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Journal Cover   Water Resources and Industry
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2212-3717
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Multicomponent isotherm for biosorption of Zn(II), CO(II) and Cd(II) from
           ternary mixture onto pretreated dried Aspergillus niger biomass

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Zahra Hajahmadi, Habibollah Younesi, Nader Bahramifar, Hossein Khakpour, Kasra Pirzadeh
      In the present study, multicomponent competitive biosorption of heavy metal from aqueous solution onto pretreated dried Aspergillus niger in batch system was investigated. The adsorption data were fitted to the multicomponent Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Sips equations. We used the genetic algorithm of biosorption in ternary mixture to evaluate the potential effects of each metal in the removal of other metals. In order to take both mechanisms of the cell-surface binding and intra-particle diffusion into account, an alternative model was investigated by combining the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the intra-particle diffusion model. A model describing the process of biosorption by a single-stage batch design was developed and verified based on the Temkin isotherm model. Fundamentally, the outlook from these observations of the experiments that the pretreated dried biomass is a suitable absorbent for the removal of significant amounts of the heavy metal from the effluents of industrial wastewater is promising.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:55:10Z
  • Novel adsorbent from agricultural waste (cashew NUT shell) for methylene
           blue dye removal: Optimization by response surface methodology

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Ramalingam Subramaniam, Senthil Kumar Ponnusamy
      Activated carbon, prepared from an agricultural waste, cashew nut shell (CNS) was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption study was carried out with variables like pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time. The response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments, model the process and optimize the variable. A 24 full factorial central composite design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The parameters pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and time considered for this investigation play an important role in the adsorption studies of methylene blue dye removal. The experimental values were in good agreement with the model predicted values. The optimum values of pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time are found to be 10, 2.1846g/L, 50mg/L and 63minutes for complete removal of MB dye respectively.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:55:10Z
  • Inhibitory effect of Hydrex anti-scalant on calcium scale deposition from
           seawater under multiple-effect distillers’ conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Aiman Eid Al-Rawajfeh , Albara I. Alrawashdeh , Maha Al-Shabatat , Zeinab I. Itiwi , Asma Aldawdeyah , Haitham Benykhalaf , Aasem Zeino , Ehab AlShamaileh
      In this work, the inhibitory effect of a commercial anti-scalant (Veolia Hydrex® 9209) on the calcium minerals of carbonate, sulfate and hydrocalumite (Ca/Al) clay deposition from seawater has been investigated. Different concentration factors and anti-scalant doses were studied by analyzing the water hardness and turbidity. The inhibitory effect of the investigated anti-scalant was efficient even at lower concentrations. The percentage inhibition decreases with increasing the temperature and increases with increasing the dose/amount of the anti-scalant. The carbonate scale inhibition was>99% and 98–99% at 50 and 70 °C, respectively. The percentage inhibition of sulfate from hemihydrate was ranged from 80 to 87% for 2 and 8ppm anti-scalant at 50 °C. The inhibiti°n of Ca/Al hydrocalumite deposition increases from 70 to 90% upon increasing the dose from 3 to 5ppm, respectively. A recommended useful dose of antiscalant for seawater is 5ppm.

      PubDate: 2015-07-13T15:03:11Z
  • Kinetic study for aerobic treatment of phenolic wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Athar Hussain , Shashi Kant Dubey , Vinay Kumar
      Conventional physicochemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing compounds such as phenol encounters difficulties due to low substrate level, additional use of chemicals, and generation of hazardous by products along with increased process cost. Biological treatment appears to be a solution for treatment of such industrial wastewater. In the present study an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) has been used for treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol. The effects of increasing phenol concentrations on the sludge characteristic have been also investigated. It was observed that, activity of activated sludge for acclimatization of phenol decreases at concentrations above 2000mgL−1. It may be attributed to toxicity of phenol to active biomass at higher concentrations. Kinetics of phenol degradation has also been studied using Haldane model.

      PubDate: 2015-06-13T12:06:43Z
  • Boron removal from water and wastewater using new polystyrene-based resin
           grafted with glycidol

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Joanna Kluczka , Teofil Korolewicz , Maria Zołotajkin , Jakub Adamek
      A divinylbenzene cross-linked polystyrene resin with amine functional groups (Purolite A170) was grafted with glycidol and characterized as a novel sorbent, GLY-resin, for the oxoborate removal from model solutions and post-crystallization lye. The sorption behavior of GLY-resin was investigated using a batch system. The results showed that the sorption was maximal at pH=9.5. The equilibrium was achieved after 24h. Calculations based on Langmuir model show the monolayer sorption capacity q m=1.3mg/g and the fitted experimental data chemisorption as a dominating mechanism of boron sorption on GLY-resin. Boron removal from the solution containing 5mg B/L and post-crystallization lye having a 9.1mg B/L was 99% and 80% respectively. The thermodynamic calculations indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. The pseudo-second-order model adequately described the boron sorption on GLY-resin. Sorption-desorption efficiency was 100%, which means the boron sorption at next cycle did not decrease.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-06-08T11:32:04Z
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 10

      PubDate: 2015-05-08T04:18:58Z
  • Seasonal occurrence and species specificity of fishy and musty odor in
           Huajiang Reservoir in winter, China

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 11
      Author(s): Rui Wang , Dong Li , Chao Xi Jin , Bing Wu Yang
      This paper describes the results of measurements from one year period on the existence of fishy and musty odor in drinking water at low temperatures (1–2°C) in Baotou, China, using an open-loop stripping analysis (OLSA) systems and Gas chromatography spectrometry (GC). The main results show that it is micro-contaminated water body of the raw water in Huajiang Reservoir. The average phytoplankton abundance was 2.06×107 L−1, Cyanobacteria counts were at 2.0×106 L−1 and the dominate family of the algae are Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, and Bacillariophyta. Experimental results indicated that under the ice whose thickness was 0.55m, the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of the surface varied from 70 to 636Wm−2 from November to March of next year. The average surface PAR was 114.8Wm−2, and the lowest value was 70.57Wm−2 (in December) and the average bottom PAR was 19.04Wm−2, and the lowest value was 3.84Wm−2 (in December). The surface PAR, bottom PAR, eutrophic conditions in ice-covered Huajiang reservoir satisfied the growth and MIB/geosmin production of Cyanobacteria algae in winter. The 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB) concentration ranged from 29ngL−1 to 102ngL−1. The concentration of trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) ranges from 20ngL−1 to 65ngL−1 and it is 2 to 5 times of the odor threshold concentrations (OTC). The correlations between MIB/geosmin and nitrogen are 0.63–0.37. Eutrophication is the most important factor influencing synthesis of taste and odors, but not temperature. Using bypassing pipe pumping Yellow River water directly to the Water treatment plant (WTP) is an efficient way about T&O compounds׳ control in drinking water of Baotou city in winter.

      PubDate: 2015-05-08T04:18:58Z
  • Industrialized Watersheds Have Elevated Water Risk and Limited
           Opportunities to Mitigate Risk through Water Trading

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Sheila M.W. Reddy , Robert I. McDonald , Alexander S. Maas , Anthony Rogers , Evan H. Girvetz , Jennifer Molnar , Tim Finley , Gená Leathers , Johnathan L. DiMuro
      Businesses are increasingly concerned about water scarcity and its financial impacts, as well as competing needs of other stakeholders and ecosystems. Industrialized watersheds may be at more serious risk from water scarcity than previously understood because industrial and municipal users have inelastic demand and a high value for water. Previous water risk assessments have failed to sufficiently capture these economic aspects of water risk. We illustrate how hydro-economic modeling can be used to improve water risk assessments at a basin scale and we apply the methodology to the industrialized Brazos River Basin (85% municipal and industrial withdrawals) and consider implications for The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport Operations in Texas, US. Brazos water right holders pay only operating and maintenance costs for water during normal periods, however, when shortages occur leasing stored water or reducing production may be the only mitigation option in the short-run. Modeling of water shortages and the theoretical cost of leasing water under nine combined scenarios of demand growth and climate change suggests that water lease prices to industry could increase by 9-13X. At best, a more developed water rights and storage lease market could result in lower lease prices (2-3X); however, given that transactions would be limited it is more likely that prices would still increase by 4-13X. These results suggest that markets are unlikely to be a robust solution for the Brazos because, in contrast to other watersheds in the Western US, there is little reliable water to trade from low value users (agricultural) to high value users (industry and municipalities). Looking at demand trends across the contiguous US as an indicator of water risk, 2% of watersheds have municipal and industrial demands that outstrip total surface and ground water supplies and in these watersheds industry has historically paid higher lease prices for water. By assessing alternative costs of water under future climate and demand scenarios, our results provide a more complete view of future water risk and the limitation of markets to prevent large financial losses in a highly industrialized basin.

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T14:49:40Z
  • Effect of water quality and operational parameters on trihalomethanes
           formation potential in Dez river water, Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Bahman Ramavandi , Sima Farjadfard , Mehdi Ardjmand , Sina Dobaradaran
      This study assesses the influence of the total organic carbon (TOC) content, chlorine quantity, water temperature, bromide ion concentration, and seasonal variations on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation potential (THMFP) in Dez River water in Iran. The water temperature and TOC content had a significant effect on THMFP. Further, the experimental results showed that increasing the concentration of bromide ions enhance the formation of dibromochloromethane and bromoform. It was found that the THMFP in Dez River water during summer times was relatively higher than 100µg/L, maximum contaminant level for THMs in drinking water. By increasing the reaction time until 80h, the THMFP was gradually increased and reached to 177.4µg/L. The most abundant fraction of natural organic matter in the river was hydrophobic acid fraction (49.4μg/L). Overall, our study demonstrated that however the THMFP of Dez River water was relatively high but a usual waterworks could effectively reduce THMFP.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T13:05:59Z
  • Fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge: Application of
           factorial design optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Raquel O. Cristóvão , Cristiana Gonçalves , Cidália M. Botelho , Ramiro J.E. Martins , J.M. Loureiro , Rui A.R. Boaventura
      The optimization of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial organic matter concentration for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) abatement of wastewater from a fish canning industry of northern Portugal by activated sludge was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The two parameters were chosen since it was found that the treatment efficiency is mainly influenced by them. The experimental data on DOC removal were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using factorial design and RSM. The optimum process conditions were determined by analyzing the response surface of a three-dimensional plot and by solving the regression model equation. The obtained results showed a HRT of 6.4h and an initial DOC of 406.2mg/L as the best treatment conditions. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted DOC removal was 88.0%, confirming the feasibility and the reliability of fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge for organic content removal.

      PubDate: 2015-03-14T21:02:53Z
  • Redox polymer as an adsorbent for the removal of chromium (VI) and lead
           (II) from the tannery effluents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): V. Vetriselvi , R. Jaya Santhi
      Polymer-based hybrid were widely fabricated and applied in heavy metal removal and other inorganic pollutants. The present study deals with the sorption efficiency of metal adsorption through the chemically modified PAA with dihydroxybenzenes into the polymeric matrix present in the tannery effluents and a parallel investigation of chromium (VI) ions in aqueous solution was carried out. From the Langmuir model the removal of chromium (VI) has the maximum adsorption capacity with 181.4mgg−1. Batch sorption to remove chromium (VI) and lead (II) from the tannery effluents were investigated by using different parameters. The sorption efficiency was found to be 75% and 99% for chromium (VI) and lead (II) present in the tannery effluents. The chemical and structural characteristics of the adsorbents were determined by UV, FT-IR, TGA, DSC, XRD and SEM-EDS analysis.

      PubDate: 2015-03-09T20:10:53Z
  • Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): S. Hena , S. Fatima , S. Tabassum
      Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater) as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater). The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha−1 year−1 and 16.89% respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-02-22T17:49:13Z
  • The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a
           water value system

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry
      Author(s): Brendan P. Walsh , Sean N. Murray , D.T.J. O'Sullivan
      The world's current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water-energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

      PubDate: 2015-02-22T17:49:13Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Water Resources and Industry, Volume 9

      PubDate: 2015-02-02T12:24:56Z
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