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Journal Cover Journal of Human Resources
  [SJR: 4.095]   [H-I: 58]   [30 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-166X - ISSN (Online) 1548-8004
   Published by U of Wisconsin Press Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Bridging Education Gender Gaps in Developing Countries: The Role of Female
           Teachers
    • Abstract: Reducing gender gaps in education attainment has been an important priority for international education policy and is explicitly listed as one of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This commitment has been reflected in the policies of many developing countries and substantial progress has been made in the past decade in reducing gender barriers in primary school enrollment. One key policy that is credited with increasing girls’ education is the increased recruitment of female teachers (UNESCO 2012, Herz and Sperling 2004). UNICEF has documented the practice in a variety of countries, including Bangladesh, India, Liberia, Nepal, and Yemen, and the United Nations’ Task Force for achieving the ... Read More
      Keywords: Sex differences in education; Women teachers; Cognition in children; Children; Human capital; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Young adults; Alcohol; Low-income high school students; Education, Higher; Educational tests and measurements; College dropouts; Studen
      PubDate: 2016-04-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Effects of Early-Life Exposure to Sanitation on Childhood Cognitive
           Skills: Evidence from India’s Total Sanitation Campaign
    • Abstract: Health and disease early in life have lasting consequences for human capital (Currie 2009). Evidence is accumulating that poor health and inadequate net nutrition in early life cause persistent deficits in cognitive development and skills (Case and Paxson 2008, Barham 2012). Cunha et al. (2010) advocate investing in very young children’s cognitive skills based on evidence of especially high returns on such investment at early ages. Although much of this literature has studied developed countries, early-life missed opportunities for cognitive development may be especially important in poor countries where disease and malnutrition are widespread.One of the largest sources of early-life disease worldwide is unsafe ... Read More
      Keywords: Sex differences in education; Women teachers; Cognition in children; Children; Human capital; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Young adults; Alcohol; Low-income high school students; Education, Higher; Educational tests and measurements; College dropouts; Studen
      PubDate: 2016-04-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • The Mechanisms of Alcohol Control
    • Abstract: A substantial literature in economics documents that restricting access to alcohol reduces alcohol-related harms such as mortality, crime, and risky sexual behavior.1 Motor vehicle fatalities have received the most attention from economists due to the availability of high-quality outcome data and the fact that they are the leading cause of death for young adults age 15–20 in the United States.2 Researchers have studied how motor vehicle fatalities respond to alcohol control policies such as alcohol excise taxes (Cook 1981, Dee 1999, and others), drunk driving laws (Eisenberg 2003, Grant 2010, and others), restrictions on the days and hours of alcohol sales (Stehr 2010, Lovenheim and Steefel 2009, Biderman et al. ... Read More
      Keywords: Sex differences in education; Women teachers; Cognition in children; Children; Human capital; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Young adults; Alcohol; Low-income high school students; Education, Higher; Educational tests and measurements; College dropouts; Studen
      PubDate: 2016-04-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • The Impact of Test Score Labels on Human-Capital Investment Decisions
    • Abstract: Over the past few decades, states have implemented test-based accountability programs to monitor student progress toward mastering content standards. Under the No Child Left Behind Act, states must test all students in both mathematics and English language arts (ELA) in Grades 3–8 and on a single occasion in high school. Testing has now become a core enterprise in the educational system, which spends an estimated $1.7 billion annually on this activity (Chingos 2012).One key feature of test-based accountability systems in the United States is that every student receives not only a test score but also a label based on their performance. Massachusetts, the state that we study, assigns students labels of ... Read More
      Keywords: Sex differences in education; Women teachers; Cognition in children; Children; Human capital; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Young adults; Alcohol; Low-income high school students; Education, Higher; Educational tests and measurements; College dropouts; Studen
      PubDate: 2016-04-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase FAFSA
           Renewal and College Persistence
    • Abstract: Improving college affordability for students and their families has emerged as a top policy priority at both the state and federal levels particularly in light of heightened public concern about rapidly escalating tuition and the economic consequences of student debt (Lowrey 2013). Policymakers have responded with a variety of strategies to make college more affordable for students and their families. One approach has been to directly reduce the cost of college to students and families through efforts such as expanded Pell Grant funding at the federal level and the creation of merit-based aid programs at the state and local levels.Another set of policy initiatives has focused on improving students’ and families’ ... Read More
      Keywords: Sex differences in education; Women teachers; Cognition in children; Children; Human capital; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Young adults; Alcohol; Low-income high school students; Education, Higher; Educational tests and measurements; College dropouts; Studen
      PubDate: 2016-04-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Post-Secondary Degrees: Evidence from
           Chile
    • Abstract: The vast amount of evidence suggesting average positive returns to post-secondary education has contributed to the rapid worldwide expansion of the higher education sector.1 However, concerns about the weak labor market performance of recent college graduates in developed and developing countries, uncertainty about the quality of institutions of higher education, climbing tuition costs, and the accumulation of large student debts are challenging the presumption that a post-secondary degree confers financial security.2 In this paper, we analyze this phenomenon by estimating heterogeneous treatment effects across post-secondary degrees using data from Chile. Our intuition is simple: Investing in higher education can ... Read More
      Keywords: Sex differences in education; Women teachers; Cognition in children; Children; Human capital; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Young adults; Alcohol; Low-income high school students; Education, Higher; Educational tests and measurements; College dropouts; Studen
      PubDate: 2016-04-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Incentivizing Schooling for Learning: Evidence on the Impact of
           Alternative Targeting Approaches
    • Abstract: Studies of the impacts of programs that incentivize schooling through cash transfers have typically found that direct and indirect costs are important determinants of school participation and that programs reducing such costs are quite effective in inducing higher enrollment and attendance rates. However, the programs do not show consistent positive impacts on learning outcomes.One hypothesis that emerges from this literature (particularly the literature from developing countries) is that monetary incentives may increase the participation of low-achieving students in school and that school systems may be ill prepared to teach them well (Behrman, Parker, and Todd 2011; Filmer and Schady 2009, 2014). This gives rise ... Read More
      Keywords: Sex differences in education; Women teachers; Cognition in children; Children; Human capital; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Young adults; Alcohol; Low-income high school students; Education, Higher; Educational tests and measurements; College dropouts; Studen
      PubDate: 2016-04-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Effects of the Minimum Wage on Employment Dynamics
    • Abstract: The question of how a minimum wage affects employment remains one of the most widely studied—and most controversial—topics in labor economics, with a corresponding dispute in the political sphere. Neoclassical economic theories present a clear prediction: As the price of labor increases, employers will demand less labor. However, many recent studies testing this prediction have found very small to no effects of the minimum wage on the level of employment (examples include Zavodny 2000, Dube et al. 2010, Giuliano 2013). One possible explanation for these findings is that demand for low-wage labor is fairly inelastic; another is that more complicated dynamics cloud identification of the effect of the minimum wage on ... Read More
      Keywords: Sex differences in education; Women teachers; Cognition in children; Children; Human capital; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Young adults; Alcohol; Low-income high school students; Education, Higher; Educational tests and measurements; College dropouts; Studen
      PubDate: 2016-04-24T00:00:00-05:00
       
 
 
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