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Journal Cover   Journal of Human Resources
  [SJR: 4.095]   [H-I: 58]   [22 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-166X - ISSN (Online) 1548-8004
   Published by University of Wisconsin Press Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Leaving Boys Behind Gender Disparities in High Academic Achievement
    • Abstract: <p>By Nicole M. Fortin, Philip Oreopoulos, Shelley Phipps</p> Women now far outnumber men among recent college graduates in most industrialized countries (Vincent-Lancrin 2008). As Goldin, Katz, and Kuziemko (2006) observe, the puzzle is: “Why have women overtaken men in terms of college completion instead of simply catching up to them?” The growing female dominance in educational attainment raises new questions about gender disparities arising throughout school ages.1 This paper addresses two questions: (1) Are boys and girls equally well prepared and focused on going to college? and (2) What accounts for the growing gender disparity in favor of girls obtaining high grades in secondary school?Our first goal is to document changes in gender disparities in the academic ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Academic achievement
      PubDate: 2015-08-09T00:00:00-05:00
  • From the Battlefield to the Schoolyard The Short-Term Impact of the
           Post-9/11 GI Bill
    • Abstract: <p>By Andrew Barr</p> The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 (Post-9/11 GI Bill) brought about the largest expansion in veteran education benefits since the end of World War II, roughly doubling the average maximum benefit level. The size of the benefit expansion makes it one of the largest increases in financial aid in decades: Benefits pay for in-state tuition, fees, a monthly housing allowance, and a generous stipend for books and supplies.1 While the fraction of individuals that join the military has dropped substantially over the last 60 years, it remains an important component of the population with over 5 percent (and nearly 9 percent of males) having served in the military before turning 30. Furthermore, the ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: College attendance
      PubDate: 2015-08-09T00:00:00-05:00
  • Impact of Changes in Marriage Law Implications for Fertility and School
    • Abstract: <p>By Prashant Bharadwaj</p> The decision of when to marry has important consequences for men and women. Particularly for women, early marriage is often associated with lower socioeconomic status and less schooling (Dahl 2009, Field and Ambrus 2006). Marital status is also known to be an important determinant of female labor force participation (Angrist and Evans 1996, Heckman and McCurdy 1980, Stevenson 2008); moreover, women seem to invest more in their careers if they delay fertility and marriage (Goldin and Katz 2002). It is clear that women’s (and to some extent men’s) marital decisions are intricately tied to their economic outcomes. While marriage is considered a choice, laws regarding marriage often control various aspects of who ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      PubDate: 2015-08-09T00:00:00-05:00
  • What Happens to the Careers of European Workers When Immigrants
           “Take Their Jobs”?
    • Abstract: <p>By Cristina Cattaneo, Carlo V. Fiorio, Giovanni Peri</p> There is debate on the effect that immigrants have on the labor market opportunities of natives (Borjas 2003; Borjas, Grogger, and Hanson 2008; Card 2001, 2009; Card and DiNardo 2000; Ottaviano and Peri 2012). As immigrants concentrate their labor supply in some occupations, their effect on natives depends on how much these occupations compete with, or instead complement, natives’ jobs. The effect also depends on the response of natives to immigration as they may change their occupation to take advantage of their specific skills vis-a-vis immigrants (Peri and Sparber 2009, D’Amuri and Peri 2014).The literature has so far mainly analyzed the aggregate effects of immigration using the regional or national wages and ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Europeans
      PubDate: 2015-08-09T00:00:00-05:00
  • Remittances and the Wage Impact of Immigration
    • Abstract: <p>By William W. Olney</p> Critics of immigration tend to be concerned that foreign migrants will take the jobs or depress the wages of native workers. As a result, the immigration debate often focuses on the impact that immigrants have on the wages and employment of similarly skilled native workers. However, immigrants also demand goods and services that can alleviate this adverse labor competing effect. Although intuitively appealing, little work has examined the impact of immigration on the consumer base. In order to clarify these competing effects, this paper presents a simple model that identifies how immigration can affect wages through an increase in labor market competition and an increase in product demand. The predictions of this ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Emigration and immigration
      PubDate: 2015-08-09T00:00:00-05:00
  • Prizes and Productivity How Winning the Fields Medal Affects Scientific
    • Abstract: <p>By George J. Borjas, Kirk B. Doran</p> “I look forward to proving more theorems. I hope the weight of this prize doesn’t slow me down.”The production of knowledge is central to long-term economic growth. Yet little is known about how knowledge is produced, making it difficult to predict which types of incentives are most effective in eliciting effort from knowledge producers. Prizes are a common incentive for knowledge production; hundreds of scientific prizes are awarded throughout the world and across all scientific disciplines. Although these prizes are frequently awarded with the explicit goal of inspiring more and better scientific work (Scotchmer 2006), a question remains: Are they effective?A voluminous theoretical and empirical literature ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Research
      PubDate: 2015-08-09T00:00:00-05:00
  • Obesity, Weight Loss, and Employment Prospects: Evidence from a Randomized
    • Abstract: <p>By Arndt R. Reichert</p> Obesity rates are rapidly increasing in almost all industrialized countries and in numerous emerging economies (for example, Prentice 2006). This is not only extremely worrisome for public health reasons but also from an economic perspective since obesity is found to turn Social Security contributors into welfare recipients. Several studies, for instance, show that the obese have a substantially lower employment probability than healthy-weight people (for example, Morris 2007; Han, Norton, and Stearns 2009). However, the evidence on the employment effects of obesity has not yet been settled.There is an obvious difficulty in establishing a causal relationship between obesity and employment because both states are ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Obesity
      PubDate: 2015-08-09T00:00:00-05:00
  • Changes in the Distribution of Earnings Volatility
    • Abstract: <p>By Shane T. Jensen, Stephen H. Shore</p> A large literature uses survey data to argue that labor earnings volatility—the expectation of squared individual earnings changes—has increased substantially since the 1970s in the United States.1 These papers typically conclude that volatility increased in the 1980s and either remained at this level through 2004 (Gottschalk and Moffitt 2009) or increased through the early 1990s (Shin and Solon 2011; Dynan, Elmendorf, and Sichel 2012; Ziliak, Hardy, and Bollinger 2011).2 By contrast, research using U.S. administrative data has typically found that volatility has been constant since the mid-1980s (Dahl, DeLeire, and Schwabish 2011; Sabelhaus and Song 2009).Variation in earnings volatility across individuals has ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      PubDate: 2015-08-09T00:00:00-05:00
  • A Practitioner’s Guide to Cluster-Robust Inference
    • Abstract: <p>By A. Colin Cameron, Douglas L. Miller</p> In an empiricist’s day-to-day practice, most effort is spent on getting unbiased or consistent point estimates. That is, a lot of attention is given to the parameters . In this paper, we focus on getting accurate statistical inference, a fundamental component of which is obtaining accurate standard errors (se, the estimated standard deviation of ). We begin with the basic reminder that empirical researchers should also really care about getting this part right. An asymptotic 95 percent confidence interval is , and hypothesis testing is typically based on the Wald “t-statistic” w=(β̂−β0)/se. Both and se are critical ingredients for statistical inference, and we should be paying as much attention to getting a good ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Economics
      PubDate: 2015-05-08T00:00:00-05:00
  • What Are We Weighting For'
    • Abstract: <p>By Gary Solon, Steven J. Haider, Jeffrey M. Wooldridge</p> At the beginning of their textbook’s section on weighted estimation of regression models, Angrist and Pischke (2009, p. 91) acknowledge, “Few things are as confusing to applied researchers as the role of sample weights. Even now, 20 years post-Ph.D., we read the section of the Stata manual on weighting with some dismay.” After years of discussing weighting issues with fellow economic researchers, we know that Angrist and Pischke are in excellent company. In published research, top-notch empirical scholars make conflicting choices about whether and how to weight and often provide little or no rationale for their choices. And in private discussions, we have found that accomplished researchers sometimes own up to ... <a href="">Read More</a>
      Keywords: Economics
      PubDate: 2015-05-08T00:00:00-05:00
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