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Cardiometry
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2304-7232 - ISSN (Online) 2304-7232
     Published by Russian New University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Influence of acupuncture on the phase characteristics of the cardiac cycle
           in the process of treating the patients with cardiovascular system
           pathology

    • Authors: Victor Skakov
      Abstract: AimsThe response of the cardiovascular system to acupuncture treatment is studied in the present paper.Materials and methodsIn the process of study a special device for recording hemodynamic parameters as well as the classical acupuncture method was used. The hemodynamic parameters were recorded at the time of needle insertion, during the acupuncture session and after the session.ResultsThe changes in the phase blood volumes were recorded. The influence of the acupuncture on the muscle contraction amplitude during all phases of the cardiac cycle was recorded.ConclusionAppliance of the cardiac cycle phase analysis enables accurate monitoring of the response of the cardiovascular system to acupuncture.KeywordsСardiometry, Cardiology, Hemodynamics, ECG, Acupuncture.
      PubDate: 2012-12-08
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • Theoretical principles of cardiometry

    • Authors: Mikhail Rudenko
      Abstract: AimsThe article aims at describing the theoretical principles of cardiometry as a fundamentally new scientific field which enables the accurate measurement of the cardiovascular system parameters.Materials and methodsCardiometry is based on the mathematical model of hemodynamic processes. The model is described by G. Poyedintsev and O. Voronova equations. The variable values in these equations are the cardiac cycle phase durations recorded on the ECG. An original ECG lead of the ascending aorta reflects all the processes of the heart performance. Thus, it is possible to calculate the phase blood volumes. This method is an accurate indirect measurement method. The synchronous recording of the ascending aorta ECG and Rheogram enables monitoring of the compensation mechanism responsible for the normal hemodynamic performance.ResultsAn innovative mathematical model of hemodynamics providing the creation of an innovative indirect method for measurement of the cardiovascular system parameters was developed.ConclusionThe innovative method of cardiovascular system diagnostics enables to measure 7 main hemodynamic parameters using noninvasive technology for qualitative evaluation of 12 functions of cardiovascular system performance and general assessment of coronary flow status.KeywordsСardiometry, Cardiology, Hemodynamics, ECG, Rheogram,
      G. Poyedintsev -O. Voronova equations
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • New linear theory of hydrodynamic instability of the Hagen - Poiseuille
           flow and the blood swirling flows formation

    • Authors: Sergey Chefranov
      Abstract: AimsThis paper deals with solving of a century-old paradox of linear stability for the Hagen-Poiseuille flow. A new mechanism of dissipative hydrodynamic instability has been established herein, and a basis for the forming of helical structural organization of bloodstream and respective energy effectiveness of the cardiovascular system functioning has been defined by
      the authors.Materials and methodsTheory of hydrodynamic instability, Galerkin’s approximation.ResultsA new condition Re > Rethmin » 124 of linear (exponential) instability of the Hagen-Poisseuille (HP) flow with respect to extremely small by magnitude axially-symmetric disturbances of the tangential component of the velocity field is obtained. The disturbances necessarily shall have quasi-periodic
      longitudinal variability along the pipe axis that corresponds to the observed data.ConclusionWe show that the obtained estimate of value of Rethmin
      corresponds to the condition of independence of the main result (on the linear instability of the HP flow when Re > Rethmin) from the procedure of averaging used in the
      Galerkin approximation. Thus, we obtain the possible natural mechanism for the blood swirling flows formations observed in the aorta and the large blood vessels.KeywordsInstability, Helicity, Structure, Bloodstream.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • Basic criteria of finding the markers of hemodynamic self-regulation
           mechanism on ECG and Rheogram and analysis of compensation mechanism
           performance in maintaining hemodynamic parameters at their normal levels

    • Authors: Olga Voronova
      Abstract: AimsBasic criteria of finding the markers of the hemodynamic self-regulation mechanism on an ECG and a Rheogram are described herein. The basics of an analysis of the compensation mechanism responsible for the maintenance of the hemodynamic parameters within the norms are presented in this paper.Materials and methodsA change in the form of an ECG phase segment reflects qualitatively the actual contraction performance of the respective cardiac muscle part involved. In case when the contraction of a cardiac muscle part is weak, an adjacent part undertakes the required compensation function in order
      to adjust the process. The causality analysis allows identifying the primary cause of a pathology which makes impossible to maintain the proper phase-related blood volumes within the norms.ResultsAn evaluation of the hemodynamic self-regulation mechanism on the basis of the analysis of the compensation mechanism responsible for the maintenance of the hemodynamic parameters within the norms allows revealing the primary cause of the cardiovascular system pathology.ConclusionWe offer an innovative methodology that is easy to use and very efficient, therefore, it can be widely applied in practice.KeywordsCardiometry, Cardiology, ECG, Rheogram, Hemodynamics selfregulation, Pathology of cardiovascular system.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • Study of central hemodynamic parameters in pediatric burn shock patients
           using the method of the heart cycle phase analysis

    • Authors: Vladimir Vecherkin
      Abstract: AimsThis paper deals with a study of central hemodynamics in 363 pediatric patients with burn shock as compared with a reference healthy children group in order to establish clinical value of the hemodynamic parameters for burn shock diagnostics and therapy.Materials and methodsThere is a new method applied to examine the functional status of the cardiovascular system with use of the medical equipment Cardiocode that is based on the method of the heart cycle phase analysis and capable of measuring parameters such as a stroke volume (SV), a circulation minute
      volume (CMV), systolic parameters (both a rapid ejection volume Vr.e. and a slow ejection volume Vs.e.), diastolic parameters (an early diastole volume Ve.d. and an atrial systole volume Va.s.), including a volumetric parameter characterizing the actual tonus of the ascending aorta (Va.а.).ResultsAge-related trends in the above volumetric parameters have been established herein. Specific features of the hemodynamic parameters in pediatric patients with burn shock have been identified.ConclusionDiagnostics of changes in the central hemodynamics in pediatric burn patients at their hospital admission provides reliable prediction tools for detecting shock well in advance and starting with an adequate intensive therapy.KeywordsPediatric patients, Burn shock, Hemodynamics, Stroke volume,
      Minute volume, Cardiac output, Cardiocode, Heart cycle phase analysis.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • Cardiometric diagnostic and control of anti-androgenic drug adverse
           effects on cardiovascular system

    • Authors: Vladimir Zernov
      Abstract: AimsCapabilities of the cardiometric diagnostics based on the heart cycle phase analysis for identifying the primary cause of a disease are considered in this paper.Materials and methodsAn anti-androgenic drug was used by a patient as prescribed for prostatitis therapy. A week later upon taking the drugs, it becomes necessary to make an additional diagnostics of the patient to complete the basic diagnostic evaluation. The reason was that upon taking the drugs there were some cases of loss of consciousnes reported by the patient. During an examination by the treating physician, it was found that there was a syndrome of cold limbs in the patient. For the purpose of the additional diagnostics, the method of the heart cycle phase analysis was applied.ResultsThe heart cycle phase analysis allowed identifying the primary cause of the patient’s health degradation and cases of loss of consciousness.ConclusionIt was revealed that the primary cause was a side effect of the antiandrogenic drug that led to a decrease in the hemodynamic parameters, resulted in blood vessel failure to transport the necessary quantity of oxygen to tissues in the organism. The recommendations given upon the diagnostics were aimed at recovering the transport function of the blood vessels. By complying with the recommendations, the health status of the
      patient was recovered, and loss of consciousness was no longer observed.KeywordsСardiometry, Hemodynamics, Heart cycle phase analysis.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • Interrelation between the changes of phase functions of cardiac muscle
           contraction and biochemical processes as an algorithm for identifying
           local pathologies in cardiovascular system

    • Authors: Yury Fedosov
      Abstract: AimsThe interrelation between hemodynamic changes, functions of the cardiovascular system and biochemical reactions in the cells of the heart muscle is investigated in the present paper.Materials and methodsSeveral methods were used to influence the metabolism processes in the myocardium. The changes in the phase functions of contraction of different cardiac muscles were recorded. In order to have comprehensive influence on the metabolism processes, normalization of the acid-base balance was performed. L-carnitine and octolipen were used to affect the lipid metabolism.ResultsPhase blood volumes that are characteristic of hemodynamics changed in the course of treatment to reach their nornal values. The ECG shape during the heart cycle phases also changed to reach the norm. The initial ECG shape describing Brugada syndrome almost reached its normal value. Extrasystole disappeared therewith.ConclusionThe method of the heart cycle phase analysis enables monitoring any changes in hemodynamics and functions of the cardiovascular system. The method can be used for identifying the original cause of pathologies and efficient monitoring of the treatment progress.KeywordsCardiometry, Hemodynamics, ECG, L-carnitine.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • Wavelet transform procedure as the basis for complete automatic
           interpretation of the cardiac cycle phase structure

    • Authors: Vladimir Fedorov
      Abstract: AimsThe article aims at describing the basic principles of cardiometry – a fundamentally new scientific field which enables the accurate measurement of cardiovascular system parameters.Materials and methodsCardiometry is based on the mathematical model of hemodynamic processes. The model is described by G. Poyedintsev and O. Voronova equations. The variable values in these equations are the cardiac cycle phase durations recorded on the ECG.ResultsAn innovative mathematical model of hemodynamics providing the creation of an innovative indirect method of cardiovascular system parameters measurement was developed. The ECG processing is performed by means of the wavelet transform for detecting the boundaries of the cardiac cycle phases.ConclusionThe innovative method of cardiovascular system diagnostics enables to measure 7 main hemodynamic parameters using noninvasive technology for qualitative evaluation of 12 functions of cardiovascular system performance and general assessment of coronary flow status. One of the problems the model of hemodynamics deals with is identifying the boundaries of the cardiac cycle phases. To identify the boundaries of the cardiac cycle phases the method of finding the extrema on the initial ECG and the differentiated ECG basing on the wavelet transform was used.KeywordsCardiometry, Cardiology, ECG, Hemodynamics, Wavelet transform.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • Criteria of identification of individual heart cycle phases on ECG

    • Authors: Dmitry Makedonsky
      Abstract: AimsCriteria of identification of individual heart cycle phases according to an ECG curve are described in this paper.Materials and methodsFor this study, a single-lead system ECG is used only. Its distinctive feature is that an ECG signal is recorded within the body surface area of the ascending aorta. Using the theory of biological system process continuity, the individual heart cycle phase boundaries are determined at those points of the cardiac signals where we deal with an energy process transition in the cardiovascular system from the process of the energy build-up to its attenuation, and vice versa. The transition points are
      identified by us by mathematical differentiation of the ECG signals, and, as a result, they correspond to extrema of the ECG derivative. Some individual heart cycle phases are found according to maxima on the derivative, others are identified according to minima on the derivative curve, respectively.ResultsThe method of application of the ECG derivatives allows to capture individual heart cycle phases in a very precise manner. Utilization of the ECG derivatives is a prerequisite for computer-assisted processing of the data to deliver measurements of durations of every heart cycle phase.ConclusionUsing the ECG derivatives for fixing every heart cycle phase makes possible to fill up the gaps in the theory of phase analysis and avoid misinterpretations of any type of the ECG phase structures.KeywordsСardiometry, Cardiology, ECG, ECG derivative, Heart cycle phases.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • Standartization of the ECG on the basis of cardiac cycle phase analysis

    • Authors: Sergey Rudenko
      Abstract: AimsThe article aims at describing the basic system criteria of the ECG interpretation on the basis of the cardiac cycle phase processes as well as systematizing these criteria for developing new standards for the ECG classification.Materials and methodsAn original ECG lead of the ascending aorta is proposed. It identifies the boundaries of the rapid and slow ejection phases. The concepts and description of the ECG waves are introduced. The amplitudes of the ECG waves are used to characterize the contraction of the muscles of the cardiovascular system segments.ResultsThe general principles of the ECG standardization based on the amplitude analysis of the ECG waves are described.ConclusionDevelopment of the standardization system will contribute to quality improvement of the diagnostics performed by practising physicians.KeywordsСardiometry, ECG, ECG standardization, RHEOgram.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • Comparative study of measured heart cycle phase durations standard lead
           ECG versus original ascending aorta lead ECG

    • Authors: Sergey Kolmakow
      Abstract: AimsThe present paper aims at evaluating the existing difference in duration measurements of the same heart cycle phases in the standard V3, V4, V5, V6 leads ECG versus original HDA lead ECG of the ascending aorta.Materials and methodsThe method of changing the filter pass band is used. Its essence is in artificial changing of the conditions of the signal recording carrying the informative indications of the initial information used in hemodynamic equations. The method also enables calculating the percentage deviation from the initial values. The principle of balance of the blood volume entering the heart and the blood volume leaving the heart is used to trace the minimal deviations and their respective recording conditions.ResultsIn each of the V3, V4, V5, V6 ECG leads durations of the same phases have different values. The values measured on the ECG of the ascending aorta and those measured using the standard V4 ECG lead differ slightly.ConclusionFor heart cycle phase analysis it is possible to use only the ECG of the ascending aorta and V4 standard lead ECG. Using conventional standard ECG leads causes an error up to 25%.KeywordsCardiometry, Cardiology, Hemodynamics, Metrology, ECG.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
  • General problems of metrology and indirect measuring in cardiology error
           estimation criteria for indirect measurements of heart cycle phase
           durations

    • Authors: Konstantin Mamberger
      Abstract: AimsThis paper treats general problems of metrology and indirect measurement methods in cardiology. It is aimed at an identification of error estimation criteria for indirect measurements of heart cycle phase durations.Materials and methodsA comparative analysis of an ECG of the ascending aorta recorded with the use of the Hemodynamic Analyzer Cardiocode (HDA lead) versus conventional V3, V4, V5, V6 lead system ECGs is presented herein. Criteria for heart cycle phase boundaries are identified with graphic mathematical differentiation. Stroke volumes of blood SV calculated on the basis of the HDA phase duration measurements vs. echocardiography data are compared herein.ResultsThe comparative data obtained in the study show an averaged difference at the level of 1%. An innovative noninvasive measuring technology originally developed by a Russian R & D team offers measuring stroke volume of blood SV with a high accuracy.ConclusionIn practice, it is necessary to take into account some possible errors in measurements caused by hardware. Special attention should be paid to systematic errors.KeywordsCardiometry, Cardiology, Metrology, ECG, Heart cycle phase analysis, Measurement errors.
      PubDate: 2012-11-22
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2012)
       
 
 
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