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Journal Cover Journal of Northeast Agricultural University
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1006-8104
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • CDC25B Involved in Proliferation of Sertoli Cells of New Born Calves
           Through FSH and Possibly Being Key Regulating Factor
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhang Gui-xue, Li Yu-long, Zeng Yue, Huang He, Zheng Peng, Tian Ya-guang
      The effects of FSH on the proliferation of sertoli cells of new born calves were studied in order to provide some data for theoretical research and practical use of spermatogenesis in vitro. Different concentrations of FSH (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.08 IU · mL−1) were taken to treat bovine sertoli cells in vitro culture, the number of sertoli cells and the expression of seven genes were determined at 6, 12 and 24 h after FSH treatments. FSH could significantly promote the proliferation of in vitro cultured sertoli cells. FSH had no significant effects on the expression of CDC25A and could significantly improve the expression of CDC25B. 0.04 IU · mL−1 and 0.08 IU · mL−1 FSH treatments decreased the expression of CDC25C at 12 h. 0.08 IU · mL−1 FSH treatment decreased the expression of CDC25C at 24 h. 0.04 IU · mL−1 FSH could significantly decrease the expression of GSK-3β and improve the expression of β-catenin at 6, 12 and 24 h. 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 IU · mL−1 FSH treatments enhanced the expressions of CYCLIND1 and C-MYC. In conclusion, FSH promoted the proliferation of sertoli cells and 0.04 IU · mL−1 FSH concentration could significantly promote the proliferation of in vitro cultured sertoli cells. FSH promoted the proliferation of sertoli cells by CDC25B and WNT/β-catenin and CDC25B might be the key regulator to the proliferating rate of sertoli cells of bovine calf.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Assessment of Economic Viability of Mini-livestock Production in Delta
           State, Nigeria: Implication for Extension Delivery Services
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene, Achoja Felix Odemero
      The study examined the popularity, role and economic viability of mini-livestock keeping in Delta State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of mini-livestock farmers, identify the types of animals reared as mini-livestock in the area, ascertain the reasons for keeping mini-livestock by farmers, determine the benefit level of mini-livestock farmers, and identify the problems facing mini-livestock farmers in the study area. Using snowball sampling technique, 674 respondents were sampled with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Various descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analyses. The results of the study indicated various types of mini-livestock reared in the study area, mainly snail farming or heliciculture (about 90%) and rearing of cane rat (84.27%); the most important reasons for keeping mini-livestock were income (99.6%), employment (99.26%) and food (94.96%). The result further indicated that protein consumption and improved income were the most important benefits to respondents. In spite of these benefits, the respondents faced some constraints, amongst which were lack of technical information (X=4.70), lacking of enough space for expansion (X=4.58), inadequate training (X=4.20), poor extension delivery services (X=4.20) and problems of feed availability (X=3.86). In spite of these constraints, the production of mini-livestock was found to be profitable in the study area. Based on the findings, it was recommended, among others, that mini-livestock farmers in the study area should be trained on various aspects of the management of mini-livestock especially by organising workshops for them.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Landscape Transformation in Mining Wastelands
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li Yan-xia, Yu Lei, Chen Ya-jun, Shah Saud, Li Jing-jing, Yin Hui, Zhao Li-yuan
      Mining provides a wealth of mineral raw materials to human beings, while also causes serious damage to environment and ecology. For decades, landscape renovation in mining wastelands has become a multi-disciplinary research focus. However, compared with the developed countries, China has disadvantages of the relevant theoretical researches developing slowly with lacking supporting technology. According to the design principle of “reservation and utilization”, we reviewed and summarized the methods of landscape transformation in mining wastelands, furthermore, using the way of researching successful cases at home and abroad. In lined with the specific circumstances in China, the target of landscape transformation and basic theories as methods of strategy was developed. Finally, the overall thinking and suggestions were put forward for the development of landscape transformation in mining wastelands.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Research Status of Molecular Biology in Flax
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Wu Jian-zhong
      Flax is a kind of worldwide fiber and oil crops, and it has a very important role in economic crop production in the world. With the development of molecular biology techniques, the research of flax molecular level has a very big breakthrough. But, flax molecular biology researches are less reported due to the later starting. This paper summarized the latest research progress of molecular biology of flax, including molecular marker technology, construction of genetic map, gene engineering and omics researches, in order to provide the reference to understand the development and research status for flax molecular breeding researchers.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Simultaneous Determination of Hexoestrol, Diethylstilbestrol, Estrone and
           17-Beta-estradiol in Feed by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Huo Feng, Li Ning, Lin Xiao-Li
      A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four kinds of estrogens (hexoestrol, diethylstilbestrol, estrone, and 17-beta-estradiol) in feed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After the sample was extracted by ethyl ether and cleaned-up on HLB phase extraction column, four kinds of estrogens were derived and quantified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the linear detectable ranged from 2.5 ng · mL−1 to 250 ng · mL−1 for hexoestrol and from 5 ng · mL−1 to 500 ng · mL−1 for three other estrogens with the correlation coefficients (R 2) were no less than 0.990. The recoveries were in the range of 76.34%–96.33% and the relative standard deviation was no more than 22.7%. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for all analytics were between 10 ug · kg−1 and 20 ug · kg−1. The method was accurate and sensitive and could meet the actual requirements for the analyses of feed samples.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Potential Genes for Regulation of Milk Protein Synthesis in Dairy Goat
           Mammary Gland
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Chen Dan, Zhang Na, Nan Xue-mei, Li Qing-zhang, Gao Xue-jun
      The lactating mammary gland is a prodigious protein-producing factory, but the milk protein synthesis mechanisms are not well understood. The major objective of this paper was to elucidate which genes and pathways were involved in the regulation of milk protein synthesis in the dairy goat mammary gland. Total 36 primiparous Guanzhong dairy goats were allotted in 12 groups according to their mammary development stages: days 90 and 150 of virgin, days 30, 90, and 150 of pregnancy, days 1, 10, 35, and 60 of lactation and days 3, 7, and 21 of involution (three animals per group). Mammary tissue RNA was isolated for quantitative real-time RT-PCR of four casein genes alpha-s1 casein (CSN1S1), alpha-s2 casein (CSN1S2), beta-casein (CSN2) and casein kappa (CSN3), four whey protein genes lactoglobulin (LGB), lactalbumin (LALBA), lactofarrin (LTF), and Whey acidic protein (WAP) and the genes which were potentially to regulate dairy goat milk protein synthesis at the level of transcription or translation [prolactin receptor (PRLR), AKT1, signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5), E74-Like Factor 5 (ELF5), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4E-BP1), S6kinase (S6K) and caveolin 1]. The results showed that all genes were up-regulated in lactation period. The expressions of PRLR, AKT1, STAT5, ELF5, and S6K were similar to mRNA expressions of milk proteins. Our results indicated that milk protein synthesis in dairy goat mammary gland was possibly regulated by these genes.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • SYBR® Green qPCR Screening Methods for Detection of Anti-herbicide
           Genes in Genetically Modified Processed Products
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhen Zhen, Lv Wei, Tang Zhi-fen, Liu Ying, Ao Jin-xia, Yuan Xiao-han, Zhang Ming-hui, Qiu You-wen, Gao Xue-jun
      The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food products becomes more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with labelling requirements. There are few effective screening methods for processed GM (genetically modified) products. Three anti-herbicide genes (CP4-EPSPS, BAR and PAT) are common exogenous genes used in commercialized transgenic soybean, maize and rice. In the present study, a new SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was developed to simultaneously detect the three exogenous anti-herbicide genes and one endogenous gene in a run. We tested seven samples of representative processed products (soya lecithin, soya protein powder, chocolate beverage, infant rice cereal, maize protein powder, maize starch, and maize jam) using the developed method, and amplicons of endogenous gene and transgenic fragments were obtained from all the processed products, and the sensitivity was 0.1%. These results indicated that SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was appropriate for qualitative detection of transgenic soybean, maize and rice in processed products.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Maize Contract Farming Experience in Delta State, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Albert Ukaro Ofuoku, Joseph Unuetara Agbamu
      Many reviews and evaluations of contract farming and its importance for small-scale farmers in the developing nations have been conducted. While some scholars opined that contractual terms were unfavourable to farmers, others considerd them as being beneficial to them. These contrasting views were not likely to discourage it since it provided encouragement for farmers' involvement in markets. It was therefore worthwhile to investigate previous experiences with the aim of improving on it. This study investigated contract farming entered into by farmers in Delta State of Nigeria and livestock feed companies with the objective of seeking ways to make such contractual agreements beneficial to small-scale farmers. The study utilized convergence of science approach. The study unveiled the constraints experienced by farmers and they included technical and institutional challenges. The technical problem was the planting date, while the institutional problem was the contractual arrangements. It was recommended that all the stakeholders in the contract should converge and negotiate technological adoptions of the improved maize varieties; contract needed to be clearly defined and risks and uncertainties should be parts of the contract; scientific investigations should be carried out to determine the best planting date; and there was need for legislation to particularly protect farmers in contract farming.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Studies on Occurrence Ecological Factors and Management Strategies of
           Ambrostoma quadriimpressum in Harbin City
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ma Xiao-chi, Wei Wei, Ye Le-fu, Zhao Jia-nan, Zhao Kui-jun, Wang Zi-jian, Liu Xiao-jie, Fu Xue
      This paper investigated effects of four ecological variables on the damage levels of elm leaf beetle (different effects of minimum and maximum values, relations between each two variables were also explored) and discussed current management measures. The results showed that among these factors, interval between elm trees significantly affected damage level by this leaf beetle species, and perimeter of elm trunk could change this effect. On the other side, while middle values for each index were deleted, effects comparison between minimum and maximum parts showed that good root soil as overwintering was related with more damage; more severe damages on elm tree would result in more control measures used; on elm tree with bigger trunk, more damages were observed; and if other elm tree was closer, more damages would occur. Secondly, good root soil was related with more measures used; good root soil was correlated with smaller perimeter; good root soil was associated with bigger interval. Thirdly, more measures were correlated with bigger perimeter; more measures were also correlated with good root soil. Fourthly, bigger perimeter was correlated with worse root soil. Current dominant control measures included chemical pesticide application preventing adult insects from descending or climbing up along trunk before and after overwintering. These results suggested that we should focus on elm leaf beetle management on all the elm trees instead of only on bigger elm trees at proper period simultaneously because occurrence on these elm trees were related intensively although this adult elm leaf beetle species could not fly and had limited movement ability.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Finisher Fed
           Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie, Okpara Oghenesuvwe
      To investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the performance and haematology of broiler finisher using 120 Cobb chicks of 4 weeks old broiler chicks. The birds were assigned randomly into four dietary treatments containing MOLM at 0, 6%, 8%, and 10% (treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4) inclusion levels, respectively, in a complete randomized design experiment. The effect of the dietary treatments on the growth performance and blood parameters of the broiler finisher was determined. MOLM at a rate of 6% (T2), 8% (T3), and 10% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. The daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MOLM diets were higher (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. Average weight gain (AWG) of birds fed MOLM diets reduced as inclusion levels increases (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. Chicks fed T2 showed higher (p<0.05) AWG than those on T3 and T4. Feed conversion ratios (FCR, weight gain/g and feed intake) were higher for chicks fed MOLM. MOLM showed minimal deleterious effects in birds. However, birds fed T2 (6%) diets recorded significantly (p<0.05) the highest body weight gain. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among groups in packed cell volume (PVC) of birds. The haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) counts showed no significant difference (p>0.05) among treatments. The results indicated that at 10% in the diets of broiler finisher chick, MOLM could be substituted with expensive conventional protein sources without any deleterious effects on performance and blood parameters of broiler finisher chicken.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Short Term Influence of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Microbial
           Biomass and DNA in Summer and Spring
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Khalil ur Rehman, Zhang Ying, Shahla Andleeb, Zhao Jiang, Erinle Kehinda Olajide
      The present study was conducted to see the short term impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil microbial biomass both in spring and summer. Also aimed to observe the correlation between soil microbial biomass and soil DNA. The study concluded that type of fertilizer might alter the soil microbial biomass and DNA contents. In soil treated with organic fertilizers resulted in higher concentrations of microbial biomass and DNA contents in summer as compared to spring dute to increase in temperature. Correspondingly, in case of inorganic fertilizer, concentrations of soil microbial biomass and DNA detected higher in summer instead of spring. The statistical correlation between soil microbial biomass, DNA and ODR in spring and summer along with organic and inorganic fertilizers were calculated highly significant (p>0.01). This study demonstrated the impact of fertilizers and seasonal variations on soil microbial biomass and also revealed significant correlation between soil microbial biomass and soil DNA.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Response of French Bean Cultivars to Plant Spacing Under Agroclimatic
           Condition of Baffa
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Naveed Ahmed, Muhammad Razaq, Hasnain Alam, Salahuddin
      This experiment was carried out at Mansehra during cropping season of 2013. There were three French bean cultivars and four different plant spacings. The experiment was laid out on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different cultivars, plant spacings and their interactions significantly influenced all the parameters studied. Maximum days to flowering (59.33) and seed maturity (97.66) were recorded in cultivar Komal Green grown at 15 cm spacing, while, maximum 100-grain weight (42.20 g) was noted in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 60 cm spacing. However, maximum fresh pod yield • plant−1 (109.67 g), number of seed • pod−1 (7.99) and seed yield • hm−2 (1 437.3 kg) were recorded in cultivar Paulista grown at spacing of 45 cm. Whereas, maximum plant height (40.50 cm) was noticed in cultivar Paulista grown at 15 cm plant spacing. While, the least number of days to flowering (50.33) and to seed maturity (85.66) were taken by cultivar Paulista grown at 60 cm plant spacing. Likewise, minimum seed yield (311.9 kg • hm−2) was recorded in plants of cultivar Komal Green spaced at 60 cm plant spacing. While, minimum fresh pod weight • plant−1 (67.00 g) and number of seed • pod−1 (4.66) were attained in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 15 cm plant spacing. Whereas, minimum plant height (27.59 cm) and 100-grain weight (15.60 g) were recorded for cultivar Komal Green grown at 45 and 15 cm, respectively.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Effects of Various Doses of Mineral Fertilizers (NPKS and Urea) on Yield
           and Economic Profitability of New Varieties of Zea mays L. in Faranah,
           Guinea
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Lamine Diallo, Cao Qing-jun, Yang Zhen-ming, Cui Jin-hu, Teybelassma Ibrahim Mustafa Dafaalla
      In Faranah Province (Guinea), the ratio of supply and demand of corn is approximately 1:2. The production is low and the deficit is covered by maize importation. This study was initiated in order to improve corn production by evaluating the effects of increasing doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield and economic profitability of corn. The experiment was conducted on a farm in Kamedankoude in a split plot with three replicates. Treatments included two varieties of maize (Perta and Kilissi113) and five doses of chemical fertilizers (D0=unfertilized control, D1=300 kg NPKS+200 kg urea • hm−2; D2=400 kg NPKS+800 kg urea • hm−2; D3= 200 kg NPKS+400 kg urea • hm−2 and D4=500 kg NPKS+600 kg urea • hm−2). The results showed that all the agronomic parameters increased with increasing dose of fertilizers, except for the number of ears per plant. The two varieties of corn tested produced similar yields. However, the profitability of mineral fertilizers decreased with increased doses and with value/cost ratio of 3. We recommended a mineral fertilizer dose of 300 kg NPKS + 200 kg urea. The high prices of mineral fertilizers were often barriers to intensive maize cultivation, especially for low-income farmers. This study was a contribution to rational fertilization and adapted the socio-economic conditions of the region, with the background knowledge that most farmers in the regions earned low incomes.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
       
  • Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Bacillus Species Exhibiting
           Strong Proteolytic Activity Isolated from Terasi, An Indonesian Fermented
           Seafood Product
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ekachai Chukeatirote, Novi Arfarita, Piyanuch Niamsup, Anittaya Kanghae
      In this study, two bacilli strains namely S2-3 and S4-5, isolated from Terasi, a traditional fermented seafood product of Indonesia, were studied in terms of their phenotypic and genotypic properties. Both strains are of great interests due to their high proteolytic activity. Initially, they were subjected to morphological determination and a series of biochemical tests. These bacteria were Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacilli. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the identities of the strains S2-3 and S4-5 were confirmed as Bacillus thuringiensis and B. subtilis, respectively. Additionally, the two strains were also evaluated for their antibiogram profiles. It was found that they were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, tetracycline and vancomycin and resistant to ampicillin and intermediately susceptible to bacitracin.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Physiological Mechanisms of Delaying Leaf Senescence in Maize Treated with
           Compound Mixtures of DCPTA and CCC
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Wang Yong-chao, Gu Wan-rong, Ye Le-fu, Sun Yang, Li Li-jie, Zhang He, Li Jing, Wei Shi
      At the beginning of silking, maize production began to form, but leaves started senescence and photosynthetic capacity decreased at this time, all of those severely restricted the formation of the production. In order to study the effects of exogenous substances on the process of leaf senescence, 40 mg • L−1 DCPTA and 20 mg • L−1 CCC were mixed in the research. When the maize grew to the six expanded leaves stage, 10 mL compound mixtures (TR) were sprayed on both sides of leaves for per plant, and the control was treated with water (CK). Three plants were selected randomly for determination of physiological index at the 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after silking. The results showed that TR could increase the chlorophyll content significantly, Fv/Fm, Fv/F 0 and Y(II) values of TR were higher than those of CK while F 0 values were opposite. Compared with CK, TR increased SOD and POD activity and soluble protein content, reduced MDA content. Correlation analysis showed that chlorophyll content had negative correlation with F 0, and MDA content had negative correlation with other indexes. Compared with CK, TR reduced the negative correlation effect between chlorophyll content and MDA, increased the positive correlation effect between chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm , SOD, POD, soluble protein. The study provided theoretical and experimental evidence for the application of the compound mixtures of DCPTA and CCC to the production.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Path to Support Development of Production and Operation of Big Grain
           Production Households — Based on Investigation of Heilongjiang
           Province
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yang Xiu-li, Wang Yu-qing, Ji He-wen, Yin Bao-hua, Tan Hong-yu
      Developing production and operation in scales in the major grain producing areas is the direction of the paper. Seizing the opportunity of modern agriculture comprehensive reform in two plains (Songnen Plain and Sanjiang Plain) of Heilongjiang Province and supporting to build a new type of production and management based on the big grain production householding, which plays demonstration and leading roles, have an important strategic position in improving agricultural comprehensive production capacity and ensuring national food security. In this paper, based on the survey data about the big grain production households production operations and analyses of the obstacles in expansion of production in Heilongjiang Province, specific suggestions in supporting the development of the big grain production household were put forward, such as, increasing agricultural production socialized level; perfecting the service system of land transferring; improving financial policies and farmer-friendly policy measures and perfecting the agriculture socialized service system.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Analysis on Investment Behavior of Agricultural Sector in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sun Zhuo
      In the process of industrialization, China has been a big agricultural country, and the agricultural sector's economic activities have been playing important role in economic growth. This paper established the investment behavior model of agricultural enterprises on the basis of Chinese practice. And then, the model presented the important factors impacting on investment, such as financing cost, wage, and policy factors, etc. Thirdly, this paper in particular used R-studio to estimate the impact of financing cost and policy factor on investment and capital accumulation of primary industry sector by gathering the data from 2003 to 2013. The results showed that the official interest rate of loans of financial institutions could be the proxy variable as the financing cost of agricultural enterprises, and the employment level of agricultural enterprises had negative impact on investment. Finally, this paper provided some explanations and suggestions on the basis of above results.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Analysis on Sustainable Development Management Model of Village Banks
           — Based on Bayan Rongxing Village Bank in Heilongjiang Province
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Wang Shuang, Wang Ji-heng, Liu Bing, Yu Xiao-wen
      This paper summarized the management models of village banks in China. We compared and analyzed different management models of four village banks in different regions on four aspects: regional agriculture feature, loan for farmers, loan for enterprises and the construction of network, then came to the conclusion that, if the village banks' health development can realize, they must pay attention to innovating in loan patterns as well as material loan and starting out the network development.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Sharecropping Contract Experience in Delta State, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Albert Ukaro Ofuoku
      Sharecropping has been an age long practice from ancient times. Some scholars saw the practice as being exploitative of the tenants, yet it is still being practiced. The reasons behind it continual practice need to be unveiled. This study was therefore conducted to examine the sharecropping contract experience in Delta State, Nigeria. The landlords decided to practice sharecropping as a result of emigration of their household members, farm size and cost of labours, some of them gave age and their primary occupation as factors for their decisions to opt for sharecropping arrangement. The yields were shared on the basis of 60% for the landlord to 40% for the tenant. The landlords provided all the equipment and inputs, while the tenant's carried out all the farm operations. They faced the constraints of stress, but were able to cope with them, because of hospitals and health centres nearby. The result of the test of hypothesis confirmed the reasons given for deciding on sharecropping arrangement. It was concluded that sharecropping was not exploitative. It was recommended that the practice of sharecropping should be encouraged and not diversified into other sources of livelihood should do so.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Analysis of Marketing of Garri in Delta State, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): S O Ebewore, D E Idoge
      The study examined the marketing of a cassava-based product (garri) in Delta State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 168 respondents using structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed in selecting 168 respondents from six markets in Delta State where garri is produced and marketed. Data was analyzed by the calculation of percentages, means and running of regression. The study revealed that the marketing of garri in Delta State was predominantly a female activity. The study also revealed that the garri was marketed in three channels and that 46.4% were retailers. The study further revealed a reasonable degree of freedom of entry and exit in the garri business in Delta State. Each trader or marketer was able to earn an average profit margin of N2 190.00 (for garri marketers), while the marketing margins for garri was 13.1%. Although the marketers were faced with some challenges the average profit per marketer per month was reasonably high (N40 722). The study further showed that the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers to a large extent had a positive influence on the quantity of garri sold in the study area. From the findings it was recommended that storage facilities, extension services and good road network among others should be provided to improve the marketing of garri in Delta State, Nigeria.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Study on Hexagon-enveloping Leaf-stripping Mechanism for Corn Stalk
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Li Li-qiao, Li Chao, Li Dong-hong, Wang Mo, Yu Ke-qiang, Yang Xing, Zhang Quan-chao, Wang De-fu, He Yuan
      In order to deeply study the leaf-stripping principle for corn stalk, the hexagon-enveloping leaf-stripping experimental device was designed. To achieve higher leaf-stripping percent and provide important references for the separation equipment for corn stalk, it is necessary to find out the laws of leaf-stripping of such mechanism and to select the main influencing factors of separation performance from a number of factors. Through the study on hexagon-enveloping leaf-stripping mechanism for corn stalks, the leaf-stripping principle of such mechanism was more clear, and the optimization of structural and kinematic parameters achieved by the experiment whose influencing factors were the four selected ones (feeding speed, rotary speed of leaf-stripping roll, clearance and included angle between two leaf-stripping plates) could be directly applied to the development of efficient rind-pith or leaf-stripping separation for corn stalks.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Optimal Scheme Selection of Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment
           — Based on DEA Model; Punjab (Pakistan)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Zeeshan Ahmad, Meng Jun, Muhammad Abdullah, Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq, Majid Lateef, Imran Khan
      This paper used the modern evaluation method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to assess the comparative efficiency and then on the basis of this among multiple schemes chose the optimal scheme of agricultural production structure adjustment. Based on the results of DEA model, we dissected scale advantages of each discretionary scheme or plan. We examined scale advantages of each discretionary scheme, tested profoundly a definitive purpose behind not-DEA efficient, which elucidated the system and methodology to enhance these discretionary plans. At the end, another method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research was important to guide the practice if the modification of agricultural production industrial structure was carried on.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Screening of Adoptive Elite Tea (Camellia sinensis) Clones
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Muhammad Razaq, Hasnain Alam, Muhammad Ishfaq, Salahuddin
      The research screening of adoptive elite tea clones was conducted at NTRI, Mansehra during 2011-2012. Nine clones 101Aa, 105aa, 108aa, 561aa, 117aa, 219ab, 470bb and 180bd were evaluated for seedling performance. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data was recorded on various morphological characters after 8 months. The results showed that high survival percentage, shoot length, number of roots plant−1, number of leaves plant−1 and root length were observed in clone 105aa. While the highest fresh weight and dry weight of leaves were observed in clones 117aa and 105aa. The clone 105aa was drought resistant, high survival percentage and root growth. On the basis of the results, clone 105aa was recommended for cultivation through cuttings in the hilly areas of Pakistan where unequal rainfall distribution was a major hitch.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Effect of Quercetin on Egg Quality and Components in Laying Hens of
           Different Weeks
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): You Ying, Han Chun-yan, Chaudhry Maria Tabassum, Li Ling, Yao Jia-ying, Wang Sheng-nan, Yang Jia-xin, Teng Nan, Li Yao
      This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of quercetin on egg quality and components in laying hens of different weeks. A total of 240 healthy Hessian laying hens at 29, 39-week-old with similar body weight and laying rate were randomly divided into four groups with six replicates of 10 each replicate, respectively. The treatments were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin for 8 weeks. The results showed that compared with the control, broken or soft shell rate significantly decreased at 0.2 and 0.4 g · kg−1 quercetin and eggshell thickness significantly increased at 0.4 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.01) in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old; yolk protein significantly decreased at 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.05) in laying hens at 29-37 weeks old; while yolk protein significantly increased at three quercetin treatments in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old; yolk cholesterol significantly decreased by quercetin in laying hens at 29-37 weeks old (P<0.05); yolk total phospholipids significantly increased at 0.4 and 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.01) and yolk cholesterol significantly decreased at 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.05) in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old. In a word, quercetin affected egg quality and components to some extents in laying hens of different weeks, the older the hens became, the better improvement they would be. The optimum level of quercetin was 0.4 g · kg−1 in the basal diet.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Effects of Initial Infestation Levels of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)
           (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Cowpea and Use of Nicotiana tabacum L.
           Aqueous Extract as Grain Protectant
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): A K Musa, A Odunayo, O E Adeyeye
      This study determined the effects of initial infestation of cowpea seeds (Ife brown variety) with different insect densities (0, 2, 4 and 6 pairs per 50 g seeds) of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Nicotiana tabacum L. on C. maculatus in the laboratory. It was observed that adult beetle population increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in insect density. The increase in population of beetles and corresponding weight loss of the seeds in different levels of infestation showed that the cowpea variety was susceptible to beetle infestation, emergence and survival of progeny. Significantly more adults emerged on higher infestation compared to lower and no infestation. In Nigeria, Nicotiana tabacum L. is a locally available plant, with known insecticidal properties. The plant leaf extract was easily extracted with water and confirmed its effectiveness as a protective agent for stored cowpea seeds. Experiment was conducted to assess the effects of aqueous extracts of N. tabacum at 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mL · 50 g−1 cowpea seeds on C. maculatus. Data was recorded and showed varying levels of effectiveness against C. maculatus. Result showed that seed appearance was dependent on levels of insect population, while N. tabacum aqueous extract exerted effects on survival of C. maculatus. Aqueous leaf extract of N. tabacum probably contained some insecticidal properties which might have significantly conferred beetle mortality and reduced beetle emergence leading to a decrease in seed weight loss.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Design of Non-contact On-load Automatic Regulating Voltage Transformer
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Zhao Qi
      At present, an automatic-mechanic contact tap-changer is widely used in power system, but it can not frequently operate. In addition, arc will occur when the switch changes. In order to solve these two problems, this paper presented an automatic on-load voltage-regulating distributing transformer which employed non-contact solid-state relay as tap-changer, and mainly introduced its structure, basic principal, design method of each key link and experimental results. Laboratory simulation experiments informed that the scheme was feasible. It was a smooth and effective experiment device, which was practical in application.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Chinese Comprehensive Rural Reform: Institutional Vicissitude, Theoretic
           Framework and Content Structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Zhou Li
      The social and economic development level of rural areas, the productivity of agriculture and the life quality of farmers were always the greatest concerns of Chinese Central Government. Therefore, the research related to rural areas, agriculture and farmers had remained as the prominent parts for a long period and would continue to be prominent in the future to build China into a moderately prosperous nation in an all-round way. Chinese rural area had constantly experienced three significant system reforms since 1978, namely the reform of rural management system, the rural tax and fee reform and the rural comprehensive reform. This paper attempted to analyze the theoretic framework and the content structure of the comprehensive rural reform since it was the higher stage of rural institutional vicissitude, which had changed the governance and operation system and thus promoted the great changes to fundamental social and economic system in rural areas. The theoretic framework of comprehensive rural reform covered three aspects in its content, namely the rural governance theory, the government function theory and the public finance theory. The comprehensive rural reform was a complicated system engineering with multiple dimensions and targets mainly including rural political restructuring, rural economic restructuring and rural public products allocation restructuring. The reform had focused on enhancing the vitality of agricultural and rural development, breaking through the urban and rural binary system, and further reducing the disparity between cities and countrysides, so as to realize the urban-rural integration. It was necessary to clarify and understand the key mechanism and intrinsic logic of the rural comprehensive reform, which was helpful to establish the foundation constituted by scientific methodology to implement the reform and evaluation criterion to judge the reform performance.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Impact of Microbial Inoculants on Microbial Quantity, Enzyme Activity and
           Available Nutrient Content in Paddy Soil
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Liu Xiao-jie, Duan Xue-jiao, Ma Na, Sun Tao, Xu Jing-gang
      The experiment was conducted to study the impact of application of microbial inoculants, compared with no microbial fertilizer, on enzyme activity, microbial biomass and available nutrient contents in paddy soil in Heilongjiang Province. The application of soil phosphorus activator was able to increase the quantity of bacteria and fungi in soil, but its effect on actinomycetes in soil was not significant. The application of microbial inoculants increased the urease and sucrase activities in soil over the growing season, but only at the maturing stage soil acid phosphatase activity was enhanced with the applying soil phosphorus activator. The application of soil phosphorus activator increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus contents in soil, but did not increase available potassium content in soil. The optimal microbial inoculant application rate as applied as soil phosphorus activator was 7.5 kg·hm−2.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Evaluation of Insecticidal Potential of Capsicum chinense Jacq. and
           Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Against Trogoderma granarium Everts
           (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in Groundnut
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): A K Musa, A A Adeyemi
      The insecticidal potential of seed powders of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Solanaceae) and Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae) was tested against Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in the laboratory at (28±2)°C and 70%±5% relative humidity. The seed powders were tested at the rates of 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% (w/w) of groundnut seeds replicated three times. At the highest rate of treatment, C. chinense caused 56.7% and 76.8% larval mortality at 3 and 7 days post treatment (DPT) respectively while A. melegueta exerted 53.4% and 73.8% larval mortality at 3 and 7 DPT, respectively. Results showed that insecticidal potential of the seed powders against adult mortality of T. granarium and seed damage followed similar trend. The various rates of C. chinense seed powder performed better than A. melegueta seed powder in causing larval and adult mortality and in reducing seed damage. The activity of the seed powders on mortality of the insect, seed weight loss and seed damage were exposure time and rate dependent. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in seed weight loss and seed damage was recorded among the treatments and maximum reduction was observed in the seeds treated with the highest rate of C. chinense seed powder. Percentage seed damage significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increase in the rate of treatment while the highest seed weight loss and seed damage were obtained in the control. The study showed that C. chinense seed powder had higher activity against the test insect pest than A. melegueta seed powder. The two seed powders had high bio-activity against the insect and therefore could be used in formulating environment friendly plant-derived insecticide.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Genetic Differentiation Analyses Based on mtDNA CO II Gene Sequences Among
           Different Geographic Populations of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
           in Northeast China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Li Ran, Han Lan-lan, Ye Le-fu, Zhang Hong-yu, Sun Wen-peng, Tong Xin, Zhao Kui-jun
      Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is considered as a cosmopolitan pest of cultivated soybean, major difficulties in its control measures may be due to its higher genetic diversity; however, the knowledge about population genetic diversity of this species is limited. This study aimed to represent the genetic differentiation among different geographic populations of soybean aphid in Northeast China. In order to investigate and assess the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, molecular variance, population structure, ecological importance and evolutionary history of A. glycines, we sequenced a fragment of one protein-coding gene, the cytochrome c oxidase II of mitochondrial DNA gene. The results showed that four haplotypes were defined among CO II gene of 180 sequences of soybean aphid in Northeast China including H1 shared by all the populations. Lower haplotype diversity (Hd=0.3590± 0.0420) and nucleotide diversity (Pi=0.0012±0.0002) were observed and high gene flow was detected in every two populations, while most of the variation (80.81%) arose from variability within A. glycines from individuals. Low genetic differentiation and high gene flow (Nm=2.106) indicated a high migration rate between the populations, which might reveal that gene flow in different geographic populations did not affect by geographical distance. The phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network of A. glycines were obtained based on sequences of CO II gene, there were no significant genealogical branches or clusters recognized in NJ tree, and no clear distribution, delineation of haplotypes were demonstrated in the haplotype network according to geographical location. This study rejected the vicariance hypothesis: geographic isolation could be a barrier and it restricted A. glycines gene flow among 10 populations.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Effect of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Growth of
           Greenhouse Tomato and Rhizosphere Microbial Community
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ge Xiao-ying, He Chun-e, Li Tao, Ouyang Zhu
      Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) are two of the most important plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture. An in situ trial was conducted on greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) to examine the effect of two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis (CGMCC 1.3343) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (CGMCC 1.1802), on tomato growth, gray mold disease control, catabolic and genetic microbial features of indigenous rhizosphere bacteria under lownitrogen conditions. A commercial inoculant (ETS) was also tested as a comparison. Both B. subtilis and P. fluorescens promoted growth and biomass of seedlings, while only B. subtilis was efficient in reducing gray mold incidence in greenhouse tomato. The two bacterial strains could colonization in tomato rhizosphere soil at the end of experiment (10 days after the last inoculation). Different AWCD trends and DGGE patterns were got in different bacterial treatments; however, analyses of microbial diversities showed that indigenous soil microbes did not seem to have significant differences at either the catabolic or genetic level among treatments. ETS, as a commercial microbial agent, promoted plant growth and gave a higher microbial diversity in rhizosphere soil.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Induced Polyploidy as a Tool for Increasing Tea (Camellia sinensis L.)
           Production
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hasnain Alam, Muhammad Razaq, Salahuddin
      Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) represents different ploidy levels. In the present paper, we reviewed the recent data on the diploid, aneuploid and polyploid formed their origin and chemically induced polyploidy and predicted it role in teagenetic improvement for better yield. Different polidy levels had different effects on tea physiology. Tetraploid and triploid had more vigour and hardness due to increased size of cells, while triploid could have even more vigours due to increased size of cells and sterilities. Chemically induced polyploidy had been found an important tool for improving plant physiology and production, therefore, induced polyploids should be produced to overcome the problem of low yield and limited rainfall in tea growing areas.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Predatory Efficacy of Cotton Inhabiting Spiders on Bemisiatabaci,
           Amrascadevastans Thripstabaci and Helicoverpa armigera in Laboratory
           Conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): S B Mohsin, Li Yi-jing, Tang Li-jie, I Maqsood, Ting Ma-sun, Han Le-meng, U R Khalil, S Andleeb, S K Muhammad, M A Saleem
      Distinction of predator's diet and prey choice preference is a hot topic of current investigations. Spider being generalist predator and cosmopoliter in nature acts as biological control agent in many agro-ecosystems. In the current study, predatory efficacy of five spiders (Pardosa birmanica, Cyclosa insulana, Thomisus projectus, Plexippus paykulli and Lycosa terrestris) inhabiting the cotton fieldevaluated in the laboratory conditions maintained at (27±2)°C temperature, 65%±5% relative humidity and 12 : 12 h of light and dark photoperiod. Four key cotton pests' viz. Bemisiatabaci, Amrascadevastans Thripstabaci and Helicoverpa armigera were utilized in the choice and no-choice predatory studies. The findings of current investigation revealed that each predatory spider utilized at least one pest species. Predation rate was found higher in the no-choice predation because of unavailability of substitutes feeding source. The investigation also indicated each predatory spider killed more pests than consumed. The findings of this study support the predatory role of spiders in controlling the cotton major pests.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Contents of Trace Metal Elements in Cow Milk Impacted by Different
           Feedstuffs
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Song Ren-ju, Tong Hui-li, Huang Jian-guo, Gao Xue-jun
      Feedstuff intake plays key role in impacting the yield and quality of milk. In this study, we discussed the contents of trace metal elements in cow milk impacted by different feedstuffs. We detected the contents of Pb, Cd, As, Cu, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn in different feedstuffs and milk by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The determinations of Pb, Cd and As contents were by graphite furnace AAS and Cu, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn was by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that Pb, Cd, As and Cu presented in feedstuffs, but Pb, Cd and As were lowly detected in milk samples, and Cu was not detected in milk samples. The content of Mg in concentrates was lower than that in forages. However, the content of Mg in milk from concentrate feed was higher than that in forage feed. This suggested that the utilization of Mg in concentrate feed was higher than that in forage feed. The contents of Ca and Zn were opposite to Mg, and the utilization of Ca and Zn in forage feed was higher than that in concentrate feed. There was no obviously change law of Fe in different feedstuffs and milk samples. The relationship between the contents of trace metal elements in milk to feedstuffs would provide a theoretical basis for dairy farming. It would be useful for improving the milk yield and milk quality of dairy production.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Preparation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Cardiomyocyte
           Differentiation Induced with Retinoic Acid and Ascorbic Acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Zhao Xun-wu, Zheng Peng, Huang Zhi-jun, Zeng Yue, E O Adegoke, Zhang Gui-xue
      The experiment was designed to study effects of retinoic acid and ascorbic acid on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes. Embryonic bodies (EB) were developed from mESC in suspension culture, different levels of concentration of retinoic acid and ascorbic acid were used to determine the optimal conditions for EB formation. The results showed that the optimal concentrations were 10−9 mol • L−1 and 0.1 mg • mL−1 for retinoic acid and ascorbic acids, respectively. 50% of EB which was significantly (p<0.05) different from the control group developed to cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, retinoic acid and ascorbic acid had strong ability to promote cardiomyocyte differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. 10−9 mol • L−1 retinoic acid and 0.10 mg • mL−1 ascorbic acids were recommended to induce differentiation of mouse ES cells toward cardiomyocytes.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Acceptability of Bush Meat as a Source of Animal Protein in Delta State,
           Nigeria: Implication for Extension Services
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): S O Ebewore, O J Ovharhe, P O Emaziye
      The study examined the acceptability of bush meat to Deltans. The specific objectives were to ascertain the consumption pattern of bush meat; identify the major types of bush meat consumed in the area; determine the likely constraints to bush meat consumption; and stipulate the extension implication of the findings. A systematic sampling technique was used to compose a sample size of 410 respondents. Data used for this study were collected using well structured interview schedule and data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques such as tables, percentages, means and standard deviation, and inferential statistics (linear regression model). The result of the study indicated that almost all the respondents (402) representing about 98% was formally consuming bush meat. The findings also revealed that as many as 323 individuals, representing 78.8% of the respondents did not consume bush meat currently. Only about 12.7% and 8.5% occasionally and regularly consumed bush meat respectively. It was therefore very obvious that people no longer consumed bush meat in Delta state as before. The results further indicated that the predominant bush meat consumed in the area were cane rat (97.70%) and the African giant snails (Achatina and Archachatina) (94.25%). The result of the multiple regression analyses indicated that the coefficient for education (X 3), income (X 5), Ebola (X 6) and availability of game (X 7) were significant at 5%, indicating that these variables were important factors influencing the consumption of bush meat in the study area. However, the coefficients of education level and Ebola factor were negative and significant, suggesting respondents with higher education and aware of Ebola disease were not likely to consume bush meat. As the result, it was concluded that bush meat was now almost unacceptable due to several factors like dread of Ebola disease, unavailability of game, educational level and income, which significantly affected the consumption of bush meat. It was therefore recommended among others that extension delivery services on how to domesticate game species should be available to farmers.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
       
  • Effects of Three Different Diluents on Quality of Boar Semen Stored at
           17°C
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hu Shan, Zhang Xiao-gang, Han Cong, Wei Shuai-yi, Xie Dong-qi, Du Ren-rang, Hu Jian-hong
      To investigate the effects of different diluents on the quality of the boar semen stored at 17°C, and assess the relationship between sperm motility and the relative levels of enzymes, three commercial diluents (Diluent I, Diluent II and Diluent III) and three boar breed semens (Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc) were utilized. The sperm motility, effective survival time, survival index, catalase (CAT), the total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated. The results showed that there were significant interaction effects between diluents and breeds on the boar sperm motility (P<0.001), survival time (P<0.001), CAT levels (P<0.001) and T-AOC levels (P<0.001), but neither effects nor interaction effects between diluents and breeds on survival index (P>0.05). All of the parameters varied significantly with the increase of the storage time (P<0.001). The survival time increased 12.9% in Yorkshire boar semen diluted with Diluent III than with Diluent II, while the survival time increased 6.6% in Landrace boar semen diluted with Diluent II than with Diluent III. Both CAT and T-AOC levels were significantly positive correlated with sperm motility in all the three boar breeds (P<0.001), while MDA levels were significantly negative correlated with sperm motility (P<0.001). These results indicated that Diluent III and Diluent II were the optimal commercial diluents for Yorkshire and Landrace boar semen stored at 17°C, respectively.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Isolation and Pathogenicity Analyses on Yersinia enterocolitica from
           Pelteobagrus vachelli
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhao Jing, Wang Li
      Yersinia enterocolitica is an important zoonotic pathogen that can induce disease outbreaks in a wide host range. Strain YER6022 was isolated from Pelteobagrus vachelli and identified using bacterial morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Five virulence factors were detected, then artificial infection experiment and histopathological method were carried out. These results showed that strain YER6022 was one of Y. enterocolitica family members. In addition, ail, ystb, virF, yadA and HPIint were dectected. In artificial infection experiment, with 80% mortality and 100% morbidity, injected Pelteobagrus vachellis showed red swollen of the anus, abdomen swelling and fim bleeding. There existed serious hyperaemia and edema in kidney, spleen, intestine and liver at the light microscope. Ultrastructural observation indicated that mitochondria of the liver, kidney, spleen and intestine swelled and mitochondrial cristae broke. The data had further shed light on its pathogenicity in Pelteobagrus vachelli. It would benefit for further studies on pathogenesis of Pelteobagrus vachelli infected with Y. enterocolitica.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Characterization and Expression of Outer Membrane Protein A I Gene of
           Aeromonas veronii
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wang Hai-juan, Wang Li
      The outer membrane protein, ompA, of Aeromonas veronii has a role in the virulence of the organism and is a potential candidate for vaccine development. In this study, ompA I of Aeromonas veronii strain WA106 was cloned and sequenced, then, it was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The nucleotide sequence of ompA I gene was 1 023 base pairs (GenBank Accession NO.KC748024), which showed 100% homology with that of A. veronii (NO.AB290200.1). This predicted protein was composed of 340 amino acid residues. Its molecular weight was 35.78 ku and isoelectric point was 5.18. The protein was a hydrophilic protein containing alpha helix and random coil with percentage of 35.0% and 49.7%, respectively. The tertiary structure, quaternary structure prediction showed that ompA I protein contained two peptide chains. SDS-PAGE showed that the actual value of the fusion protein was consistent with the expected result. It will facilitate further study of the role of ompA I protein.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Separation and Purification of Total Phloroglucinols in Dryopteris
           crassirhizoma with DM-130 Macroporous Adsorption Resin
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jin Zhe, Huang Jian-ping, Wang He-meng, Ju Han-xun, Ren Si-rui, Chang Ying
      To improve the purity of the total phloroglucinols from Dryopteris crassirhizoma extracts, the separation and purification conditions of the total phloroglucinols from Dryopteris crassirhizoma were studied with DM-130 macroporous adsorption resin in this study. Adsorption rate, elution rate and purity of the total phloroglucinols were used as indexes to investigate the adsorption and desorption capacity of the total phloroglucinols with DM-130 macroporous adsorption resin. Through the study, the optimum sample concentration of the total phloroglucinols and maximum sample volume were 1.5 mg • mL−1 and 7 BV (210 mL), respectively. The optimum desorption conditions were achieved by using 80% ethanol as desorption solvent at elution flow rate of 1.0 mL • min−1. The result showed DM-130 macroporous adsorption resin performed effective adsorption and desorption. After purification, the purity of the total phloroglucinols increased by 11.5-fold.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Construction and Expression of Methionine-rich and Lysine-rich Fusion Gene
           in Bacillus natto
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhang Shuang, Luo Chao-chao, Wu Cai-xia, Gao Xue-jun
      Methionine and lysine are restrictive essential amino acids of livestock, they are also the most attentive indexes in the feed production to carry out the quality control and quality evaluation. Their contents in feed directly affect livestock protein synthesis. Bacillus natto has excellent probiotic properties. In this experiment, we used the genetic engineering method, fusion PCR technique, to connect methionine-rich gene (zein) from maize endosperm protein with lysine-rich gene (Cflr) from the pepper anther, then the fusion gene was inserted into the expression vector pHT43, and the recombinant plasmid pHT43/zein-Cflr was constructed. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into Bacillus natto, and induced by IPTG for the expression of the fusion gene. We found an apparent band at 40 ku site for the recombinant strain by SDS-PAGE. The contents of methionine and lysine were individually detected with HPLC, the quantities of methionine and lysine in the recombinant strain increased by 18.37% and 24.68% than the wild one, respectively. We also verified the stability of the recombinant bacterium during passaging, and found the stability was 100%. This study provided research-basis for the application of the recombined Bacillus natto as feed additive.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Effects of Rice Yield and Quality Across Accumulated Temperature Zone
           Planting in Cold Area
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wang Qiu-ju, Liu Feng, Gao Pan, Gao Zhong-chao, Chang Ben-chao, Liu Yan-xia, Zhang Li-li
      Five rice varieties were planted to determine the variation of the yield and quality traits in five different regions in a cold area of China. The results showed that the number of the panicles, the number of grains per panicle and percentage of head-milled rice displayed quadratic curves against the accumulated temperature, and the sterile rate decreased with greater accumulated temperature. However, 1 000-grain weight had no correlation with the accumulated temperature and protein content, amylose content and taste also had no obvious relation with the accumulated temperature. The results from the accumulated temperature differed with rice variety, so the temperature insensitive type variety should be proposed for production.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Effects of Sub-chronic Aluminum Exposure on Renal Structure in Rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Li Yan-fei, Liu Jian-yu, Cao Zheng
      To investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on renal structure of rats, 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups and were orally exposed to 0 (control group, GC), 64.18 (low-dose group, GL), 128.36 (middle-dose group, GM), and 256.72 (high-dose group, GH) mg • kg−1 BW AlCl3 in drinking water for 120 days. The body weight of different rats was recorded, the kidney pathologic structure and the ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that the body weight of different rats was markedly lower in Al-treated rats than those in GC (P<0.05; P<0.01). After masson staining, the collagen was deposited in the renal interstitium and aggravated with Al dose increases in Al-treated rats. Under electron microscope, the infolding of the plasma membrane was slight swollen, the mitochondrion was abundant with different sizes, the mitochondrion cristae was fused, the microvillus was swollen and fused in GH. Our findings indicated that sub-chronic Al exposure slowed the weight of rats and caused the kidney pathologic damage in rats.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Laboratory Observations Regarding Different Instars of Cyclosainsulana
           (Costa, 1834) (Araneidae) During Developmental Stages
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Muhammad Saleem Khan, Muhammad Saleem Asghar, Iram Maqsood, Mohsin Bukhari, Lemeng Han, Tang Li-jie, Li Yi-jing, A Shahla, U R Khalil
      The current experiment was conducted to find out the optimal conditions for mass rearing and developmental changes of Cyclosainsulana. The lab. conditions were maintained at (27±2)°C and (65±5)% RH. The clear perplex cages and natural diet consisting of the aphids, larvae of the house fly and larvae of drosophila were used for rearing. C. insulana took (123.12±7.26) days to develop from eggs to adults passing through eight instars under prevailing vivo conditions. The eggs were greenish white in color with average size of 0.57 mm ±0.034. The eggs spent (7.52±1.64) days in emergence. Maximum number of spiderlings survived at the 5th instar (84%) and minimum at the 1st instar (34%). The measurements of different body parts including the total body length, cephalothorax and pedipalps of the both male and female C. insulana were done with the help of micrometer and presented as mean± SD. The measurements varied in the each developing instar. It was concluded that spiders were difficult to rear in the lab. conditions and each developing stage which was regarded as instars showed variations in size colors and body characteristics.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Cloning and Expression of Bile Salt Hydrolase Gene from Lactobacillus
           plantarum M1-UVS29
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yu Chang-qing, Li Rong
      We cloned and expressed bile salt hydrolase gene of Lactobacillus plantarum M1-UVS29 in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 successfully. Gene-specific primers for amplification of L. plantarum bsh were designed by using sequence which availabled from GenBank. The production of PCR amplicon was confirmed by sequencing and cloned into pMD18-T vector, and then recombined into expression vector pNZ8148 and yielding vector pNZ8148-BSH. pNZ8148-BSH was transferred into Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Sequencing indicated that the cloned bsh fragment contained 995 nucleotides, and shared 99.3% sequence homology with bsh gene from L. plantarum MBUL10. Cloned bsh fragment was successfully transduced into NICE expression system and confirmed by PCR and restriction digest. Recombinant BSH protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of BSH protein was approximately 37 ku. Activity of the expressed protein was 0.77 μmol • min−1. The successfully expressed proteins by genetic engineering technology made the function of lactic acid bacteria be abundant and laid the foundation for further researches into cholesterol-lowering lactic acid bacterium food and probiotics.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Rural Power System Load Forecast Based on Principal Component Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Fang Jun-long, Xing Yu, Fu Yu, Xu Yang, Liu Guo-liang
      Power load forecasting accuracy related to the development of the power system. There were so many factors influencing the power load, but their effects were not the same and what factors played a leading role could not be determined empirically. Based on the analysis of the principal component, the paper forecasted the demands of power load with the method of the multivariate linear regression model prediction. Took the rural power grid load for example, the paper analyzed the impacts of different factors on power load, selected the forecast methods which were appropriate for using in this area, forecasted its 2014–2018 electricity load, and provided a reliable basis for grid planning.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Design and Experiment of Slave Computer Control System for Applying
           Variable-rate Liquid Fertilizer
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhang Ying-zi, Chen Hai-tao, Hou Shou-yin, Ji Wen-yi, Ouyang Bin-lin, Dun Guo-qiang, Zhang Ji-cheng
      In order to increase the applying rate of liquid fertilizer and reduce environmental pollution, a slave computer control system for applying variable-rate liquid fertilizer was designed. The system used SMC as core processor and electrically controlled pressure regulator as execution component. The characteristic equation of the system was obtained by using classical control theory. Results indicated that the characteristic equation met the requirements of routh-criterion, which indicated the working process of the system was stable. Performance of the slave computer was verified via bench tests. Results demonstrated that there was no significant influence on the response from interclass error. The fertilization error was less than 0.9, and the fertilization accuracy was larger than 97%. The liquid fertilizer emitted by the fertilizing devices had no significant difference in uniformity, which met the demands of the slave computer control system for applying variable-rate liquid fertilizer.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Where Pakistan Stands Among Top Rice Exporting Countries, an Analysis of
           Competitiveness
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Muhammad Abdullah, Jia Li, Sidra Ghazanfar, Jaleel Ahmed, Imran Khan, Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq
      Under the umbrella of WTO, the reduction in trade barriers has forced the policy makers to focus on the export competitiveness. Rice is an important source for foreign exchange earnings for the economy of Pakistan, keeping in mind of this fact, the competitiveness of Pakistan's rice with other major exporters was examined by applying revealed competitive advantage. The domestic consumption trends of rice among the major rice exporting countries were also analyzed in the current study. The results revealed that as compare to other major exporters of rice in the world, Pakistan had high competitive and comparative advantage in the production of rice. The comparison of the movements in comparative advantage indices for Pakistan with the major world rice competitors/exporters showed that Pakistan possessed relatively high comparative and competitive advantages in rice production. The declining domestic per capita consumption of rice and increasing trends in competitiveness for Pakistan clearly revealed the expected potential of higher growth which meant that rice exports from Pakistan could continue to play an important role for the earnings of foreign exchange. In order to exploit the potential benefits of rice exports, we need to strengthen the competitiveness in rice sector of Pakistan.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment Scheme Evaluation and
           Selection Based on DEA Model for Punjab (Pakistan)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zeeshan Ahmad, Meng Jun
      DEA is a nonparametric method used in operation researches and economics fields for the evaluation of the production frontier. It has distinct intrinsic which is worth coping with assessment problems with multiple inputs in particular with multiple outputs. This paper used Dε C 2 R model of DEA to assess the comparative efficiency of the multiple schemes of agricultural industrial structure, at the end we chose the most favorable also known as “OPTIMAL” scheme. In addition to this, using some functional insights from DEA model non optimal schemes or less optimal schemes had also been improved to some extent. Assessment and selection of optimal schemes of agricultural industrial structure using DEA model gave a greater and better insight of agricultural industrial structure and was the first of such researches in Pakistan.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
  • Factors Hindering Pakistani Farmers' Choices Towards Adoption of Crop
           Insurance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sidra Ghazanfar, Zhang Qi-wen, Muhammad Abdullah, Jaleel Ahmed, Imran Khan, Zeeshan Ahmad
      This study was conducted to analyze the factors that negatively influence Pakistani farmers' willingness to participate in crop insurance. Probit model was applied to identify the significant factors which influenced our dependent variable “not willing to participate”. The results of the analyses showed that crop insurance premium was the most influencing factor which had positive and significant impact on dependent variable. Similarly dissatisfaction with crop loan insurance scheme, lacking of knowledge about crop insurance, believing of being against Islamic rules and time taking process was also found to be positive and significantly influenced the dependent variable. While limited decision power and limited perils were not found to be significant in the results.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T17:11:46Z
       
 
 
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