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Journal Cover Water Resources and Industry
  [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2212-3717
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2817 journals]
  • Membrane distillation of industrial cooling tower blowdown water

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): N.E. Koeman-Stein, R.J.M. Creusen, M. Zijlstra, C.K. Groot, W.B.P. van den Broek
      The potential of membrane distillation for desalination of cooling tower blowdown water (CTBD) is investigated. Technical feasibility is tested on laboratory and pilot scale using real cooling tower blowdown water from Dow Benelux in Terneuzen (Netherlands). Two types of membranes, polytetrafluorethylene and polyethylene showed good performance regarding distillate quality and fouling behavior. Concentrating CTBD by a factor 4.5 while maintaining a flux of around 2l/m2⁎h was possible with a water recovery of 78% available for reuse. Higher concentration factors lead to severe decrease in flux which was caused by scaling. Membrane distillation could use the thermal energy that would otherwise be discharged of in a cooling tower and function as a heat exchanger. This reduces the need for cooling capacity and could lead to a total reduction of 37% water intake for make- up water, as well as reduced energy and chemicals demands and greenhouse gas emissions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T10:09:30Z
       
  • Industrial water mass balance as a tool for water management in industrial
           parks

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Pham Thanh Tuan, Mai Thanh Dung, Pham Tien Duc, Hoang Minh Trang, Nguyen Manh Khai, Pham Thi Thuy
      Industry is demanding ever-greater volumes of water, while at the same time producing wastes and effluents, which in many places taint and damage the quality of this precious resource on which all life depends. This article formalizes a systematic water mass balance framework to quantify all anthropogenic and natural water flows into, water flows inside and effluents out of the industrial parks. Quantitative performance indicators are derived, including management and operation indicators. The approach makes visible large flows of water that have previously been unaccounted and ignored. In 2012-2014, the water consumption, which made up 59.5-90.2% of industrial water withdrawal, was 8.5–51.2% higher than wastewater generation. The approach demonstrates how the principles of water balance can help robust water accounting, monitoring, optimum operating and management in industrial parks. Furthermore, performance indicators could evolve to a useful tool for leading to more systematic analysis of the impact of industrial design and management.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:56:02Z
       
  • Mild Desalination demo pilot: new normalization approach to effectively
           evaluate Electrodialysis Reversal technology

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Roel Bisselink, Wim de Schepper, Jorg Trampé, Wilbert van den Broek, Ingrid Pinel, Anastassiya Krutko, Niels Groot
      Key performance indicators for characterization of nanofiltration performance are well developed, similar key performance indicators for electrodialysis reversal are however underdeveloped. Under the E4Water project Dow Benelux BV and Evides Industriewater BV operate a pilot facility to compare both technologies for their application to mildly desalinate a variety of brackish water streams. Normalized pressure drop, normalized current efficiency and normalized membrane resistance proved to be a useful tool to interpret process performance and to initiate a cleaning procedure if required. The availability of these normalized key performance indicators enables optimization and process monitoring and control of electrodialysis reversal independent of the continuously changing conditions of the feed water.


      PubDate: 2016-03-27T02:18:22Z
       
  • Drivers and economic aspects for the implementation of advanced wastewater
           treatment and water reuse in a PVC plant

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): David Prieto de la Parte, Nathalie Swinnen, Laura Blanco, Daphne Hermosilla, Peter Cauwenberg, A.Ángeles Blanco, Carlos Negro
      This paper shows the economic feasibility of water reuse within a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plant. A two-step treatment of the current primary effluent consisting of an aerobic membrane bioreactor followed by a double pass reverse osmosis process, validated at pilot scale, was used to estimate the costs of the industrial water treatment plant. The economic feasibility of the treatment and reuse concept remained unclear because the required investment of 2.5M€ was high and the discounted payback time of 5 years was long. The proposed solution is profitable for sites where fresh demineralized water production costs are currently higher than 1.5 €/m3 and the required flow of the recycled water exceeds 50 m3/h. The water reuse concept allows decoupling the production from fresh water use. In this case, anticipating that a drought would lead to a 3% reduction of the production, the amortization period would be lowered to one year.


      PubDate: 2016-03-27T02:18:22Z
       
  • Water and detergent recovery from rinsing water in an industrial
           environment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Eddy Linclau, Johan Ceulemans, Kristien De Sitter, Peter Cauwenberg
      Wash water streams coming from rinsing of equipment in a detergent production site is in many cases considered as waste. On site treatment in waste water plants is possible but typically requires advanced oxidation process (AOP) technology which uses chemicals and creates a waste sludge. A new treatment approach, based on nanofiltration, has been demonstrated at industrial scale in a detergent production site in China. Wash water could be split into a concentrate stream and water fraction. The concentrate stream contains most of the valuable surfactants and has a value to recycle. The water fraction can easily be polished by MBR to feed cooling towers. As such, this production site does not discharge any process wash water and recovers all resources out of the rinsing water: both chemicals (as surfactants) as the water.


      PubDate: 2016-03-12T15:27:14Z
       
  • SEQUESTERING heavy metals from wastewater using cow DUNG

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): OJEDOKUN Adedamola Titi, BELLO Olugbenga Solomon
      The presence of heavy metals (e.g., Zn, Cu,Pb, Ni, Cd, etc.) in aqueous solutions constitutes a major environmental problem. The present work represents a review of the recently published literature discussing the use of cow dung as adsorbent for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solution using batch experiments. The potential health and environmental hazards of metal ions in addition to the kinetic and isothermal models usually assessed to fit the biosorption experimental data were also reviewed.Conclusively, it was established that the use of cow dung is a promising adsorbent in the removal of heavy metals fromwastewaters and environment.


      PubDate: 2016-02-23T13:07:19Z
       
  • The utility of a systems approach for managing strategic water risks at a
           mine site level

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2016
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): N.C. Kunz, C.J. Moran
      Mining operations increasingly encounter two water-related risks: (1) Dryness – having insufficient water to meet production needs; and (2) Wetness – having too much water leading to discharge during high rainfall events. Water accounts and dynamic systems models have been developed to assist decision makers in identifying these risks, however little empirical research has explored the practical utility of a systems modelling approach. To address this gap, we apply a systems approach at an operational mine site. Uncertainties in water flows were identified to guide decisions about where additional monitoring equipment should be installed to improve the accuracy of the overall site water balance. Simulation results provided valuable information for the site water committee to consider “out-of-the-box” ideas for progressing towards its ambitious water goals and mitigating strategic water risks. It is concluded that systems approaches should be further applied within mining and other industrial sectors.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T11:51:59Z
       
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 12




      PubDate: 2015-12-12T10:18:32Z
       
  • Dye sequestration using agricultural wastes as adsorbents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Kayode Adesina Adegoke, Olugbenga Solomon Bello
      Colour is a visible pollutant and the presence of even minute amount of coloring substance makes it undesirable due to its appearance. The removal of color from dye-bearing effluents is a major problem due to the difficulty in treating such wastewaters by conventional treatment methods. The most commonly used methods for color removal are biological oxidation and chemical precipitation. However, these processes are effective and economic only in the case where the solute concentrations are relatively high. Most industries use dyes and pigments to color their products. The presence of dyes in effluents is a major concern due to its adverse effect on various forms of life. The discharge of dyes in the environment is a matter of concern for both toxicological and esthetical reasons. It is evident from a literature survey of about 305 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for dye removal and the optimal equilibrium time of various dyes with different charcoal adsorbents from agricultural residues is between 4 and 5h. Maximum adsorptions of acidic dyes were obtained from the solutions with pH 8–10. The challenges and future prospects are discussed to provide a better framework for a safer and cleaner environment.


      PubDate: 2015-10-02T14:08:33Z
       
  • Rapid removal of NI(II) from aqueous solution using 3-Mercaptopropionic
           acid functionalized bio magnetite nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Sada Venkateswarlu, S. Himagirish Kumar, N.V.V. Jyothi
      The surfaces of bio magnetite nanoparticles were functionalized with 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (3MPA) and used as a high-capacity and recyclable adsorbent for the rapid removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The 3 MPA@Fe3O4 MNPs were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared analysis (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. This 3 MPA@Fe3O4 MNPs have been used for removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The hysteresis loops of 3 MPA@Fe3O4 MNPs shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 14.02emu/g. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm, the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 42.01mg/g at 303K. The experimental kinetic data fitted very well the pseudo-second-order model.The results indicate that the biogenic 3 MPA@Fe3O4 MNPs act as significant adsorbent material for removal of Ni(II) aqueous solution and also considered as a potential adsorbent for hazardous metal ions from wastewater.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-09-27T13:42:04Z
       
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 11




      PubDate: 2015-08-23T08:25:04Z
       
  • Multicomponent isotherm for biosorption of Zn(II), CO(II) and Cd(II) from
           ternary mixture onto pretreated dried Aspergillus niger biomass

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Zahra Hajahmadi, Habibollah Younesi, Nader Bahramifar, Hossein Khakpour, Kasra Pirzadeh
      In the present study, multicomponent competitive biosorption of heavy metal from aqueous solution onto pretreated dried Aspergillus niger in batch system was investigated. The adsorption data were fitted to the multicomponent Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Sips equations. We used the genetic algorithm of biosorption in ternary mixture to evaluate the potential effects of each metal in the removal of other metals. In order to take both mechanisms of the cell-surface binding and intra-particle diffusion into account, an alternative model was investigated by combining the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the intra-particle diffusion model. A model describing the process of biosorption by a single-stage batch design was developed and verified based on the Temkin isotherm model. Fundamentally, the outlook from these observations of the experiments that the pretreated dried biomass is a suitable absorbent for the removal of significant amounts of the heavy metal from the effluents of industrial wastewater is promising.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:55:10Z
       
  • Novel adsorbent from agricultural waste (cashew NUT shell) for methylene
           blue dye removal: Optimization by response surface methodology

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Ramalingam Subramaniam, Senthil Kumar Ponnusamy
      Activated carbon, prepared from an agricultural waste, cashew nut shell (CNS) was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption study was carried out with variables like pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time. The response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments, model the process and optimize the variable. A 24 full factorial central composite design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The parameters pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and time considered for this investigation play an important role in the adsorption studies of methylene blue dye removal. The experimental values were in good agreement with the model predicted values. The optimum values of pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time are found to be 10, 2.1846g/L, 50mg/L and 63minutes for complete removal of MB dye respectively.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:55:10Z
       
  • Inhibitory effect of Hydrex anti-scalant on calcium scale deposition from
           seawater under multiple-effect distillers’ conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Aiman Eid Al-Rawajfeh , Albara I. Alrawashdeh , Maha Al-Shabatat , Zeinab I. Itiwi , Asma Aldawdeyah , Haitham Benykhalaf , Aasem Zeino , Ehab AlShamaileh
      In this work, the inhibitory effect of a commercial anti-scalant (Veolia Hydrex® 9209) on the calcium minerals of carbonate, sulfate and hydrocalumite (Ca/Al) clay deposition from seawater has been investigated. Different concentration factors and anti-scalant doses were studied by analyzing the water hardness and turbidity. The inhibitory effect of the investigated anti-scalant was efficient even at lower concentrations. The percentage inhibition decreases with increasing the temperature and increases with increasing the dose/amount of the anti-scalant. The carbonate scale inhibition was>99% and 98–99% at 50 and 70 °C, respectively. The percentage inhibition of sulfate from hemihydrate was ranged from 80 to 87% for 2 and 8ppm anti-scalant at 50 °C. The inhibiti°n of Ca/Al hydrocalumite deposition increases from 70 to 90% upon increasing the dose from 3 to 5ppm, respectively. A recommended useful dose of antiscalant for seawater is 5ppm.


      PubDate: 2015-07-13T15:03:11Z
       
  • Kinetic study for aerobic treatment of phenolic wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Athar Hussain , Shashi Kant Dubey , Vinay Kumar
      Conventional physicochemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing compounds such as phenol encounters difficulties due to low substrate level, additional use of chemicals, and generation of hazardous by products along with increased process cost. Biological treatment appears to be a solution for treatment of such industrial wastewater. In the present study an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) has been used for treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol. The effects of increasing phenol concentrations on the sludge characteristic have been also investigated. It was observed that, activity of activated sludge for acclimatization of phenol decreases at concentrations above 2000mgL−1. It may be attributed to toxicity of phenol to active biomass at higher concentrations. Kinetics of phenol degradation has also been studied using Haldane model.


      PubDate: 2015-06-13T12:06:43Z
       
  • Boron removal from water and wastewater using new polystyrene-based resin
           grafted with glycidol

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Joanna Kluczka , Teofil Korolewicz , Maria Zołotajkin , Jakub Adamek
      A divinylbenzene cross-linked polystyrene resin with amine functional groups (Purolite A170) was grafted with glycidol and characterized as a novel sorbent, GLY-resin, for the oxoborate removal from model solutions and post-crystallization lye. The sorption behavior of GLY-resin was investigated using a batch system. The results showed that the sorption was maximal at pH=9.5. The equilibrium was achieved after 24h. Calculations based on Langmuir model show the monolayer sorption capacity q m=1.3mg/g and the fitted experimental data chemisorption as a dominating mechanism of boron sorption on GLY-resin. Boron removal from the solution containing 5mg B/L and post-crystallization lye having a 9.1mg B/L was 99% and 80% respectively. The thermodynamic calculations indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. The pseudo-second-order model adequately described the boron sorption on GLY-resin. Sorption-desorption efficiency was 100%, which means the boron sorption at next cycle did not decrease.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-06-08T11:32:04Z
       
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 10




      PubDate: 2015-05-08T04:18:58Z
       
  • Seasonal occurrence and species specificity of fishy and musty odor in
           Huajiang Reservoir in winter, China

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 11
      Author(s): Rui Wang , Dong Li , Chao Xi Jin , Bing Wu Yang
      This paper describes the results of measurements from one year period on the existence of fishy and musty odor in drinking water at low temperatures (1–2°C) in Baotou, China, using an open-loop stripping analysis (OLSA) systems and Gas chromatography spectrometry (GC). The main results show that it is micro-contaminated water body of the raw water in Huajiang Reservoir. The average phytoplankton abundance was 2.06×107 L−1, Cyanobacteria counts were at 2.0×106 L−1 and the dominate family of the algae are Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, and Bacillariophyta. Experimental results indicated that under the ice whose thickness was 0.55m, the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of the surface varied from 70 to 636Wm−2 from November to March of next year. The average surface PAR was 114.8Wm−2, and the lowest value was 70.57Wm−2 (in December) and the average bottom PAR was 19.04Wm−2, and the lowest value was 3.84Wm−2 (in December). The surface PAR, bottom PAR, eutrophic conditions in ice-covered Huajiang reservoir satisfied the growth and MIB/geosmin production of Cyanobacteria algae in winter. The 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB) concentration ranged from 29ngL−1 to 102ngL−1. The concentration of trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) ranges from 20ngL−1 to 65ngL−1 and it is 2 to 5 times of the odor threshold concentrations (OTC). The correlations between MIB/geosmin and nitrogen are 0.63–0.37. Eutrophication is the most important factor influencing synthesis of taste and odors, but not temperature. Using bypassing pipe pumping Yellow River water directly to the Water treatment plant (WTP) is an efficient way about T&O compounds׳ control in drinking water of Baotou city in winter.


      PubDate: 2015-05-08T04:18:58Z
       
  • Industrialized Watersheds Have Elevated Water Risk and Limited
           Opportunities to Mitigate Risk through Water Trading

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Sheila M.W. Reddy , Robert I. McDonald , Alexander S. Maas , Anthony Rogers , Evan H. Girvetz , Jennifer Molnar , Tim Finley , Gená Leathers , Johnathan L. DiMuro
      Businesses are increasingly concerned about water scarcity and its financial impacts, as well as competing needs of other stakeholders and ecosystems. Industrialized watersheds may be at more serious risk from water scarcity than previously understood because industrial and municipal users have inelastic demand and a high value for water. Previous water risk assessments have failed to sufficiently capture these economic aspects of water risk. We illustrate how hydro-economic modeling can be used to improve water risk assessments at a basin scale and we apply the methodology to the industrialized Brazos River Basin (85% municipal and industrial withdrawals) and consider implications for The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport Operations in Texas, US. Brazos water right holders pay only operating and maintenance costs for water during normal periods, however, when shortages occur leasing stored water or reducing production may be the only mitigation option in the short-run. Modeling of water shortages and the theoretical cost of leasing water under nine combined scenarios of demand growth and climate change suggests that water lease prices to industry could increase by 9-13X. At best, a more developed water rights and storage lease market could result in lower lease prices (2-3X); however, given that transactions would be limited it is more likely that prices would still increase by 4-13X. These results suggest that markets are unlikely to be a robust solution for the Brazos because, in contrast to other watersheds in the Western US, there is little reliable water to trade from low value users (agricultural) to high value users (industry and municipalities). Looking at demand trends across the contiguous US as an indicator of water risk, 2% of watersheds have municipal and industrial demands that outstrip total surface and ground water supplies and in these watersheds industry has historically paid higher lease prices for water. By assessing alternative costs of water under future climate and demand scenarios, our results provide a more complete view of future water risk and the limitation of markets to prevent large financial losses in a highly industrialized basin.


      PubDate: 2015-04-12T14:49:40Z
       
  • Effect of water quality and operational parameters on trihalomethanes
           formation potential in Dez river water, Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Bahman Ramavandi , Sima Farjadfard , Mehdi Ardjmand , Sina Dobaradaran
      This study assesses the influence of the total organic carbon (TOC) content, chlorine quantity, water temperature, bromide ion concentration, and seasonal variations on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation potential (THMFP) in Dez River water in Iran. The water temperature and TOC content had a significant effect on THMFP. Further, the experimental results showed that increasing the concentration of bromide ions enhance the formation of dibromochloromethane and bromoform. It was found that the THMFP in Dez River water during summer times was relatively higher than 100µg/L, maximum contaminant level for THMs in drinking water. By increasing the reaction time until 80h, the THMFP was gradually increased and reached to 177.4µg/L. The most abundant fraction of natural organic matter in the river was hydrophobic acid fraction (49.4μg/L). Overall, our study demonstrated that however the THMFP of Dez River water was relatively high but a usual waterworks could effectively reduce THMFP.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T13:05:59Z
       
  • Fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge: Application of
           factorial design optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Raquel O. Cristóvão , Cristiana Gonçalves , Cidália M. Botelho , Ramiro J.E. Martins , J.M. Loureiro , Rui A.R. Boaventura
      The optimization of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial organic matter concentration for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) abatement of wastewater from a fish canning industry of northern Portugal by activated sludge was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The two parameters were chosen since it was found that the treatment efficiency is mainly influenced by them. The experimental data on DOC removal were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using factorial design and RSM. The optimum process conditions were determined by analyzing the response surface of a three-dimensional plot and by solving the regression model equation. The obtained results showed a HRT of 6.4h and an initial DOC of 406.2mg/L as the best treatment conditions. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted DOC removal was 88.0%, confirming the feasibility and the reliability of fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge for organic content removal.


      PubDate: 2015-03-14T21:02:53Z
       
  • Redox polymer as an adsorbent for the removal of chromium (VI) and lead
           (II) from the tannery effluents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): V. Vetriselvi , R. Jaya Santhi
      Polymer-based hybrid were widely fabricated and applied in heavy metal removal and other inorganic pollutants. The present study deals with the sorption efficiency of metal adsorption through the chemically modified PAA with dihydroxybenzenes into the polymeric matrix present in the tannery effluents and a parallel investigation of chromium (VI) ions in aqueous solution was carried out. From the Langmuir model the removal of chromium (VI) has the maximum adsorption capacity with 181.4mgg−1. Batch sorption to remove chromium (VI) and lead (II) from the tannery effluents were investigated by using different parameters. The sorption efficiency was found to be 75% and 99% for chromium (VI) and lead (II) present in the tannery effluents. The chemical and structural characteristics of the adsorbents were determined by UV, FT-IR, TGA, DSC, XRD and SEM-EDS analysis.


      PubDate: 2015-03-09T20:10:53Z
       
  • Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel
           production

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): S. Hena , S. Fatima , S. Tabassum
      Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater) as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater). The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha−1 year−1 and 16.89% respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-02-22T17:49:13Z
       
  • The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a
           water value system

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Brendan P. Walsh , Sean N. Murray , D.T.J. O'Sullivan
      The world's current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water-energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.


      PubDate: 2015-02-22T17:49:13Z
       
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 9




      PubDate: 2015-02-02T12:24:56Z
       
 
 
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