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Journal Cover   Journal of Human Resources
  [SJR: 4.095]   [H-I: 58]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-166X - ISSN (Online) 1548-8004
   Published by University of Wisconsin Press Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Is Smoking Inferior? Evidence from Variation in the Earned Income Tax
    • Abstract: <p>By Donald S. Kenkel, Maximilian D. Schmeiser, Carly Urban</p> Prices and income are central to the standard economic model of consumer demand. Estimates of the price-elasticity of cigarette demand continue to attract a great deal of attention because of their relevance to the role of excise taxes in tobacco control. In contrast, estimates of the income-elasticity of cigarette demand currently seem to attract much less attention from either economists or policymakers, and income is often considered only tangentially as a control variable or in the context of the regressivity of cigarette taxation.1 In this paper, we focus on estimating the “causal income-elasticity”—that is, the causal effect of income on smoking for lower-income adults. We use data from multiple waves ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Smoking cessation
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T00:00:00-05:00
  • Saving Lives Evidence from a Conditional Food Supplementation Program
    • Abstract: <p>By Marian Meller, Stephan Litschig</p> Many governments in developing countries implement programs that aim to address nutritional failures in early childhood, raise survival rates, and improve human capital formation.1 Recent metastudies conclude that there is convincing evidence, usually based on randomized trials, that specific interventions improve the nutritional status of children and save lives under clinical or “ideal” field conditions (Bhutta et al. 2008; Ainsworth et al. 2010).2 For example, community-level efficacy trials have consistently shown that Vitamin A supplementation reduces child mortality across many different settings (Beaton et al. 1993; Mayo-Wilson et al. 2011).3 Efficacy trials also provide evidence that complementary feeding ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Infants
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T00:00:00-05:00
  • Do Religious Proscriptions Matter? Evidence from a Theory-Based Test
    • Abstract: <p>By Daniel M. Hungerman</p> Religious individuals often have different outcomes than other individuals. Highly religious individuals are less likely to drink heavily or use illegal drugs, are less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, are less likely to engage in criminal activities and have lower recidivism upon leaving the criminal justice system, are more likely to be married, report better health outcomes along a vast number of dimensions, live longer, have higher levels of civic participation, and are more likely to make charitable contributions. These differences have been well established by hundreds of studies across the social sciences. Moreover, these differences are large in magnitude; religiosity is one of the strongest ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Human behavior
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T00:00:00-05:00
  • Staying for Benefits The Effect of a Health and Family Planning Program on
           Out-Migration Patterns in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: <p>By Tania Barham, Randall Kuhn</p> Migration flows are generally thought to be essential to the efficiency of national economies, and there is concern that government programs or development aid could alter the flow by changing the relative income between areas. In particular, there has been a long debate in the United States on the extent of welfare-induced migration and whether or not high-benefit areas are “welfare magnets” (Cebula 1979; Moffitt 1992). In developing countries, there is a need to understand what prevents rural populations from migrating to find better jobs (Ardington, Case, and Hosegood 2009), and if targeted aid to rural areas slows migration to more prosperous areas (Chen et al. 1998; NRC 2003).Determining how migration ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Migration, Internal
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T00:00:00-05:00
  • Ability, Parental Valuation of Education, and the High School Dropout
    • Abstract: <p>By Kelly Foley, Giovanni Gallipoli, David A. Green</p> In this paper we investigate the forces determining the high school dropout decision using a rich panel data set that includes survey responses from children, parents, and high school administrators. Following recent work by Heckman, Stixrud, and Urzua (2006); Cunha and Heckman (2007, 2008); and Cunha, Heckman, and Schennach (2010)—hereafter, HSU, CH07, CH08, and CHS, respectively—we use a factor based model to capture the effects of pre-high school skill investments as reflected in cognitive and noncognitive ability measures. Our work confirms their findings of the importance of these abilities (and the investments they reflect), but it also identifies and measures the effects on dropping out of a third ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Parents
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T00:00:00-05:00
  • Teacher Pay Reform and Productivity Panel Data Evidence from Adoptions of
           Q-Comp in Minnesota
    • Abstract: <p>By Aaron J. Sojourner, Elton Mykerezi, Kristine L. West</p> The potential to improve U.S. education through human resource management (HRM) reforms centered on pay-for-performance (P4P) remains an open, active question for economists and policymakers. After decades of paying teachers almost solely on their education and experience, hundreds of U.S. school districts have begun measuring teacher performance in various ways and incorporating these measures into pay determination. State governments including Colorado, Florida, Minnesota, South Carolina, and Texas now encourage or require local school districts to shift their teacher management systems to include performance evaluation and pay. The federal government also encourages districts to shift toward performance-based ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: School personnel management
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T00:00:00-05:00
  • Bullying in Elementary School
    • Abstract: <p>By Tine Louise Mundbjerg Eriksen, Helena Skyt Nielsen, Marianne Simonsen</p> “If there’s one goal of this conference, it’s to dispel the myth that bullying is just a harmless rite of passage or an inevitable part of growing up. It’s not. Bullying can have destructive consequences for our young people. And it’s not something we have to accept.”A student is characterized as being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students (Olweus 1993). This paper investigates the determinants and potential effects of bullying in elementary school on academic achievement.Bullying is a serious and widespread phenomenon: 27 percent of the Danish children that we analyze are reported by their parents and/or teacher to ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Bullying in schools
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T00:00:00-05:00
  • Estimating Heterogeneous Takeup and Crowd-Out Responses to Existing
           Medicaid Income Limits and their Nonmarginal Expansions
    • Abstract: <p>By John C. Ham, Serkan Ozbeklik, Lara D. Shore-Sheppard</p> In recent years, eligibility for public health insurance has expanded substantially, leading to a burgeoning research literature on the implications of such expansions for public insurance participation, private insurance coverage, and crowd-out, as well as for overall levels of health insurance coverage. A common approach to these questions is to estimate a linear probability model (LPM) of participation (or private or overall insurance coverage) where a dummy variable for eligibility for the program is an endogenous explanatory variable and exogenous variation in eligibility is used to generate an instrumental variable.1 This model permits the estimation of local average treatment effects (LATEs) on takeup ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Children
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T00:00:00-05:00
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