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Journal Cover Journal of Human Resources
  [SJR: 2.761]   [H-I: 71]   [28 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0022-166X - ISSN (Online) 1548-8004
   Published by U of Wisconsin Press Homepage  [10 journals]
  • The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from
           Public Insurance Expansions
    • Abstract: Whether and how to provide access to affordable healthcare for low-income Americans has become a central policy issue in the United States. The importance of this issue is underscored by the intense debate surrounding the passage and implementation of the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA), one of the largest expansions of public health insurance in U.S. history. Most individuals from low-income households obtain medical insurance through Medicaid. Since its inception in 1965, Medicaid has gone through repeated expansions that have greatly increased the scope of the program as well as the public sector’s role in health insurance provision. As a result, over 50 percent of children in the United States currently are ... Read More
      Keywords: Stress (Physiology); Poverty; Hydrocortisone; Stress (Psychology); Prenatal influences; Medicaid; Mortality and race; Poor children; National health insurance; Public welfare; Food relief; Public schools; Teachers; Mathematics; Education, Secondary; Finance, Person
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Adapting the Supply of Education to the Needs of Girls: Evidence from a
           Policy Experiment in Rural India
    • Abstract: Important gender disparities in education persist in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia despite a considerable reduction over the last two decades.1 Eliminating the gender gap and establishing universal education for girls are major issues on the policy agenda of low-income countries and part of the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the United Nations.2A number of studies relate low female schooling in developing countries to pro-male preferences of parents and gender differences in the labor market. Daughters may receive less human capital investment than sons—regardless of market returns—if parents inherently place a low value on females (Das Gupta 1987, Behrman 1988, Davies and Zhang 1995, Kingdon 2002) or ... Read More
      Keywords: Stress (Physiology); Poverty; Hydrocortisone; Stress (Psychology); Prenatal influences; Medicaid; Mortality and race; Poor children; National health insurance; Public welfare; Food relief; Public schools; Teachers; Mathematics; Education, Secondary; Finance, Person
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • High School Curriculum and Financial Outcomes: The Impact of Mandated
           Personal Finance and Mathematics Courses
    • Abstract: The recent financial crisis has focused a spotlight on household financial decision-making with many policymakers arguing that poor decision-making exacerbated the crisis as borrowers took out mortgages they could not repay. Indeed, post-crisis regulatory reform has sought to improve financial decision-making. The Dodd-Frank Act established an “Office of Financial Education” within the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau to develop and implement a strategy to improve the financial literacy of consumers (Dodd-Frank Act, Title X, Section 1013). This federal effort comes in addition to state initiatives requiring high schools to include personal finance in their standard curriculums. High school provides an ... Read More
      Keywords: Stress (Physiology); Poverty; Hydrocortisone; Stress (Psychology); Prenatal influences; Medicaid; Mortality and race; Poor children; National health insurance; Public welfare; Food relief; Public schools; Teachers; Mathematics; Education, Secondary; Finance, Person
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • On the Production of Skills and the Birth-Order Effect
    • Abstract: Understanding the influences on cognitive development among children is a fundamental question for economists, sociologists, and psychologists. One factor that may shape achievement is family structure. In this paper, I focus on the relation between birth order and cognitive skills. Studies indicate that, on average, first-born children outperform their younger siblings on measures such as test scores, wages, educational attainment, and employment, among others.1 However, little empirical research has identified the channels of this effect.2Using data on specific parental investments from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (CNLSY), this article first confirms the existence of a causal ... Read More
      Keywords: Stress (Physiology); Poverty; Hydrocortisone; Stress (Psychology); Prenatal influences; Medicaid; Mortality and race; Poor children; National health insurance; Public welfare; Food relief; Public schools; Teachers; Mathematics; Education, Secondary; Finance, Person
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • The Effect of Safety-Net Programs on Food Insecurity
    • Abstract: In 2013, almost 20 percent of U.S. households with children were defined as food-insecure by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), meaning that they did not consistently have access to a sufficient quantity or quality of food for a healthy and active lifestyle (Coleman-Jensen, Gregory and Singh 2014). This suggests that tens of millions of Americans face challenges when it comes to meeting their basic food needs. These challenges range from worrying that food would run out (experienced by 95 percent of the food-insecure) to being hungry but not eating (31 percent of the food-insecure).1 Food insecurity is associated with a wide range of negative health and economic outcomes, making its reduction a key policy ... Read More
      Keywords: Stress (Physiology); Poverty; Hydrocortisone; Stress (Psychology); Prenatal influences; Medicaid; Mortality and race; Poor children; National health insurance; Public welfare; Food relief; Public schools; Teachers; Mathematics; Education, Secondary; Finance, Person
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Teachers’ Labor Market Responses to Performance Evaluation Reform:
           Experimental Evidence from Chicago Public Schools
    • Abstract: The vast majority of people … know that [teacher] evaluation has been generally meaningless, has failed to support the development of teachers and principals, and that the system is broken. [Policymakers and practitioners] are working together to help educators strengthen their craft—and to build real career ladders that recognize and reward excellence.1Over the last decade, increased attention has been paid to improving the quality of our nation’s public school teachers. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2002, for example, represented the first national legislative effort to set teacher-quality benchmarks, requiring states to ensure that all of their teachers were “highly qualified.” Under NCLB, teacher ... Read More
      Keywords: Stress (Physiology); Poverty; Hydrocortisone; Stress (Psychology); Prenatal influences; Medicaid; Mortality and race; Poor children; National health insurance; Public welfare; Food relief; Public schools; Teachers; Mathematics; Education, Secondary; Finance, Person
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Maternal Stress and Child Outcomes: Evidence from Siblings
    • Abstract: Intergenerational correlations in economic status in the United States are high (Corak 2004, Solon 1999). Boys born to families with income in the bottom quintile of the income distribution have a 42 percent chance of remaining there as adults and only a 5 percent chance of reaching the top quintile. Yet, little is known about the mechanisms by which parents transmit their economic status to their children. In this work, we focus on whether and to what extent exposure to environmental stressors influences offspring outcomes.We focus on prenatal exposure to stress as a mechanism by which parents affect the human capital and, by extension, the economic outcomes of their children, for two reasons. First, poverty is ... Read More
      Keywords: Stress (Physiology); Poverty; Hydrocortisone; Stress (Psychology); Prenatal influences; Medicaid; Mortality and race; Poor children; National health insurance; Public welfare; Food relief; Public schools; Teachers; Mathematics; Education, Secondary; Finance, Person
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T00:00:00-05:00
       
  • Saving Teens: Using a Policy Discontinuity to Estimate the Effects of
           Medicaid Eligibility
    • Abstract: Interest in public health insurance in the United States is in part motivated by the relatively poor health of children in families with low incomes. Not only are children from poor families more likely to be born in poor health, but the relative health of these children worsens with age (Case, Lubotsky, and Paxson 2002). To address this disparity in child health, U.S. policy has largely focused on increasing access to medical care for children through expansions in publicly provided health insurance.1 These expansions aim to promote health among children by providing timely access to health services. A major focus is preventive care and the early diagnosis and treatment of physical and mental health needs with ... Read More
      Keywords: Stress (Physiology); Poverty; Hydrocortisone; Stress (Psychology); Prenatal influences; Medicaid; Mortality and race; Poor children; National health insurance; Public welfare; Food relief; Public schools; Teachers; Mathematics; Education, Secondary; Finance, Person
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T00:00:00-05:00
       
 
 
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