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Journal of Human Resources    [12 followers]  Follow    
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 0022-166X - ISSN (Online) 1548-8004
     Published by University of Wisconsin Press Homepage  [11 journals]   [SJR: 3.304]   [H-I: 52]
  • Can Intensive Early Childhood Intervention Programs Eliminate Income-Based
           Cognitive and Achievement Gaps?
    • Abstract: <p>By Greg J. Duncan, Aaron J. Sojourner</p> Early childhood education programs are seen by some as a way of improving the schooling readiness of poor children and enabling them to take full advantage of the benefits of K-12 educational investments (Knudsen et al. 2006; Ludwig and Sawhill 2007). But can any single program eliminate achievement gaps? The impacts of modern Head Start and Early Head Start programs directed at children growing up in low-income families are estimated to be modest at best, particularly when outcomes are assessed within a few years of program completion (Puma et al. 2010; Love et al. 2005). 1 Some short-term impact estimates for state prekindergarten programs, which are income-targeted in some states and universal in others, are ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Early childhood education
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:00:00-05:00
  • Gender Wage Gaps Reconsidered A Structural Approach Using Matched
           Employer-Employee Data
    • Abstract: <p>By Cristian Bartolucci</p> In this paper, we estimate an equilibrium search model to study the extent to which wage differentials between men and women can be explained by differences in productivity, disparities in friction patterns, segregation, and direct wage discrimination. The model features on-the-job search, rent-splitting, and productivity heterogeneity in firms and workers. The structural estimation combines group-specific productivity measures and the empirical distribution of firms’ productivity estimated from firm-level data, group-specific friction patterns estimated from individual duration data, and individual wages. The model implies a structural wage equation, which illustrate the precise relationship between wages ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Wage differentials
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:00:00-05:00
  • How Responsive are Quits to Benefits?
    • Abstract: <p>By Harley Frazis, Mark A. Loewenstein</p> There is a sizable literature analyzing the relationship between fringe benefits and turnover. One reason that has been advanced as to why employers might use in-kind compensation in addition to money wages is that fringe benefits have a stronger negative effect on turnover. For example, employers might use benefits of more value to mature adults, such as health insurance with family coverage, in order to attract a more stable workforce.A major limitation of previous work is that authors have only had access to information on whether a particular benefit has been offered to a worker, and not on the employer’s expenditure on the benefit (for example, Mitchell 1983, 1982; Barron and Fraedrich 1994; Madrian 1994). 1 ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Labor turnover
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:00:00-05:00
  • Long-Term and Spillover Effects of Health Shocks on Employment and Income
    • Abstract: <p>By Pilar García-Gómez, Hans van Kippersluis, Owen O’Donnell, Eddy van Doorslaer</p> Increasing the economic activity of middle aged and older individuals is considered essential to relieving the economic pressures generated by aging populations. Governments are striving to prune disability insurance rolls, discourage early retirement, and raise the statutory retirement age. The effectiveness of these measures depends on the extent to which ill health constrains the earnings capacity and employment opportunities of the 50+ population. Ill health is frequently reported to be a leading cause of labor market withdrawal in middle age (Bound et al. 1999; Currie and Madrian 1999; Dwyer and Mitchell 1999; French 2005; Disney, Emmerson, and Wakefield 2006). However, the existing evidence base to gauge ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Catastrophic illness
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:00:00-05:00
  • Native Competition and Low-Skilled Immigrant Inflows
    • Abstract: <p>By Brian C. Cadena</p> Nearly 20 percent of working-age adults living in the United States with no more than a high school education were born elsewhere. 1 These low-skilled immigrants come to the United States for a variety of reasons, but many choose to leave their home country in search of better labor market opportunities. 2 This paper investigates how geographic differences in expected earnings within the United States influence newly arriving low-skilled immigrants’ location decisions. To do so, I develop a novel estimation strategy that leverages geographically disparate increases in native labor supply resulting from policy changes to the federal welfare system. Previous empirical treatments of this question have examined ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Labor market
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:00:00-05:00
  • Parental Loss and Children’s Well-Being
    • Abstract: <p>By Lea Gimenez, Shin-Yi Chou, Jin-Tan Liu, Jin-Long Liu</p> The latest estimates from UNICEF show that there are approximately 153 million orphans worldwide, a figure that includes children who have lost a mother, a father, or both parents. 1 Although the majority of orphans are from African and Asian countries, no country is immune to this woe. The loss of a parent has the potential to be particularly devastating for a child’s future because it directly affects two important resources used in the production of human capital: income, if the deceased parent was the main income earner of the household; and time, if the deceased parent was an important source of mentorship, nurture, and stability.Most of the empirical evidence that looks at the relationship between parental ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Parents
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:00:00-05:00
  • Popularity
    • Abstract: <p>By Gabriella Conti, Andrea Galeotti, Gerrit Müller, Stephen Pudney</p> Intelligence has long been emphasized as a major determinant of success in life (Herrnstein and Murray 1994), but there is mounting evidence of the importance of other skills for a range of social, economic, and health outcomes (Bowles, Gintis, and Osborne 2001; Heckman, Stixrud, and Urzua 2006; Conti, Heckman, and Urzua 2010). There is also evidence that successful early childhood interventions work primarily through the development of noncognitive skills (Heckman, Pinto, and Savelyev 2013). Measurement of these skills is difficult, and still under development (Almlund et al. 2011). One strand of research uses scales based on self-reports and reports by parents and teachers, which are relatively easy to gather ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Popularity
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:00:00-05:00
  • Using Incentives to Encourage Healthy Eating in Children
    • Abstract: <p>By David R. Just, Joseph Price</p> Schools provide a large fraction of the meals that children eat. This fraction has increased with expansions in school breakfast programs, summer meal programs, and the addition of dinner programs in some districts. These programs provide a unique opportunity to encourage fruit and vegetable consumption in children, particularly among children from low-income families who consume fewer fruits and vegetables at home (Krebs-Smith et al. 1996; Muñoz et al. 1997). However, the potential benefits of these opportunities will only be realized if these children actually eat the fruits and vegetables being offered.In this paper, we examine the degree to which the use of rewards can increase the fraction of children who eat ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Rewards and punishments in education
      PubDate: 2014-01-13T00:00:00-05:00
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