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  • Efficacy of Plant Based Insecticides in Control of Leaf Defoliators
           (Podagrica uniformis Jacoby and Nisotra sjostedti Jacoby (Coleoptera:
           Chrysomelidae) of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)
    • Authors: A F Odewole; T A Adebayo; A O Dada
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): A F Odewole, T A Adebayo, A O Dada
      The insecticidal efficacy of aqueous extracts of R. communis L. and Z. officinales L. was tested in a field study for the control of two important leaf defoliators (Podagrica uniformis and Nisotra sjostedti of okra). The extracts were applied at 10% (w/v) and sprayed every week for five consecutive weeks. R. communis significantly reduced (P<0.05) abundance of the pests on the 2nd day after spraying and increased the yield of okra. Numbers of fruits and weight yields were significantly higher in plots treated with R. communis compared to plots treated with Z. officinales and the untreated control. R. communis had the same weight yield with Karate (synthetic insecticides). The results indicated that R. communis could be used to control Podagrica uniformis and Nisotra sjostedti of okra.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30001-6
  • Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Lippia adoensis Hochst ex. Walp
           (Verneneaceae) Leaf Essential Oil Against Callosobruchus maculatus
           Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    • Authors: Babarinde Samuel Adelani; Oladoye Sunday Olusegun; Adesina Gabriel Olulakin; Adebayo Moses Adeolu
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Babarinde Samuel Adelani, Oladoye Sunday Olusegun, Adesina Gabriel Olulakin, Adebayo Moses Adeolu
      Essential oil (EO) of Nigeria-grown Lippia adoensis leaf was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and its fumigant and repellent properties against Callosobruchus maculatus were evaluated. Sixteen compounds predominated by monoterpenes were identified. The major compounds were Eucalyptol (28.36%), α-Terpineol (25.99%), γ-Terpinene (15.24%), α-Pinene (5.08%), 1H-Cyclopropa[a]naphthalene (4.25%) and 1, 3, 6, 10-Dodecatetraene (3.74%). Percentage mortality due to fumigant toxicity was dose- and exposure period-dependent. One hour after treatment (HAT), application of L. adoensis leaf EO at 107 μL · L−1 air caused significantly (p<0.05) higher mortality (50.00%) than 0.00% mortality observed at 0–53 μL · L−1 air, but not significantly (p<0.05) different from 22.50% observed in 80 μL · L−1 air. At 3 HAT, application of L. adoensis EO at 80 μL · L−1 air caused significantly higher mortality (90.00 %) than mortality observed at 0 μL · L−1 air. At 6 HAT, application of L. adoensis EO at 53–107 μL · L−1 air caused significantly higher mortality (100.00 %) than that was observed in the control. The same trend was observed at 12 HAT where 100 % mortality observed in 27–107 μL · L−1 air was significantly greater than 13.33 % observed in the control. At 3 HAT, percentage repellence was significantly (p<0.05) affected by doses. Application of EO at 10–30 μL · cm−2 caused class V repellence (86.67%–100%) compared with the control which caused class I repellence (0–20%).

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30002-8
  • Aloe vera Coating Efficiency on Shelf Life of Eggplants at Differential
           Storage Temperatures
    • Authors: Sikandar Amanullah; Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir; Rao Muhammad Ikram; Mateen Sajid; Farhat Abbas; Ali Inayat Mallano
      Pages: 15 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sikandar Amanullah, Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir, Rao Muhammad Ikram, Mateen Sajid, Farhat Abbas, Ali Inayat Mallano
      The core objective of instant study was to check the effectiveness of Aloe vera edible coating on postharvest life and physicochemical characteristics of eggplants under different storage temperatures. For this purpose, different formulations of Aloe vera based coating (non-poisonous) was applied at concentration of 0, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0%, respectively on eggplants. The coated eggplants were stored at two different temperatures [10°C and (30±2)°C] and examined for weight loss, firmness, stem color, shriveling, total soluble solids, pH, acidity, vitamin C, sugar (total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar) and N, P, K, Ca and Na for two weeks. The obtained results showed that weight loss, shriveling, total soluble solids, pH, sugar (total sugar and non-reducing sugar) increased and firmness, stem color, acidity, reducing sugar, vitamin C minimized during the storage period. The 0.5% Aloe coating at 10°C showed significant effect and delayed the changes in above parameters. Aloe vera coating remained almost ineffective in altering nutrient homeostasis (N, P, K, Ca and Na) of eggplants. The optimistic results gained in the current study could additionally investigate in larger market experiments and also could extensive to other tropical/subtropical fruits and vegetables.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30003-x
  • Soil Chemical and Biological Property Associated with Walnut (Juglans
           sigillata Dode) Leaf Decomposition
    • Authors: Ma Hong-ye; Pan Xue-jun; Zhang Wen-e; Liu Mao-qiao
      Pages: 26 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ma Hong-ye, Pan Xue-jun, Zhang Wen-e, Liu Mao-qiao
      Plant residue application is an important way to maintain soil productivity. In order to determine whether walnut leaf can be returned to soil or not and get the conditions of efficient decomposition, the effect of walnut (Juglans sigillata Dode) leaf decomposition under various conditions (different temperatures, durations and leaf-soil ratios) upon soil chemicals and biological properties were analyzed. Compared with the original soil, adding walnut leaf to soil could decrease soil pH, increase EC, nutrient contents, microbial quantity and enzyme activities. Total nitrogen, total organic carbon and organic matter increased with the increasing of decomposition duration, temperature and leaf-soil ratio. Enzyme activities changed with different decomposition conditions, but the highest activities of alkaline phosphatase and catalase were associated with the lower temperature (15°C), the highest concentration (10 : 100) and the shortest duration (0 day). Walnut leaves decomposition for 20 or 30 days at 15°C and with 10 : 100 ratio significantly promoted bacteria, fungi and the total microbial quantity. Walnut leaves can be returned to soil because their decomposition could improve relevant indicators of soil fertility, decomposition conditions as shorter durations (20 days), lower temperature (15°C) and higher concentrations of leaves (10 : 100) were the more effective decomposition conditions for walnut leaves.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30004-1
  • Effect of Different Roughages on Milk Protein and Milk Fat Synthesis in
           Dairy Cows
    • Authors: Sha Shan-shan; Zhang Na; Li Qing-zhang
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sha Shan-shan, Zhang Na, Li Qing-zhang
      The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a corn straw or mixed diet on milk production, milk composition and the expression of genes associated with lactation in mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows. In this study, 10 healthy Chinese Holstein cows were randomly assigned to two groups and fed with different diets respectively, corn straw (CS) or mixed forage (MF) diet. CS group was fed roughage consisting of 53.8% corn straw only and the forge to concentrate (F : C) ratio [dry matter (DM)] was about 40: 60. MF group was fed roughage consisting of 3.7% Chinese wildrye and 23.4% alfalfa hay, the forge to concentrate (F : C) ratio (DM) was 70: 30. All the cows were fed 8 weeks and body weight, dry matter intake, body condition score, fat, protein, lactose, milk yield, total solid and somatic cell count (SCC) were recorded. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze cow mammary gland samples representing two different diets. The results suggested that different diet types had significant effects on milk yield, lactose, milk fat, milk protein, dry matter intake and somatic cell count in dairy cows, and cows fed MF diet improved milk production and lactation performance clearly (P<0.05). In addition, mRNA expression of genes ACC, mTOR, STAT5, CSN2, PPARγ, FABP3 and PTEN in MF group was extremely significantly higher than that in CS group (P<0.05). mRNA expression of AKT1, FAS, SCD and SREBP1c in MF group was significantly higher than that in CS group (P<0.01). In summary, the milk yield and composition in mixed forage group were significantly improved than those in corn straw group.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30005-3
  • Bacillus subtilis Co-transfected with a Lysine-rich and a Methionine-rich
           Protein Gene and Its Effect on Cow Milk Production
    • Authors: Wu Cai-xia; Yuan Xiao-han; Liu Ying; Ao Jin-xia; Gao Xue-jun; Zhang Ming-hui
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Wu Cai-xia, Yuan Xiao-han, Liu Ying, Ao Jin-xia, Gao Xue-jun, Zhang Ming-hui
      The probiotic Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) was widely applied in animal production as feed additive. Lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) were the two most important limiting amino acids in livestock animal feed. Raising Lys and Met contents in B. subtilis would provide better effects for animal production and save Lys and Met supplements. We still didn't know whether Lys-rich and Met-rich protein genes from plants could be transfected into B. subtilis and expressed at a high level so as to improve animal production, such as milk production as an additional diet. The Lys-rich protein gene (Cflr) and Met-rich 10 ku-δ Zein were cloned from pepper anther and maize endosperm, respectively. Then they were constructed into plasmids individually and successfully cotransfected into B. subtilis. Upon IPTG induction, mRNAs and protein expressions could be observed. Lys and Met contents in the fermentation broth were raised by 65.92% and 46.39%, respectively. After feeding 200 g and 400 g · cow−1 · d−1, transgenic B. subtilis fermentation broth, the milk yield, milk protein and milk fat contents all significantly increased. The Lys-rich protein gene (Cflr) and Met-rich 10 ku-δ Zein were successfully transfected into B. subtilis. Contents of Lys and Met in the transgenic B. subtilis obviously raised and the fermentation broth of the transgenic bacteria could effectively improve milk yield and quality.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30006-5
  • Effects of Pawpaw Seed Powder as an Additive on Growth of Catfish
           Fingerlings Reared in an Indoor Tanks
    • Authors: Arnold Ebuka Irabor; Peterson Adogbeji Ekokotu; Oster Francis Nwachi
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Arnold Ebuka Irabor, Peterson Adogbeji Ekokotu, Oster Francis Nwachi
      Since the demand of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is on increase there is need to increase its production so as to meet the protein requirement of the populace. An investigation was conducted for six weeks feeding trial to determine the performance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings feed diets containing varying replacement level of fish meal with pawpaw seed powder meal (Carica papaya). Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were subjected to five different dietary treatments with varying levels of pawpaw seed powder meal. The diets I-V contained 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% replacement levels, respectively. The experiment was carried out in an 80 litres circular plastic bowls, the treatments were in triplicate. Each bowl contained 12 fingerlings. Feeding was done at 3% body weight per day and fishes were weighed every week. Growth parameters such as specific growth rate (SGR), weight gained (WG), food conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and mortality were determined. Therefore, it could be concluded that fish meal could be replaced up to 80% with pawpaw seed powder meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings to encourage growth, while at 40% pawpaw seed powder meal inclusion mortality was reduced.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30007-7
  • Effect of Atipamzole on Fos Protein Expression Induced by Telazol/Xylazine
           in Rat Cerebral Cortex and Thalamencephal
    • Authors: Yin Bai-shuang; Gao Li; Fu Lian-jun; Hong-jin LI; Wang Hong-bin
      Pages: 61 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yin Bai-shuang, Gao Li, Fu Lian-jun, Hong-jin LI, Wang Hong-bin
      The aim of the study was to assess effect of the atipamezole on talezol/xylazine induced expression of c-fos in rat brain. Rats were injected with the mixture of 13.81 mg · kg−1 telazol and 5.21 mg · kg−1 xylazine, following 10 min later 0.522 mg · kg−1 atipamezole injected, and then the cerebral cortex and thalamencephal were removed at 1 h after injected. Level of Fos protein was measured in the brain tissue by western-blot. The results revealed that telazol/xylazine induction Fos protein expression in the thalamencephal and cerebral cortex during the period of anesthesia, atipamezole attenuated telazol/xylazine induction Fos protein expression in the thalamencephal and cerebral cortex. The results indicated that atipamezole could inhibite telazol/xylazine-induced c-fos expression in the rat brain, and played a protective role of neuronal injury.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30008-9
  • Analysis on Technical Efficiency of Rice Farms and Its Influencing Factors
           in South-western of Niger
    • Authors: Oumarou Boubacar; Zhou Hui-qiu; Muhammad Abdullah Rana; Sidra Ghazanfar
      Pages: 67 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Oumarou Boubacar, Zhou Hui-qiu, Muhammad Abdullah Rana, Sidra Ghazanfar
      The present study focused on analyzing the technical efficiency of rice farms in southwest of Niger. The data from January to March 2015 survey of 148 ms in three districts of south-western of Niger were analyzed by using DEA-Tobit two-step method. In the first step, data envelopment analysis (DEA) was applied to estimate technical, pure technical and scale efficiency. In the second step, Tobit regression was used to identify factors affecting technical efficiency. The results showed that rice producers in southwest of Niger could reduce their inputs by 52% and still produce the same level of rice output. The Tobit regression showed that factors, such as farm size, experience in rice farming, membership of cooperative, main occupation and land ownership had a direct impact on technical efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30009-0
  • Preference and Willingness of Consumers to Pay for Value-added Poultry
           Products in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
    • Authors: A U Ofuoku; M O Akusu
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): A U Ofuoku, M O Akusu
      There has been a steady growth in demand for convenience and ready-cooked food has influenced the interest of poultry processors in developing value-added chicken products that meet consumers' demand/choice. A conjoint analysis was done in this study on the survey of 975 chicken consumers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, between March and September, 2014 to valuate consumers, preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for various chicken attributed parts, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of flavor and cooking method. The estimates of consumers, WTP premium prices for various mixtures of value-added characteristics were ascertained. The consumers preferred chicken products refrigerated, from chicken produced under free-range management, chicken breast, chicken product that was addictive and flavor free, which could be oven-heated or pan heated. One half of the entire respondents were willing to pay about 25% more for value-added chicken product over the price for conventional products. On the whole, a premium for value-added chicken products was more likely to be paid for by young consumers, consumers who patronized farmers' markets and preferred free-range or organic chicken products. WTP by consumers was negatively affected by price of products. The poultry industry could utilize combined knowledge of consumers' WTP for value-added chicken product price as a guide of develop innovative value-added chicken products.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(17)30011-9
  • Aquaculture Technology Adoption by Fadama III Farmers in Niger Delta,
    • Authors: Ovharhe
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): O J Ovharhe
      This study was conducted in Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa and Delta States of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. It examined the level of adoption of aquaculture technologies by Fadama III beneficiaries and assessed the differences in adoption levels on sate basis. Five fish farmers were randomly selected on multiple stage bases from 18 Fadama Users' Groups (FUGs) amounting to 90 farmers as the sample size for this study (n=90). Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents. Data collected were measured using descriptive and adoption Sigma method analysis. Results obtained revealed that of the 12 selected aquaculture based technologies recommended by Fadama III, the ratio of adoption skills ranged from 1 high: 7 medium: 5 low. The adoption levels followed a sequence of earthen ponds preparation being the highest, and stocking density techniques being the lowest. The overall adoption level was 4.20 which implied that the aquaculture farmers were categorized as medium adopters using the Sigma method scale. It was recommended that farmers with adoption levels at medium and low ranges should be focused upon with more teaching sessions by community facilitators and that other extension workers should emulate the strategies used by Fadama III in developing farmers.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T16:14:39Z
  • Effect of 6-BA on Physiological Changes in Two Palm Seedlings Under Varied
    • Authors: Ruan Zhi-ping; Yao Bi-yan; Li Zhen-ji
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ruan Zhi-ping, Yao Bi-yan, Li Zhen-ji
      The effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) on several physiological indexes of Caryota mitis and C. obtusa seedlings treated at varied temperatures were conducted, the leaves of the two palm species were sprayed with 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg · L−1 6-BA solutions, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, soluble protein, chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b were determined under 25°C, 5°C and 25°C for 24 h, respectively. The dynamics of a series of important physiological components derived from the leaves were studied. It was indicated that all the above mentioned physiological indexes varied with different concentrations of 6-BA and temperature. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation values for different concentrations of 6-BA at the recovery temperature 25°C were 0.33, 0.28, 0.92 and 0.33, respectively for C. mitis, and 0.20, 0.49, 0.56 and 0.63, respectively for C. obtusa. It was concluded that leaves sprayed with different concentrations of 6-BA could affect the cold tolerance of palm seedlings. The optimal concentration of 6-BA was different for different palm species.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30053-8
  • Components of Flower Pigments in Petals of Lily
    • Authors: Fan Jin-ping; Zhang Hai-xiao; Miao Mei-mei; Che Dai-di
      Pages: 10 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Fan Jin-ping, Zhang Hai-xiao, Miao Mei-mei, Che Dai-di
      This paper carried on a preliminary study on pigment composition of lilies of different colors by means of specific color reactions and UV-visible spectra. The results showed that the colors of lilies were usually caused by the combined action of several pigments; yellow and orange lilies mainly contained the flavonoids and carotenoids; pink lilies mainly contained flavonoids and anthocyanins, and white lilies contained small amount of flavonoids.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30054-x
  • Effect of Organic and Inorganic Phosphorous on Growth of Roselle (Hibiscus
           sabdariffa L.)
    • Authors: Hasnain Alam; Muhammad Razaq; Salahuddin; Jaffar Khan
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hasnain Alam, Muhammad Razaq, Salahuddin, Jaffar Khan
      To investigate the performance of organic and inorganic phosphorous on growth of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), an experiment was carried out at Newly Developmental Farm (NDF), Horticulture Section, the university of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan, during 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement and replicated three times. The chemical fertilizer Single Super Phosphate (SSP) was used as inorganic source of phosphorus, while Organic Phosphate (OP) from organic product produced by Niha corporation containing 20% organic mineralized P2O5, was used as the source of organic phosphorous. Both the sources of fertilizer were applied at the rate of 10, 20, 30 40 and 50 kg · hm−2 and control. The statistical analysis of data revealed that both the sources and levels of phosphorus significantly affected most of the growth parameters of Roselle except germination percentage and survival percentage. Plant height (112.09 cm), numbers of leave plant−1 (177.87), numbers of branch plant−1 (4.08), leaf areas (126.60 cm2), days to flowering (142.83), fresh flower weight (2.56 g), fresh calyx weight (1.70 g), dry calyx weight (0.43 g), numbers of calyces (94.10), numbers of root plant−1 (11.03), root length (22.67 cm) and root weight (27.50 g) were observed in plants fertilized with organic source of phosphorous. Phosphorous levels significantly affected all of the parameters except germination percentage and survival percentage. The maximum plant height (124.39 cm), numbers of branches (5.32), numbers of leave plant−1 (204.89), leaf areas (148.14 cm2), fresh flower weight (3.32 g), fresh calyx weight (2.04 g), dry calyx weight (0.51 g), numbers of calyces (105.30), numbers of root plant−1 (12.78), root length (24.50 cm) and root weight (29.94 g) were observed in plants fertilized with 40 kg · hm−2 phosphorous and the maximum numbers of days to flowering (148.17) were observed in the control plants. It was concluded from the experimental results that organic phosphorous at the rate 40 kg · hm−2 would be used for better production of Roselle under agro-climatic condition of Peshawar.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30055-1
  • Identification of Novel Polymorphisms in Porcine Ring Finger Protein 4 and
           Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Genes and Association Analysis with Litter Size
    • Authors: Niu Bu-yue; Lan Xiao-ming; Xiong Yuan-zhu; Wang Xi-biao
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Niu Bu-yue, Lan Xiao-ming, Xiong Yuan-zhu, Wang Xi-biao
      Reproduction trait plays an important role in pig production. Identification of molecular markers that are linked to litter size may contribute to the genetic development of porcine reproduction traits. In this study, porcine ring finger protein 4 (pRNF4) and Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (pMMP-9) were selected as candidate genes on the basis of their physiological roles in reproduction. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (416C>T in pRNF4 and −1257G>A in pMMP-9) that could be detected by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were discovered and tested for statistical associations with litter size traits in three populations. For 416C>T, TT genotype was associated with a significantly higher (p<0.05) number of live births than those recorded for CC sows and the additive effect was significant (p<0.05) in Qingping and Min Pigs populations in later parities. For −1257G>A, inconsistent results were found in three populations. The results suggested that T allele in pRNF4 gene might confer a high prolificacy in breeding and further studies were needed to confirm the results.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30056-3
  • Morphological Changes in Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex of Confined
           Sows with Prolonged Pupillary Light Reflex
    • Authors: Lv Fang-lu; Li Xiang; Li Jian-hong; Cui Shi-quan; Liu Hong-gui; Jun Bao
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Lv Fang-lu, Li Xiang, Li Jian-hong, Cui Shi-quan, Liu Hong-gui, Jun Bao
      Human depression patients often show abnormal pupillary reflex with morphological changes in hippo campus and prefrontal cortex. This study aimed to find the relationship between the prolonged pupillary light reflex (PLR) which had been shown by confined sows with chronic stress or depression and morphological changes in brain, in order to provide theoretical basis for that the confined environment should lead to sows' depression. A total of 637 sows of Durac, Landrace and Large White breeds with various parities were observed, and the pupil light reflex (PLR) was measured and the actual pupillary light reflex time (PLRT) were recorded. All the PLRTs were grouped based on the results of confidence interval: t>10% as group A, 5%<t<10% as group B, 1%<t<5% as group C and t<1% as group D. Three individuals were randomly selected from each group (12 sows in total) and the white tissues of hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex were prepared for HS staining slices (three slices/per tissue) for observation on tissue structure and pathological changes with high magnification (400X) of electronic microscope. The results showed that in group A (t>10%) pathological change was found in hippocampus, however, as PLRT increased from group B to group D, pathological changes in hippocampus tissues tended to be deteriorated with the increase of inflammatory cells and nuclear pyknosis phenomena. The same as those shown in hippocampus as the increasing of PLRT from groups A to D, more inflammatory cells appeared in prefrontal cortex for groups B and D. The results suggested that the tissue lesions of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the confined sows with prolonged PLRT might be the results of chronic stress or depression.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30057-5
  • Histological Features of Parotid Gland of Albino Rats Exposed to Smokeless
    • Authors: Sana Murtaza Khoso; Pervez Ahmed Khoso; Navaid Qazi; Mir Hassan Khoso; Ahmed Sultan Jatoi; Ubedullah Kaka
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sana Murtaza Khoso, Pervez Ahmed Khoso, Navaid Qazi, Mir Hassan Khoso, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi, Ubedullah Kaka
      Smokeless tobacco is very common personal habit of people living in various areas of Asia which is an alarming sign for the development of different oral diseases in such people. The aim of present study was to investigate effects of smokeless tobacco on parotid glands of the Aalbano rats by using various percentages of the smokeless tobacco. The rats were divided into three different groups, control group (A) no smokeless tobacco, experimental group (B) 5% smokeless tobacco and experimental group (C) 10% of smokeless tobacco with different feeds required according parameters. Weekly weight gain and partid gland were analyzed through student P test and histological structures were recorded through HE stain and Retculin stain. The results showed that as compared to control group body, weight of the rats was decreased in groups B and C having smokeless tobacco percentage in the diet. Weight of parotid gland as compared to control group was decreased in groups B and C with diet of smokeless tobacco. Further, histological observation under HE stain showed that parotid gland of group B showed mild narrowing of ductal lumen, collapse of vessels and stromal was also increased, in group C parenchymal tissues with loss of acini found damaged and glandular dystrop and lymphatic infiltration were determined moderate to severe. Meanwhile, reticulin stain showed that vascular collapses were shown because of increasing in stromal glandular atrophy in group C as compared to control group. In conclusion, this study showed that smokeless tobacco caused serious injuries in the tissue level in parotid gland with high percentage of smokeless tobacco which highlight health hazards on its consumption.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30059-9
  • Physical-mechanical Estimation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruit
    • Authors: Sami Rokayya; Ebtihal Khojah
      Pages: 61 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sami Rokayya, Ebtihal Khojah
      Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are an important horticultural crop and are used fresh and processed. Several physical and mechanical properties of five pepper varieties (Yellow Bell, Red Bell, Green Bell, Red Chilli and Green Chilli) have been investigated. The results showed that there were important significant differences among the varieties in most of the parameters that were measured. The physical characteristics included moisture content, length, width, thickness, projected area, surface area, sphericity, aspect ratio, mass and volume. The coefficients of static and dynamic friction were obtained on stainless steel, galvanic iron, glass and plastic. The aim of this study was to measure some physical and mechanical attributes of five pepper fruit varieties. Among the varieties, Red Bell variety had the highest average fruit mass (217.99 g) and followed by Yellow Bell (122.28 g) and Green Bell (112.80 g). The highest geometric, arithmetic, square, equivalent mean diameter values were observed for Red Bell. The projected and surface areas of varieties were between 52.47–108.29 cm2 and 103.56–227.42 cm2, respectively. In the current study, researchers investigated the mentioned attributes of peppers and then established a convenient reference table for pepper mechanization and processing.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30060-5
  • Effects of Human Trafficking on Household Farm Labor Availability Among
           Arable Farming Households in Delta State, Nigeria
    • Authors: Albert Ukaro Ofuoku; Bethel Chuks Uweru
      Pages: 70 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Albert Ukaro Ofuoku, Bethel Chuks Uweru
      Trafficking in persons, especially women and girls has been on for long and is still going on. Persons in the female group constitute the mostly trafficked humans. This study was conducted to determine the effects of human trafficking on household farm labor needs available among farming households. Arable farming households involved in human trafficking were identified and purposively selected for this study with the aid of key informants in purposively selected communities. This led to the selection of 60 arable farming household heads in Delta North Agricultural zone, 65 farming household heads in Delta Central Agricultural Zone, and 36 arable farming household heads in Delta south agricultural zone to give a total of 151 respondents. Data for the study were collected with the utilization of questionnaire and interview schedule. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis with the application of frequency counts, percentages and means derived from 4-point likert-type scale. The hypothesis was tested using Tobit regression analysis. Human trafficking was found to be age and sex selective and the causes of human trafficking included both push and pull factors, such as high income in destination countries poverty, low risk profit, nature of trafficking in persons, ease in control and manipulation of vulnerable women and girls, low risk involved in working in destination countries, lacking of legitimate and fulfilling employment, sex selective migration policies, less access to information and peer pressure. Shortage of household farm labor was experienced by farming households in clearing and brushing of farm land, sowing, weeding, harvesting and processing/storage. Human trafficking was found to affect household labor availability in clearing/brushing of farm land, sowing, weeding, harvesting and processing/storage of farm produce. It is recommended that poverty alleviation programs should be specially organized for poor women, government and NGOs and international agencies should develop strategies to mitigate human trafficking. The government needs to collaborate with community based organizations and law enforcement agencies to create anti-trafficking committee in farming communities. Community education should be created for the farming communities to emphasize anti-human trafficking with the use of change agents; extension agents should integrate anti-trafficking messages in their interaction with farmers.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30061-7
  • Protection and Quality Control of Wild Chinese Herbal Medicine Resources
           in Nature Reserves by Taking Longyuwan Scenic Spot Within Funiu Mountain
           Nature Reserve as an Example
    • Authors: Wang Shao-hui; Liu Meng-na; Wang Xu; Zhang Ya-chen; Han Yi-wen; Zhang Ce; Liu Tong-xiang
      Pages: 90 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Wang Shao-hui, Liu Meng-na, Wang Xu, Zhang Ya-chen, Han Yi-wen, Zhang Ce, Liu Tong-xiang
      This paper discussed how to protect and control the quality of wild Chinese herbal medicine resources in nature reserves by taking Longyuwan National Forest Park within Funiu Mountain Nature Reserve as an example. Through the combination of three methods including literature review, visiting and investigational studies, and field surveys, the data of investigation, collection and collation were analyzed. According to data of surveys, collection and collation, problems related to the protection of wild Chinese herbal medicine resources faced by Longyuwan Scenic Spot within Funiu Mountain Nature Reserve were also analyzed and protection strategies and quality control of wild Chinese herbal medicine resources in this nature reserve were discussed. It was expected that the results would provide important scientific references for the sustainable development, protection and quality control of wild Chinese herbal medicine resources within nature reserves.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30063-0
  • Impact of Crop Rotation on Pathotype and Genetic Structure of
           Phythophthora sojae in Fields
    • Authors: Zhao Li-ming; Li Shuang; Sui Zhe; Huang Jing; Chen Qiu-ming; Suo Bing; Ding Jun-jie; Liu Wei-ting; Wen Jing-zhi
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhao Li-ming, Li Shuang, Sui Zhe, Huang Jing, Chen Qiu-ming, Suo Bing, Ding Jun-jie, Liu Wei-ting, Wen Jing-zhi
      To estimate the impact of crop rotation on the pathotype and genetic structure of Phythophthora sojae in fields, 372 isolates of P. sojae were obtained from long-term localisation experimental fields in Heilongjiang Province of China. The hypocotyl inoculation method was used to characterize the virulence of P. sojae on 13 differential cultivars, and the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to analyze difference in the genetic structure of P. sojae. The results indicated that an abundant diversity of genetic structures and pathotypes of P. sojae, a more uniform distribution of pathotypes and less dominance of pathotypes occurred in corn-soybean and wheat-soybean rotation fields than in a continuous soybean mono-cropping field. These findings suggested that P. sojae did not easily become the dominant race in rotation fields, which maintain disease resistance in soybean varieties. Therefore, the results of this study suggested that Phytophthora stem and root rot of soybeans could be effectively controlled by rotating soybeans with non-host crops of corn and wheat.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30042-3
  • Influence of Soil pH and Temperature on Atrazine Bioremediation
    • Authors: Shahla Andleeb; Zhao Jiang; Khalil ur Rehman; Erinle Kehinda Olajide; Zhang Ying
      Pages: 12 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Shahla Andleeb, Zhao Jiang, Khalil ur Rehman, Erinle Kehinda Olajide, Zhang Ying
      Present study was conducted to clarify soil pH and temperature influence on different atrazine bioremediation techniques. For this purpose, sodium citrate, Arthrobactor sp. strain DNS10, sawdust and animal manure were selected to clarify their atrazine remediation efficiency under pH 5, 7 and 9 and temperatures 20, 30 and 40°C, respectively. Results showed that atrazine remediation was generally optimized at pH 7 and 30°C for all the treatments except sodium citrate as soil treated with sawdust was not temperature dependant, but at pH 5 remediation process was determined slower. Atrazine remediation in soil with no additional amendment was only 34%, while in soil treated with sawdust, DNS10, sodium citrate and animal manure were 75.17%, 89%, 74.17% and 76.83% at optimized pH and temperature. Overall atazine removal rate was significantly (≥0.01) higher with increasing in temperature at all the selected pH.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30043-5
  • Screening Psychrophilic Fungi of Cellulose Degradation and Characteristic
           of Enzyme Production
    • Authors: Wang Da-qing; Jin Wen-ran; Sun Tai-peng; Meng Yu-tian; Zhao Wei; Wang Hong-yan
      Pages: 20 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wang Da-qing, Jin Wen-ran, Sun Tai-peng, Meng Yu-tian, Zhao Wei, Wang Hong-yan
      A fungus (WR-C1) decomposed cellulose was isolated from a hypothermal litter layer using Congo red medium as the preliminary screening culture medium and then using a filter as the secondary screening medium at low temperature. The experiment showed that the weight loss rate of filter paper on the 15th days could reach 30.69%. A morphologic and ITS gene sequence analysis suggested that CF-C1 was Cladosporium. We mainly studied the effects of culture time, inoculation amount, initial pH and different sources of carbon, nitrogen and inorganic salt on the cellulase production of strain WR-C1. Under optimum cultural condition, the highest value of WR-C1 enzyme production and filter paper enzyme were 3.27 U · mL−1 and 0.51 U · mL−1.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30044-7
  • Constitutive Overexpression of Myo-inositol-1-Phosphate Synthase Gene
           (GsMIPS2) from Glycine soja Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance at Various
           Growth Stages in Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Zaib-un Nisa; Chen Chen; Yang Yu; Chao Chen; ALi Inayat Mallano; Duan Xiang-bo; Sun Xiao-li; Zhu Yan-ming
      Pages: 28 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zaib-un Nisa, Chen Chen, Yang Yu, Chao Chen, ALi Inayat Mallano, Duan Xiang-bo, Sun Xiao-li, Zhu Yan-ming
      The enzyme myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS EC catalyzes the first step of myo-inositol biosynthesis, a product that plays crucial roles in plants as an osmoprotectant, transduction molecule, cell wall constituent and production of stress related molecule. Previous reports highlighted an important role of MIPS family genes in abiotic stresses particularly under salt stress tolerance in several plant species; however, little is known about the cellular and physiological functions of MIPS2 genes under abiotic conditions. In this study, a novel salt stress responsive gene designated GsMIPS2 from wild soybean Glycine soja 07256 was functionally characterized contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 533 bp coding a peptide sequence of 510 amino acids along with mass of 56 445 ku. Multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed its 92%-99% similarity with other MIPS family members in legume proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR results demonstrated that GsMIPS2 was induced by salt stress and expressed in roots of soybean. The positive function of GsMIPS2 under salt response at different growth stages of transgenic Arabidopsis was also elucidated. The results showed that GsMIPS2 transgenic lines displayed increased tolerance as compared to WT and atmips2 mutant lines under salt stress. Furthermore, the expression levels of some salt stress responsive marker genes, including KIN1, RD29A, RD29B, P5Cs and COR47 were significantly up-regulated in GsMIPS2 overexpression lines than wild type and atmips2 mutant. Collectively, these results suggested that GsMIPS2 gene was a positive regulator of plant tolerance to salt stress. This was the first report to demonstrate that overexpression of GsMIPS2 gene from wild soybean improved salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30045-9
  • Establishment of PCR-ELISA for Detecting Glyphosate Resistant Transgenic
    • Authors: Yuan Qiang; Wei Yun-min; Fu Ming-ming; Qiu You-wen; Wen Hong-tao; Zhang Ming-hui; Liu Ying; Ao Jin-xia
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yuan Qiang, Wei Yun-min, Fu Ming-ming, Qiu You-wen, Wen Hong-tao, Zhang Ming-hui, Liu Ying, Ao Jin-xia
      A PCR-ELISA method for detecting the glyphosate resistant transgenic soybean was established and optimized. The results showed that the key parameters of PCR-ELISA were as follows: the concentration of digoxin tag probe was 0.5 µmol · L−1, the time of hybridization reaction was 15 min and the chromogenic reaction should last for 30 min. The sensitivity and the repeatability of our PCR-ELISA method were evaluated, and the results showed that it could be detected when the concentration of DNA template from transgenic soybean samples was 0.01% or higher, and the coefficient of variation of this method was less than 5% in our research condition. These results suggested that PCR-ELISA method establishment in this study had good repeatability and high precision for detecting the transgenic soybean samples.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30046-0
  • Laparoscopic Embryo Transfer in Pigs: Knowledge for Surgical Procedures
    • Authors: Cao Zheng; Zhang Jian-tao; Liu Hai-feng; Wang Hong-bin
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Cao Zheng, Zhang Jian-tao, Liu Hai-feng, Wang Hong-bin
      The objective of the study was to describe and improve a technique for laparoscopic embryo transfer into the oviduct and uterine horns of pigs and to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this method. Fourteen female pigs were randomly allocated into groups A and B: three portals were used for group A, and the simulation of embryo (0.9% NaCl, 0.2 mL) was injected into the tip of uterine horn; three or four portals were used for group B, and the injection set of the oviduct was inserted through the abdominal orifice of uterine tube into the oviduct to inject the simulation of embryo. The repeat laparoscopy was performed on the 21st day. Three pigs randomly selected from each groups were repeated the same procedure three times, and then were euthanized on the 21st day after the last surgery and a complete necropsy performed. Laparoscopic embryo transfer was performed successfully in all pigs without major intra-and post-operative complications. The average surgical time which accomplished procedures for groups A and B was 18.6 min (range, 28−14 min) and 37.4 min (range, 53−29 min). Postoperatively, none of pigs appeared to abnormal signs. This study demonstrated that laparoscopic embryo transfer could be easily accomplished by using the special-purpose equipment and increasing reuse time of a female recipient.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30047-2
  • Abundance and Fluctuation in Spider Diversity in Citrus Fruits from
           Located in Vicinity of Faisalabad Pakistan
    • Authors: I Maqsood; S B Mohsin; Li Yi-jing; Tang Li-jie; K M Saleem; U R Khalil; A Shahla; Aoun Bukhari; S S Jamal
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): I Maqsood, S B Mohsin, Li Yi-jing, Tang Li-jie, K M Saleem, U R Khalil, A Shahla, Aoun Bukhari, S S Jamal
      Spiders for the present study were collected from different fruit gardens (i.e. citrus) located at various localities (i.e., Tehsil Samundri, Jaranwala, Tandlianwala and Faisalabad) of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. Spiders belonging to six families and 33 species were captured from the two fruit gardens during the one year of this study. The citrus fruits garden was found to be best populated habitat as compared to other fruit garden. These sites were sampled by using pitfall traps; each month for five consecutive days from September 2010 to March 2011. As a result, 1 054 specimens were captured representing six families viz: lycosidae, thomosidae, gnaphosidae, saltisidae, araneidae and clubionidae. Lycosidae was more abundant, while clubionidae was less diverse during the study. Maximum population fluctuation among the spider specimens showed during the months from September and October, while the least abundance of spider specimens was reordered during June, November and December. Maximum taxonomic diversity was recorded from September to November, with the peak in September. It was concluded during these three months, when the citrus and guava gardens were attacked by the most of the pest insects. During the months of July and November diversity was moderate and mutually comparable, while in June and December, it was the least. This study contributed to the identification of spider diversity in the agro-ecosystem which could be used in the biological pest control.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30048-4
  • Process Parameter Study on Microwave-assisted Foam-mat Drying Properties
           of Corn Soaking Water
    • Authors: Liu Chai; Li Qiang; Liu Cheng-hai; Zheng Xian-zhe
      Pages: 65 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Liu Chai, Li Qiang, Liu Cheng-hai, Zheng Xian-zhe
      In order to study the microwave-assisted foam-mat drying properties of corn soaking water and optimize process parameters, a quadratic regression orthogonal rotary method was used to analyze the influence of microwave power, material weight, material thickness and drying time on moisture content (dry basis), color value and protein content. Results showed that the primary and secondary sequence of parameters with regard to moisture content (d. b.) was drying time, microwave power, material weight and material thickness; the primary and secondary sequence of parameters with regard to color value was material weight, drying time, microwave power and material thickness; the primary and secondary sequence of parameters with regard to protein content was drying time, material weight, microwave power and material thickness. Optimum conditions were obtained as microwave power of 560 W, material weight of 46.88 g, material thickness of 6.20 mm and drying time of 8.01 min. The results might provide the theoretical basis and technical support for the microwave-assisted foam-mat drying of corn soaking water to produce yeast protein power.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30049-6
  • Research on Efficiency of Financial Supports in Agricultural
           Industrialization in China
    • Authors: Han Xue; Qu Li-li
      Pages: 78 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Han Xue, Qu Li-li
      The agricultural industry development in China has been very successful, but there exist some problems, such as weak financial support strength. With the help of DEA-Malmquist index method, this paper evaluated the efficiency of the agricultural industrialization's financial supports, made a deep study of its influencing factors, which have an extremely important influence on the perfect agricultural industrialization's development.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30050-2
  • Analysis on Function Orientation and Development Countermeasures of New
           Agricultural Business Entities
    • Authors: Wang Yang; Wang Yan
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wang Yang, Wang Yan
      Along with the rapid advance of industrialization and urbanization process, fostering new agricultural business entities become inevitable for agricultural transformation and the construction of agricultural modernization in China. The status of the new agricultural business entities determines the level of modern agricultural development. In recent years, new agricultural business entities have grew rapidly. However, there are still many problems including the difficulties in financing loans, inadequate agricultural insurance system, bad implementation of agricultural subsidies, jagged agricultural talents and so on. In order to foster new agricultural business entities, countermeasures should be carried out to ensure financial support, perfect the agricultural insurance, strengthen the level of agricultural subsidies, strive to develop the degree of specialization agricultural operators and so on.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30051-4
  • Examining Mediating Role of Customer Loyalty for Influence of Brand
           Related Attributes on Customer Repurchase Intention
    • Authors: Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun; Imran Khan; Muhammad Abdullah; Tauqir Ahmad Ghauri
      Pages: 89 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zeeshan Ahmad, Meng Jun, Imran Khan, Muhammad Abdullah, Tauqir Ahmad Ghauri
      The objective of current study was to investigate the influence of brand related attributes on customer loyalty and repurchase intention in agricultural product marketing in Pakistan. Results of current study would help the management of branded agricultural products, in Pakistan specifically and in developing countries generally, to formulate the best strategies to enhance customer loyalty in order to induce repurchase intention of them. Future research could be conducted in the same field by adopting larger sample size and this research can be replicated with specific product category.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30052-6
  • Effects of Various Doses of Mineral Fertilizers (NPKS and Urea) on Yield
           and Economic Profitability of New Varieties of Zea mays L. in Faranah,
    • Authors: Lamine Diallo; Cao Qing-jun; Yang Zhen-ming; Cui Jin-hu; Teybelassma Ibrahim Mustafa Dafaalla
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Lamine Diallo, Cao Qing-jun, Yang Zhen-ming, Cui Jin-hu, Teybelassma Ibrahim Mustafa Dafaalla
      In Faranah Province (Guinea), the ratio of supply and demand of corn is approximately 1:2. The production is low and the deficit is covered by maize importation. This study was initiated in order to improve corn production by evaluating the effects of increasing doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield and economic profitability of corn. The experiment was conducted on a farm in Kamedankoude in a split plot with three replicates. Treatments included two varieties of maize (Perta and Kilissi113) and five doses of chemical fertilizers (D0=unfertilized control, D1=300 kg NPKS+200 kg urea • hm−2; D2=400 kg NPKS+800 kg urea • hm−2; D3= 200 kg NPKS+400 kg urea • hm−2 and D4=500 kg NPKS+600 kg urea • hm−2). The results showed that all the agronomic parameters increased with increasing dose of fertilizers, except for the number of ears per plant. The two varieties of corn tested produced similar yields. However, the profitability of mineral fertilizers decreased with increased doses and with value/cost ratio of 3. We recommended a mineral fertilizer dose of 300 kg NPKS + 200 kg urea. The high prices of mineral fertilizers were often barriers to intensive maize cultivation, especially for low-income farmers. This study was a contribution to rational fertilization and adapted the socio-economic conditions of the region, with the background knowledge that most farmers in the regions earned low incomes.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30025-3
  • Studies on Occurrence Ecological Factors and Management Strategies of
           Ambrostoma quadriimpressum in Harbin City
    • Authors: Ma Xiao-chi; Wei Wei; Ye Le-fu; Zhao Jia-nan; Zhao Kui-jun; Wang Zi-jian; Liu Xiao-jie; Fu Xue
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ma Xiao-chi, Wei Wei, Ye Le-fu, Zhao Jia-nan, Zhao Kui-jun, Wang Zi-jian, Liu Xiao-jie, Fu Xue
      This paper investigated effects of four ecological variables on the damage levels of elm leaf beetle (different effects of minimum and maximum values, relations between each two variables were also explored) and discussed current management measures. The results showed that among these factors, interval between elm trees significantly affected damage level by this leaf beetle species, and perimeter of elm trunk could change this effect. On the other side, while middle values for each index were deleted, effects comparison between minimum and maximum parts showed that good root soil as overwintering was related with more damage; more severe damages on elm tree would result in more control measures used; on elm tree with bigger trunk, more damages were observed; and if other elm tree was closer, more damages would occur. Secondly, good root soil was related with more measures used; good root soil was correlated with smaller perimeter; good root soil was associated with bigger interval. Thirdly, more measures were correlated with bigger perimeter; more measures were also correlated with good root soil. Fourthly, bigger perimeter was correlated with worse root soil. Current dominant control measures included chemical pesticide application preventing adult insects from descending or climbing up along trunk before and after overwintering. These results suggested that we should focus on elm leaf beetle management on all the elm trees instead of only on bigger elm trees at proper period simultaneously because occurrence on these elm trees were related intensively although this adult elm leaf beetle species could not fly and had limited movement ability.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30026-5
  • Response of French Bean Cultivars to Plant Spacing Under Agroclimatic
           Condition of Baffa
    • Authors: Naveed Ahmed; Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; Salahuddin
      Pages: 16 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Naveed Ahmed, Muhammad Razaq, Hasnain Alam, Salahuddin
      This experiment was carried out at Mansehra during cropping season of 2013. There were three French bean cultivars and four different plant spacings. The experiment was laid out on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different cultivars, plant spacings and their interactions significantly influenced all the parameters studied. Maximum days to flowering (59.33) and seed maturity (97.66) were recorded in cultivar Komal Green grown at 15 cm spacing, while, maximum 100-grain weight (42.20 g) was noted in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 60 cm spacing. However, maximum fresh pod yield • plant−1 (109.67 g), number of seed • pod−1 (7.99) and seed yield • hm−2 (1 437.3 kg) were recorded in cultivar Paulista grown at spacing of 45 cm. Whereas, maximum plant height (40.50 cm) was noticed in cultivar Paulista grown at 15 cm plant spacing. While, the least number of days to flowering (50.33) and to seed maturity (85.66) were taken by cultivar Paulista grown at 60 cm plant spacing. Likewise, minimum seed yield (311.9 kg • hm−2) was recorded in plants of cultivar Komal Green spaced at 60 cm plant spacing. While, minimum fresh pod weight • plant−1 (67.00 g) and number of seed • pod−1 (4.66) were attained in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 15 cm plant spacing. Whereas, minimum plant height (27.59 cm) and 100-grain weight (15.60 g) were recorded for cultivar Komal Green grown at 45 and 15 cm, respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30027-7
  • Short Term Influence of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Microbial
           Biomass and DNA in Summer and Spring
    • Authors: Khalil ur Rehman; Zhang Ying; Shahla Andleeb; Zhao Jiang; Erinle Kehinda Olajide
      Pages: 20 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Khalil ur Rehman, Zhang Ying, Shahla Andleeb, Zhao Jiang, Erinle Kehinda Olajide
      The present study was conducted to see the short term impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil microbial biomass both in spring and summer. Also aimed to observe the correlation between soil microbial biomass and soil DNA. The study concluded that type of fertilizer might alter the soil microbial biomass and DNA contents. In soil treated with organic fertilizers resulted in higher concentrations of microbial biomass and DNA contents in summer as compared to spring dute to increase in temperature. Correspondingly, in case of inorganic fertilizer, concentrations of soil microbial biomass and DNA detected higher in summer instead of spring. The statistical correlation between soil microbial biomass, DNA and ODR in spring and summer along with organic and inorganic fertilizers were calculated highly significant (p>0.01). This study demonstrated the impact of fertilizers and seasonal variations on soil microbial biomass and also revealed significant correlation between soil microbial biomass and soil DNA.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30028-9
  • Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Finisher Fed
           Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets
    • Authors: Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie; Okpara Oghenesuvwe
      Pages: 28 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie, Okpara Oghenesuvwe
      To investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the performance and haematology of broiler finisher using 120 Cobb chicks of 4 weeks old broiler chicks. The birds were assigned randomly into four dietary treatments containing MOLM at 0, 6%, 8%, and 10% (treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4) inclusion levels, respectively, in a complete randomized design experiment. The effect of the dietary treatments on the growth performance and blood parameters of the broiler finisher was determined. MOLM at a rate of 6% (T2), 8% (T3), and 10% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. The daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MOLM diets were higher (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. Average weight gain (AWG) of birds fed MOLM diets reduced as inclusion levels increases (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. Chicks fed T2 showed higher (p<0.05) AWG than those on T3 and T4. Feed conversion ratios (FCR, weight gain/g and feed intake) were higher for chicks fed MOLM. MOLM showed minimal deleterious effects in birds. However, birds fed T2 (6%) diets recorded significantly (p<0.05) the highest body weight gain. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among groups in packed cell volume (PVC) of birds. The haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) counts showed no significant difference (p>0.05) among treatments. The results indicated that at 10% in the diets of broiler finisher chick, MOLM could be substituted with expensive conventional protein sources without any deleterious effects on performance and blood parameters of broiler finisher chicken.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30029-0
  • CDC25B Involved in Proliferation of Sertoli Cells of New Born Calves
           Through FSH and Possibly Being Key Regulating Factor
    • Authors: Zhang Gui-xue; Li Yu-long; Zeng Yue; Huang He; Zheng Peng; Tian Ya-guang
      Pages: 35 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhang Gui-xue, Li Yu-long, Zeng Yue, Huang He, Zheng Peng, Tian Ya-guang
      The effects of FSH on the proliferation of sertoli cells of new born calves were studied in order to provide some data for theoretical research and practical use of spermatogenesis in vitro. Different concentrations of FSH (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.08 IU · mL−1) were taken to treat bovine sertoli cells in vitro culture, the number of sertoli cells and the expression of seven genes were determined at 6, 12 and 24 h after FSH treatments. FSH could significantly promote the proliferation of in vitro cultured sertoli cells. FSH had no significant effects on the expression of CDC25A and could significantly improve the expression of CDC25B. 0.04 IU · mL−1 and 0.08 IU · mL−1 FSH treatments decreased the expression of CDC25C at 12 h. 0.08 IU · mL−1 FSH treatment decreased the expression of CDC25C at 24 h. 0.04 IU · mL−1 FSH could significantly decrease the expression of GSK-3β and improve the expression of β-catenin at 6, 12 and 24 h. 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 IU · mL−1 FSH treatments enhanced the expressions of CYCLIND1 and C-MYC. In conclusion, FSH promoted the proliferation of sertoli cells and 0.04 IU · mL−1 FSH concentration could significantly promote the proliferation of in vitro cultured sertoli cells. FSH promoted the proliferation of sertoli cells by CDC25B and WNT/β-catenin and CDC25B might be the key regulator to the proliferating rate of sertoli cells of bovine calf.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30030-7
  • Simultaneous Determination of Hexoestrol, Diethylstilbestrol, Estrone and
           17-Beta-estradiol in Feed by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Huo Feng; Li Ning; Lin Xiao-Li
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Huo Feng, Li Ning, Lin Xiao-Li
      A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four kinds of estrogens (hexoestrol, diethylstilbestrol, estrone, and 17-beta-estradiol) in feed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After the sample was extracted by ethyl ether and cleaned-up on HLB phase extraction column, four kinds of estrogens were derived and quantified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the linear detectable ranged from 2.5 ng · mL−1 to 250 ng · mL−1 for hexoestrol and from 5 ng · mL−1 to 500 ng · mL−1 for three other estrogens with the correlation coefficients (R 2) were no less than 0.990. The recoveries were in the range of 76.34%–96.33% and the relative standard deviation was no more than 22.7%. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for all analytics were between 10 ug · kg−1 and 20 ug · kg−1. The method was accurate and sensitive and could meet the actual requirements for the analyses of feed samples.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30031-9
  • Potential Genes for Regulation of Milk Protein Synthesis in Dairy Goat
           Mammary Gland
    • Authors: Chen Dan; Zhang Na; Nan Xue-mei; Li Qing-zhang; Gao Xue-jun
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Chen Dan, Zhang Na, Nan Xue-mei, Li Qing-zhang, Gao Xue-jun
      The lactating mammary gland is a prodigious protein-producing factory, but the milk protein synthesis mechanisms are not well understood. The major objective of this paper was to elucidate which genes and pathways were involved in the regulation of milk protein synthesis in the dairy goat mammary gland. Total 36 primiparous Guanzhong dairy goats were allotted in 12 groups according to their mammary development stages: days 90 and 150 of virgin, days 30, 90, and 150 of pregnancy, days 1, 10, 35, and 60 of lactation and days 3, 7, and 21 of involution (three animals per group). Mammary tissue RNA was isolated for quantitative real-time RT-PCR of four casein genes alpha-s1 casein (CSN1S1), alpha-s2 casein (CSN1S2), beta-casein (CSN2) and casein kappa (CSN3), four whey protein genes lactoglobulin (LGB), lactalbumin (LALBA), lactofarrin (LTF), and Whey acidic protein (WAP) and the genes which were potentially to regulate dairy goat milk protein synthesis at the level of transcription or translation [prolactin receptor (PRLR), AKT1, signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5), E74-Like Factor 5 (ELF5), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4E-BP1), S6kinase (S6K) and caveolin 1]. The results showed that all genes were up-regulated in lactation period. The expressions of PRLR, AKT1, STAT5, ELF5, and S6K were similar to mRNA expressions of milk proteins. Our results indicated that milk protein synthesis in dairy goat mammary gland was possibly regulated by these genes.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30032-0
  • SYBR┬« Green qPCR Screening Methods for Detection of Anti-herbicide Genes
           in Genetically Modified Processed Products
    • Authors: Zhen Zhen; Lv Wei; Tang Zhi-fen; Liu Ying; Ao Jin-xia; Yuan Xiao-han; Zhang Ming-hui; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhen Zhen, Lv Wei, Tang Zhi-fen, Liu Ying, Ao Jin-xia, Yuan Xiao-han, Zhang Ming-hui, Qiu You-wen, Gao Xue-jun
      The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food products becomes more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with labelling requirements. There are few effective screening methods for processed GM (genetically modified) products. Three anti-herbicide genes (CP4-EPSPS, BAR and PAT) are common exogenous genes used in commercialized transgenic soybean, maize and rice. In the present study, a new SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was developed to simultaneously detect the three exogenous anti-herbicide genes and one endogenous gene in a run. We tested seven samples of representative processed products (soya lecithin, soya protein powder, chocolate beverage, infant rice cereal, maize protein powder, maize starch, and maize jam) using the developed method, and amplicons of endogenous gene and transgenic fragments were obtained from all the processed products, and the sensitivity was 0.1%. These results indicated that SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was appropriate for qualitative detection of transgenic soybean, maize and rice in processed products.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30033-2
  • Maize Contract Farming Experience in Delta State, Nigeria
    • Authors: Albert Ukaro Ofuoku; Joseph Unuetara Agbamu
      Pages: 65 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Albert Ukaro Ofuoku, Joseph Unuetara Agbamu
      Many reviews and evaluations of contract farming and its importance for small-scale farmers in the developing nations have been conducted. While some scholars opined that contractual terms were unfavourable to farmers, others considerd them as being beneficial to them. These contrasting views were not likely to discourage it since it provided encouragement for farmers' involvement in markets. It was therefore worthwhile to investigate previous experiences with the aim of improving on it. This study investigated contract farming entered into by farmers in Delta State of Nigeria and livestock feed companies with the objective of seeking ways to make such contractual agreements beneficial to small-scale farmers. The study utilized convergence of science approach. The study unveiled the constraints experienced by farmers and they included technical and institutional challenges. The technical problem was the planting date, while the institutional problem was the contractual arrangements. It was recommended that all the stakeholders in the contract should converge and negotiate technological adoptions of the improved maize varieties; contract needed to be clearly defined and risks and uncertainties should be parts of the contract; scientific investigations should be carried out to determine the best planting date; and there was need for legislation to particularly protect farmers in contract farming.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30034-4
  • Assessment of Economic Viability of Mini-livestock Production in Delta
           State, Nigeria: Implication for Extension Delivery Services
    • Authors: Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene; Achoja Felix Odemero
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene, Achoja Felix Odemero
      The study examined the popularity, role and economic viability of mini-livestock keeping in Delta State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of mini-livestock farmers, identify the types of animals reared as mini-livestock in the area, ascertain the reasons for keeping mini-livestock by farmers, determine the benefit level of mini-livestock farmers, and identify the problems facing mini-livestock farmers in the study area. Using snowball sampling technique, 674 respondents were sampled with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Various descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analyses. The results of the study indicated various types of mini-livestock reared in the study area, mainly snail farming or heliciculture (about 90%) and rearing of cane rat (84.27%); the most important reasons for keeping mini-livestock were income (99.6%), employment (99.26%) and food (94.96%). The result further indicated that protein consumption and improved income were the most important benefits to respondents. In spite of these benefits, the respondents faced some constraints, amongst which were lack of technical information (X=4.70), lacking of enough space for expansion (X=4.58), inadequate training (X=4.20), poor extension delivery services (X=4.20) and problems of feed availability (X=3.86). In spite of these constraints, the production of mini-livestock was found to be profitable in the study area. Based on the findings, it was recommended, among others, that mini-livestock farmers in the study area should be trained on various aspects of the management of mini-livestock especially by organising workshops for them.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30035-6
  • Landscape Transformation in Mining Wastelands
    • Authors: Li Yan-xia; Yu Lei; Chen Ya-jun; Shah Saud; Li Jing-jing; Yin Hui; Zhao Li-yuan
      Pages: 83 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li Yan-xia, Yu Lei, Chen Ya-jun, Shah Saud, Li Jing-jing, Yin Hui, Zhao Li-yuan
      Mining provides a wealth of mineral raw materials to human beings, while also causes serious damage to environment and ecology. For decades, landscape renovation in mining wastelands has become a multi-disciplinary research focus. However, compared with the developed countries, China has disadvantages of the relevant theoretical researches developing slowly with lacking supporting technology. According to the design principle of “reservation and utilization”, we reviewed and summarized the methods of landscape transformation in mining wastelands, furthermore, using the way of researching successful cases at home and abroad. In lined with the specific circumstances in China, the target of landscape transformation and basic theories as methods of strategy was developed. Finally, the overall thinking and suggestions were put forward for the development of landscape transformation in mining wastelands.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30036-8
  • Research Status of Molecular Biology in Flax
    • Authors: Wu Jian-zhong
      Pages: 89 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Wu Jian-zhong
      Flax is a kind of worldwide fiber and oil crops, and it has a very important role in economic crop production in the world. With the development of molecular biology techniques, the research of flax molecular level has a very big breakthrough. But, flax molecular biology researches are less reported due to the later starting. This paper summarized the latest research progress of molecular biology of flax, including molecular marker technology, construction of genetic map, gene engineering and omics researches, in order to provide the reference to understand the development and research status for flax molecular breeding researchers.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30037-x
  • Effects of Initial Infestation Levels of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)
           (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Cowpea and Use of Nicotiana tabacum L.
           Aqueous Extract as Grain Protectant
    • Authors: A K Musa; A Odunayo; O E Adeyeye
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): A K Musa, A Odunayo, O E Adeyeye
      This study determined the effects of initial infestation of cowpea seeds (Ife brown variety) with different insect densities (0, 2, 4 and 6 pairs per 50 g seeds) of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Nicotiana tabacum L. on C. maculatus in the laboratory. It was observed that adult beetle population increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in insect density. The increase in population of beetles and corresponding weight loss of the seeds in different levels of infestation showed that the cowpea variety was susceptible to beetle infestation, emergence and survival of progeny. Significantly more adults emerged on higher infestation compared to lower and no infestation. In Nigeria, Nicotiana tabacum L. is a locally available plant, with known insecticidal properties. The plant leaf extract was easily extracted with water and confirmed its effectiveness as a protective agent for stored cowpea seeds. Experiment was conducted to assess the effects of aqueous extracts of N. tabacum at 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mL · 50 g−1 cowpea seeds on C. maculatus. Data was recorded and showed varying levels of effectiveness against C. maculatus. Result showed that seed appearance was dependent on levels of insect population, while N. tabacum aqueous extract exerted effects on survival of C. maculatus. Aqueous leaf extract of N. tabacum probably contained some insecticidal properties which might have significantly conferred beetle mortality and reduced beetle emergence leading to a decrease in seed weight loss.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30012-5
  • Impact of Microbial Inoculants on Microbial Quantity, Enzyme Activity and
           Available Nutrient Content in Paddy Soil
    • Authors: Liu Xiao-jie; Duan Xue-jiao; Ma Na; Sun Tao; Xu Jing-gang
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Liu Xiao-jie, Duan Xue-jiao, Ma Na, Sun Tao, Xu Jing-gang
      The experiment was conducted to study the impact of application of microbial inoculants, compared with no microbial fertilizer, on enzyme activity, microbial biomass and available nutrient contents in paddy soil in Heilongjiang Province. The application of soil phosphorus activator was able to increase the quantity of bacteria and fungi in soil, but its effect on actinomycetes in soil was not significant. The application of microbial inoculants increased the urease and sucrase activities in soil over the growing season, but only at the maturing stage soil acid phosphatase activity was enhanced with the applying soil phosphorus activator. The application of soil phosphorus activator increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus contents in soil, but did not increase available potassium content in soil. The optimal microbial inoculant application rate as applied as soil phosphorus activator was 7.5 kg·hm−2.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30013-7
  • Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Bacillus Species Exhibiting
           Strong Proteolytic Activity Isolated from Terasi, An Indonesian Fermented
           Seafood Product
    • Authors: Ekachai Chukeatirote; Novi Arfarita; Piyanuch Niamsup; Anittaya Kanghae
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ekachai Chukeatirote, Novi Arfarita, Piyanuch Niamsup, Anittaya Kanghae
      In this study, two bacilli strains namely S2-3 and S4-5, isolated from Terasi, a traditional fermented seafood product of Indonesia, were studied in terms of their phenotypic and genotypic properties. Both strains are of great interests due to their high proteolytic activity. Initially, they were subjected to morphological determination and a series of biochemical tests. These bacteria were Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacilli. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the identities of the strains S2-3 and S4-5 were confirmed as Bacillus thuringiensis and B. subtilis, respectively. Additionally, the two strains were also evaluated for their antibiogram profiles. It was found that they were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, tetracycline and vancomycin and resistant to ampicillin and intermediately susceptible to bacitracin.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30014-9
  • Effect of Quercetin on Egg Quality and Components in Laying Hens of
           Different Weeks
    • Authors: You Ying; Han Chun-yan; Chaudhry Maria Tabassum; Li Ling; Yao Jia-ying; Wang Sheng-nan; Yang Jia-xin; Teng Nan; Li Yao
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): You Ying, Han Chun-yan, Chaudhry Maria Tabassum, Li Ling, Yao Jia-ying, Wang Sheng-nan, Yang Jia-xin, Teng Nan, Li Yao
      This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of quercetin on egg quality and components in laying hens of different weeks. A total of 240 healthy Hessian laying hens at 29, 39-week-old with similar body weight and laying rate were randomly divided into four groups with six replicates of 10 each replicate, respectively. The treatments were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin for 8 weeks. The results showed that compared with the control, broken or soft shell rate significantly decreased at 0.2 and 0.4 g · kg−1 quercetin and eggshell thickness significantly increased at 0.4 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.01) in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old; yolk protein significantly decreased at 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.05) in laying hens at 29-37 weeks old; while yolk protein significantly increased at three quercetin treatments in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old; yolk cholesterol significantly decreased by quercetin in laying hens at 29-37 weeks old (P<0.05); yolk total phospholipids significantly increased at 0.4 and 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.01) and yolk cholesterol significantly decreased at 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.05) in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old. In a word, quercetin affected egg quality and components to some extents in laying hens of different weeks, the older the hens became, the better improvement they would be. The optimum level of quercetin was 0.4 g · kg−1 in the basal diet.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30015-0
  • Some Aspects of Ecology of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede) in River
           Niger, Nigeria
    • Authors: Nwachi
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): O F Nwachi
      A study on the food and feeding habit of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede) was conducted in River Niger within the region of Oshimili local government area of Delta State Nigeria. A total of 90 specimens were collected with the help of fishermen using gill net, cast net and traps. The fish samples were immediately taken to the laboratory for analysis. Morphometric characteristics such as weight, length, condition factor, egg weight, Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and sex ratio were determined. The stomach content was analyzed using numerical method to determine the food content. The total length of the fish sampled ranged from 14.40–44.60 cm, while the standard length varied from 11.00 cm to 47.00 cm and the fish body weight ranged between 19.00 g to 503.20 g. Sex ratio 1 female to 1 male was observed. The mean condition factor for both male and female obtained was 1.67. Of all the 90 fishes sampled, none had empty gut representing 100%. The major food items were phytoplankton, plant part and Detritus. Out of 41 females sampled, only 17 had eggs and the eggs were matured at stage IV.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
  • Chinese Rural Comprehensive Reform: Theoretical Innovation, Key
           Contradictions and Countermeasures
    • Authors: Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Zhou Li
      As a systematic project, Chinese rural comprehensive reform (hereinafter referred to as “the reform”) involved multiple dimensions such as rural governance, economy, culture, society and ecology, which laid a solid foundation for the overall reform in China. Western rural development theory had been proved to be insufficient to support Chinese rural reform. Therefore, theoretical innovation became urgent in the fields of rural governance, government functions, public finance and rural-urban integration etc. In recent years, Chinese rural comprehensive reform had been adjusting itself to the requirements of the “new normal”. And during the process of agricultural modernization, the bottlenecks included the contradictory relationships between reform, development and overall stability, agricultural simplification and industrial diversification, economic development and environmental protection, rapid development of urban areas and slow progress of rural areas, grassroots governance and democratic supervision etc. Proper countermeasures would help to settle the above contradictions.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T05:38:55Z
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