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Journal Cover Water Resources and Industry
   [5 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2212-3717
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]
  • UV/Ni–TiO2 nanocatalyst for electrochemical removal of dyes
           considering operating costs

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 5
      Author(s): Azam Pirkarami , Mohammad Ebrahim Olya , Sanaz Raeis Farshid
      This paper reports an investigation into the effect of a number of operating factors on the removal of Reactive Red 19 (RR 19), Acid Orange 7 (AO 7), and Acid Red 18 (AR 18) from an aqueous solution through photoelectrocatalysis. Nano-Ni–TiO2 was used as the photocatalyst applied in suspension to achieve a larger catalyst surface area. Photocatalyst dose, dye concentration, pH, bias potential, electrolyte concentration, and temperature were found to be optimum at 0.6ppm, 30ppm, 7, 1.6V, 5ppm, and 25°C respectively. Significant reduction was observed in the COD values of the solutions, denoting effective treatment. Photocatalyst efficiency was evaluated using SEM, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. Cost analysis was performed for the treatment process. The energy required by the experiment was supplied by solar cells, meaning that no money had to be spent on electricity.

      PubDate: 2014-05-04T13:49:40Z
  • Highly efficient removal of basic blue 41 with nanoporous silica

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Mansoureh Zarezadeh-Mehrizi , Alireza Badiei
      The adsorption characteristics of basic blue 41 from aqueous solution were investigated using nanoporous silica (NPS). NPS with an average pore diameter of 2.4nm and a surface area of 1030m2/g was synthesized by using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decylether (NP-10) as structure directing agent (SDA) and ethyl silicate 40% (ETS-40) under acidic condition. This adsorbent was analyzed by means of small-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The kinetic data reveals that the adsorption process follows the linear form of the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm was fitted well to the Langmuir data. The monolayer adsorption capacity of adsorbent was found to be 345mg/g.

      PubDate: 2014-05-04T13:49:40Z
  • Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic
           retention time (HRT) on the performance of activated sludge process during
           the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Kapil Kumar , Gaurav Kumar Singh , M.G. Dastidar , T.R. Sreekrishnan
      Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP) unit under steady state condition varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) (2500, 3500 and 5000mg/l) and hydraulic retention time (HRTs) (18, 24 and 36h). The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46%, 54% and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36h HRT) at 2500, 3500 and 5000mg/l MLVSS respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18h HRT) which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36h HRT) at 2000, 3500 and 5000mg/L MLVSS respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

      PubDate: 2014-01-24T19:33:03Z
  • Corrigendum to “Drinking water quality assessment of the Middle
           Governorate in the Gaza Strip Palestine” [Water Resour. Ind. 4
           (2013) 13–20]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Adnan M. Aish

      PubDate: 2014-01-08T19:41:20Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 4

      PubDate: 2013-12-04T00:00:18Z
  • Application as Absorbents of Natural and Functionalized Brazilian
           Bentonite in Pb2+ Adsorption: Equilibrium, Kinetic, pH, and Thermodynamic

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): D.J.L. Guerra , I. Mello , R. Resende , R. Silva
      The capacities of natural and modified Brazilian bentonite samples as adsorbents to remove lead were investigated under several conditions in batch and column methods. The raw material, natural bentonite, was modified by anchorament of 3-aminopropyltrietoxisilane (APS) and 3,2-aminoethylaminopropyltrimetoxisilane (AEAPS) in the surface of component minerals of bentonite sample. Adsorption behavior of three bentonite types was strongly depending on pH of adsorbate solution, contact time adsorbent/adsorbate, and initial concentration of metal. The maximum adsorption capacities of bentonite types were 20.6843, 27.6524, and 29.5413mgg−1 for natural, bentonite functionalized by APS, and bentonite functionalized by AEAPS, respectively. The results were confirmed by column method and show that the adsorption process of materials accorded with Sips and Langmuir isotherm models. The pseudo-second-order model simulation was also introduced to reveal the principles of the lead removal. The exothermic enthalpic values reflected a favourable energetic process for lead atoms anchored in the material surfaces. The original and modified bentonite samples were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopic, and x-ray diffraction powder. The negative Gibbs free energy results supported the spontaneity of three adsorption reactions with Pb2+.

      PubDate: 2013-11-13T22:32:56Z
  • Recovery of Uranium, Thorium and Zirconium from allanite by extraction
           chromatography using impregnated chromosorb

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Bina Gupta , Poonma Malik , I. Zareena Begum
      Chromosorb 102 impregnated with Cyanex 923 was used as a stationary phase in the extraction chromatographic separation of lanthanides, U(VI), Th(IV) and Zr(IV). Batch studies were carried out to investigate the uptake behaviour of these metal ions, along with few other metal ions. The effect of different parameters like equilibration time, concentration of acid, metal ions and extractant has been studied. The distribution data has been used to develop suitable eluting agents. The sorbing and desorbing capacity of the column for U(VI), Th(IV) and Zr(IV) was determined. Results indicate an insignificant change in the efficiency of the column up to ten such cycles. The practical utility of the column has been demonstrated by the recovery of around 95% of U(VI), Th(IV) and Zr(IV) from allanite sample with a purity of around 97%±2%.

      PubDate: 2013-11-13T22:32:56Z
  • Drinking Water Quality Assessment of the Middle Governorate in the Gaza
           Strip, Palestine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Adnan M. Aish
      The aim of this study is to investigate drinking water contamination and to identify potential sources of contamination during the water production and delivery process in the middle area of the Gaza Strip. The samples were taken from private desalination plants, water tankers, distribution points located in stores along the streets, household storage units, and from private wells. The presence of biological contamination were detectable in 20.0% of storage tanks of private desalination plants, 26.7% of water tankers, 74.0% of drinking water distribution points and 75.7% of drinking water household storage tanks. With reference to chemical investigations, pH was mostly below the acceptable level, with values ranging from 4.4 to 6.3, with an average value of 5.4. Low pH was also confirmed in the samples taken from household and distribution points. The results of the chemical and bacteriological parameters were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) and Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) guidelines for drinking water.

      PubDate: 2013-10-28T00:06:33Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2013-10-23T20:02:21Z
  • Characterization and Treatment of Selected Food Industrial Effluents by
           Coagulation and Adsorption Techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Wael Qasim , A.V. Mane
      Food and milk processing industries consume large quantities of water. The food industrial effluents in general are characterized by high Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand along with fats, oil-grease and many other recoverable nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium. In the present investigation thorough treatment studies were carried out on diary, sweet-snacks and ice-cream industrial effluents using alum, electrocoagulation and powdered activated charcoal as adsorbent. Characterization of the effluents was also carried out to check the pollution potential of these effluents. More emphasis was given on the representative water parameters mainly pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Turbidity and Hardness. The electrocoagluation was performed with aluminum electrodes at different time intervals in order to check the variations in effluent parameters. Present studies revealed that electrocoagluation and adsorption have better ability to reduce the water parameters.

      PubDate: 2013-10-10T18:37:49Z
  • Separation of pollutants from restaurant effluents as animal feed,
           fertilizer and renewable energy to produce high water quality in a compact

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): H. Chan
      This paper demonstrates that oil and grease (O & G), chemical oxygen demandSettled (CODS) and chemical oxygen demandTotal-Settled (CODT-S) levels in restaurant wastewater can be reduced to less than 50, 400 and 160mg/L respectively, even during busy hours (1200–1400h), provided it is subject to chemical treatment with dissolved air flotation (DAF). After treatment the wastewater turned very clear and may be reused for various applications. The sludge generated from flotation can be recycled as an animal feed to give a mean protein content of 8.26%, a mean phosphorus level of 0.11%, and a mean calorific value of 6690Cal/g. This can be utilized as a fertilizer and a biofuel with nitrogen and phosphorus level equivalent to those of pig manure and a calorific value higher than that of wood and coal respectively.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-09-22T17:00:53Z
  • Adsorption studies of arsenic(III) removal from water by zirconium
           polyacrylamide hybrid material (ZrPACM-43)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Sandip Mandal , Manoj Kumar Sahu , Raj Kishor Patel
      A novel hybrid material zirconium polyacrylamide (ZrPACM - 43) was synthesized by mixing aqueous solution of zirconium oxychloride and mixture of acrylamide following an environmental friendly sol–gel method. The material was characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA - DTA, SEM - EDX. The extent of arsenic removal capacity was tested by the material by varying the solution parameters like adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, pH of the solution, contact time and temperature. The maximum removal efficiency of arsenic(III) was 98.22% under optimum conditions with adsorption equilibrium time of 120 minutes. The adsorption process followed second order kinetics and adsorption data were best fitted to linearly transformed Freundlich isotherm with correlation coefficient of R 2>0.999. Adsorption capacity (q o) calculated from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 41.48mgg−1. The thermodynamic parameter ΔH indicates an endothermic adsorption process. The regeneration study shows that the material is regenerated by 1M alkali solution.

      PubDate: 2013-09-22T17:00:53Z
  • Combination technology of ceramic microfiltration and reverse osmosis for
           tannery wastewater recovery

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Priyankari Bhattacharya , Arpan Roy , Subhendu Sarkar , Sourja Ghosh , Swachchha Majumdar , Sanjay Chakraborty , Samir Mandal , Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay , Sibdas Bandyopadhyay
      Treatment of highly contaminated composite tannery wastewater from common effluent treatment plant (CETP) was undertaken using indigenously developed ceramic microfiltration membranes. The effluent had a high load of organic and inorganic materials represented by about 5680mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 759mg/L of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) etc. The current study proposed a dual stage treatment involving microfiltration (MF) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) compared to conventional process. The final water was fit for reuse in the tanning process. Organic loadings in terms of COD and BOD5 values were below detection limit and turbidity was reduced to 0.025 NTU in the combined process. Reuse study was conducted using cow hide and leather properties were compared to that of control. Leather tanned with RO permeate had better tensile strength, stitch tear strength and grain crackness properties. Dye uptake was also more in case of leather tanned with RO permeate.

      PubDate: 2013-09-22T17:00:53Z
  • Water Resources and Industry

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2
      Author(s): Thomas Wintgens , Yusong Li , Christian Kazner

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • Special issue contents

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) for better water governance and
           sustainable development

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2
      Author(s): G.P. Zhang , A.Y. Hoekstra , R.E. Mathews

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • Publisher's note:AnewcollectionofWaterResources

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • IFC ‐ Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • Treatment of highly concentrated dye solution by
           coagulation/flocculation-sand filtration and nanofiltration

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): A.Y. Zahrim , N. Hilal
      Treatment of highly concentrated C.I. Acid Black 210 dye solution using direct coagulation/flocculation-sand filtration (without sedimentation) and nanofiltration has been investigated in this paper. It was found that none of the treatments were able to fully decolourise the dye solution, but nanofiltration permeate quality was better, based on colour, residual dye, pH, and total organic carbon. The red colour for the sand filtration filtrate might be due to the formation of stable aluminium- sulfonic acid complexes. The sand filtration breakthrough after coagulation/flocculation is estimated at around 45minutes. For nanofiltration of highly concentrated dye (>1000mg/L), the separation factor analysis had confirmed that the mechanism of dye molecules attached to the membrane surface is irreversible adsorption.

      PubDate: 2013-06-27T21:37:22Z
  • Adsorption characteristics of Pb (II) on alkali treated tea residue

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Xiaoping Yang , Xiaoning Cui
      The alkali treated tea residue (ATTR) was used as a novel adsorbent to remove Pb (II) from aqueous solution. The adsorption characteristics and underlying adsorption mechanism of Pb (II) on ATTR were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that ATTR had a highly porous surface structure. Comparative studies showed that the removal rate of Pb (II) on ATTR was significantly higher than that on green tea and green tea residue. Batch studies revealed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting Pb (II) adsorption and the maximum pH for efficient adsorption was about 4.5, and the adsorption equilibrium could be obtained within 90min, and the adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second-order model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for Pb (II) was 64.10mg/g at 25°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the adsorption of Pb (II). These suggested that the low-cost ATTR could be used as a potential and appealing adsorbent for the removal of Pb (II) from aqueous solutions.

      PubDate: 2013-06-07T20:03:47Z
  • Generalizing Ecological, Water and Carbon Footprint Methods and their
           Worldview Assumptions using Embedded Resource Accounting

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Richard R. Rushforth , Elizabeth A. Adams , Benjamin L. Ruddell
      Embedded Resource Accounting (ERA) methods generalize footprint methods by accounting for the net direct and indirect impacts of processes on arbitrarily defined resource stocks. Equivalency may or may not exist between these stocks from the perspective of a specific observer, and depending on the system boundaries. The assumptions made in the derivation of ecological, water, and carbon footprint methodologies from the ERA are explained, and the implications of variations on these assumptions discussed. The paper then discusses how the role and worldview of a resource manager determines the appropriate assumptions that should be made in the calculation of resource footprints. When its foundational assumptions are made explicit, ERA and related footprint methods can help explicate the impact of roles and worldviews in resource management in a complex systems context. This discussion directly informs the creation of appropriate footprint standards that function as sustainability metrics providing the information needed for specific resource management applications. We conclude that different types of policymakers and resource managers need to make different assumptions to obtain the information necessary for their unique decision-making perspectives and roles.

      PubDate: 2013-06-07T20:03:47Z
  • Treatment of Leather Industrial Effluents by Filtration and Coagulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Manjushree Chowdhury , M.G. Mostafa , Tapan Kumar Biswas , Ananda Kumar Saha
      This study focused on effluents characterization and accessing physical and chemical treatment by filtration and coagulation processes. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5, COD, TDS, TSS, TS and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO4 2− and other organic and inorganic constituents. After settling and a subsequent filtration of raw tannery effluents through sand-stone, the filtered were treated with various doses of FeCl3. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150mg/L dose near neutral pH showed the best removal efficiencies for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that untreated tannery effluents would be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

      PubDate: 2013-05-25T21:33:43Z
  • Water footprint of a large-sized food company: The case of Barilla pasta

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): L. Ruini , M. Marino , S. Pignatelli , F. Laio , L. Ridolfi
      The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use taking into account both direct and indirect water use of a consumer or a producer. The concept of water footprint can be applied to business companies to provide indications about the sustainability of their production process. We considered the case of pasta production from a large-sized company, Barilla. The water footprint of 1kg of Barilla pasta has been shown to range between 1.336 and 2.847l of water, depending on the production site, local environmental conditions and agricultural techniques used to cultivate durum wheat. Relevant virtual water fluxes, involved in pasta and durum wheat trade among different countries, were also quantified and analysed, demonstrating the need to consider water-related production processes on a global scale when examining the water footprint of an international food company.

      PubDate: 2013-05-01T21:33:18Z
  • An assessment of the virtual water balance for agricultural products in EU
           river basins

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): D. Vanham
      In this paper the virtual water balance for agricultural products in river basins located in the EU28 (European Union and Croatia) is assessed. Only basins with a surface area larger than 1000km2 are analysed. More specifically the net virtual water import of agricultural products (nVW i, agr) in these basins is assessed. The latter is defined as the difference between the water footprint of consumption (WF cons, agr) and the water footprint of production (WF prod, agr) for agricultural products. Overall the EU28 is a net VW importer for agricultural products, i.e. it imports more VW than it exports. However, there are large differences between different EU regions. River basins which are identified with high positive nVW i, agr values (net VW importer basins) include the densely populated and industrialised regions of western Europe like the Rhine, Elbe, Po, Seine, Scheldt or Thames basins. On the other hand high negative nVW i, agr values (net VW exporter basins) are observed for rural and sparsely populated river basins on the Iberian Peninsula (Guadiana, Ebro, Duero), in western France (Loire, Garonne) and the eastern Baltic region (Nemunas).
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2013-04-27T20:02:47Z
  • The Water Footprint Of Poultry, Pork And Beef: A Comparative Study In
           Different Countries And Production Systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): P.W. Gerbens-Leenes , M.M. Mekonnen , A.Y. Hoekstra
      Agriculture accounts for 92 per cent of the freshwater footprint of humanity; almost one third relates to animal products. In a recent global study, Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2012) show that animal products have a large water footprint (WF) relative to crop products. We use the outcomes of that study to show general trends in the WFs of poultry, pork and beef. We observe three main factors driving the WF of meat: feed conversion efficiencies (feed amount per unit of meat obtained), feed composition and feed origin. Efficiency improves from grazing to mixed to industrial systems, because animals in industrial systems get more concentrated feed, move less, are bred to grow faster and slaughtered younger. This factor contributes to a general decrease in WFs from grazing to mixed to industrial systems. The second factor is feed composition, particularly the ratio of concentrates to roughages, which increases from grazing to mixed to industrial systems. Concentrates have larger WFs than roughages, so that this factor contributes to a WF increase, especially blue and grey WFs, from grazing and mixed to industrial systems. The third factor, the feed origin, is important because water use related to feed crop growing varies across and within regions. The overall resultant WF of meat depends on the relative importance of the three main determining factors. In general, beef has a larger total WF than pork, which in turn has a larger WF than poultry, but the average global blue and grey WFs are similar across the three meat products. When we consider grazing systems, the blue and grey water footprints of poultry and pork are greater than those for beef.

      PubDate: 2013-04-27T20:02:47Z
  • The Water Footprint of a river basin with a special focus on groundwater:
           the case of Guadalquivir basin (Spain)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Aurélien Dumont , Gloria Salmoral , M. Ramón Llamas
      In addition to revealing the hidden link between products or consumption patterns of populations and their needs in terms of water resources, the water footprint (WF) indicator generates new debates and solutions on water management at basin scale. This paper analyses the green and blue WF of the Guadalquivir basin and its integration with environmental water consumption, with a special emphasis on the WF from groundwater and its consequences on current and future depletion of surface water. In a normal year, green WF (agriculture and pastures) amounts to 190mm on a total green water consumption of 410mm, while the blue WF (50mm) represents half of the total blue water flows. This constitutes a first overview and alternative interpretations of the WF as human water appropriation are introduced. The blue WF is almost entirely associated to agriculture (40mm). The presentation of its evolution over the period 1997–2008 reveals the rising WF from groundwater (13mm in 2008), 86% being current consumption of surface flows. This evolution is particularly ascribed to the recent development of irrigated olive groves from groundwater. To prevent a higher pressure on the environment, this new use, like every other (thermo-solar plants, tourism, etc.), could have been obtained from the reallocation of water from crops with low water productivity. It means that water is not lacking in the Guadalquivir basin if the governance setting integrates more flexibility and equity in the allocation of water to address climatic variability and the emergence of new demands.

      PubDate: 2013-04-27T20:02:47Z
  • Carbon and water footprint analysis of a soapbar produced in Brazil by
           Natura Cosmetics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): I.C.M. Francke , J.F.W. Castro
      Water shortage represents one of the main threats to life on our planet. Indeed, over the last five years, society and corporate businesses alike have expressed increasing concern about the long-term sustainability of water resources while climate change and freshwater scarcity became important issues for building a consistent sustainability strategy. Here we investigated the relationships between the carbon and water footprints (CF and WF, respectively) of one product from Natura Cosméticos, a leading cosmetic company in Latin America. Our main goal was to determine how to deal synergistically with these environmental pressure indicators in order to help building future strategies that are more sustainable. Our analysis reveals that the total for the CF of the Macadamia soap bar (450g) was 741g CO2e, while the WF was 1.581L, 1.587L, and 3.672L for the green, blue, and grey components, respectively. We found that at the formulation step, the soap has accumulated 84% of the total CF and 99% of the green component of WF while it accumulated only 6% of total green WF component and 10% of the grey WF component. Our results reveal that the major volumes accounting for blue and grey occur in the use and disposal phase of the product, when the soap is no longer under Natura's outreach. The use and disposal of this product represent 70% of the total WF and only 16% of the CF. WE also found that carbon and water footprints were significantly high in the farming stage, mainly because of the use of fertilizers for palm cultivation. This study reveals some relevant aspects of the carbon and water footprints and represents an important step for the integration of different environmental pressure indicators for developing novel sustainability strategies that can also be used to increase consumer perception of all environmental aspects of the company operations.

      PubDate: 2013-04-27T20:02:47Z
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