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Journal Cover   Water Resources and Industry
  [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2212-3717
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2586 journals]
  • Industrialized Watersheds Have Elevated Water Risk and Limited
           Opportunities to Mitigate Risk through Water Trading

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Sheila M.W. Reddy , Robert I. McDonald , Alexander S. Maas , Anthony Rogers , Evan H. Girvetz , Jennifer Molnar , Tim Finley , Gená Leathers , Johnathan L. DiMuro
      Businesses are increasingly concerned about water scarcity and its financial impacts, as well as competing needs of other stakeholders and ecosystems. Industrialized watersheds may be at more serious risk from water scarcity than previously understood because industrial and municipal users have inelastic demand and a high value for water. Previous water risk assessments have failed to sufficiently capture these economic aspects of water risk. We illustrate how hydro-economic modeling can be used to improve water risk assessments at a basin scale and we apply the methodology to the industrialized Brazos River Basin (85% municipal and industrial withdrawals) and consider implications for The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport Operations in Texas, US. Brazos water right holders pay only operating and maintenance costs for water during normal periods, however, when shortages occur leasing stored water or reducing production may be the only mitigation option in the short-run. Modeling of water shortages and the theoretical cost of leasing water under nine combined scenarios of demand growth and climate change suggests that water lease prices to industry could increase by 9-13X. At best, a more developed water rights and storage lease market could result in lower lease prices (2-3X); however, given that transactions would be limited it is more likely that prices would still increase by 4-13X. These results suggest that markets are unlikely to be a robust solution for the Brazos because, in contrast to other watersheds in the Western US, there is little reliable water to trade from low value users (agricultural) to high value users (industry and municipalities). Looking at demand trends across the contiguous US as an indicator of water risk, 2% of watersheds have municipal and industrial demands that outstrip total surface and ground water supplies and in these watersheds industry has historically paid higher lease prices for water. By assessing alternative costs of water under future climate and demand scenarios, our results provide a more complete view of future water risk and the limitation of markets to prevent large financial losses in a highly industrialized basin.

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T14:49:40Z
  • Effect of water quality and operational parameters on trihalomethanes
           formation potential in Dez river water, Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Bahman Ramavandi , Sima Farjadfard , Mehdi Ardjmand , Sina Dobaradaran
      This study assesses the influence of the total organic carbon (TOC) content, chlorine quantity, water temperature, bromide ion concentration, and seasonal variations on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation potential (THMFP) in Dez River water in Iran. The water temperature and TOC content had a significant effect on THMFP. Further, the experimental results showed that increasing the concentration of bromide ions enhance the formation of dibromochloromethane and bromoform. It was found that the THMFP in Dez River water during summer times was relatively higher than 100µg/L, maximum contaminant level for THMs in drinking water. By increasing the reaction time until 80h, the THMFP was gradually increased and reached to 177.4µg/L. The most abundant fraction of natural organic matter in the river was hydrophobic acid fraction (49.4μg/L). Overall, our study demonstrated that however the THMFP of Dez River water was relatively high but a usual waterworks could effectively reduce THMFP.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T13:05:59Z
  • Fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge: Application of
           factorial design optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Raquel O. Cristóvão , Cristiana Gonçalves , Cidália M. Botelho , Ramiro J.E. Martins , J.M. Loureiro , Rui A.R. Boaventura
      The optimization of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial organic matter concentration for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) abatement of wastewater from a fish canning industry of northern Portugal by activated sludge was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The two parameters were chosen since it was found that the treatment efficiency is mainly influenced by them. The experimental data on DOC removal were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using factorial design and RSM. The optimum process conditions were determined by analyzing the response surface of a three-dimensional plot and by solving the regression model equation. The obtained results showed a HRT of 6.4h and an initial DOC of 406.2mg/L as the best treatment conditions. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted DOC removal was 88.0%, confirming the feasibility and the reliability of fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge for organic content removal.

      PubDate: 2015-03-14T21:02:53Z
  • Redox polymer as an adsorbent for the removal of chromium (VI) and lead
           (II) from the tannery effluents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): V. Vetriselvi , R. Jaya Santhi
      Polymer-based hybrid were widely fabricated and applied in heavy metal removal and other inorganic pollutants. The present study deals with the sorption efficiency of metal adsorption through the chemically modified PAA with dihydroxybenzenes into the polymeric matrix present in the tannery effluents and a parallel investigation of chromium (VI) ions in aqueous solution was carried out. From the Langmuir model the removal of chromium (VI) has the maximum adsorption capacity with 181.4mgg−1. Batch sorption to remove chromium (VI) and lead (II) from the tannery effluents were investigated by using different parameters. The sorption efficiency was found to be 75% and 99% for chromium (VI) and lead (II) present in the tannery effluents. The chemical and structural characteristics of the adsorbents were determined by UV, FT-IR, TGA, DSC, XRD and SEM-EDS analysis.

      PubDate: 2015-03-09T20:10:53Z
  • Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): S. Hena , S. Fatima , S. Tabassum
      Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater) as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater). The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha−1 year−1 and 16.89% respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-02-22T17:49:13Z
  • The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a
           water value system

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Brendan P. Walsh , Sean N. Murray , D.T.J. O'Sullivan
      The world's current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water-energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

      PubDate: 2015-02-22T17:49:13Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 9

      PubDate: 2015-02-02T12:24:56Z
  • Requirements for water assessment Tools: An automotive industry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Sherry A. Mueller , Andrew Carlile , Bert Bras , Thomas A. Niemann , Susan M. Rokosz , Heidi L. McKenzie , H. Chul Kim , Timothy J. Wallington
      Water availability is one of the greatest global sustainability challenges. Water is not available in adequate quantity and quality in many areas and water shortfalls are expected to increase. Businesses are facing water-related challenges due to inadequate water availability and poor resource management. Identifying and quantifying impacts is key to enabling companies to make effective management decisions. Several water assessment tools have been developed to help companies understand the complex nature of water challenges; however, there remain significant gaps in the datasets and inconsistencies in measurement and reporting of geographic water shortfalls. There is a need for more complete datasets containing information on water withdrawal and discharge, freshwater availability and depletion (spatially and temporally), water quality monitoring, reuse and recycling. We discuss four of the available water assessment tools (Global Water Tool, India Water Tool, Water Risk Filter and Aqueduct) and highlight those elements most critical to water-related business decisions.

      PubDate: 2014-12-22T17:01:08Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 7–8

      PubDate: 2014-11-22T08:48:40Z
  • Adsorption of textile dyes on raw and decanted Moroccan clays: Kinetics,
           equilibrium and thermodynamics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): R. Elmoubarki , F.Z. Mahjoubi , H. Tounsadi , J. Moustadraf , M. Abdennouri , A. Zouhri , A. El Albani , N. Barka
      Inexpensive and easily available Moroccan natural clays were investigated for the removal availability of textile dyes from aqueous solution. For this purpose, the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) as reference molecule, malachite green (MG) representative of cationic dyes and methyl orange (MO) representative of anionic dyes, was studied in batch mode under various parameters. The clays were characterized by means of XRD, cationic exchange capacity and BET surface area analysis. The experimental results show that, the adsorption was pH dependent with a high adsorption capacity of MB and MG in basic range and high adsorption of MO in acidic range. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data for the adsorption of MB and MG by the clays. However, the adsorption of MO was more suitable to be controlled by an intra-particle diffusion mechanism. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The adsorption process was found to be exothermic in nature in the case of MB and MO. However, the adsorption of MG was endothermic.

      PubDate: 2014-11-12T07:41:51Z
  • Biodegradation of dairy effluent by using microbial Isolates obtained from
           activated sludge

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): H.J. Porwal , A.V. Mane , S.G. Velhal
      Water resources are of significant importance to human beings. The present investigation was carried out for biodegradation of dairy effluent by using selected aerobic microbial isolates and a model having layers of sawdust and activated charcoal as filtering media. Yeast isolates (DSI1) and two bacterial isolates (DSI2 and DSI3) were obtained from the dairy sludge. A mixed culture (DSI4) was prepared by taking 1:1, DSI1 and DSI3 to treat the effluent and check its efficiency. After aeration period of 48h, mixed culture of dairy sludge isolates proved to be most efficient in treatment of effluent. DSI2 showed least reduction in chemical oxygen demand. After aeration, the reduction efficiency of DSI4 was highest by 47.52% in biological oxygen demand in comparison with other isolates. DSI3 was second most effective in reduction of water parameters mainly electrical conductivity, totals solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand.

      PubDate: 2014-11-12T07:41:51Z
  • Hydrogeological and groundwater modeling studies to estimate the
           groundwater inflows into the coal Mines at different mine development
           stages using MODFLOW, Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): L. Surinaidu , V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao , N. Srinivasa Rao , S. Srinu
      The Singareni Collieries Company Ltd (SCCL) is exploiting coal in the Godavari valley coal fields spread over 5.33km2 in Andhra Pradesh, India. In the area, six workable coal seams have been identified in Barakar formation by the analysis of the geologic logs of 183 bore wells. A finite difference based numerical groundwater flow model is developed with twenty conceptual layers and with a total thickness of 320m. The flow model was calibrated under steady state conditions and predicted groundwater inflows into the mine pits at different mine development stages. The groundwater budget results revealed that the mining area would receive net groundwater inflows of 5,877m3/day, 12,818m3/day, 12,910m3/day, 20,428m3/day, 22,617m3/day and 14,504m3/day at six mine development stages of +124m (amsl), +93m (amsl), +64m (amsl), +41m (amsl), +0m (amsl) and -41m (amsl) respectively. The results of the study can be used to plan optimal groundwater pumping and the possible locations to dewater the groundwater for safe mining at different mine development stages.

      PubDate: 2014-10-29T06:59:42Z
  • Assessment of activated carbon prepared from corncob by chemical
           activation with phosphoric acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Gamal O. El-Sayed , Mohamed M. Yehia , Amany A. Asaad
      Corncob, which is the main waste from corn agricultures in Egypt, has been used as a raw material for the preparation of different activated carbons. Activated carbons (ACs) were prepared by chemical activation with concentrated H3PO4 acid; followed by pyrolysis at 400, 500 and 600°C. Different ACs have been used for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed as a function of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. Adsorption data were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Adsorption of MB on AC1 (R 2=0.9868) and AC2 (R 2=0.9810) followed Langmuir model with maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 28.65 and 17.57mg/g, respectively. Adsorption onto AC3 was better fitted to Freundlich isotherm model (R 2=0.9823).

      PubDate: 2014-10-29T06:59:42Z
  • Modeling of monthly rainfall and runoff of Urmia lake basin using
           “Feed-forward neural Network” and “Time series
           Analysis” model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Jamileh Farajzadeh , Ahmad Fakheri Fard , Saeed Lotfi
      Urmia Lake basin located in northwestern Iran is the second largest saline lake in the world. Due to many reasons i.e. climate changes, several dam constructions, building a bridge across the Lake, extra agricultural consumption and improper management of water resources, the water level of the lake has been decreased since 1997 and thousand hectares of emerged salty land has made numerous ecological and environmental problems. Therefore, an accurate forecast of the entrance runoff to the lake is important in managing the river flow and water transfer within basins. There are various methods for time-series based forecasting; in the presented study Feed-forward Neural Network and Autocorrelation Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were applied to forecast the monthly rainfall in Urmia lake basin. The results showed that the estimated values of monthly rainfall through Feed-forward NN were close to ARIMA model with coefficient of correlation 0.62 and the root mean square error of 12.43mm over the six years test period; then rainfall amount were predicted for a six-year period starting from 2012 (2012–2017). Using the runoff coefficient regime which was calculated from parallel data of rainfall over the basin and resulted runoff for the period of 39 years, the future runoff were obtained through predicted rainfall over that period.

      PubDate: 2014-10-25T06:48:35Z
  • Fe3O4–wheat straw: Preparation, characterization and its application
           for methylene blue adsorption

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): A. Ebrahimian Pirbazari , E. Saberikhah , S.S. Habibzadeh Kozani
      The removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by NaOH-treated wheat straw from agriculture biomass impregnated with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNP-NWS) was investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were prepared by chemical precipitation of a mixture of Fe2+ and Fe3+ salts from solution aqueous by ammonia. These magnetic nanoparticles of the adsorbent Fe3O4 were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). FTIR results showed complexation and ion exchange appears to be the principal mechanism for MB adsorption. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir, Sips, Redlich-Peterson and Freundlich equations. Langmuir adsorption capacity, Qmax was found to be 1374.6mgg−1. The Freundlich equation yielded the best fit to the experimental data in comparison to the other isotherm models. The removal of MB by MNP-NWS followed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics based on Lagergren equations.

      PubDate: 2014-09-22T00:25:04Z
  • Water equity – Contrasting tourism water use with that of the local

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Susanne Becken
      Tourism as an economic activity has grown substantially and is increasingly adding to local and seasonal pressures on water supply systems of tourist destinations around the world. Based on data from the AQUASTAT and EarthCheck tourist accommodation databases, this research analysed tourism-related water use in 21 countries and compared it with other municipal use. Tourists’ water use on a per guest night basis was found to differ substantially, with water usage being highest (up to 956l per guest night in China) and most diverse in developing countries. The disparity between tourist water use and that of locals is also greatest in low or mid-income countries. Industrialised countries, in contrast, are characterised by high tourism water efficiencies, with no apparent discrepancy in water use between tourism and non-tourism users. Implications of this research for managing potential water conflicts and the need for broader tourist destination stewardship for water resources are discussed.

      PubDate: 2014-09-17T23:48:48Z
  • Water footprint based water allowance coefficient

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Cs. Fogarassy , É. Neubauer , M. Borocz Bakosné , J.S. Zsarnóczai , S. Molnár
      In our work, we tried to determine asset value of water from natural resources. During the research we decided that a method based on allowance capitalization can be the most effective. Thus, the developed method is able to estimate water property value in a nationally uniformed system by utilization final products. It has been decided that the determined method of Water Allowance Coefficient (WAC) is based on water footprint results of domestic wheat production. Water footprint was chosen because it is able to refer to water availability with also considering both direct and indirect usage of water. It covers absolute volume of our freshwater needs, which also can be determined as the availability potential of freshwater resources. Methodological statement, because change of AWVs (Adjusted Water Value) among regions are vary the distances of regional values would disappear by ranking. To eliminate this, the WAC values were directly used.

      PubDate: 2014-09-01T22:23:42Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 6

      PubDate: 2014-09-01T22:23:42Z
  • Primary treatment Optimization of a fish canning wastewater from a
           Portuguese plant

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Raquel O. Cristóvão , Cidália M. Botelho , Ramiro J.E. Martins , José M. Loureiro , Rui A.R. Boaventura
      A sequence with three stages was optimized as a primary treatment for wastewaters from a fish canning industry of northern Portugal. Sedimentation tests were assessed at different times. The removal of a high fraction (75%) of oil and grease (O&G) and of some (48%) total suspended solids (TSS) occurred after a settling time of 1.5h. Coagulant dosage and pH value were optimized in the coagulation/flocculation treatment using several organic and inorganic coagulants. Best removal efficiencies (99.2% O&G, 85.8% TSS and 25.2% dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) were reached using 400mg/L of FeCl3 at raw pH wastewater. DAF was also tested, optimizing chamber pressure and recycle ratio. Removals of 94% for O&G and 43% for TSS were achieved. The coupling of the latter two processes was also investigated, but no improvement of the previous results was observed. The best approach proved to be a decantation process followed by coagulation/flocculation treatment.

      PubDate: 2014-08-05T21:03:29Z
  • Alkali treated Foumanat tea waste as an efficient adsorbent for methylene
           blue adsorption from aqueous solution

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Azadeh Ebrahimian Pirbazari , Elham Saberikhah , Moslem Badrouh , Mohammad Saeed Emami
      The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by alkali treated Foumanat tea waste (ATFTW) from agriculture biomass was investigated. The adsorbent was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen physisorption. FTIR results showed complexation and ion exchange appear to be the principle mechanism for MB adsorption. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir, Sips, Redlich-Peterson and Freundlich equations, and the Langmuir adsorption capacity, Qmax was found to be 461mgg−1. It was found that the adsorption of MB increases by increasing temperature from 303–323K and the process is endothermic in nature. The removal of MB by ATFTW followed pseudo-second order reaction kinetics based on Lagergren equations. Mechanism studies indicated that the adsorption of MB on the ATFTW was mainly governed by external mass transport where particle diffusion was the rate limiting step.

      PubDate: 2014-08-05T21:03:29Z
  • Treatment of water turbidity and bacteria by using a coagulant extracted
           from Plantago ovata

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Bahman Ramavandi
      A biocoagulant was successfully extracted from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl3-induced crude extract (FCE). The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for clarification using the turbid water of a river. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the effects of turbidity concentration, coagulant quantity, water pH, and humic acid concentration on the coagulation of water turbidity by FCE. The maximum turbidity removal was occurred at water pH <8. At the optimum dosage of FCE, only 0.8mg/L of dissolved organic carbon was released to the treated water. An increase in the humic acid led to the promotion of the water turbidity removal. Results demonstrated that the FCE removed more than 95.6% of all initial turbidity concentrations (50–300 NTU). High bacteriological quality was achieved in the treated water. FCE as an eco-friendly biocoagulant was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant for removing turbidity from waters.

      PubDate: 2014-07-31T20:06:58Z
  • Saving energy consumption and CO2 emission from sustainable efficient
           operating zones in inland electrodialysis reversal desalination

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 5
      Author(s): Maung Thein Myint
      A pre-design parameter, system efficiency (SE) was modeled for operations with water recovery rate through cell pairs (WRRTC)>0.5. The variables for equation were validated with data from a pilot scale study of electrodialysis reversal (EDR). The correlation between experimental and predicted SE are good at overall R 2 0.924 with significant p 0.000. System efficiency-to-polarization degree ratio is inversely linear with demineralization, WRRTC, and polarization degree (PD). The most sensitive operational parameter was found to be PD. The sustainable efficient zones for PD, WRRTC, and demineralization were found to be 1040–1315 (A/m2) (L/eq), 0.57–0.67, and 62–90%. By operating EDR in this zone, 8–15% of energy consumption and CO2 emission were saved.

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T19:23:18Z
  • The use of new modified poly(acrylamide) chelating resin with pendent
           benzothiazole groups containing donor atoms in the removal of heavy metal
           ions from aqueous solutions

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 5
      Author(s): Semmedu Selvaraj Kalaivani , Thangaraj Vidhyadevi , Arukkani Murugesan , Kadathur Varathachary Thiruvengadaravi , Dhanasekaran Anuradha , S. Sivanesan , L. Ravikumar
      The adsorption studies of poly(6-(ethoxybenzothiazole acrylamide) (PEBTA), for Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal ions removal from an aqueous solution have been investigated, as a function of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature. The chemical and structural characteristics of the adsorbent were determined by the FT-IR, 1H-NMR, TGA, SEM, and EDAX analysis. The maximum adsorption capacities of the adsorbent for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions, as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model, were 273.5 and 216.4mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetic studies show that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions onto PEBTA follows the pseudo second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were also evaluated, and it has been found that the adsorption process is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Desorption studies were carried out using 0.3N HCl, and it revealed that the adsorbed Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions can be easily removed. The adsorption–desorption process is reversible, and this indicates that PEBTA is an effective adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from an aqueous medium.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T19:23:18Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 5

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T19:23:18Z
  • Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic investigations of Ni(II), Cd(II),
           Cu(II) and Co(II) adsorption on barley straw ash

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): M. Arshadi , M.J. Amiri , S. Mousavi
      This work reports the application of a straw ash from barley as a novel bioadsorbent for the removal of several heavy metals: Ni(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), and Co(II). Equilibrium and kinetic models for heavy metals sorption were developed by considering the effect of the contact time, initial heavy metal ion concentrations, effect of temperature, and initial pH. The adsorption of heavy metal ions have been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir–Freundlich isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir–Freundlich model and showed the following affinity order of the material: Ni(II)>Cu(II)>Co(II)>Cd(II). The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all systems studied, confirming chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of adsorption mechanisms. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) indicated that the adsorption of heavy metals ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 15–80°C.

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T19:23:18Z
  • Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies of synthetic dye removal
           using pomegranate peel activated carbon prepared by microwave-induced KOH

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Mohd Azmier Ahmad , Nur Azreen Ahmad Puad , Olugbenga Solomon Bello
      Pomegranate peel was converted into activated carbon using microwave induced and KOH activation techniques. The prepared activated carbon (PPAC) was characterized using FTIR, TGA, SEM, and nitrogen-adsorption surface area (BET). BET measurements gave remarkable increase in both the surface area (941.02m2/g) and total pore volume (0.470cm3/g). Various operational parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and solution temperature in batch systems were investigated on the use of PPAC in the adsorption of remazol brilliant blue reactive (RBBR) dye. At pH 2, the optimum dye removal was 94.36%. The amount of dye removed was dependent on initial dye concentration and solution temperature. Adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Experimental data were analyzed using eight model equations: Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin–Radushkevich, Radke Prausnite, Sips, Viet–Sladek and Brouers – Sotolongo isotherms and it was found that the Freundlich isotherm model fitted the adsorption data most with the highest correlation (R 2≥0.99) and lowest normalized standard deviation, ∆q e . Both intra-particle and film diffusion governed the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters, such as standard Gibbs free energy (∆G 0), standard enthalpy (∆H 0), standard entropy (∆S 0), and the activation energy (E a ) were calculated. The adsorption of RBBR dye onto PPAC was found to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. This study shows that the adsorption follows physisorption mechanism.

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T19:23:18Z
  • UV/Ni–TiO2 nanocatalyst for electrochemical removal of dyes
           considering operating costs

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 5
      Author(s): Azam Pirkarami , Mohammad Ebrahim Olya , Sanaz Raeis Farshid
      This paper reports an investigation into the effect of a number of operating factors on the removal of Reactive Red 19 (RR 19), Acid Orange 7 (AO 7), and Acid Red 18 (AR 18) from an aqueous solution through photoelectrocatalysis. Nano-Ni–TiO2 was used as the photocatalyst applied in suspension to achieve a larger catalyst surface area. Photocatalyst dose, dye concentration, pH, bias potential, electrolyte concentration, and temperature were found to be optimum at 0.6ppm, 30ppm, 7, 1.6V, 5ppm, and 25°C respectively. Significant reduction was observed in the COD values of the solutions, denoting effective treatment. Photocatalyst efficiency was evaluated using SEM, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. Cost analysis was performed for the treatment process. The energy required by the experiment was supplied by solar cells, meaning that no money had to be spent on electricity.

      PubDate: 2014-05-04T13:49:40Z
  • Highly efficient removal of basic blue 41 with nanoporous silica

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Mansoureh Zarezadeh-Mehrizi , Alireza Badiei
      The adsorption characteristics of basic blue 41 from aqueous solution were investigated using nanoporous silica (NPS). NPS with an average pore diameter of 2.4nm and a surface area of 1030m2/g was synthesized by using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decylether (NP-10) as structure directing agent (SDA) and ethyl silicate 40% (ETS-40) under acidic condition. This adsorbent was analyzed by means of small-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The kinetic data reveals that the adsorption process follows the linear form of the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm was fitted well to the Langmuir data. The monolayer adsorption capacity of adsorbent was found to be 345mg/g.

      PubDate: 2014-05-04T13:49:40Z
  • Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic
           retention time (HRT) on the performance of activated sludge process during
           the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Kapil Kumar , Gaurav Kumar Singh , M.G. Dastidar , T.R. Sreekrishnan
      Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP) unit under steady state condition varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) (2500, 3500 and 5000mg/l) and hydraulic retention time (HRTs) (18, 24 and 36h). The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46%, 54% and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36h HRT) at 2500, 3500 and 5000mg/l MLVSS respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18h HRT) which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36h HRT) at 2000, 3500 and 5000mg/L MLVSS respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

      PubDate: 2014-01-24T19:33:03Z
  • Corrigendum to “Drinking water quality assessment of the Middle
           Governorate in the Gaza Strip Palestine” [Water Resour. Ind. 4
           (2013) 13–20]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2014
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Adnan M. Aish

      PubDate: 2014-01-08T19:41:20Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 4

      PubDate: 2013-12-04T00:00:18Z
  • Application as Absorbents of Natural and Functionalized Brazilian
           Bentonite in Pb2+ Adsorption: Equilibrium, Kinetic, pH, and Thermodynamic

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): D.J.L. Guerra , I. Mello , R. Resende , R. Silva
      The capacities of natural and modified Brazilian bentonite samples as adsorbents to remove lead were investigated under several conditions in batch and column methods. The raw material, natural bentonite, was modified by anchorament of 3-aminopropyltrietoxisilane (APS) and 3,2-aminoethylaminopropyltrimetoxisilane (AEAPS) in the surface of component minerals of bentonite sample. Adsorption behavior of three bentonite types was strongly depending on pH of adsorbate solution, contact time adsorbent/adsorbate, and initial concentration of metal. The maximum adsorption capacities of bentonite types were 20.6843, 27.6524, and 29.5413mgg−1 for natural, bentonite functionalized by APS, and bentonite functionalized by AEAPS, respectively. The results were confirmed by column method and show that the adsorption process of materials accorded with Sips and Langmuir isotherm models. The pseudo-second-order model simulation was also introduced to reveal the principles of the lead removal. The exothermic enthalpic values reflected a favourable energetic process for lead atoms anchored in the material surfaces. The original and modified bentonite samples were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopic, and x-ray diffraction powder. The negative Gibbs free energy results supported the spontaneity of three adsorption reactions with Pb2+.

      PubDate: 2013-11-13T22:32:56Z
  • Recovery of Uranium, Thorium and Zirconium from allanite by extraction
           chromatography using impregnated chromosorb

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Bina Gupta , Poonma Malik , I. Zareena Begum
      Chromosorb 102 impregnated with Cyanex 923 was used as a stationary phase in the extraction chromatographic separation of lanthanides, U(VI), Th(IV) and Zr(IV). Batch studies were carried out to investigate the uptake behaviour of these metal ions, along with few other metal ions. The effect of different parameters like equilibration time, concentration of acid, metal ions and extractant has been studied. The distribution data has been used to develop suitable eluting agents. The sorbing and desorbing capacity of the column for U(VI), Th(IV) and Zr(IV) was determined. Results indicate an insignificant change in the efficiency of the column up to ten such cycles. The practical utility of the column has been demonstrated by the recovery of around 95% of U(VI), Th(IV) and Zr(IV) from allanite sample with a purity of around 97%±2%.

      PubDate: 2013-11-13T22:32:56Z
  • Drinking Water Quality Assessment of the Middle Governorate in the Gaza
           Strip, Palestine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Adnan M. Aish
      The aim of this study is to investigate drinking water contamination and to identify potential sources of contamination during the water production and delivery process in the middle area of the Gaza Strip. The samples were taken from private desalination plants, water tankers, distribution points located in stores along the streets, household storage units, and from private wells. The presence of biological contamination were detectable in 20.0% of storage tanks of private desalination plants, 26.7% of water tankers, 74.0% of drinking water distribution points and 75.7% of drinking water household storage tanks. With reference to chemical investigations, pH was mostly below the acceptable level, with values ranging from 4.4 to 6.3, with an average value of 5.4. Low pH was also confirmed in the samples taken from household and distribution points. The results of the chemical and bacteriological parameters were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) and Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) guidelines for drinking water.

      PubDate: 2013-10-28T00:06:33Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2013-10-23T20:02:21Z
  • Characterization and Treatment of Selected Food Industrial Effluents by
           Coagulation and Adsorption Techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Wael Qasim , A.V. Mane
      Food and milk processing industries consume large quantities of water. The food industrial effluents in general are characterized by high Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand along with fats, oil-grease and many other recoverable nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium. In the present investigation thorough treatment studies were carried out on diary, sweet-snacks and ice-cream industrial effluents using alum, electrocoagulation and powdered activated charcoal as adsorbent. Characterization of the effluents was also carried out to check the pollution potential of these effluents. More emphasis was given on the representative water parameters mainly pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Turbidity and Hardness. The electrocoagluation was performed with aluminum electrodes at different time intervals in order to check the variations in effluent parameters. Present studies revealed that electrocoagluation and adsorption have better ability to reduce the water parameters.

      PubDate: 2013-10-10T18:37:49Z
  • Separation of pollutants from restaurant effluents as animal feed,
           fertilizer and renewable energy to produce high water quality in a compact

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): H. Chan
      This paper demonstrates that oil and grease (O & G), chemical oxygen demandSettled (CODS) and chemical oxygen demandTotal-Settled (CODT-S) levels in restaurant wastewater can be reduced to less than 50, 400 and 160mg/L respectively, even during busy hours (1200–1400h), provided it is subject to chemical treatment with dissolved air flotation (DAF). After treatment the wastewater turned very clear and may be reused for various applications. The sludge generated from flotation can be recycled as an animal feed to give a mean protein content of 8.26%, a mean phosphorus level of 0.11%, and a mean calorific value of 6690Cal/g. This can be utilized as a fertilizer and a biofuel with nitrogen and phosphorus level equivalent to those of pig manure and a calorific value higher than that of wood and coal respectively.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-09-22T17:00:53Z
  • Adsorption studies of arsenic(III) removal from water by zirconium
           polyacrylamide hybrid material (ZrPACM-43)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Sandip Mandal , Manoj Kumar Sahu , Raj Kishor Patel
      A novel hybrid material zirconium polyacrylamide (ZrPACM - 43) was synthesized by mixing aqueous solution of zirconium oxychloride and mixture of acrylamide following an environmental friendly sol–gel method. The material was characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA - DTA, SEM - EDX. The extent of arsenic removal capacity was tested by the material by varying the solution parameters like adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, pH of the solution, contact time and temperature. The maximum removal efficiency of arsenic(III) was 98.22% under optimum conditions with adsorption equilibrium time of 120 minutes. The adsorption process followed second order kinetics and adsorption data were best fitted to linearly transformed Freundlich isotherm with correlation coefficient of R 2>0.999. Adsorption capacity (q o) calculated from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 41.48mgg−1. The thermodynamic parameter ΔH indicates an endothermic adsorption process. The regeneration study shows that the material is regenerated by 1M alkali solution.

      PubDate: 2013-09-22T17:00:53Z
  • Combination technology of ceramic microfiltration and reverse osmosis for
           tannery wastewater recovery

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Priyankari Bhattacharya , Arpan Roy , Subhendu Sarkar , Sourja Ghosh , Swachchha Majumdar , Sanjay Chakraborty , Samir Mandal , Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay , Sibdas Bandyopadhyay
      Treatment of highly contaminated composite tannery wastewater from common effluent treatment plant (CETP) was undertaken using indigenously developed ceramic microfiltration membranes. The effluent had a high load of organic and inorganic materials represented by about 5680mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 759mg/L of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) etc. The current study proposed a dual stage treatment involving microfiltration (MF) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) compared to conventional process. The final water was fit for reuse in the tanning process. Organic loadings in terms of COD and BOD5 values were below detection limit and turbidity was reduced to 0.025 NTU in the combined process. Reuse study was conducted using cow hide and leather properties were compared to that of control. Leather tanned with RO permeate had better tensile strength, stitch tear strength and grain crackness properties. Dye uptake was also more in case of leather tanned with RO permeate.

      PubDate: 2013-09-22T17:00:53Z
  • Water Resources and Industry

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2
      Author(s): Thomas Wintgens , Yusong Li , Christian Kazner

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • Special issue contents

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) for better water governance and
           sustainable development

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2
      Author(s): G.P. Zhang , A.Y. Hoekstra , R.E. Mathews

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • Publisher's note:AnewcollectionofWaterResources

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • IFC ‐ Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March–June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volumes 1–2

      PubDate: 2013-08-25T14:06:38Z
  • Treatment of highly concentrated dye solution by
           coagulation/flocculation-sand filtration and nanofiltration

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): A.Y. Zahrim , N. Hilal
      Treatment of highly concentrated C.I. Acid Black 210 dye solution using direct coagulation/flocculation-sand filtration (without sedimentation) and nanofiltration has been investigated in this paper. It was found that none of the treatments were able to fully decolourise the dye solution, but nanofiltration permeate quality was better, based on colour, residual dye, pH, and total organic carbon. The red colour for the sand filtration filtrate might be due to the formation of stable aluminium- sulfonic acid complexes. The sand filtration breakthrough after coagulation/flocculation is estimated at around 45minutes. For nanofiltration of highly concentrated dye (>1000mg/L), the separation factor analysis had confirmed that the mechanism of dye molecules attached to the membrane surface is irreversible adsorption.

      PubDate: 2013-06-27T21:37:22Z
  • Adsorption characteristics of Pb (II) on alkali treated tea residue

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Xiaoping Yang , Xiaoning Cui
      The alkali treated tea residue (ATTR) was used as a novel adsorbent to remove Pb (II) from aqueous solution. The adsorption characteristics and underlying adsorption mechanism of Pb (II) on ATTR were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that ATTR had a highly porous surface structure. Comparative studies showed that the removal rate of Pb (II) on ATTR was significantly higher than that on green tea and green tea residue. Batch studies revealed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting Pb (II) adsorption and the maximum pH for efficient adsorption was about 4.5, and the adsorption equilibrium could be obtained within 90min, and the adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second-order model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for Pb (II) was 64.10mg/g at 25°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the adsorption of Pb (II). These suggested that the low-cost ATTR could be used as a potential and appealing adsorbent for the removal of Pb (II) from aqueous solutions.

      PubDate: 2013-06-07T20:03:47Z
  • Treatment of Leather Industrial Effluents by Filtration and Coagulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Manjushree Chowdhury , M.G. Mostafa , Tapan Kumar Biswas , Ananda Kumar Saha
      This study focused on effluents characterization and accessing physical and chemical treatment by filtration and coagulation processes. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5, COD, TDS, TSS, TS and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO4 2− and other organic and inorganic constituents. After settling and a subsequent filtration of raw tannery effluents through sand-stone, the filtered were treated with various doses of FeCl3. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150mg/L dose near neutral pH showed the best removal efficiencies for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that untreated tannery effluents would be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

      PubDate: 2013-05-25T21:33:43Z
  • Water footprint of a large-sized food company: The case of Barilla pasta

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): L. Ruini , M. Marino , S. Pignatelli , F. Laio , L. Ridolfi
      The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use taking into account both direct and indirect water use of a consumer or a producer. The concept of water footprint can be applied to business companies to provide indications about the sustainability of their production process. We considered the case of pasta production from a large-sized company, Barilla. The water footprint of 1kg of Barilla pasta has been shown to range between 1.336 and 2.847l of water, depending on the production site, local environmental conditions and agricultural techniques used to cultivate durum wheat. Relevant virtual water fluxes, involved in pasta and durum wheat trade among different countries, were also quantified and analysed, demonstrating the need to consider water-related production processes on a global scale when examining the water footprint of an international food company.

      PubDate: 2013-05-01T21:33:18Z
  • The Water Footprint Of Poultry, Pork And Beef: A Comparative Study In
           Different Countries And Production Systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): P.W. Gerbens-Leenes , M.M. Mekonnen , A.Y. Hoekstra
      Agriculture accounts for 92 per cent of the freshwater footprint of humanity; almost one third relates to animal products. In a recent global study, Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2012) show that animal products have a large water footprint (WF) relative to crop products. We use the outcomes of that study to show general trends in the WFs of poultry, pork and beef. We observe three main factors driving the WF of meat: feed conversion efficiencies (feed amount per unit of meat obtained), feed composition and feed origin. Efficiency improves from grazing to mixed to industrial systems, because animals in industrial systems get more concentrated feed, move less, are bred to grow faster and slaughtered younger. This factor contributes to a general decrease in WFs from grazing to mixed to industrial systems. The second factor is feed composition, particularly the ratio of concentrates to roughages, which increases from grazing to mixed to industrial systems. Concentrates have larger WFs than roughages, so that this factor contributes to a WF increase, especially blue and grey WFs, from grazing and mixed to industrial systems. The third factor, the feed origin, is important because water use related to feed crop growing varies across and within regions. The overall resultant WF of meat depends on the relative importance of the three main determining factors. In general, beef has a larger total WF than pork, which in turn has a larger WF than poultry, but the average global blue and grey WFs are similar across the three meat products. When we consider grazing systems, the blue and grey water footprints of poultry and pork are greater than those for beef.

      PubDate: 2013-04-27T20:02:47Z
  • Carbon and water footprint analysis of a soapbar produced in Brazil by
           Natura Cosmetics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2013
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): I.C.M. Francke , J.F.W. Castro
      Water shortage represents one of the main threats to life on our planet. Indeed, over the last five years, society and corporate businesses alike have expressed increasing concern about the long-term sustainability of water resources while climate change and freshwater scarcity became important issues for building a consistent sustainability strategy. Here we investigated the relationships between the carbon and water footprints (CF and WF, respectively) of one product from Natura Cosméticos, a leading cosmetic company in Latin America. Our main goal was to determine how to deal synergistically with these environmental pressure indicators in order to help building future strategies that are more sustainable. Our analysis reveals that the total for the CF of the Macadamia soap bar (450g) was 741g CO2e, while the WF was 1.581L, 1.587L, and 3.672L for the green, blue, and grey components, respectively. We found that at the formulation step, the soap has accumulated 84% of the total CF and 99% of the green component of WF while it accumulated only 6% of total green WF component and 10% of the grey WF component. Our results reveal that the major volumes accounting for blue and grey occur in the use and disposal phase of the product, when the soap is no longer under Natura's outreach. The use and disposal of this product represent 70% of the total WF and only 16% of the CF. WE also found that carbon and water footprints were significantly high in the farming stage, mainly because of the use of fertilizers for palm cultivation. This study reveals some relevant aspects of the carbon and water footprints and represents an important step for the integration of different environmental pressure indicators for developing novel sustainability strategies that can also be used to increase consumer perception of all environmental aspects of the company operations.

      PubDate: 2013-04-27T20:02:47Z
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