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Journal Cover Water Resources and Industry
  [SJR: 0.74]   [H-I: 8]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2212-3717
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Water quality assessment of bitumen polluted Oluwa River, South-Western

    • Authors: T.A. Ayandiran; O.O. Fawole; S.O. Dahunsi
      Pages: 13 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 19
      Author(s): T.A. Ayandiran, O.O. Fawole, S.O. Dahunsi
      This study was aimed at establishing a water quality database in the study area where none existed previously. Samples were taken from two different sites of River Oluwa, South-Western Nigeria. Physicochemical and biological factors and the metals for one year (April 2011–March 2012) were evaluated using standard methods. All the physical parameters of the water samples from the two sampling Sites did not show deviations from Nigeria Industrial Standard (NIS) for permissible levels of these parameters in drinking water. Virtually all heavy metals investigated deviated from the permissible levels allowed by NIS, and WHO standards in drinking water. In the same vein, all chemical parameters investigated during the dry season was significantly different from rainy season except for BOD at P < 0.05. Isolated microorganisms include members of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Proteus and Staphylococcus. The public health implications of consuming water from this river are fully discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T16:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
  • The role of organic load and ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of
           tannery fleshing

    • Authors: Cecilia Polizzi; Felipe Alatriste-Mondragón; Giulio Munz
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 19
      Author(s): Cecilia Polizzi, Felipe Alatriste-Mondragón, Giulio Munz
      In this study, batch tests on anaerobic digestion of tannery fleshing (skin-residue waste from hides’ tanning process), as sole substrate, have been performed with the purpose of assessing the effects of high substrate concentration and consequent ammonia inhibition on the process. Co-digestion with tannery primary sludge was also evaluated. According to the results, no inhibition occurred at initial organic load up to 5 gVS/l; an inhibited steady state was observed at 10 gVS/l, and system failure and instability was showed at the highest load of 20 gVS/l. Co-digestion with tannery primary sludge proved feasible, probably due to dilution effect. The observed ammonia and VFA accumulation over the experimental time-lapse is also discussed. Results are intended to increase knowledge on the technological application of anaerobic digestion of sole tannery fleshing, in the perspective of its application as on-site treatment solution for decentralised tanneries.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T16:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
  • The effects of magnetic nanoparticles embedded with SA/PVA and pH on
           chemical-mechanical polishing wastewater and magnetic particle
           regeneration and recycle

    • Authors: Chung-Fu Huang; An-Chi Huang; Yu-Fan Hsieh; Feng-Jen Chu; Terng-Jou Wan
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Chung-Fu Huang, An-Chi Huang, Yu-Fan Hsieh, Feng-Jen Chu, Terng-Jou Wan
      Experiments were conducted using sodium alginate (SA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as embedded materials for Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The materials provided excellent protection to the embedded MNPs in low-pH conditions. This study observed and compared the adsorption capacity of the unaltered and embedded MNPs. At pH 3 and without additional magnetic fields, the wastewater turbidity removal rate of the embedded MNPs reached a maximum of 95%, similar to that of the unaltered MNPs. Moreover, this study examined the recyclability and reusability of the unaltered and embedded MNPs and discovered that the embedded MNPs could be reused up to seven times. Overall, the use of SA/PVA prevented MNPs from disintegrating and contaminating the wastewater through the dissolution of Fe ions. SA and PVA also increased the reusability of the unaltered MNPs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T15:58:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Electrical energy per order determination for the removal pollutant from
           industrial wastewater using UV/Fe2+/H2O2 process: Optimization by response
           surface methodology

    • Authors: P. Asaithambi; Esayas Alemayehu; Baharak Sajjadi; Abdul Raman Abdul Aziz
      Pages: 17 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 18
      Author(s): P. Asaithambi, Esayas Alemayehu, Baharak Sajjadi, Abdul Raman Abdul Aziz
      Comparison of UV, H2O2, Fe2+, UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+, Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/Fe2+/H2O2 processes for the removal of percentage color, COD and electrical energy per order from the effluent distillery industry. The results showed that, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 process yield higher percentage color and COD removal with low electrical energy per order than UV, UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+ process. To obtain the UV/Fe2+/H2O2 process performance by operating various parameters on the percentage color and COD removal using response surface methodology. A Regression quadratic model describing the percentage color and COD removal efficiency of UV/Fe2+/H2O2 process were developed and validate by analysis of variance. Experimental results showed that, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 process can effectively reduced 96.50% of color and 84.40% of COD removal of the distillery industry wastewater under the optimum conditions such as Fe2+–1.50mM, H2O2–200mM, COD–1500ppm and pH–3.2, respectively. Result concluded that, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 process can be used effectively for the treatment of real industrial effluent.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-18T23:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Chemical oxygen demand removal from electroplating wastewater by purified
           and polymer functionalized Carbon nanotubes adsorbents

    • Authors: M.T. Bankole; A.S. Abdulkareem; J.O. Tijani; S.S. Ochigbo; A.S. Afolabi; W.D. Roos
      Pages: 33 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): M.T. Bankole, S.A. Abdulkareem, J.O. Tijani, S.S. Ochigbo, A.S. Afolabi, W.D. Roos
      This study investigated the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from electroplating industry wastewater via batch adsorption by purified and polymers functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as nano-adsorbents. Bimetallic Fe-Co supported on CaCO3 was utilized to produce multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) via the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique. This was subsequently followed by the purification of the as-prepared MWCNTs by a mixture of HNO3 and H2SO4 in order to remove the support and metal particles. The purified MWCNTs was further functionalized using known mass of the following polymers: Amino polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB) and amino polyethylene glycol with polyhydroxylbutyrate (PEG-PHB). The purified (P-CNTs) and functionalized CNTs coded PEG-CNTs; PHB-CNTs, and PEG-PHB-CNTs were characterized by HRSEM, HRTEM-EDS, BET, XRD and XPS. The electroplating wastewater was subjected to physicochemical characterization before and after treatment with various prepared nano-adsorbents using standard methods. The adsorption process under the influence of contact time, adsorbent dosage and temperature was measured using the chemical oxygen demand (COD) as indicator parameter. The HRSEM/XRD/BET confirmed that the purified and polymer functionalized CNTs were homogeneously dispersed; highly graphitic in nature with fewer impurities and of high surface area (>145m2/g). The order of maximum COD removal by the nano-adsorbents at equilibrium time of 70minutes are as follows: PEG-CNTs (99.68%) > PHB-CNTs (97.89%) > P-CNTs (96.34%) > PEG/PHB-CNTs (95.42%). Equilibrium sorption data were better described by Freudlich isotherm with the correlation coefficient (R2>0.92) than Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics for COD removal from electroplating wastewater fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model with rate constant in the range of 4 × 10−5 – 1 × 10−4 (g mg−1 min−1). Thermodynamics analysis of the adsorption process revealed that the enthalpy (ΔH°) of the reaction was positive and endothermic in nature. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) was negative which showed the feasibility and spontaneity of adsorption process. The findings from this study support the potential use of PEG-functionalised CNTs as a nanoadsorbent to purify electroplating wastewater than others prepared sorbents.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-18T23:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
  • Hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater contamination in the
           rapid urban development areas of Coimbatore, India

    • Authors: S. Selvakumar; N. Chandrasekar; G. Kumar
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 17
      Author(s): S. Selvakumar, N. Chandrasekar, G. Kumar
      The Singanallur Sub-basin is one of the major waterways and it supplies water to the Coimbatore city. Currently, it is vulnerable to pollution due to an increase of unplanned urban developments, industrial, and agricultural activities that compromise both the quality and quantity. In the present study three major hydrochemical facies were identified (mixed Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3). Irrigation suitability indexes are specifies that the groundwater in the areas has very high salinity hazard and low to medium alkali hazard. The mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry originally regulated by the evaporation process is dominated by reason of arid condition and anthropogenic activities existing throughout the region. The multivariate statistical analysis (Correlation analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)) indicates, most of the variations are elucidated by the anthropogenic pollutant predominantly due to population growth, industrial effluents, and irrigation water return flow. This study demonstrates enhanced information of evolution of groundwater quality by integrating hydrochemical data and multivariate statistical methods are used to understand the factors influencing contamination due to natural and anthropogenic impacts.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T05:58:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • The blue and grey water footprint of construction materials: Steel, cement
           and glass

    • Authors: P.W. Gerbens-Leenes; A.Y. Hoekstra; R. Bosman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): P.W. Gerbens-Leenes, A.Y. Hoekstra, R. Bosman
      Numerous studies have been published on water footprints (WFs) of agricultural products, but much less on WFs of industrial products. The latter are often composed of various basic materials. Already the basic materials follow from a chain of processes, each with its specific water consumption (blue WF) and pollution (grey WF). We assess blue and grey WFs of five construction materials: chromium-nickel unalloyed steel, unalloyed steel, Portland cement (CEM I), Portland composite cement (CEM II/B) and soda-lime glass. Blue and grey WFs are added up along production chains, following life cycle inventory and WF accounting procedures. Steel, cement and glass have WFs dominated by grey WFs, that are 20 to 220 times larger than the blue WFs. For steel, critical pollutants are cadmium, copper and mercury; for cement, these are mercury or cadmium; for glass, suspended solids. Blue WFs of steel, cement and glass are mostly related to electricity use.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.11.002
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 18

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T20:27:43Z
  • Enhanced corrosion resistance of metal surfaces by film forming amines: A
           comparative study between cyclohexanamine and 2-(diethylamino)ethanolbased

    • Authors: Erica Pensini; Roy van Lier; Fabrice Cuoq; Wolfgang Hater; Tobias Halthur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Erica Pensini, Roy van Lier, Fabrice Cuoq, Wolfgang Hater, Tobias Halthur
      The use of recycled process water in steam crackers leads to the accumulation of corrosive impurities, hence the need for adequate treatment. Two corrosion inhibitor formulations containing N-[(9Z)−9-octadecen-1-yl]−1,3-propanediamine (N-oleyl-1,3-propanediamine) with either cyclohexanamine (CHA) or 2-(diethylamino)ethanol (DEAE) were compared for their performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and visual observations showed that the two formulations offered comparable protection against corrosion. Bengal Rose testing and experiments conducted using a quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) indicated that the two formulations yielded similar coverage of the metal surfaces, and that the kinetics of mass adsorption were also similar. QCM-D data further suggested that the films formed with the two formulations had similar rigidity, and contact angle measurements indicated that they formed films with comparable hydrophobicity, which were equally effective in isolating the metal surfaces from water.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T20:27:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.11.001
  • Regional Water Coefficients for U.S. Industrial Sectors

    • Authors: Riccardo Boero; Donatella Pasqualini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Riccardo Boero, Donatella Pasqualini
      Designing policies for water systems management requires the capability to assess the economic impacts of water availability and to effectively couple water withdrawals by human activities with natural hydrologic dynamics. At the core of any scientific approach to these issues there is the estimation of water withdrawals by industrial sectors in the form of water coefficients, which are measurements of the quantity of water withdrawn per dollar of GDP or output. In this work we focus on the contiguous United States and on the estimation of water coefficients for regional scale analyses. We first compare an established methodology for the estimation of national water coefficients with a parametric one we propose. Second, we introduce a method to estimate water coefficients at the level of ecological regions and we discuss how they reduce possible biases in regional analyses of water systems. We conclude discussing advantages and limits of regional water coefficients.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T15:19:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.09.001
  • Accounting for water in the minerals industry: capitalising on regulatory

    • Authors: Rikki A. Garstone; Christopher Gill; Dene Moliere; Dong Yang; Ulrike Bende-Michl; Penny Fiddes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Rikki A. Garstone, Christopher Gill, Dene Moliere, Dong Yang, Ulrike Bende-Michl, Penny Fiddes
      With declining water availability and competing demands on water resources across the globe, Australia has been rapidly advancing the field of water accounting as a tool to improve water management across the country. Water accounting is the application of a consistent and structured approach to identify, measure and report water resource information. Following the advent of the National Water Initiative in 2004 in Australia, the Bureau of Meteorology (the Bureau) was given specific powers and responsibilities under the Water Act 2007 in relation to compiling and disseminating Australia's water information. Amongst these responsibilities is the requirement to publish an annual national water account. In fulfilling this function the Bureau has developed and published the Australian Water Accounting Standards for General Purpose Water Accounting Reports. Its principles and applicability are reflected in the Bureau's annual National Water Account publications. At around the same time of the release of the Exposure Draft of the Australian Water Accounting Standards 1 in 2010, the Minerals Council of Australia (MCA) developed a "Water Accounting Framework for the Minerals Industry" through a pilot study and substantial consultation and input from industry. The Minerals Council of Australia had similar objectives to the Bureau in developing a structured approach of water accounting which could be applied consistently and rigorously to water management. As part of collaboration between the Bureau and the Newmarket Gold Mining Company this paper investigates how General Purpose Water Account Reporting can be applied and used in the minerals industry to simplify and improve aspects of regulatory reporting. As water accounting has matured as a discipline, this case study demonstrates how General Purpose Water Accounting Reports and the lessons learned from the ongoing development of the National Water Account can be practically applied to regulatory reporting and corporate data management for a mining operation in the Australian Northern Territory. This paper also demonstrates the benefits of aligning a standardised water account with data that is already routinely collected as part of mining operations environmental compliance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T01:41:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.07.002
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 17

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:02:07Z
  • Exploratory analysis of fines for water pollution in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Nabil Haque
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 18
      Author(s): Nabil Haque
      As a consequence of rapid industrialization, the waterbodies of Bangladesh have transformed into seasonal dead zones from the ensuing pollution. Despite having environmental regulations to control industrial pollution, lack of effective enforcement has jeopardized environmental quality. Evaluation of enforcement mechanisms have not gained attention from researchers until recently. This qualitative and descriptive analysis illustrates the current enforcement regime for environmental compliance in Bangladesh focusing on fines levied on polluters. Although there are no official guidelines for fines based on type of violation, this paper identified that there are differences of fines among violation based on historical data. It was also found that textile factories are not penalized heavily compared to non-textile factories. Repeat offenders were found to be penalized at the same rate. This study can be used to design appropriate penalty structure based on violation types, and reform the enforcement system so that polluters pay principle is actually implemented.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T15:00:10Z

    • Authors: Francesca Giaccherini; Giulio Munz; Thomas Dockhorn; Claudio Lubello; Diego Rosso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Francesca Giaccherini, Giulio Munz, Thomas Dockhorn, Claudio Lubello, Diego Rosso
      In this study the carbon footprint and power demand of tannery wastewater treatment processes for the largest bovine leather producing regions were quantified and analysed. Moreover, we present a case in which we benchmarked the carbon footprint and energy demand analysis of tannery wastewater treatment to municipal wastewater treatment. We quantified the greenhouse gas direct and indirect emissions from tannery wastewater treatment facilities. Our results show that the total CO2-equivalent emission for tannery wastewater treatment is 1.49 103 tCO2,eqd−1. Moreover, the energy intensity of tannery wastewater treatment processes are evaluated at 3.9 kWh kg−1bCOD,removed, compared to 1.4 kWh kg−1bCOD,removed of municipal wastewater treatment processes. Based on this work in the field of tannery wastewater treatment, an effort to innovate suitable treatment trains and technologies has the strong potential to reduce the carbon footprint.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T20:46:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.03.001
  • A corporate water footprint case study: the production of Gazpacho, a
           chilled vegetable soup

    • Authors: G. Rivas Ibáñez; J.M. Molina Ruíz; M.I. Román Sánchez; J.L. Casas López
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): G. Rivas Ibáñez, J.M. Molina Ruíz, M.I. Román Sánchez, J.L. Casas López
      This paper analyses the water footprint (WF) for 1L of gazpacho, a chilled vegetable soup produced by an agrifood company located in south-eastern Spain, one of the driest regions in Europe. An overview of the main environmental impacts of its WF was carried out by identifying hotspots (high risks areas) based on a Water Stress indicator. The total WF calculated for 1L gazpacho is 580.5L, which mostly stems from the supply chain (99.9%), olive oil being the major contributor to total WF despite the very low amount used (2%). Most of the WF comes from green water (69%), 23% from blue and 8% represents the grey water. Pollution due to micropollutants such as pesticides, which are not yet regulated, has been taken into account in the WF calculation, pointing out that new regulation of micropollutants is needed to avoid their exclusion in the operational grey WF.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T14:40:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2017.04.001
  • Estimation of green water footprint of animal feed for beef cattle
           production in Southern Great Plains

    • Authors: Narayanan Kannan; Edward Osei Oscar Gallego Ali Saleh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Narayanan Kannan, Edward Osei, Oscar Gallego, Ali Saleh
      The goal of our study is to safeguard and promote regional beef production while mitigating its environmental footprint. Conducting a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) including green water footprint (GWF) is one of the objectives. This manuscript describes the estimation of GWF of animal feed crops including grasses of native range and introduced pasture, winter pasture and small grains typical to Southern Great Plains. The estimates are based on modeled evapotranspiration from Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model under Nutrient Tracking Tool (NTT) framework. NTT simulated crop growth, water balance, animal grazing, and manure management using 47 years of weather data from 1960. Our results aggregated by county indicate grasses in the native range and field crops used as winter pasture show smaller GWF than grasses in the introduced pasture and small grains. Animal stocking rate appears to be directly correlated with water requirement to produce a unit quantity of forage.

      PubDate: 2016-12-18T11:16:47Z
  • Remediation of chromium and copper on water hyacinth (E. crassipes) shoot

    • Authors: Sarkar A.K.M.L.; Rahman N.C. Bhoumik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): M. Sarkar, A.K.M.L. Rahman, N.C. Bhoumik
      Tannery effluent characterization and removal efficiency of Chromium (Cr) and Copper (Cu) on water hyacinth has been observed by filtration process. The effluent was contaminated by deep blue color, acidic pH, higher value of total dissolve solid (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and lower value of dissolve oxygen (DO). After filtration, the effluent shows that the permissible limit of investigated metals. Adsorbent capacity of water hyacinth shoot powder for Cr and Cu ion was found to be 99.98% and 99.96% for standard solution (SS) and 98.83% and 99.59% for tannery effluent (TE), respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-12-18T11:16:47Z
  • Treatment of Food-Agro (Sugar) Industry Wastewater with Copper Metal and
           Salt: Chemical Oxidation and Electro-Oxidation Combined study in Batch

    • Authors: Anurag Tiwari; Omprakash Sahu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Anurag Tiwari, Omprakash Sahu
      Sugar industry is one of the major industries which have been included in the polluting industries list by the World Bank. Different pollution monitoring agencies like State and National Pollution Control Boards have been made compulsory for each industry to set up a waste water treatment plants. In treatment system, single treatments of effluent are not effective to manage the dischargeable limit. So an attempted has been made to treat sugar industry wastewater with electrochemical and chemical process by using copper as electrode and chemical. Electrochemical process shows 81% chemical oxygen demand and 83.5% color reduction at pH 6, electrode distance 20mm, current density 178Am-2 and 120min treatment time.The combined treatment results show 98% chemical oxygen demand and 99.5% color removal at 8mM mass laoding and pH 6 with copper sulphate.

      PubDate: 2016-12-18T11:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.12.001
  • Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by electrocoagulation with presence of
           hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent and polialuminum chloride as

    • Authors: Mohd Nasrullah; Lakhveer Singh; Zahari Mohamad; Siti Norsita; Santhana Krishnan; Norul Wahida; A.W. Zularisam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Mohd Nasrullah, Lakhveer Singh, Zahari Mohamad, Siti Norsita, Santhana Krishnan, Norul Wahida, A.W. Zularisam
      The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of operating parameters, such as electrode material, current density, percentage of hydrogen peroxide and amount of polialuminum chloride (PAC) on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The current density was varied between 30–80mAcm−2, PAC (1–3gL-1) as coagulant-aid and 1 and 2 percent of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. As for the performance of electrode type, iron was more effective than aluminum. It appeared that the removal of COD increased with the increased of current density. When PAC and H2O2 increased, the percent of COD removal was increasing as well. The overall results demonstrate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve more than 70% COD removal in 180min at current density 30–80 mAcm-2 reliant upon the concentration of H2O2 and PAC.

      PubDate: 2016-12-04T08:08:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.11.001
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