AOMDV, DSR, and OLSR in UDP Traffic. Our aim is identify which routing protocol will give better results among Throughput, packet delivery ratio, end-end delay, packet loss, and energy consumption.Mobility places major role in this analysis.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Formal Study of Cryptanalysis on Ciphers

    • Authors: Seetha Maha Lakshsmi, S Viswanatha Raju, A Vinay Babu
      Abstract: Cryptanalysis is co-study of cryptography. A cipher is said to be successful cipher if it design resists all cipher attacks. Cryptanalyis are two-fold. One way is a benign activity where cryptanalysis is performed to check the performance of the cipher under various conditions. The second one, attacker uses cryptanalysis to exploit the vulnerabilities of the cipher for their own benefit. In this paper, various types of attacks on Cipher and Biclique cryptanalysis are studied. Finally the structure of biclique attack is explained.
      PubDate: 2014-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Applications of Graph Labeling in Major areas of Computer Science

    • Authors: Kuchipudi Sravanthi, N. Lakshmi prasanna, Nagalla Sudhakar
      Abstract: The field of Graph Theory plays a vital role in various fields. In Graph theory main problem is graph labeling. Graph Labeling is the assignment of integer’s form 1 to n for vertex, edges and both of the graphs respectively. One of the important areas in  graph theory  is Graph Labeling which is used in many applications like coding theory, radar, astronomy, circuit design, missile guidance, communication network addressing, x-ray crystallography, data base management. Here we would like to enhance the graph labeling applications in the field of computer science. This paper gives an overview of labeling of graphs in heterogeneous fields to some extent, but mainly focuses on important major areas of computer science like data mining, image processing, cryptography, software testing, information security, communication networks etc….These are various subjects in engineering studies and these are more efficiently used in various sectors like government sectors, corporate sectors like that.  In these subjects every subject has their concept and gave their usage related to graph labeling. Future enhancements for the graph labeling should be used in cloud computing, signal processing etc… Various papers based on graph theory and graph labeling applications have been studied and we explore the usage of Graph Labeling in several areas like data mining, communication networks, image processing, cryptosystems, computer science applications and an overview has been proposed here.
      PubDate: 2014-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Speech Recognition in Marathi Language on Android O.S.

    • Authors: Saroj Bajirao Jadhav, Jayshree Ghorphade, Rishikesh Yeolekar
      Abstract: Speech is the basic mode of communication among human beings. For about four decades human beings have been dreaming of an ”intelligent machine” which can master the natural speech. Speech recognition is the process of recognizing the spoken word to perform particular task. It is expected to have a human computer dialogue in local languages like Marathi, Hindi, Telugu etc. In this paper we are going to study different methods for feature extraction and comparison techniques for ASR systems and select the most appropriate technique for improving the accuracy of the system. An experimental database of phonemes(some vowels and consonants) is collected for speaker dependent system. MFCC are extracted from speech signal of the spoken words. DTW algorithm is used for measuring similarity between two word sequences, which may vary in time or speed to construct the minimum distance warp path.
      PubDate: 2014-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Novel Technique for Creative Problem-Solving by using Q-learning and
           Association algorithm

    • Authors: Venkata Phanikrishna Balam, T. Srinivasarao
      Abstract: for a single problem there are multiple solutions or multiple ideas from different users. Means every one gave an idea (solution) for solving the given problem if we distribute that particular problem to the different users (people). Finally we got set of ideas (solutions) for a particular problem, but individual users don’t know his/her idea is useful or not for solving the problem, if useful how many people are accepting their idea’s for solving the problem and what is the best idea for that problem among them. Means this is I- Query Solver is the concept which help to employs computer-mediated electronic communication to replace verbal communications. This paper integrates the unique association thinking of humans with an intelligent agent technique to devise an automated decision. Agent can represent a session participant who is actively participating in problem solving process. This agent grounded on the three association capabilities of human thinking (similarity, contiguity, and contrast) Furthermore, a Collective ideation Decision System (CIDS) is built to construct an environment where agent can learn and share their knowledge with each other.
      PubDate: 2014-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Survey on Channel Estimation Techniques in OFDM System

    • Authors: Divya Pandey, Neelam Dewangan
      Abstract: — Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) breaks the carrier in to sub carriers which are orthogonal to one- another, and hence called as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. It is an extension of conventional frequency division multiplexing (FDM). The channel estimation techniques allow the receiver to approximate the behaviour of channel. In this paper various Channel Estimation Techniques of OFDM have been discussed. The channel estimation based on comb type pilot arrangement is studied through different algorithms for both estimating channel at pilot frequencies and interpolating the channel. The estimation of channel at pilot frequencies is based on LS and LMS while the channel interpolation is done using linear interpolation, second order interpolation, low-pass interpolation, spline cubic interpolation, and time domain interpolation. Furthermore, the channel estimation based on block type pilot arrangement is performed by sending pilots at every sub-channel and using this estimation for a specific number of following symbols. Further a brief introduction to blind and semi blind channel estimation is done.
      PubDate: 2014-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Channel Performance Improvement through FF and RBF Neural Network based
           Equalization

    • Authors: Manish Ravindra mahajan, Deepak Pancholi, A.C. Tiwari
      Abstract: In wireless technology, the communication systems require signal processing techniques to improve the channel performance. The wireless communication is not easily able to avail the error free signal transmission because channel introduces some of the distortions like co-channel interference, adjacent channel interference, Inter symbol interference during signal transmission. So in order to improve the channel performance basically three techniques named diversity, channel coding and equalization are used. In this paper, we are using neural network based equalization technique which is basically used to reduce ISI. The equalization process may be either liner or non –linear. The severely distorting channels limit the use of linear equalizers, so non-linear equalizers are more suitable and efficient instead linear equalizer. Neural network based equalizers are computationally more efficient alternative to currently used (without neural network) nonlinear equalizer e.g. the DFE. In this work, we are giving BER performance comparison of two different neural network based equalizer, first Feed forward neural network (Multi Layer Perceptron) and second RBF based equalizer. Finally in this work it is found that the performance of RBF based equalizer is better as compared to MLP equalizer. Because training process of RBF is faster than that of MLP network which may have more than three layers in its architecture. Second RBF have fast convergence rate as compared to that MLP network.
      PubDate: 2014-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Dynamic Approach for Secure Data Publishing in Mining

    • Authors: M. Janardhan, T. Manjula
      Abstract: More than a few anonymization techniques, such as simplification and bucketization, have been deliberate for privacy protecting micro data publishing. Current work has shown that generalization loses substantial quantity of in sequence, particularly for high-dimensional data. Bucketization, on the other offer, does not put off membership revelation and does not apply for data that do not have a clear partition between quasi- recognizing attributes and perceptive attributes. In this nearby a novel technique called slicing, which partitions the information both horizontally and vertically? We demonstrate that slicing conserves better data effectiveness than simplification and can be used for association revelation protection. Another significant benefit of slicing is that it can handle high-dimensional data. Slicing can be used for attribute revelation protection and develop an efficient algorithm for computing the sliced data that go behind the ℓ-diversity requirement. The workload experiments confirm that slicing preserves better utility than generalization and is more effective than bucketization in workloads connecting the sensitive attribute. Our research also demonstrates that slicing can be used to prevent membership disclosure.
      PubDate: 2014-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • The Effect of NCT Techniques on SC-FDMA System in presence of HPA

    • Authors: Sura Vardhana Reddy, M Vinod Kumar Reddy, K Ayyanna, V Ravikumar
      Abstract: In this paper, a companding technique is used to reduce the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) systems. By Nonlinear Companding Transform (NCT) technique can be campand the samples with large amplitudes, while enhance those with small amplitudes; a significant reduction in the PAPR can be achieved. The performance of the proposed SC-FDMA with NCT system with effect of High Power Amplifier (HPA) is studied and compared with that of the standard SC-FDMA system. Simulation results show that the SC-FDMA with NCT system has a lower PAPR when compared with the conventional SC-FDMA system, while the complexity of the system slightly increases. The simulation results show that the companding coefficient must be chosen carefully in order to limit the PAPR without introducing degradation in the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance.
      PubDate: 2014-08-31
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Evaluation of Forecast Scheme Performances Based on Statistical Error
           Measurements

    • Authors: Jamal Raiyn, . Mothana, Ebrahim Kittani
      Abstract: This paper will review various forecast schemes. Some of the forecast schemes are based on data mining. Forecast schemes are introduced to reduce urban traffic congestion and to manage the travel information. The underlying reason is that the capacity of transportation traffic system is regularly exceeded by traffic demand.  We will evaluate and compare forecast schemes performance based on statistical error measurements. There are three basic strategies to relieve congestion; the first strategy is to increase the transportation infrastructure. However this strategy is very expensive and can only be accomplished in the long term. The second strategy is to limit the traffic demand or make traveling more expensive, which will be strongly disapproved of by travelers. The third strategy is focus on efficient and intelligent utilization of the existing transportation infrastructure. This strategy is a best trade-off and gains more and more attention. Currently, the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is the most promising approach to implementation of the third strategy. Various forecast schemes have been introduced to manage the travel information like clustering, classification schemes. Some of the most often used methods to traffic forecast are limited to expressways during daytime hours. Meanwhile the robustness and accuracy of exponential smoothing forecasting has led to its widespread use in applications where a large number of series necessitates an automated procedure, such as inventory control.                                                                             
      PubDate: 2014-08-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Image Compression through Data Representation in Frequency Domain.

    • Authors: Elda Cina, Esmerald Aliaj, Habib Hamam
      Abstract: Data compression is a very important field these days. You can find it in any web page, network devices, application files etc. Its importance has grown during the years as a necessity of storage and time of transportation. Images are one of the most important data types to take in consideration. Because of the large diversity of images in terms of both size and content, none of the existing compression methods can be presented as appropriate for all of them. As such it is always an open field for discussions. In this paper we introduce a new way of compressing images. We propose a lossy technique based on the method of “Data Representation through combinations”, applied in the frequency domain. We use the DCT and the indexing properties as key points for our technique. According to this technique we enable not only compression but also other security measures like cryptography, steganography and watermarking.    
      PubDate: 2014-08-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
 
 
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