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Journal Cover   Journal of Northeast Agricultural University
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   ISSN (Print) 1006-8104
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Effects of Three Different Diluents on Quality of Boar Semen Stored at
           17°C
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hu Shan, Zhang Xiao-gang, Han Cong, Wei Shuai-yi, Xie Dong-qi, Du Ren-rang, Hu Jian-hong
      To investigate the effects of different diluents on the quality of the boar semen stored at 17°C, and assess the relationship between sperm motility and the relative levels of enzymes, three commercial diluents (Diluent I, Diluent II and Diluent III) and three boar breed semens (Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc) were utilized. The sperm motility, effective survival time, survival index, catalase (CAT), the total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated. The results showed that there were significant interaction effects between diluents and breeds on the boar sperm motility (P<0.001), survival time (P<0.001), CAT levels (P<0.001) and T-AOC levels (P<0.001), but neither effects nor interaction effects between diluents and breeds on survival index (P>0.05). All of the parameters varied significantly with the increase of the storage time (P<0.001). The survival time increased 12.9% in Yorkshire boar semen diluted with Diluent III than with Diluent II, while the survival time increased 6.6% in Landrace boar semen diluted with Diluent II than with Diluent III. Both CAT and T-AOC levels were significantly positive correlated with sperm motility in all the three boar breeds (P<0.001), while MDA levels were significantly negative correlated with sperm motility (P<0.001). These results indicated that Diluent III and Diluent II were the optimal commercial diluents for Yorkshire and Landrace boar semen stored at 17°C, respectively.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Isolation and Pathogenicity Analyses on Yersinia enterocolitica from
           Pelteobagrus vachelli
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhao Jing, Wang Li
      Yersinia enterocolitica is an important zoonotic pathogen that can induce disease outbreaks in a wide host range. Strain YER6022 was isolated from Pelteobagrus vachelli and identified using bacterial morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Five virulence factors were detected, then artificial infection experiment and histopathological method were carried out. These results showed that strain YER6022 was one of Y. enterocolitica family members. In addition, ail, ystb, virF, yadA and HPIint were dectected. In artificial infection experiment, with 80% mortality and 100% morbidity, injected Pelteobagrus vachellis showed red swollen of the anus, abdomen swelling and fim bleeding. There existed serious hyperaemia and edema in kidney, spleen, intestine and liver at the light microscope. Ultrastructural observation indicated that mitochondria of the liver, kidney, spleen and intestine swelled and mitochondrial cristae broke. The data had further shed light on its pathogenicity in Pelteobagrus vachelli. It would benefit for further studies on pathogenesis of Pelteobagrus vachelli infected with Y. enterocolitica.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Characterization and Expression of Outer Membrane Protein A I Gene of
           Aeromonas veronii
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wang Hai-juan, Wang Li
      The outer membrane protein, ompA, of Aeromonas veronii has a role in the virulence of the organism and is a potential candidate for vaccine development. In this study, ompA I of Aeromonas veronii strain WA106 was cloned and sequenced, then, it was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The nucleotide sequence of ompA I gene was 1 023 base pairs (GenBank Accession NO.KC748024), which showed 100% homology with that of A. veronii (NO.AB290200.1). This predicted protein was composed of 340 amino acid residues. Its molecular weight was 35.78 ku and isoelectric point was 5.18. The protein was a hydrophilic protein containing alpha helix and random coil with percentage of 35.0% and 49.7%, respectively. The tertiary structure, quaternary structure prediction showed that ompA I protein contained two peptide chains. SDS-PAGE showed that the actual value of the fusion protein was consistent with the expected result. It will facilitate further study of the role of ompA I protein.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Separation and Purification of Total Phloroglucinols in Dryopteris
           crassirhizoma with DM-130 Macroporous Adsorption Resin
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jin Zhe, Huang Jian-ping, Wang He-meng, Ju Han-xun, Ren Si-rui, Chang Ying
      To improve the purity of the total phloroglucinols from Dryopteris crassirhizoma extracts, the separation and purification conditions of the total phloroglucinols from Dryopteris crassirhizoma were studied with DM-130 macroporous adsorption resin in this study. Adsorption rate, elution rate and purity of the total phloroglucinols were used as indexes to investigate the adsorption and desorption capacity of the total phloroglucinols with DM-130 macroporous adsorption resin. Through the study, the optimum sample concentration of the total phloroglucinols and maximum sample volume were 1.5 mg • mL−1 and 7 BV (210 mL), respectively. The optimum desorption conditions were achieved by using 80% ethanol as desorption solvent at elution flow rate of 1.0 mL • min−1. The result showed DM-130 macroporous adsorption resin performed effective adsorption and desorption. After purification, the purity of the total phloroglucinols increased by 11.5-fold.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Construction and Expression of Methionine-rich and Lysine-rich Fusion Gene
           in Bacillus natto
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhang Shuang, Luo Chao-chao, Wu Cai-xia, Gao Xue-jun
      Methionine and lysine are restrictive essential amino acids of livestock, they are also the most attentive indexes in the feed production to carry out the quality control and quality evaluation. Their contents in feed directly affect livestock protein synthesis. Bacillus natto has excellent probiotic properties. In this experiment, we used the genetic engineering method, fusion PCR technique, to connect methionine-rich gene (zein) from maize endosperm protein with lysine-rich gene (Cflr) from the pepper anther, then the fusion gene was inserted into the expression vector pHT43, and the recombinant plasmid pHT43/zein-Cflr was constructed. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into Bacillus natto, and induced by IPTG for the expression of the fusion gene. We found an apparent band at 40 ku site for the recombinant strain by SDS-PAGE. The contents of methionine and lysine were individually detected with HPLC, the quantities of methionine and lysine in the recombinant strain increased by 18.37% and 24.68% than the wild one, respectively. We also verified the stability of the recombinant bacterium during passaging, and found the stability was 100%. This study provided research-basis for the application of the recombined Bacillus natto as feed additive.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Effects of Rice Yield and Quality Across Accumulated Temperature Zone
           Planting in Cold Area
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wang Qiu-ju, Liu Feng, Gao Pan, Gao Zhong-chao, Chang Ben-chao, Liu Yan-xia, Zhang Li-li
      Five rice varieties were planted to determine the variation of the yield and quality traits in five different regions in a cold area of China. The results showed that the number of the panicles, the number of grains per panicle and percentage of head-milled rice displayed quadratic curves against the accumulated temperature, and the sterile rate decreased with greater accumulated temperature. However, 1 000-grain weight had no correlation with the accumulated temperature and protein content, amylose content and taste also had no obvious relation with the accumulated temperature. The results from the accumulated temperature differed with rice variety, so the temperature insensitive type variety should be proposed for production.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Effects of Sub-chronic Aluminum Exposure on Renal Structure in Rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Li Yan-fei, Liu Jian-yu, Cao Zheng
      To investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on renal structure of rats, 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups and were orally exposed to 0 (control group, GC), 64.18 (low-dose group, GL), 128.36 (middle-dose group, GM), and 256.72 (high-dose group, GH) mg • kg−1 BW AlCl3 in drinking water for 120 days. The body weight of different rats was recorded, the kidney pathologic structure and the ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that the body weight of different rats was markedly lower in Al-treated rats than those in GC (P<0.05; P<0.01). After masson staining, the collagen was deposited in the renal interstitium and aggravated with Al dose increases in Al-treated rats. Under electron microscope, the infolding of the plasma membrane was slight swollen, the mitochondrion was abundant with different sizes, the mitochondrion cristae was fused, the microvillus was swollen and fused in GH. Our findings indicated that sub-chronic Al exposure slowed the weight of rats and caused the kidney pathologic damage in rats.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Laboratory Observations Regarding Different Instars of Cyclosainsulana
           (Costa, 1834) (Araneidae) During Developmental Stages
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Muhammad Saleem Khan, Muhammad Saleem Asghar, Iram Maqsood, Mohsin Bukhari, Lemeng Han, Tang Li-jie, Li Yi-jing, A Shahla, U R Khalil
      The current experiment was conducted to find out the optimal conditions for mass rearing and developmental changes of Cyclosainsulana. The lab. conditions were maintained at (27±2)°C and (65±5)% RH. The clear perplex cages and natural diet consisting of the aphids, larvae of the house fly and larvae of drosophila were used for rearing. C. insulana took (123.12±7.26) days to develop from eggs to adults passing through eight instars under prevailing vivo conditions. The eggs were greenish white in color with average size of 0.57 mm ±0.034. The eggs spent (7.52±1.64) days in emergence. Maximum number of spiderlings survived at the 5th instar (84%) and minimum at the 1st instar (34%). The measurements of different body parts including the total body length, cephalothorax and pedipalps of the both male and female C. insulana were done with the help of micrometer and presented as mean± SD. The measurements varied in the each developing instar. It was concluded that spiders were difficult to rear in the lab. conditions and each developing stage which was regarded as instars showed variations in size colors and body characteristics.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Cloning and Expression of Bile Salt Hydrolase Gene from Lactobacillus
           plantarum M1-UVS29
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yu Chang-qing, Li Rong
      We cloned and expressed bile salt hydrolase gene of Lactobacillus plantarum M1-UVS29 in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 successfully. Gene-specific primers for amplification of L. plantarum bsh were designed by using sequence which availabled from GenBank. The production of PCR amplicon was confirmed by sequencing and cloned into pMD18-T vector, and then recombined into expression vector pNZ8148 and yielding vector pNZ8148-BSH. pNZ8148-BSH was transferred into Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Sequencing indicated that the cloned bsh fragment contained 995 nucleotides, and shared 99.3% sequence homology with bsh gene from L. plantarum MBUL10. Cloned bsh fragment was successfully transduced into NICE expression system and confirmed by PCR and restriction digest. Recombinant BSH protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of BSH protein was approximately 37 ku. Activity of the expressed protein was 0.77 μmol • min−1. The successfully expressed proteins by genetic engineering technology made the function of lactic acid bacteria be abundant and laid the foundation for further researches into cholesterol-lowering lactic acid bacterium food and probiotics.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Rural Power System Load Forecast Based on Principal Component Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Fang Jun-long, Xing Yu, Fu Yu, Xu Yang, Liu Guo-liang
      Power load forecasting accuracy related to the development of the power system. There were so many factors influencing the power load, but their effects were not the same and what factors played a leading role could not be determined empirically. Based on the analysis of the principal component, the paper forecasted the demands of power load with the method of the multivariate linear regression model prediction. Took the rural power grid load for example, the paper analyzed the impacts of different factors on power load, selected the forecast methods which were appropriate for using in this area, forecasted its 2014–2018 electricity load, and provided a reliable basis for grid planning.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Design and Experiment of Slave Computer Control System for Applying
           Variable-rate Liquid Fertilizer
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhang Ying-zi, Chen Hai-tao, Hou Shou-yin, Ji Wen-yi, Ouyang Bin-lin, Dun Guo-qiang, Zhang Ji-cheng
      In order to increase the applying rate of liquid fertilizer and reduce environmental pollution, a slave computer control system for applying variable-rate liquid fertilizer was designed. The system used SMC as core processor and electrically controlled pressure regulator as execution component. The characteristic equation of the system was obtained by using classical control theory. Results indicated that the characteristic equation met the requirements of routh-criterion, which indicated the working process of the system was stable. Performance of the slave computer was verified via bench tests. Results demonstrated that there was no significant influence on the response from interclass error. The fertilization error was less than 0.9, and the fertilization accuracy was larger than 97%. The liquid fertilizer emitted by the fertilizing devices had no significant difference in uniformity, which met the demands of the slave computer control system for applying variable-rate liquid fertilizer.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Where Pakistan Stands Among Top Rice Exporting Countries, an Analysis of
           Competitiveness
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Muhammad Abdullah, Jia Li, Sidra Ghazanfar, Jaleel Ahmed, Imran Khan, Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq
      Under the umbrella of WTO, the reduction in trade barriers has forced the policy makers to focus on the export competitiveness. Rice is an important source for foreign exchange earnings for the economy of Pakistan, keeping in mind of this fact, the competitiveness of Pakistan's rice with other major exporters was examined by applying revealed competitive advantage. The domestic consumption trends of rice among the major rice exporting countries were also analyzed in the current study. The results revealed that as compare to other major exporters of rice in the world, Pakistan had high competitive and comparative advantage in the production of rice. The comparison of the movements in comparative advantage indices for Pakistan with the major world rice competitors/exporters showed that Pakistan possessed relatively high comparative and competitive advantages in rice production. The declining domestic per capita consumption of rice and increasing trends in competitiveness for Pakistan clearly revealed the expected potential of higher growth which meant that rice exports from Pakistan could continue to play an important role for the earnings of foreign exchange. In order to exploit the potential benefits of rice exports, we need to strengthen the competitiveness in rice sector of Pakistan.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment Scheme Evaluation and
           Selection Based on DEA Model for Punjab (Pakistan)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zeeshan Ahmad, Meng Jun
      DEA is a nonparametric method used in operation researches and economics fields for the evaluation of the production frontier. It has distinct intrinsic which is worth coping with assessment problems with multiple inputs in particular with multiple outputs. This paper used Dε C 2 R model of DEA to assess the comparative efficiency of the multiple schemes of agricultural industrial structure, at the end we chose the most favorable also known as “OPTIMAL” scheme. In addition to this, using some functional insights from DEA model non optimal schemes or less optimal schemes had also been improved to some extent. Assessment and selection of optimal schemes of agricultural industrial structure using DEA model gave a greater and better insight of agricultural industrial structure and was the first of such researches in Pakistan.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Factors Hindering Pakistani Farmers' Choices Towards Adoption of Crop
           Insurance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sidra Ghazanfar, Zhang Qi-wen, Muhammad Abdullah, Jaleel Ahmed, Imran Khan, Zeeshan Ahmad
      This study was conducted to analyze the factors that negatively influence Pakistani farmers' willingness to participate in crop insurance. Probit model was applied to identify the significant factors which influenced our dependent variable “not willing to participate”. The results of the analyses showed that crop insurance premium was the most influencing factor which had positive and significant impact on dependent variable. Similarly dissatisfaction with crop loan insurance scheme, lacking of knowledge about crop insurance, believing of being against Islamic rules and time taking process was also found to be positive and significantly influenced the dependent variable. While limited decision power and limited perils were not found to be significant in the results.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Effects of Transgenic DREB Toybean Dongnong50 on Diversity of Soil
           Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhang Chun-miao , Dong Lei , Jin Yu , Qu Juan-juan
      Drought is a bottleneck for worldwide soybean production which is getting more serious as the climate continues to worsen. Dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) is a kind of transcription factor that regulates the expression of stress tolerance-related genes in response to drought, high salinity and cold stress in plant. Soybean with DREB gene possesses the drought resisting capability which is helpful to increase the yield. However, the potential risk of genetically modified plants (GMPs) on soil microbial community is still in debate. In order to understand the effects of transgenic DREB soybean on the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, the diversity of nifH gene in pot experiments planted transgenic soybean and near-isogenic nontransgenic soybean under normal water condition and drought stress condition was analyzed by PCR-DGGE and sequence analysis. The results showed that transgenic soybean under normal water condition decrease the diversity of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the seeding stage and flowering stage, but had no notable effect in other stages. Under drought stress, transgenic soybean reduced the diversity of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the flowering stage, but had no notable effects on other stages. Phylogenic analysis revealed that g7, g13, g15 and g19 had a close relationship with Alphaproteobacteria, g12 had a close relationship with Azonexus, others were related to Betaproteobacteria and Burkholderia.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Ecological Agricultural Development
           of Jianshan Farm
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Cao Can , Wang Da-qing , Wang Hong-yan , Dai Lin
      At present, the excessive use of the fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural production has result in hardening of the soil and decrease of the wild animals and can not maintain the sustainable using of land resources. To develop ecological agriculture is a powerful measure to reduce energy consumption, protect environment, and realize the sustainable development of the agriculture. In order to promote the sustainable development of agriculture in Jianshan Farm, this paper by using SWOT analysis method analyzed the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat in the development of the ecological agriculture in Jianshan Farm, based on the experience from domestic and foreign ecological agricultural development, and put forward the countermeasures for the development of the ecological agriculture in order to develop ecological circular agriculture and non-genetic soybean crop protected areas, and to establish soybean-corn rotation area and healthy aquaculture zone, as well as develop new energy industry.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Evolution Analysis About Soybean MIR166 Family
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Wang Zhi-hao , Jin Hui-hui , Chen Qing-shan , Zhu Rong-sheng
      MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of important regulating non-coding small molecular RNA. The gma-MIR166 gene family consists of 21 members and their expression patterns diversify widely. It is important to analyze the evolution of gma-MIR166 gene family in order to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of miRNAs in soybean. In this study, we implemented soybean wide genome block analysis, the molecular phylogeny of gma-MIR166 and block analysis of gma-MIR166 family. The results showed that both chromosome big segmental duplications and tandem duplications were main reasons contributed to the expanding of gma-MIR166 gene family. These findings suggested that gma-MIR166 gene family might originate from one or two ancient miRNA genes. The results of research provided a support for evolutionary study of miRNAs in soybean and related species in Fabaceae.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Influence of FSH Treatment on Expression of CDC25A, TSSK3 and P53 in Vitro
           Cultured Sertoli Cells of Calf
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li Yu-long , Wu Qiong , Zhao Xun-wu , Zeng Yue , Elkanah Adegoke , Zhang Gui-xue
      CDC25A, TSSK3 and P53 expressions in vitro in cultured sertoli cells after FSH treatment were studied in order to provide some data for further researches of spermatogenesis. Different concentrations of FSH (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.08 IU. mL-1) were used to treat sertoli cells cultured in vitro. The expression of CDC25A, TSSK3 and P53 was determined by real-time-PCR at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after FSH treatment of sertoli cells. The results showed that FSH had no significant effect on expression of CDC25A (p>0.05), could significantly improve the expression of TSSK3 and P53 (p<0.05), and had no significant effect on expression of CDC25A in sertoli cells, but it could significantly improve the expression of TSSK3. CDC25A was likely to play a role in other signaling pathways in sertoli cells. Within the range of certain concentration of FSH, TSSK3 in sertoli cells had the highest expression at about 24 h. TSSK3 protein produced in sertoli cells was likely to play an important role in substrate-level phosphorylationbe in meiosis and mitosis of spermatogenic cells. FSH could promote P53 expression and the highest expression was at about 12 h, and P53 might control the division of spermatogenic cells as well as sertoli cells.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Dynamic Analysis of Nitric Oxide and Total Oxidant Capacity in Cow Uterine
           Secretion with Subclinical Endometritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Song Xue , Li De-jun , Feng Guo-feng , Li Bei , Liu Yun-feng
      Subclinical endometritis is a physiological inflammation that serves to clear persistent contaminants from the uterus. To investigate the alteration of antioxidant, such as vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC), total oxidant capacity (TOC) and nitric oxide (NO) in cows with normal and subclinical endometritis (SCE), we examined the concentrations of NO, VC and VE, TOC and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) percentage in uterine secretion. The cows were divided into two groups, normal (n=20) and subclinical endometritis (SCE, n=60), based on endometrial cytology (presence of PMN±5%). Uterine secretion and blood were collected as described previously. Griess reaction was used to determine the concentration of NO. The concentrations of TOC, VC and VE were detected by a commercially available assay kit. The results showed that the concentrations of NO, TOC and PMN percentage were significantly higher (P<0.01, P<0.05, and P<0.01, respectively) in uterine secretion with SCE compared to those from normal; however, the levels of VC and VE were significantly lesser (P<0.01). In conclusion, the concentrations of NO, TOC, VC, VE and PMN percentage differed between normal and SCE cows. Meanwhile, the relationship between the concentration of NO and PMN percentage from uterine secretion in cows with subclinical endometritis were positively correlated. Consequently, these alterations in NO, TOC, VC, VE levels and PMN percentage contributed to as a diagnostic index of the uterine inflammation, with the aim to increase the reproduction of the cows and the decrease economic losses.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Phylogeny and Homologous Recombination in Japanese Encephalitis Viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li Xiao-xue , Cong Ying-ying , Wang Xin , Ren Yu-dong , Ren Xiao-feng , Lu Ai-gauo , Li Guang-xing
      Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant causative agent of arthropod-borne encephalitis and what is less clear that the factors cause the virus wide spread. The objective was to confirm whether the homologous recombination imposed on JEV. The phylogenetic and homologous recombination analyses were performed based on 163 complete JEV genomes which were recently isolated. They were still separated into five genotypes (GI-GV) and the most of recently isolated JEVs were GI rather than GIII in Asian areas including mainland China. Two recombinant events were identified in JEV and the evidence of the recombination was observed between China and Japan isolates that partitioned into two distinct subclades, but still the same genotype (GIII). Our data further suggested that most of the nucleotides in JEV genome were under negative selection; however, changes within codon 2 316 (amino acid NS4b-44) showed an evidence of the positive selection.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Antioxidant Activities of Nine Selected Culinary Spices from China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Liang Ying , Ding Ying , Zhang Liu-juan , Liu Xian-jin
      The antioxidant activities and the total phenolic contents of the water and/or ethanol extracts of the nine selected culinary spices from China were systematically investigated. Both ethanol extracts and water extracts had high ability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The ethanol extract of Sichuan pepper showed the highest ability of DPPH radical scavenging. The extract with the highest ABTS radical scavenging effect was that of ethanol extract of cinnamon. Both ethanol and water extracts of cinnamon possessed the high ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) with the values of 4 541.87 and 1 134.52 µmol of Fe (II)/g. The extracts with high hydroxyl radical-mediated deoxyribose degradation were all the ethanol extracts as follows: cinnamon, bay leaf, Sichuan pepper, star anise and fennel. The extracts with high antioxidant activities also had the high contents of the phenols. The study indicated that these spices might be potentially be used as natural antioxidants in food.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Fault Line Selection Method Considering Grounding Fault Angle for
           Distribution Network
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li Si-bo , Zhao Yu-lin , Li Ji-chang , Sui Tao
      In the distribution network system with its neutral point grounding via arc suppression coil, when single-phase grounding fault occurred near zero-crossing point of the phase voltage, the inaccuracy of the line selection always existed in existing methods. According to the characteristics that transient current was different between the fault feeder and other faultless feeders, wavelet transformation was performed on data of the transient current within a power frequency cycle after the fault occurred. Based on different fault angles, wavelet energy in corresponding frequency band was chosen to compare. The result was that wavelet energy in fault feeder was the largest of all, and it was larger than sum of those in other faultless feeders, when the bus broke down, the disparity between each wavelet energy was not significant. Fault line could be selected out by the criterion above. The results of MATLAB/simulink simulation experiment indicated that this method had anti-interference capacity and was feasible.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Suggestions on Forest Ecological Compensation—Taking Mudanjiang City
           as an Example
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li Ying , Zhang Zheng , Cui Li-juan , Siji K-Maunel , Jia Li
      The forest ecological compensation is an important factor to balance the interests of different areas for sustainable development and environment protection. Mudanjiang City in Heilongjiang Province of China is rich of forest resources. The forestry coverage rate reached 62.3% in 2014, after forestry conservation program from 2002. The authors explored the factors impacted on forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City, which was a demonstration as a case study, through experts’ evaluation scores and AHP methodology to analyze the forest ecological compensation factors and lay the foundation for the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. At the same time, we provided an example to explore the effective way and speed up the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. The study found that the main factors that determined forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City were ecology and natural resources. Based on the analyses, some suggestions were put forward to promote the mechanism in a sustainable way.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Farmers' Perception and Awareness and Factors Affecting Awareness of
           Farmers Regarding Crop Insurance as a Risk Coping Mechanism Evidence from
           Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sidra Ghazanfar , Zhang Qi-wen , Muhammad Abdullah , Zeeshan Ahmad , Majid Lateef
      This study has been conducted in three districts of Punjab Province namely, Dera Ghazi Khan, RajanPur and Bahawalpur of Pakistan. The study showed the results of a survey of 300 farmers which was organized to assess awareness level of farmers regarding crop insurance, factors affecting the awareness level among farmers and the perception of farmers about crop insurance. Based on exploratory research work upon the responses of farmers, the average and standard deviation were calculated. Probit model was applied to explore the factors affecting the awareness level of farmers. SPSS was used for the analysis of the collected data. The results revealed that out of 300 farmers, 184 farmers were aware with crop insurance and rests of the 116 farmers were not aware. Banks and E-media were found to be the two most important sources of the awareness for the respondent farmers. In the study area, the climatic risks were reported as the most severe risks faced by the farmers. The results also revealed the existence of negative perceptions of the farmers about crop insurance i.e. farmers perceived crop insurance as a kind of tax and they believed premium was so high that it was out of range of poor farmers and only large scale farmers could afford it. Results obtained by applying Probit model revealed that “education” and “previously availed agricultural credit” were the two most important factors which affected the awareness of the farmers regarding crop insurance.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Investigation and Study on Employment Status of Migrant Workers in
           Heilongjiang Province
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhao Ji-ying , Wang Yao
      With the gradual acceleration of urbanization speed and continuous improvements of agricultural productivity, the number of migrant workers is increasing. The living conditions of this group in cities determine the quality of urbanization in China, and are of great and far-reaching significance to Chinese construction of comprehensive well-off society. This study took the migrant workers in Heilongjiang Province as the research object, and took the representative new-generation migrant workers as the respondent to have a comprehensive analysis of the employment status. The study focused on these aspects, such as nature information, employment selection, employment quality, and social security, etc. Finally, it provided valuable ideas and methods on the reasonable solutions of the employment problems of the migrant workers to better increase farmers’ income and improve their living qualities.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Revelation of Rural System of Medical Services in BRICS to China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yang Xiu-li , Sun Hang , Yang Qing-tian , Li Si-tong , Yang Fei
      In recent years, the great achievements of basic medical and healthcare services of BRICS have gained great attention and acknowledgement from the whole world. In their medical system reform, India, Brazil, Russia and South Africa have established their medical systems with their own characteristics. This provides valuable references for China in its critical stage of medical system reform. This paper explored the experience of BRICS’ reform of medical system in order to offer some references and guidance for the establishment of basic medical and health services with Chinese characteristics and conforming to Chinese practice.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Wheat Generation Adding in Xundian County of Yunnan Province in Summer
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kong Zhi-you , Liu Ye-ju , Qin Peng
      Local climate conditions and sowing time are very important to the vernalization and summer reproduction of the wheat. Xundian County is located in Yunnan Province of China, at latitude 25.56° north and longitude 103.25° east. Xundian County is situated 1 873 m above sea level, and is conducive for the summer reproduction of the wheat. To investigate the optimal sowing time, 11 spring wheat cultivars and one semi-winter wheat cultivar were sown 10 times at an interval of five days from May 26, 2012, and the strong winter wheat Suyin 10 was treated in a vernalization room at 2°C with different concentrations of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine. The results showed that Suyin 10 should be vernalized at 2°C for 30 days in summer, and the growth periods of strong winter wheat plants could been shortened if treated with a specific concentration of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine at a low temperature. The growth period of the spring wheat in summer reproduction was delayed, and their agronomic traits gradually decreased with the passage of the sowing time. Thus, spring wheat should be sown at the earliest time possible for better yield. June 25 should be the latest date for summer reproduction of the wheat, but the semi-winter wheat cultivars in Xundian County should be added generation in summer after being treated at 2°C for 10 days. Xundian County is a suitable location for summer reproduction of the wheat in China.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Degradation of Cry1Ab Protein Within Transgenic Bt Maize Tissue by
           Composite Microbial System of MC1
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Meng Yao , Gu Wan-rong , Ye Le-fu , Chen Dong-sheng , Li Jing , Wei Shi
      Environmental safety issues involved in transgenic plants have become the concern of researchers, practitioners and policy makers in recent years. Potential differences between Bt maize (ND1324 and ND2353 expressing the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein) and near-isogenic non-Bt varieties (ND1392 and ND223) in their influence on the composite microbial system of MC1 during the fermentation process were studied during 2011-2012. Cry1Ab protein in Bt maize residues didn't affect characteristics of lignocellulose degradation by MC1, pH of fermentation broth decreasing at initial stage and increasing at later stage of degradation. The quality of various volatile products in fermentation broth showed that no significant difference of residues fermentation existed between Bt maize and non-Bt maize. During the fermentation MC1 efficiently degraded maize residues by 83%–88%, and cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin content decreased by 70%–72%, 72%–75% and 30%–37%, respectively. Besides that, no consistent difference was found between Bt and non–Bt maize residues lignocellulose degradation by MC1 during the fermentation process. MC1 degraded 88%–89% Cry1Ab protein in Bt maize residues, and in the fermentation broth of MC1 and bacteria of MC1 Cry1Ab protein was not detected. DGGE profile analyses revealed that the microbial community drastically changed during 1–3 days and became stable until the 9th day. Though the dominant strains at different fermentation stages had significantly changed, no difference on the dominant strains was observed between Bt and non–Bt maize at different stages. Our study indicated that Cry1Ab protein did not influence the growth characteristic of MC1.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Aggregation of Diesel Contaminated Soil for Bioremediation
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yu Ying , Shi Xiu-hong , Li Song , Xu Jing-gang
      Diesel contaminated soil (DCS) contained a large amount of the hydrocarbons and salt which was dominated by soluble sodium chloride. Aggregation process which made the desired aggregate size distribution could speed up the degradation rate of the hydrocarbons since the aggregated DCS had better physical characteristics than the non-aggregated material. Artificial aggregation increased pores >30 μm by approximately 5% and reduced pores <1 μm by 5%, but did not change the percentage of the pores between 1 and 30 μm. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of non-aggregated DCS was 5×10−6 m · s−1, but it increased to 1×10−5 m · s−1 after aggregation. The compression index of the non-aggregated DCS was 0.0186; however, the artificial aggregates with and without lime were 0.031 and 0.028, respectively. DCS could be piled 0.2 m deep without artificial aggregation; however, it could be applied 0.28 m deep when artificial aggregates were formed without limiting O2 transport.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Screening of Optimal Differentiation Medium to Lonicera edulis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Li Fu-heng , Xu Qing-hua , A B ПOЛяKOB , Qu Di , Zhu Hui-jie , Li Nan-ding , Liu Zeng-bing
      An excellent Lonicera edulis strain, L1-8 that was bred by Northeast Institute of Geography and Agro-ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was used as material in this research. The axillary buds of its dormant branches were used as explants. A four-factor and four-level orthogonal test was designed in order to choose the best differentiation medium for providing the technical support of Lonicera edulis micropropagation. The results showed that the culture medium and concentration of 6-BA were the main factors, and the best differentiation condition was MS culture medium containing 2.0 mg · L−1 6-BA, 0.3 mg · L−1 IBA and 1.5 mg · L−1 GA3.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Effect of Daidzein on Ileum Microflora Biodiversity in Hy-Line Variety
           Brown Layers
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ji Guo-zhen , Wang Li
      Daidzein is always added into poultry feed to make the production performance and immunity of poultry better. In this study, a total of 600 40-week-old Hy-Line variety brown layers were randomized into five groups and fed with a corn-soybean-mixed basal diet supplement with 0, 10, 50, 100, and 500 mg · kg−1 daidzein, respectively. Then, two PCR-based typing methods (RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR) were combined to analyze the ileum content and explore the changes of ileum microflora biodiversity. The results of RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR showed that bands under 10 mg · kg−1 and 50 mg · kg−1 were the most, and their similarity was the largest. Bands under 500 mg · kg−1 were the least and similarity with other groups was the minimum. Ileum microflora biodiversity under 10 mg · kg−1 or 50 mg · kg−1 was richer than that under 500 mg · kg−1. A corn-soybean-mixed basal diet supplement with 10 mg · kg−1 to 50 mg · kg−1 of daidzein might be beneficial to Hy-Line variety brown layers intestinal bacteria.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Effect of Dietary Alanyl-glutamine Supplementation on Growth Performance,
           Development of Intestinal Tract, Antioxidant Status and Plasma
           Non-specific Immunity of Young Mirror Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Xu Hong , Zhu Qing , Wang Chang-an , Zhao Zhi-gang , Luo Ling , Wang Lian-sheng , Li Jin-nan , Xu Qi-you
      Exogenous alanyl-glutamine (Aln-Gln) was evaluated for its effects on growth performance, intestinal structure and function, antioxidant status and non-specific immunity of young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Six diets supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, or 15.0 g · kg−1 of Aln-Gln were fed to fish for 12 weeks. Supplementation with 7.5, 10.0, or 15.0 g · kg−1 of Aln-Gln significantly increased weight gain rate (WGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), but feed conservation rate (FCR) and survival were not affected (P>0.05). The intestinal fold height and number, digestive enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase activities was found to be significantly high (P<0.05) with increasing dietary Aln-Gln supplementation up to 7.5 g · kg−1, but there were no significant differences for Aln-Gln supplementation from 7.5 to 15.0 g · kg−1. The glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the intestine, hepatopancreas, plasma and muscles. The plasma complement-3 (C3) and complement-4 (C4) levels were significantly (P<0.05) improved at 5.0 g · kg−1 level and decreased when over 7.5 g · kg−1. The plasma lysozyme (LSZ) activity increased significantly (P<0.05) at 7.5, 10.0, or 15.0 g · kg−1 level. In summary, the results showed that Aln-Gln improved growth performance, development and function of the intestine, the activity of the antioxidant defense system and the plasma non-specific immunity of the carps. The optimal Aln-Gln level was 8.24 g · kg−1 diet for WGR based on broken-line regression model analysis.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Microsatellite Analysis of Genetic Diversity Between Loach with Different
           Levels of Ploidy
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Li Ya-juan , Qi Hong-rui , Ma Hai-yan , Zhou He , Xu Wen , Sui Yi , Li Jia-qi
      We used microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic parameters of three different polyploidy populations of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus from Honghu City, Hubei Province. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis banding patterns of diploid (2n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid loaches (4n) were analyzed with PopGen software. A total of 68 alleles were obtained from seven microsatellite loci and the polymorphism information content (PIC) indices were all above 0.5. The average expected mean heterozygosity values (He) were 0.8420, 0.7186 and 0.8521; the average observed mean heterozygosity values (Ho) were 0.9674, 0.9785 and 0.8928; and the Hardy-Weinberg P values were 0.3078, 0.3151 and 0.3762, for diploid, triploid and tetraploid individuals, respectively. The results indicated that the three populations were highly polymorphic, with no deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium observed at all the seven microsatellite loci. This indicated a high level of genetic diversity within the populations. A cluster analysis diagram showed that the shortest genetic distance was between diploid and tetraploid loaches and they shared a close phylogenetic relationship. The triploid and tetraploid individuals had the most distant phylogenetic relationship.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Rapid Non-destructive Detection for Molds Colony of Paddy Rice Based on
           Near Infrared Spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Zhang Qiang , Liu Cheng-hai , Sun Jing-kun , Cui Yi-juan , Li Qun , Jia Fu-guo , Zheng Xian-zhe
      Near infrared spectrometer technology under a wavelength range of 918-1045 nm was used to rapidly detect paddy rice that was stored at 5°C, 15°C and 25°C. A total of 121 paddy rice samples were collected from artificial infection with moulds to build the calibration models to calculate the total number colony of moulds based on the principal component regression method and multiple linear regression method. The results of statistical analysis indicated that multiple linear regression method was applicable to the detection of the total number colony of moulds. The correlation of calibration data set was 0.943. The correlation of prediction data set was 0.897. Therefore, the result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be a useful instrumental method for determining the total number colony of moulds in paddy rice. The near infrared spectroscopy methodology could be applied for monitoring mould contamination in postharvest paddy rice during storage and might become a powerful tool for monitoring the safety of the grain.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • High-solid Anaerobic Co-digestion of Food Waste and Rice Straw for Biogas
           Production
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Pei Zhan-jiang , Liu Jie , Shi Feng-mei , Wang Su , Gao Ya-bing , Zhang Da-lei
      Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste (FW) and rice straw (RS) in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at high organic loading rate (OLR) was investigated. Co-digestion studies of FW and RS with six different mixing ratios were conducted at an initial volatile solid (VS) concentration of more than 3 gVS · L−1. The biogas production, methane contents, degradation efficiency of VS, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were determined to evaluate the stability and performance of the system. The results showed that the co-digestion process had higher system stability and higher volumetric biogas production than mono-digestions. Increase in FW content in the feedstock could increase the methane yield and shorten retention time. The efficiency of co-digestion systems mainly relied on the mixing ratios of FW and RS to some extent. The highest methane yield was 60.55 mL·gV·S−1 · d−1 at a mass ratio (FW/RS) of 3 : 1, which was 178% and 70% higher than that of mono-digestions of FW and RS, respectively. Consequently, the anaerobic co-digestion of FW and RS could have superior stability and better performance than mono-digestions in higher organic loading system.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Effect of Plasticizers on Properties of Rice Straw Fiber Film
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Chen Hong-rui , Chen Hai-tao , Liu Shuang , Dun Guo-qiang , Zhang Ying
      In order to improve the properties of rice straw fiber film, one factor contrast test method was employed. Plasticizer type was chosen as input variable, dry tension strength and elongation, wet tension strength and elongation, bursting strength and tearing strength were chosen as indexes. The results showed that there were significant differences among the means of dry tension strength, dry elongation and bursting strength of different plasticizers; there were not significant differences among the means of wet tension strength, wet elongation and tearing strength of different plasticizers; for dry tension strength and elongation, glycerol had a significant difference with sorbitol and PEG, no significant difference was observed between sorbitol and PEG, dry tension strength added glycerol had been reduced 6.8% compared with that added sorbitol, reduced 9.5% compared with that added PEG; elongation had been improved 6.1% and 9.4%, respectively; for bursting strength, sorbitol had a significant difference with glycerol and PEG, no significant difference was observed between glycerol and PEG; bursting strength added glycerol and added PEG had been improved 6.9% and 5.6%, respectively compared with that of the added sorbitol. The results provided a theoretical reference for further improving the straw fiber film manufacturing process.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • Recent Progress of Commercially Available Biosensors in China and Their
           Applications in Fermentation Processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Chen Yan , Feng Dong , Bi Chun-yuan , Zhu Si-rong , Shi Jian-guo
      Biosensors, which are the products of the biotechnology industry, are among the key projects of the 7th, 8th, and 9th Five-year Plans of China Science & Technology Developing Programs, respectively, and they play an important role in developing and reforming traditional biotechnology. SBA series biosensor analyzer, as the only one commercial biosensor in China, has attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for biological industry with the development of technology and society. In this paper, we presented an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of the biochemical analytes in fermentation processes using SBA series biosensor analyzers in China. Future trends of the biosensor analyzer in China were also mentioned in the last section.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
  • A Corpus-based Study on Collocation and Colligation of “Soil”
           in Agricultural English
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 21, Issue 4
      Author(s): Hu Jia-ying , Sun Yuan-yuan
      This paper was based on the corpus built by the writers on agricultural science and technology English. Through corpus-based research and statistical tools AntConc 3.2.1 and BFSU Collocator 1.0 (Beijing Foreign Studies University Collocator 1.0), this paper tried to make an analysis of the collocation and colligation of the word “soil”. The result revealed the colligation between “soil” and its collocates in agricultural academic papers, which was instructive to academic writing and the research method was a practical reference of building a corpus on agricultural science and technology English.


      PubDate: 2015-06-28T07:46:50Z
       
 
 
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