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Journal Cover Journal of Human Resources
  [SJR: 2.761]   [H-I: 71]   [38 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-166X - ISSN (Online) 1548-8004
   Published by U of Wisconsin Press Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Do In-Work Tax Credits Serve as a Safety Net?
    • Abstract: The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) provides a refundable tax credit to lower-income working families through the tax system. As a consequence of legislated expansions in the EITC and the dismantling of welfare through the 1996 federal welfare reform, the EITC is now the most important cash transfer program for low- and moderate-income families (Bitler and Hoynes 2010). In 2012, the EITC reached 27.8 million tax filers at a total cost of $64.1 billion. Almost 20 percent of tax filers receive the EITC, and the average credit amount is $2,303. In contrast, in 2011, fewer than 2 million families received cash welfare benefits, such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), a 62 percent decline since 1994.One ... Read More
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Home Sweet Home?: Macroeconomic Conditions in Home Countries and the
           Well-Being of Migrants
    • Abstract: The behavior of migrants regarding labor market decisions, the timing of return to the home country, or the incentives behind "circular" migration probably are better understood if one looks to both the process of assimilation and to its natural counterpart—namely, the process of "disintegration" from their home countries (Nekoei 2013). The latter, which describes how migrants' home country ties weaken over time, is less studied in the economic literature. Migrants may keep noneconomic links with their home land (culture, altruism, patriotic feelings during soccer games) but also may experience adverse or competing feelings if the home country is taken as a natural comparator regarding economic performances.We ... Read More
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • The Effect of Income on Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from the 2008
           Economic Stimulus Tax Rebates
    • Abstract: Over the past 40 years, economists have become more interested in understanding the predictors of subjective well-being (SWB). For example, SWB has been used to study the welfare tradeoff between inflation and unemployment (Di Tella, MacCulloch, and Oswald 2001), welfare costs of business cycles (Wolfers 2003), compensating wage differentials for time to commute (Stutzer and Frey 2008) and need to interact with others (Krueger and Schkade 2008b), gender differences in happiness (Stevenson and Wolfers 2009), mental costs of job loss or unemployment (Clark and Oswald 1994; Krueger and Mueller 2011; Kalil and DeLeire 2013), and health and disability (Daly and Gardiner 2013; Finkelstein, Luttmer, and Notowidigdo 2013). ... Read More
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • How Income Changes During Unemployment: Evidence from Tax Return Data
    • Abstract: Designing policies to help workers after job loss requires information about the extent of financial hardship they face. Numerous studies have documented an immediate negative impact of job loss on an individual's earnings, with most estimates suggesting a 10 to 25 percent decline in wage income, as well as persistently lower wage income for several years (Jacobson, LaLonde, and Sullivan 1993; Farber 1997; Stevens 1997; von Wachter, Handwerker and Hildreth 2008; Couch and Placzek 2010). Consumption also declines as a result of job loss, but by much less than wage income (Dynarski and Gruber 1997; Stephens 2001). Unemployment insurance (U.I.) compensation can facilitate consumption-smoothing but, to the extent that ... Read More
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • The Gendered Labor Market Impacts of Trade Liberalization: Evidence from
           Brazil
    • Abstract: Women's rising economic activity is an ongoing phenomenon across advanced and many developing countries, particularly in Latin America. At the same time, men's labor force participation, which has traditionally been much higher than female labor force participation, is declining in all regions of the world, further contributing to a convergence of male and female labor force participation rates in almost every region. Over the past three decades, gender convergence in labor force participation has occurred against the backdrop of globalization, one of its most notable features being rapid trade liberalization and the increasing integration of world product markets. The sharp decline in international tariff barriers ... Read More
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Job-Search Requirements for Unemployed at the End of Working Life: Effects
           on Unemployment Dynamics and Self-Employment Probabilities
    • Abstract: In virtually all OECD countries, labor force participation rates of the 50 and older population decreased in the period from the 1960s to the mid-1990s (OECD 2011). This was partially due to generous unemployment insurance, disability insurance, and early retirement schemes (Gruber and Wise 1998).1 Since the mid-1990s aging has raised concerns about the sustainability of the welfare state and reforms have been undertaken to increase the labor force participation of the 50 and older population. As a result, the share of older people in paid employment2 and self-employment increased.Since self-employment is considered to be a direct alternative to unemployment (Von Greiff 2009), the design of the U.I. benefit system ... Read More
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Bequests and Informal Long-Term Care: Evidence from HRS Exit Interviews
    • Abstract: The risk of needing long-term care (LTC) constitutes one of the largest yet insufficiently insured risks of the elderly and is associated with high individual and social costs; see OECD (2011), Norton (2000), and Davidoff (2013) for reviews. Older people with LTC needs can either rely on informal care by family members at home or obtain professional formal care, which can be home healthcare, assisted living, or nursing home care. However, in most OECD countries, the largest share of LTC is provided informally.Although determinants of long-term care and associated living arrangements have been extensively studied in the literature, there is no consensus regarding the quantitative importance of monetary rewards for ... Read More
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • The Next Needed Thing: The Impact of the Jeanes Fund on Black Schooling in
           the South, 1900–1930
    • Abstract: In the years between the end of Reconstruction in the late 1870s and Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, educational resources for Southern blacks were a fraction of those for whites. By as late as 1940, black per-pupil expenditures were less than half, student-teacher ratios were 25 percent higher and the average term was 10 percent shorter (Margo, 1990; Card and Krueger, 1996). Yet Southern blacks born between 1900 and 1930, during the height of "Jim Crow," improved on their white counterparts and their Northern black peers in both schooling outcomes and even school inputs (see Figure 1). Margo (1990, 1991) attributes some of this to improved schooling conditions resulting from the threat of northern migration. ... Read More
      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:00:00-05:00
       
 
 
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