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Journal Cover Water Resources and Industry
  [SJR: 0.74]   [H-I: 8]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2212-3717
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Characterization of Effluent from Food Processing Industries and Stillage
           Treatment Trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) and Panicum maximum
           (Jacq.)

    • Authors: N.A. Noukeu; I. Gouado; R.J. Priso; D. Ndongo; V.D. Taffouo; S.D. Dibong; G.E. Ekodeck
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): N.A. Noukeu, I. Gouado, R.J. Priso, D. Ndongo, V.D. Taffouo, S.D. Dibong, G.E. Ekodeck
      In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd+) concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052 to 0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA) grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2 -), high levels of nitrates (NO3 -), ammonium (NH4 +) and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

      PubDate: 2016-07-26T17:32:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2016)
       
  • Removal of methylene blue and mechanism on magnetic γ-Fe2O3/SiO2
           nanocomposite from aqueous solution

    • Authors: Dong Chen; Ziyang Zeng; Yubin Zeng; Fan Zhang; Mian Wang
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 15
      Author(s): Dong Chen, Ziyang Zeng, Yubin Zeng, Fan Zhang, Mian Wang
      Magnetic γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 (M-γFS) nanocomposite was prepared using γ-Fe2O3 as the magnetic carriers. M-γFS was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterizations of M-γFS exhibit the irregular core-shell structure, and SiO2 has been successfully coated on the surface of γ-Fe2O3. M-γFS has much higher adsorption capacity 116.09mg/g calculated by coated SiO2 on M-γFS than γ-Fe2O3 and SiO2, and the alkaline conditions are beneficial to the adsorption of MB. Coexisting cations, ionic strength and humic acid can influence the adsorption capacity. Meanwhile, adsorption kinetics data for M-γFS show good fit to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model, and the Langmuir equation is more appropriate to describe the adsorption behavior of MB on M-γFS. Moreover, after recycling four times, M-γFS washed by ethanol can still keep high adsorption capacity for MB adsorption.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-06-13T22:04:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2016)
       
  • Kinetics, Isotherms and thermodynamic modeling of liquid phase adsorption
           of Rhodamine B dye onto Raphia hookerie fruit epicarp

    • Authors: A.A. Inyinbor; F.A. Adekola; G.A. Olatunji
      Pages: 14 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): A.A. Inyinbor, F.A. Adekola, G.A. Olatunji
      Highly efficient low cost adsorbent was prepared from Raphia hookerie fruit epicarp. Characteristics of the prepared low cost adsorbent (RH) was established using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Brunauer– Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area. RH was applied for Rhodamine B (RhB) uptake from aqueous solution. Equilibrium adsorption data were fitted using four isotherms and kinetic data tested with five kinetic models. The BET surface area obtained was 0.00351m2/g; SEM reveals large pores that could enhance the uptake of large molecules. Freundlich isotherm best described the uptake of RhB onto RH, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qmax) was 666.67mg/g. Pseudo second order model best described the kinetics of adsorption process. Energy of adsorption (E) obtained from d-R isotherm suggests physical adsorption. Desorption efficiency follows the order H2O>HCl>CH3COOH. Cost analysis shows that RH is about 1,143 times more economical when compared with commercial activated carbon.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:46:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2016)
       
  • Comparative investigation on the removal of cyanide from aqueous solution
           using two different bioadsorbents

    • Authors: Naveen Dwivedi; Chandrajit Balomajumder; Prasenjit Mondal
      Pages: 28 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Naveen Dwivedi, Chandrajit Balomajumder, Prasenjit Mondal
      In the present study, comparative investigation for the bioremoval of cyanide from synthetic aqueous solution by Prunus amygdalus (Almond) shell (PAS) and Tectona grandis (Sagwan) leaves (TGL) powder have been performed as a function of solution pH, bio adsorbent dose, contact time and initial cyanide concentration. The cyanide uptake by PAS and TGL powder has been quantitatively estimated using sorption isotherms. The equilibrium data are best fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model for PAS and TGL powder respectively. The monolayer capacity of PAS and TGL powder for cyanide adsorption as calculated by Langmuir isotherm are 32.05mg/g and 18.45mg/g respectively. The kinetic data are found to follow closely the pseudo second order kinetic model for both the bio adsorbents. The present study shows that such low cost materials could be used as efficient bioadsorbents for the removal of cyanide from aqueous solutions.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:46:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2016)
       
  • Factorial experimental design for the optimization of catalytic
           degradation of malachite green dye in aqueous solution by Fenton process

    • Authors: A. Elhalil; H. Tounsadi; R. Elmoubarki; F.Z. Mahjoubi; M. Farnane; M. Sadiq; M. Abdennouri; S. Qourzal; N. Barka
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): A. Elhalil, H. Tounsadi, R. Elmoubarki, F.Z. Mahjoubi, M. Farnane, M. Sadiq, M. Abdennouri, S. Qourzal, N. Barka
      This work focuses on the optimization of the catalytic degradation of malachite green dye (MG) by Fenton process “Fe2+/H2O2”. A 24 full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of four factors considered in the optimization of the oxidative process: concentration of MG (X1), concentration of Fe2+ (X2), concentration of H2O2 (X3) and temperature (X4). Individual and interaction effects of the factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested. The effect of interactions between the four parameters shows that there is a dependency between concentration of MG and concentration of Fe2+; concentration of Fe2+ and concentration of H2O2, expressed by the great values of the coefficient of interaction. The analysis of variance proved that, the concentration of MG, the concentration of Fe2+ and the concentration of H2O2 have an influence on the catalytic degradation while it is not the case for the temperature. In the optimization, the great dependence between observed and predicted degradation efficiency, the correlation coefficient for the model (R2= 0.986) and the important value of F-ratio proved the validity of the model. The optimum degradation efficiency of malachite green was 93.83%, when the operational parameters were malachite green concentration of 10mg/L, Fe2+ concentration of 10mM, H2O2 concentration of 25.6mM and temperature of 40°C.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-26T17:32:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2016)
       
  • Water and detergent recovery from rinsing water in an industrial
           environment

    • Authors: Eddy Linclau; Johan Ceulemans; Kristien De Sitter; Peter Cauwenberg
      Pages: 3 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Eddy Linclau, Johan Ceulemans, Kristien De Sitter, Peter Cauwenberg
      Wash water streams coming from rinsing of equipment in a detergent production site is in many cases considered as waste. On site treatment in waste water plants is possible but typically requires advanced oxidation process (AOP) technology which uses chemicals and creates a waste sludge. A new treatment approach, based on nanofiltration, has been demonstrated at industrial scale in a detergent production site in China. Wash water could be split into a concentrate stream and water fraction. The concentrate stream contains most of the valuable surfactants and has a value to recycle. The water fraction can easily be polished by MBR to feed cooling towers. As such, this production site does not discharge any process wash water and recovers all resources out of the rinsing water: both chemicals (as surfactants) as the water.

      PubDate: 2016-03-12T15:27:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
       
  • Membrane distillation of industrial cooling tower blowdown water

    • Authors: N.E. Koeman-Stein; R.J.M. Creusen; M. Zijlstra; C.K. Groot; W.B.P. van den Broek
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): N.E. Koeman-Stein, R.J.M. Creusen, M. Zijlstra, C.K. Groot, W.B.P. van den Broek
      The potential of membrane distillation for desalination of cooling tower blowdown water (CTBD) is investigated. Technical feasibility is tested on laboratory and pilot scale using real cooling tower blowdown water from Dow Benelux in Terneuzen (Netherlands). Two types of membranes, polytetrafluorethylene and polyethylene showed good performance regarding distillate quality and fouling behavior. Concentrating CTBD by a factor 4.5 while maintaining a flux of around 2l/m2⁎h was possible with a water recovery of 78% available for reuse. Higher concentration factors lead to severe decrease in flux which was caused by scaling. Membrane distillation could use the thermal energy that would otherwise be discharged of in a cooling tower and function as a heat exchanger. This reduces the need for cooling capacity and could lead to a total reduction of 37% water intake for make- up water, as well as reduced energy and chemicals demands and greenhouse gas emissions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T10:09:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
       
  • Mild Desalination demo pilot: new normalization approach to effectively
           evaluate Electrodialysis Reversal technology

    • Authors: Roel Bisselink; Wim de Schepper; Jorg Trampé; Wilbert van den Broek; Ingrid Pinel; Anastassiya Krutko; Niels Groot
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Roel Bisselink, Wim de Schepper, Jorg Trampé, Wilbert van den Broek, Ingrid Pinel, Anastassiya Krutko, Niels Groot
      Key performance indicators for characterization of nanofiltration performance are well developed, similar key performance indicators for electrodialysis reversal are however underdeveloped. Under the E4Water project Dow Benelux BV and Evides Industriewater BV operate a pilot facility to compare both technologies for their application to mildly desalinate a variety of brackish water streams. Normalized pressure drop, normalized current efficiency and normalized membrane resistance proved to be a useful tool to interpret process performance and to initiate a cleaning procedure if required. The availability of these normalized key performance indicators enables optimization and process monitoring and control of electrodialysis reversal independent of the continuously changing conditions of the feed water.

      PubDate: 2016-03-27T02:18:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
       
  • Drivers and economic aspects for the implementation of advanced wastewater
           treatment and water reuse in a PVC plant

    • Authors: David Prieto; Nathalie Swinnen; Laura Blanco; Daphne Hermosilla; Peter Cauwenberg; Ángeles Blanco; Carlos Negro
      Pages: 26 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): David Prieto de la Parte, Nathalie Swinnen, Laura Blanco, Daphne Hermosilla, Peter Cauwenberg, A.Ángeles Blanco, Carlos Negro
      This paper shows the economic feasibility of water reuse within a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plant. A two-step treatment of the current primary effluent consisting of an aerobic membrane bioreactor followed by a double pass reverse osmosis process, validated at pilot scale, was used to estimate the costs of the industrial water treatment plant. The economic feasibility of the treatment and reuse concept remained unclear because the required investment of 2.5M€ was high and the discounted payback time of 5 years was long. The proposed solution is profitable for sites where fresh demineralized water production costs are currently higher than 1.5 €/m3 and the required flow of the recycled water exceeds 50 m3/h. The water reuse concept allows decoupling the production from fresh water use. In this case, anticipating that a drought would lead to a 3% reduction of the production, the amortization period would be lowered to one year.

      PubDate: 2016-03-27T02:18:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
       
  • The utility of a systems approach for managing strategic water risks at a
           mine site level

    • Authors: N.C. Kunz; C.J. Moran
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): N.C. Kunz, C.J. Moran
      Mining operations increasingly encounter two water-related risks: (1) Dryness – having insufficient water to meet production needs; and (2) Wetness – having too much water leading to discharge during high rainfall events. Water accounts and dynamic systems models have been developed to assist decision makers in identifying these risks, however little empirical research has explored the practical utility of a systems modelling approach. To address this gap, we apply a systems approach at an operational mine site. Uncertainties in water flows were identified to guide decisions about where additional monitoring equipment should be installed to improve the accuracy of the overall site water balance. Simulation results provided valuable information for the site water committee to consider “out-of-the-box” ideas for progressing towards its ambitious water goals and mitigating strategic water risks. It is concluded that systems approaches should be further applied within mining and other industrial sectors.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T11:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
       
  • SEQUESTERING heavy metals from wastewater using cow DUNG

    • Authors: Adedamola Titi Ojedokun; Olugbenga Solomon Bello
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): OJEDOKUN Adedamola Titi, BELLO Olugbenga Solomon
      The presence of heavy metals (e.g., Zn, Cu,Pb, Ni, Cd, etc.) in aqueous solutions constitutes a major environmental problem. The present work represents a review of the recently published literature discussing the use of cow dung as adsorbent for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solution using batch experiments. The potential health and environmental hazards of metal ions in addition to the kinetic and isothermal models usually assessed to fit the biosorption experimental data were also reviewed.Conclusively, it was established that the use of cow dung is a promising adsorbent in the removal of heavy metals fromwastewaters and environment.

      PubDate: 2016-02-23T13:07:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
       
  • Industrial water mass balance as a tool for water management in industrial
           parks

    • Authors: Thanh Tuan Pham; Thanh Dung Mai; Tien Duc Pham; Minh Trang Hoang; Manh Khai Nguyen; Thi Thuy Pham
      Pages: 14 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Pham Thanh Tuan, Mai Thanh Dung, Pham Tien Duc, Hoang Minh Trang, Nguyen Manh Khai, Pham Thi Thuy
      Industry is demanding ever-greater volumes of water, while at the same time producing wastes and effluents, which in many places taint and damage the quality of this precious resource on which all life depends. This article formalizes a systematic water mass balance framework to quantify all anthropogenic and natural water flows into, water flows inside and effluents out of the industrial parks. Quantitative performance indicators are derived, including management and operation indicators. The approach makes visible large flows of water that have previously been unaccounted and ignored. In 2012-2014, the water consumption, which made up 59.5-90.2% of industrial water withdrawal, was 8.5–51.2% higher than wastewater generation. The approach demonstrates how the principles of water balance can help robust water accounting, monitoring, optimum operating and management in industrial parks. Furthermore, performance indicators could evolve to a useful tool for leading to more systematic analysis of the impact of industrial design and management.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2016)
       
  • Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by electrocoagulation with presence of
           hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent and polialuminum chloride as
           coagulant-aid

    • Authors: Mohd Nasrullah; Lakhveer Singh; Zahari Mohamad; Siti Norsita; Santhana Krishnan; Norul Wahida; A.W. Zularisam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Mohd Nasrullah, Lakhveer Singh, Zahari Mohamad, Siti Norsita, Santhana Krishnan, Norul Wahida, A.W. Zularisam
      The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of operating parameters, such as electrode material, current density, percentage of hydrogen peroxide and amount of polialuminum chloride (PAC) on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The current density was varied between 30–80mAcm−2, PAC (1–3gL-1) as coagulant-aid and 1 and 2 percent of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. As for the performance of electrode type, iron was more effective than aluminum. It appeared that the removal of COD increased with the increased of current density. When PAC and H2O2 increased, the percent of COD removal was increasing as well. The overall results demonstrate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve more than 70% COD removal in 180min at current density 30–80 mAcm-2 reliant upon the concentration of H2O2 and PAC.

      PubDate: 2016-12-04T08:08:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.11.001
       
  • Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganism from
           unorganized dairy sector wastewater and sludge samples and evaluation of
           their biodegradability

    • Authors: S Garcha; N Verma; SK Brar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): S Garcha, N Verma, SK Brar
      In developing countries like India, the major part of the dairy sector is under the coverage area of unorganized sector, which lacks adequate treatment facility. In present investigation, the study was done to isolate most frequently occurring active strains adapted to the wastewater physical-chemical conditions and having good biodegradation potential. The 10 isolates were selected on the basis of their efficiency in reducing all the three pollution potential parameters i.e BOD, TSS and Oil and grease content. The identification of selected strains was done by 16S rRNA sequencing. The maximum reduction in BOD3 was shown by isolate no. 25 i.e 89.8% (90mg/l). Isolate no. 4 and 25 were efficient in reducing the TSS content by 88.6%. Isolate no. 27 and 45 were more efficient in reducing the oil and grease content by 88.5% and 90% respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T22:11:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.10.002
       
  • Removal of chlorinated phenol from aqueous media by guava seed (Psidium
           Guajava) tailored activated carbon

    • Authors: S.M. Anisuzzaman; Collin G. Joseph; D. Krishnaiah; A. Bono; E. Suali; S. Abang; L.M. Fai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): S.M. Anisuzzaman, Collin G. Joseph, D. Krishnaiah, A. Bono, E. Suali, S. Abang, L.M. Fai
      In this study, the activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from guava seeds via two stages activation. The dried guava seeds were semi-carbonized at 300 oC for 1h, and then the carbonized samples were impregnated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The ZnCl2: sample impregnation ratios (w/w) were altered from 1:1 to 5:1. The ACs were characterized by the yield percentage, ash content, moisture content, pH value, adsorption quality of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and surface functional groups. The surface area of the best produced AC3 was found to be 919.40m2 g-1. It was found that AC3 had highest 2,4-DCP adsorption capacity, which was 20.9mgg-1. The 2,4-DCP adsorption kinetic of prepared AC3 was pseudo-second order with correlation value of 0.995. In addition, the 2,4-DCP adsorption capacity of AC3 was fitted to the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient value of 0.977, indicating that chemisorption was a major contributor to the adsorption process.

      PubDate: 2016-10-22T18:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.10.001
       
  • Titania coated silica nanocomposite prepared via encapsulation method for
           the degradation of Safranin-O dye from aqueous solution: Optimization
           using statistical design

    • Authors: Basanti Ekka; Manoj Kumar Sahu; Raj Kishore Patel; Priyabrat Dash
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Basanti Ekka, Manoj Kumar Sahu, Raj Kishore Patel, Priyabrat Dash
      Titania coated silica nanoparticles, which were synthesized via nanoparticle encapsulation route, are employed to degrade safranin-O dye from aqueous solution under UV light irradiation and were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, FESEM, N2 adsorption-desorption method and Zeta potential measurement. The results showed that the nanoparticles have a core-shell structure composed of about 100nm of diameter of silica with several TiO2 fine particles in shell. After the degradation, this process is optimized through the response surface methodology (RSM). In this response study, photodegradation efficiency was evaluated by three main independent parameters such as catalyst dose, initial dye concentration and reaction time. Parameter sensitivity studies of the degradation efficiency of titania coated silica nanoparticles have shown 93.29% degraded under the optimal conditions of catalyst dose of 89.80mg/g, initial dye concentration of 17.61mg/L and reaction time of 12min. We cross-checked the predicted values of degradation efficiency with the experimental values and were found to be in good agreement (R 2 = 0.9983 and adj-R 2 = 0.9967).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T00:14:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.08.001
       
  • Special issue title page

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 14


      PubDate: 2016-06-23T20:01:58Z
       
  • Special issue contents page

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 14


      PubDate: 2016-06-23T20:01:58Z
       
  • Integrated water management in the chemical industry (E4Water)

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 14


      PubDate: 2016-06-23T20:01:58Z
       
  • Application of Taguchi method for optimizing the process parameters for
           the removal of copper and nickel by growing Aspergillus sp.

    • Authors: Reena Pundir; G.H.V.C. Chary; M.G. Dastidar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Reena Pundir, G.H.V.C. Chary, M.G. Dastidar
      In the present study, the process parameters affecting biosorption were optimized by adopting Analysis of Mean (ANOM) approach for maximizing the percentage removal of copper and nickel by growing Aspergillus sp. in batch reactor using Taguchi method. The process parameters include inoculum concentration, initial metal concentration, pH and temperature. The optimized conditions were found to be 15% v/v inoculum concentration, 50mgl−1 concentration of copper/nickel, pH 4 and temperature 30°C. The percentage contribution of each process parameter on the removal of copper/nickel determined using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method followed the order: concentration of copper/nickel>inoculum concentration>pH>temperature. The percentage removal of copper and nickel realized in the confirmatory experiments carried out at optimized conditions was found to be higher than that obtained in all the test runs of Taguchi design, thereby supporting the accuracy of optimization of process parameters under the given set of experimental conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-06-13T22:04:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2016.05.001
       
 
 
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