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Journal Cover Journal of Northeast Agricultural University
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1006-8104
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • Effects of Various Doses of Mineral Fertilizers (NPKS and Urea) on Yield
           and Economic Profitability of New Varieties of Zea mays L. in Faranah,
    • Authors: Lamine Diallo; Cao Qing-jun; Yang Zhen-ming; Cui Jin-hu; Teybelassma Ibrahim Mustafa Dafaalla
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Lamine Diallo, Cao Qing-jun, Yang Zhen-ming, Cui Jin-hu, Teybelassma Ibrahim Mustafa Dafaalla
      In Faranah Province (Guinea), the ratio of supply and demand of corn is approximately 1:2. The production is low and the deficit is covered by maize importation. This study was initiated in order to improve corn production by evaluating the effects of increasing doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield and economic profitability of corn. The experiment was conducted on a farm in Kamedankoude in a split plot with three replicates. Treatments included two varieties of maize (Perta and Kilissi113) and five doses of chemical fertilizers (D0=unfertilized control, D1=300 kg NPKS+200 kg urea • hm−2; D2=400 kg NPKS+800 kg urea • hm−2; D3= 200 kg NPKS+400 kg urea • hm−2 and D4=500 kg NPKS+600 kg urea • hm−2). The results showed that all the agronomic parameters increased with increasing dose of fertilizers, except for the number of ears per plant. The two varieties of corn tested produced similar yields. However, the profitability of mineral fertilizers decreased with increased doses and with value/cost ratio of 3. We recommended a mineral fertilizer dose of 300 kg NPKS + 200 kg urea. The high prices of mineral fertilizers were often barriers to intensive maize cultivation, especially for low-income farmers. This study was a contribution to rational fertilization and adapted the socio-economic conditions of the region, with the background knowledge that most farmers in the regions earned low incomes.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30025-3
  • Studies on Occurrence Ecological Factors and Management Strategies of
           Ambrostoma quadriimpressum in Harbin City
    • Authors: Ma Xiao-chi; Wei Wei; Ye Le-fu; Zhao Jia-nan; Zhao Kui-jun; Wang Zi-jian; Liu Xiao-jie; Fu Xue
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ma Xiao-chi, Wei Wei, Ye Le-fu, Zhao Jia-nan, Zhao Kui-jun, Wang Zi-jian, Liu Xiao-jie, Fu Xue
      This paper investigated effects of four ecological variables on the damage levels of elm leaf beetle (different effects of minimum and maximum values, relations between each two variables were also explored) and discussed current management measures. The results showed that among these factors, interval between elm trees significantly affected damage level by this leaf beetle species, and perimeter of elm trunk could change this effect. On the other side, while middle values for each index were deleted, effects comparison between minimum and maximum parts showed that good root soil as overwintering was related with more damage; more severe damages on elm tree would result in more control measures used; on elm tree with bigger trunk, more damages were observed; and if other elm tree was closer, more damages would occur. Secondly, good root soil was related with more measures used; good root soil was correlated with smaller perimeter; good root soil was associated with bigger interval. Thirdly, more measures were correlated with bigger perimeter; more measures were also correlated with good root soil. Fourthly, bigger perimeter was correlated with worse root soil. Current dominant control measures included chemical pesticide application preventing adult insects from descending or climbing up along trunk before and after overwintering. These results suggested that we should focus on elm leaf beetle management on all the elm trees instead of only on bigger elm trees at proper period simultaneously because occurrence on these elm trees were related intensively although this adult elm leaf beetle species could not fly and had limited movement ability.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30026-5
  • Response of French Bean Cultivars to Plant Spacing Under Agroclimatic
           Condition of Baffa
    • Authors: Naveed Ahmed; Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; Salahuddin
      Pages: 16 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Naveed Ahmed, Muhammad Razaq, Hasnain Alam, Salahuddin
      This experiment was carried out at Mansehra during cropping season of 2013. There were three French bean cultivars and four different plant spacings. The experiment was laid out on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different cultivars, plant spacings and their interactions significantly influenced all the parameters studied. Maximum days to flowering (59.33) and seed maturity (97.66) were recorded in cultivar Komal Green grown at 15 cm spacing, while, maximum 100-grain weight (42.20 g) was noted in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 60 cm spacing. However, maximum fresh pod yield • plant−1 (109.67 g), number of seed • pod−1 (7.99) and seed yield • hm−2 (1 437.3 kg) were recorded in cultivar Paulista grown at spacing of 45 cm. Whereas, maximum plant height (40.50 cm) was noticed in cultivar Paulista grown at 15 cm plant spacing. While, the least number of days to flowering (50.33) and to seed maturity (85.66) were taken by cultivar Paulista grown at 60 cm plant spacing. Likewise, minimum seed yield (311.9 kg • hm−2) was recorded in plants of cultivar Komal Green spaced at 60 cm plant spacing. While, minimum fresh pod weight • plant−1 (67.00 g) and number of seed • pod−1 (4.66) were attained in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 15 cm plant spacing. Whereas, minimum plant height (27.59 cm) and 100-grain weight (15.60 g) were recorded for cultivar Komal Green grown at 45 and 15 cm, respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30027-7
  • Short Term Influence of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Microbial
           Biomass and DNA in Summer and Spring
    • Authors: Khalil ur Rehman; Zhang Ying; Shahla Andleeb; Zhao Jiang; Erinle Kehinda Olajide
      Pages: 20 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Khalil ur Rehman, Zhang Ying, Shahla Andleeb, Zhao Jiang, Erinle Kehinda Olajide
      The present study was conducted to see the short term impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil microbial biomass both in spring and summer. Also aimed to observe the correlation between soil microbial biomass and soil DNA. The study concluded that type of fertilizer might alter the soil microbial biomass and DNA contents. In soil treated with organic fertilizers resulted in higher concentrations of microbial biomass and DNA contents in summer as compared to spring dute to increase in temperature. Correspondingly, in case of inorganic fertilizer, concentrations of soil microbial biomass and DNA detected higher in summer instead of spring. The statistical correlation between soil microbial biomass, DNA and ODR in spring and summer along with organic and inorganic fertilizers were calculated highly significant (p>0.01). This study demonstrated the impact of fertilizers and seasonal variations on soil microbial biomass and also revealed significant correlation between soil microbial biomass and soil DNA.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30028-9
  • Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Finisher Fed
           Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets
    • Authors: Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie; Okpara Oghenesuvwe
      Pages: 28 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie, Okpara Oghenesuvwe
      To investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the performance and haematology of broiler finisher using 120 Cobb chicks of 4 weeks old broiler chicks. The birds were assigned randomly into four dietary treatments containing MOLM at 0, 6%, 8%, and 10% (treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4) inclusion levels, respectively, in a complete randomized design experiment. The effect of the dietary treatments on the growth performance and blood parameters of the broiler finisher was determined. MOLM at a rate of 6% (T2), 8% (T3), and 10% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. The daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MOLM diets were higher (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. Average weight gain (AWG) of birds fed MOLM diets reduced as inclusion levels increases (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. Chicks fed T2 showed higher (p<0.05) AWG than those on T3 and T4. Feed conversion ratios (FCR, weight gain/g and feed intake) were higher for chicks fed MOLM. MOLM showed minimal deleterious effects in birds. However, birds fed T2 (6%) diets recorded significantly (p<0.05) the highest body weight gain. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among groups in packed cell volume (PVC) of birds. The haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) counts showed no significant difference (p>0.05) among treatments. The results indicated that at 10% in the diets of broiler finisher chick, MOLM could be substituted with expensive conventional protein sources without any deleterious effects on performance and blood parameters of broiler finisher chicken.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30029-0
  • CDC25B Involved in Proliferation of Sertoli Cells of New Born Calves
           Through FSH and Possibly Being Key Regulating Factor
    • Authors: Zhang Gui-xue; Li Yu-long; Zeng Yue; Huang He; Zheng Peng; Tian Ya-guang
      Pages: 35 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhang Gui-xue, Li Yu-long, Zeng Yue, Huang He, Zheng Peng, Tian Ya-guang
      The effects of FSH on the proliferation of sertoli cells of new born calves were studied in order to provide some data for theoretical research and practical use of spermatogenesis in vitro. Different concentrations of FSH (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.08 IU · mL−1) were taken to treat bovine sertoli cells in vitro culture, the number of sertoli cells and the expression of seven genes were determined at 6, 12 and 24 h after FSH treatments. FSH could significantly promote the proliferation of in vitro cultured sertoli cells. FSH had no significant effects on the expression of CDC25A and could significantly improve the expression of CDC25B. 0.04 IU · mL−1 and 0.08 IU · mL−1 FSH treatments decreased the expression of CDC25C at 12 h. 0.08 IU · mL−1 FSH treatment decreased the expression of CDC25C at 24 h. 0.04 IU · mL−1 FSH could significantly decrease the expression of GSK-3β and improve the expression of β-catenin at 6, 12 and 24 h. 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 IU · mL−1 FSH treatments enhanced the expressions of CYCLIND1 and C-MYC. In conclusion, FSH promoted the proliferation of sertoli cells and 0.04 IU · mL−1 FSH concentration could significantly promote the proliferation of in vitro cultured sertoli cells. FSH promoted the proliferation of sertoli cells by CDC25B and WNT/β-catenin and CDC25B might be the key regulator to the proliferating rate of sertoli cells of bovine calf.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30030-7
  • Simultaneous Determination of Hexoestrol, Diethylstilbestrol, Estrone and
           17-Beta-estradiol in Feed by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: Huo Feng; Li Ning; Lin Xiao-Li
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Huo Feng, Li Ning, Lin Xiao-Li
      A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four kinds of estrogens (hexoestrol, diethylstilbestrol, estrone, and 17-beta-estradiol) in feed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After the sample was extracted by ethyl ether and cleaned-up on HLB phase extraction column, four kinds of estrogens were derived and quantified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the linear detectable ranged from 2.5 ng · mL−1 to 250 ng · mL−1 for hexoestrol and from 5 ng · mL−1 to 500 ng · mL−1 for three other estrogens with the correlation coefficients (R 2) were no less than 0.990. The recoveries were in the range of 76.34%–96.33% and the relative standard deviation was no more than 22.7%. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for all analytics were between 10 ug · kg−1 and 20 ug · kg−1. The method was accurate and sensitive and could meet the actual requirements for the analyses of feed samples.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30031-9
  • Potential Genes for Regulation of Milk Protein Synthesis in Dairy Goat
           Mammary Gland
    • Authors: Chen Dan; Zhang Na; Nan Xue-mei; Li Qing-zhang; Gao Xue-jun
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Chen Dan, Zhang Na, Nan Xue-mei, Li Qing-zhang, Gao Xue-jun
      The lactating mammary gland is a prodigious protein-producing factory, but the milk protein synthesis mechanisms are not well understood. The major objective of this paper was to elucidate which genes and pathways were involved in the regulation of milk protein synthesis in the dairy goat mammary gland. Total 36 primiparous Guanzhong dairy goats were allotted in 12 groups according to their mammary development stages: days 90 and 150 of virgin, days 30, 90, and 150 of pregnancy, days 1, 10, 35, and 60 of lactation and days 3, 7, and 21 of involution (three animals per group). Mammary tissue RNA was isolated for quantitative real-time RT-PCR of four casein genes alpha-s1 casein (CSN1S1), alpha-s2 casein (CSN1S2), beta-casein (CSN2) and casein kappa (CSN3), four whey protein genes lactoglobulin (LGB), lactalbumin (LALBA), lactofarrin (LTF), and Whey acidic protein (WAP) and the genes which were potentially to regulate dairy goat milk protein synthesis at the level of transcription or translation [prolactin receptor (PRLR), AKT1, signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5), E74-Like Factor 5 (ELF5), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4E-BP1), S6kinase (S6K) and caveolin 1]. The results showed that all genes were up-regulated in lactation period. The expressions of PRLR, AKT1, STAT5, ELF5, and S6K were similar to mRNA expressions of milk proteins. Our results indicated that milk protein synthesis in dairy goat mammary gland was possibly regulated by these genes.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30032-0
  • SYBR® Green qPCR Screening Methods for Detection of Anti-herbicide Genes
           in Genetically Modified Processed Products
    • Authors: Zhen Zhen; Lv Wei; Tang Zhi-fen; Liu Ying; Ao Jin-xia; Yuan Xiao-han; Zhang Ming-hui; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhen Zhen, Lv Wei, Tang Zhi-fen, Liu Ying, Ao Jin-xia, Yuan Xiao-han, Zhang Ming-hui, Qiu You-wen, Gao Xue-jun
      The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food products becomes more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with labelling requirements. There are few effective screening methods for processed GM (genetically modified) products. Three anti-herbicide genes (CP4-EPSPS, BAR and PAT) are common exogenous genes used in commercialized transgenic soybean, maize and rice. In the present study, a new SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was developed to simultaneously detect the three exogenous anti-herbicide genes and one endogenous gene in a run. We tested seven samples of representative processed products (soya lecithin, soya protein powder, chocolate beverage, infant rice cereal, maize protein powder, maize starch, and maize jam) using the developed method, and amplicons of endogenous gene and transgenic fragments were obtained from all the processed products, and the sensitivity was 0.1%. These results indicated that SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was appropriate for qualitative detection of transgenic soybean, maize and rice in processed products.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30033-2
  • Maize Contract Farming Experience in Delta State, Nigeria
    • Authors: Albert Ukaro Ofuoku; Joseph Unuetara Agbamu
      Pages: 65 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Albert Ukaro Ofuoku, Joseph Unuetara Agbamu
      Many reviews and evaluations of contract farming and its importance for small-scale farmers in the developing nations have been conducted. While some scholars opined that contractual terms were unfavourable to farmers, others considerd them as being beneficial to them. These contrasting views were not likely to discourage it since it provided encouragement for farmers' involvement in markets. It was therefore worthwhile to investigate previous experiences with the aim of improving on it. This study investigated contract farming entered into by farmers in Delta State of Nigeria and livestock feed companies with the objective of seeking ways to make such contractual agreements beneficial to small-scale farmers. The study utilized convergence of science approach. The study unveiled the constraints experienced by farmers and they included technical and institutional challenges. The technical problem was the planting date, while the institutional problem was the contractual arrangements. It was recommended that all the stakeholders in the contract should converge and negotiate technological adoptions of the improved maize varieties; contract needed to be clearly defined and risks and uncertainties should be parts of the contract; scientific investigations should be carried out to determine the best planting date; and there was need for legislation to particularly protect farmers in contract farming.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30034-4
  • Assessment of Economic Viability of Mini-livestock Production in Delta
           State, Nigeria: Implication for Extension Delivery Services
    • Authors: Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene; Achoja Felix Odemero
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene, Achoja Felix Odemero
      The study examined the popularity, role and economic viability of mini-livestock keeping in Delta State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of mini-livestock farmers, identify the types of animals reared as mini-livestock in the area, ascertain the reasons for keeping mini-livestock by farmers, determine the benefit level of mini-livestock farmers, and identify the problems facing mini-livestock farmers in the study area. Using snowball sampling technique, 674 respondents were sampled with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Various descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analyses. The results of the study indicated various types of mini-livestock reared in the study area, mainly snail farming or heliciculture (about 90%) and rearing of cane rat (84.27%); the most important reasons for keeping mini-livestock were income (99.6%), employment (99.26%) and food (94.96%). The result further indicated that protein consumption and improved income were the most important benefits to respondents. In spite of these benefits, the respondents faced some constraints, amongst which were lack of technical information (X=4.70), lacking of enough space for expansion (X=4.58), inadequate training (X=4.20), poor extension delivery services (X=4.20) and problems of feed availability (X=3.86). In spite of these constraints, the production of mini-livestock was found to be profitable in the study area. Based on the findings, it was recommended, among others, that mini-livestock farmers in the study area should be trained on various aspects of the management of mini-livestock especially by organising workshops for them.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30035-6
  • Landscape Transformation in Mining Wastelands
    • Authors: Li Yan-xia; Yu Lei; Chen Ya-jun; Shah Saud; Li Jing-jing; Yin Hui; Zhao Li-yuan
      Pages: 83 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li Yan-xia, Yu Lei, Chen Ya-jun, Shah Saud, Li Jing-jing, Yin Hui, Zhao Li-yuan
      Mining provides a wealth of mineral raw materials to human beings, while also causes serious damage to environment and ecology. For decades, landscape renovation in mining wastelands has become a multi-disciplinary research focus. However, compared with the developed countries, China has disadvantages of the relevant theoretical researches developing slowly with lacking supporting technology. According to the design principle of “reservation and utilization”, we reviewed and summarized the methods of landscape transformation in mining wastelands, furthermore, using the way of researching successful cases at home and abroad. In lined with the specific circumstances in China, the target of landscape transformation and basic theories as methods of strategy was developed. Finally, the overall thinking and suggestions were put forward for the development of landscape transformation in mining wastelands.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30036-8
  • Research Status of Molecular Biology in Flax
    • Authors: Wu Jian-zhong
      Pages: 89 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Wu Jian-zhong
      Flax is a kind of worldwide fiber and oil crops, and it has a very important role in economic crop production in the world. With the development of molecular biology techniques, the research of flax molecular level has a very big breakthrough. But, flax molecular biology researches are less reported due to the later starting. This paper summarized the latest research progress of molecular biology of flax, including molecular marker technology, construction of genetic map, gene engineering and omics researches, in order to provide the reference to understand the development and research status for flax molecular breeding researchers.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T05:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30037-x
  • Effects of Initial Infestation Levels of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)
           (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Cowpea and Use of Nicotiana tabacum L.
           Aqueous Extract as Grain Protectant
    • Authors: A K Musa; A Odunayo; O E Adeyeye
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): A K Musa, A Odunayo, O E Adeyeye
      This study determined the effects of initial infestation of cowpea seeds (Ife brown variety) with different insect densities (0, 2, 4 and 6 pairs per 50 g seeds) of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Nicotiana tabacum L. on C. maculatus in the laboratory. It was observed that adult beetle population increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in insect density. The increase in population of beetles and corresponding weight loss of the seeds in different levels of infestation showed that the cowpea variety was susceptible to beetle infestation, emergence and survival of progeny. Significantly more adults emerged on higher infestation compared to lower and no infestation. In Nigeria, Nicotiana tabacum L. is a locally available plant, with known insecticidal properties. The plant leaf extract was easily extracted with water and confirmed its effectiveness as a protective agent for stored cowpea seeds. Experiment was conducted to assess the effects of aqueous extracts of N. tabacum at 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mL · 50 g−1 cowpea seeds on C. maculatus. Data was recorded and showed varying levels of effectiveness against C. maculatus. Result showed that seed appearance was dependent on levels of insect population, while N. tabacum aqueous extract exerted effects on survival of C. maculatus. Aqueous leaf extract of N. tabacum probably contained some insecticidal properties which might have significantly conferred beetle mortality and reduced beetle emergence leading to a decrease in seed weight loss.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30012-5
  • Impact of Microbial Inoculants on Microbial Quantity, Enzyme Activity and
           Available Nutrient Content in Paddy Soil
    • Authors: Liu Xiao-jie; Duan Xue-jiao; Ma Na; Sun Tao; Xu Jing-gang
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Liu Xiao-jie, Duan Xue-jiao, Ma Na, Sun Tao, Xu Jing-gang
      The experiment was conducted to study the impact of application of microbial inoculants, compared with no microbial fertilizer, on enzyme activity, microbial biomass and available nutrient contents in paddy soil in Heilongjiang Province. The application of soil phosphorus activator was able to increase the quantity of bacteria and fungi in soil, but its effect on actinomycetes in soil was not significant. The application of microbial inoculants increased the urease and sucrase activities in soil over the growing season, but only at the maturing stage soil acid phosphatase activity was enhanced with the applying soil phosphorus activator. The application of soil phosphorus activator increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus contents in soil, but did not increase available potassium content in soil. The optimal microbial inoculant application rate as applied as soil phosphorus activator was 7.5 kg·hm−2.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30013-7
  • Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Bacillus Species Exhibiting
           Strong Proteolytic Activity Isolated from Terasi, An Indonesian Fermented
           Seafood Product
    • Authors: Ekachai Chukeatirote; Novi Arfarita; Piyanuch Niamsup; Anittaya Kanghae
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ekachai Chukeatirote, Novi Arfarita, Piyanuch Niamsup, Anittaya Kanghae
      In this study, two bacilli strains namely S2-3 and S4-5, isolated from Terasi, a traditional fermented seafood product of Indonesia, were studied in terms of their phenotypic and genotypic properties. Both strains are of great interests due to their high proteolytic activity. Initially, they were subjected to morphological determination and a series of biochemical tests. These bacteria were Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacilli. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the identities of the strains S2-3 and S4-5 were confirmed as Bacillus thuringiensis and B. subtilis, respectively. Additionally, the two strains were also evaluated for their antibiogram profiles. It was found that they were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, tetracycline and vancomycin and resistant to ampicillin and intermediately susceptible to bacitracin.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30014-9
  • Effect of Quercetin on Egg Quality and Components in Laying Hens of
           Different Weeks
    • Authors: You Ying; Han Chun-yan; Chaudhry Maria Tabassum; Li Ling; Yao Jia-ying; Wang Sheng-nan; Yang Jia-xin; Teng Nan; Li Yao
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): You Ying, Han Chun-yan, Chaudhry Maria Tabassum, Li Ling, Yao Jia-ying, Wang Sheng-nan, Yang Jia-xin, Teng Nan, Li Yao
      This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of quercetin on egg quality and components in laying hens of different weeks. A total of 240 healthy Hessian laying hens at 29, 39-week-old with similar body weight and laying rate were randomly divided into four groups with six replicates of 10 each replicate, respectively. The treatments were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin for 8 weeks. The results showed that compared with the control, broken or soft shell rate significantly decreased at 0.2 and 0.4 g · kg−1 quercetin and eggshell thickness significantly increased at 0.4 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.01) in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old; yolk protein significantly decreased at 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.05) in laying hens at 29-37 weeks old; while yolk protein significantly increased at three quercetin treatments in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old; yolk cholesterol significantly decreased by quercetin in laying hens at 29-37 weeks old (P<0.05); yolk total phospholipids significantly increased at 0.4 and 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.01) and yolk cholesterol significantly decreased at 0.6 g · kg−1 quercetin (P<0.05) in laying hens at 39-47 weeks old. In a word, quercetin affected egg quality and components to some extents in laying hens of different weeks, the older the hens became, the better improvement they would be. The optimum level of quercetin was 0.4 g · kg−1 in the basal diet.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30015-0
  • Screening of Adoptive Elite Tea (Camellia sinensis) Clones
    • Authors: Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; Muhammad Ishfaq; Salahuddin
      Pages: 33 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Muhammad Razaq, Hasnain Alam, Muhammad Ishfaq, Salahuddin
      The research screening of adoptive elite tea clones was conducted at NTRI, Mansehra during 2011-2012. Nine clones 101Aa, 105aa, 108aa, 561aa, 117aa, 219ab, 470bb and 180bd were evaluated for seedling performance. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data was recorded on various morphological characters after 8 months. The results showed that high survival percentage, shoot length, number of roots plant−1, number of leaves plant−1 and root length were observed in clone 105aa. While the highest fresh weight and dry weight of leaves were observed in clones 117aa and 105aa. The clone 105aa was drought resistant, high survival percentage and root growth. On the basis of the results, clone 105aa was recommended for cultivation through cuttings in the hilly areas of Pakistan where unequal rainfall distribution was a major hitch.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30016-2
  • Study on Hexagon-enveloping Leaf-stripping Mechanism for Corn Stalk
    • Authors: Li Li-qiao; Li Chao; Li Dong-hong; Wang Mo; Yu Ke-qiang; Yang Xing; Zhang Quan-chao; Wang De-fu; He Yuan
      Pages: 37 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Li Li-qiao, Li Chao, Li Dong-hong, Wang Mo, Yu Ke-qiang, Yang Xing, Zhang Quan-chao, Wang De-fu, He Yuan
      In order to deeply study the leaf-stripping principle for corn stalk, the hexagon-enveloping leaf-stripping experimental device was designed. To achieve higher leaf-stripping percent and provide important references for the separation equipment for corn stalk, it is necessary to find out the laws of leaf-stripping of such mechanism and to select the main influencing factors of separation performance from a number of factors. Through the study on hexagon-enveloping leaf-stripping mechanism for corn stalks, the leaf-stripping principle of such mechanism was more clear, and the optimization of structural and kinematic parameters achieved by the experiment whose influencing factors were the four selected ones (feeding speed, rotary speed of leaf-stripping roll, clearance and included angle between two leaf-stripping plates) could be directly applied to the development of efficient rind-pith or leaf-stripping separation for corn stalks.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30017-4
  • Optimal Scheme Selection of Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment
           — Based on DEA Model; Punjab (Pakistan)
    • Authors: Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun; Muhammad Abdullah; Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq; Majid Lateef; Imran Khan
      Pages: 48 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Zeeshan Ahmad, Meng Jun, Muhammad Abdullah, Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq, Majid Lateef, Imran Khan
      This paper used the modern evaluation method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to assess the comparative efficiency and then on the basis of this among multiple schemes chose the optimal scheme of agricultural production structure adjustment. Based on the results of DEA model, we dissected scale advantages of each discretionary scheme or plan. We examined scale advantages of each discretionary scheme, tested profoundly a definitive purpose behind not-DEA efficient, which elucidated the system and methodology to enhance these discretionary plans. At the end, another method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research was important to guide the practice if the modification of agricultural production industrial structure was carried on.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30018-6
  • Analysis of Marketing of Garri in Delta State, Nigeria
    • Authors: S O Ebewore; D E Idoge
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): S O Ebewore, D E Idoge
      The study examined the marketing of a cassava-based product (garri) in Delta State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 168 respondents using structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed in selecting 168 respondents from six markets in Delta State where garri is produced and marketed. Data was analyzed by the calculation of percentages, means and running of regression. The study revealed that the marketing of garri in Delta State was predominantly a female activity. The study also revealed that the garri was marketed in three channels and that 46.4% were retailers. The study further revealed a reasonable degree of freedom of entry and exit in the garri business in Delta State. Each trader or marketer was able to earn an average profit margin of N2 190.00 (for garri marketers), while the marketing margins for garri was 13.1%. Although the marketers were faced with some challenges the average profit per marketer per month was reasonably high (N40 722). The study further showed that the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers to a large extent had a positive influence on the quantity of garri sold in the study area. From the findings it was recommended that storage facilities, extension services and good road network among others should be provided to improve the marketing of garri in Delta State, Nigeria.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30019-8
  • Sharecropping Contract Experience in Delta State, Nigeria
    • Authors: Albert Ukaro Ofuoku
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Albert Ukaro Ofuoku
      Sharecropping has been an age long practice from ancient times. Some scholars saw the practice as being exploitative of the tenants, yet it is still being practiced. The reasons behind it continual practice need to be unveiled. This study was therefore conducted to examine the sharecropping contract experience in Delta State, Nigeria. The landlords decided to practice sharecropping as a result of emigration of their household members, farm size and cost of labours, some of them gave age and their primary occupation as factors for their decisions to opt for sharecropping arrangement. The yields were shared on the basis of 60% for the landlord to 40% for the tenant. The landlords provided all the equipment and inputs, while the tenant's carried out all the farm operations. They faced the constraints of stress, but were able to cope with them, because of hospitals and health centres nearby. The result of the test of hypothesis confirmed the reasons given for deciding on sharecropping arrangement. It was concluded that sharecropping was not exploitative. It was recommended that the practice of sharecropping should be encouraged and not diversified into other sources of livelihood should do so.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30020-4
  • Analysis on Sustainable Development Management Model of Village Banks —
           Based on Bayan Rongxing Village Bank in Heilongjiang Province
    • Authors: Wang Shuang; Wang Ji-heng; Liu Bing; Yu Xiao-wen
      Pages: 75 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Wang Shuang, Wang Ji-heng, Liu Bing, Yu Xiao-wen
      This paper summarized the management models of village banks in China. We compared and analyzed different management models of four village banks in different regions on four aspects: regional agriculture feature, loan for farmers, loan for enterprises and the construction of network, then came to the conclusion that, if the village banks' health development can realize, they must pay attention to innovating in loan patterns as well as material loan and starting out the network development.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30022-8
  • Path to Support Development of Production and Operation of Big Grain
    • Authors: Yang Xiu-li; Wang Yu-qing; Ji He-wen; Yin Bao-hua; Tan Hong-yu
      Pages: 83 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yang Xiu-li, Wang Yu-qing, Ji He-wen, Yin Bao-hua, Tan Hong-yu
      Developing production and operation in scales in the major grain producing areas is the direction of the paper. Seizing the opportunity of modern agriculture comprehensive reform in two plains (Songnen Plain and Sanjiang Plain) of Heilongjiang Province and supporting to build a new type of production and management based on the big grain production householding, which plays demonstration and leading roles, have an important strategic position in improving agricultural comprehensive production capacity and ensuring national food security. In this paper, based on the survey data about the big grain production households production operations and analyses of the obstacles in expansion of production in Heilongjiang Province, specific suggestions in supporting the development of the big grain production household were put forward, such as, increasing agricultural production socialized level; perfecting the service system of land transferring; improving financial policies and farmer-friendly policy measures and perfecting the agriculture socialized service system.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30023-x
  • Physiological Mechanisms of Delaying Leaf Senescence in Maize Treated with
           Compound Mixtures of DCPTA and CCC
    • Authors: Wang Yong-chao; Gu Wan-rong; Ye Le-fu; Sun Yang; Li Li-jie; Zhang He; Li Jing; Wei Shi
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Wang Yong-chao, Gu Wan-rong, Ye Le-fu, Sun Yang, Li Li-jie, Zhang He, Li Jing, Wei Shi
      At the beginning of silking, maize production began to form, but leaves started senescence and photosynthetic capacity decreased at this time, all of those severely restricted the formation of the production. In order to study the effects of exogenous substances on the process of leaf senescence, 40 mg • L−1 DCPTA and 20 mg • L−1 CCC were mixed in the research. When the maize grew to the six expanded leaves stage, 10 mL compound mixtures (TR) were sprayed on both sides of leaves for per plant, and the control was treated with water (CK). Three plants were selected randomly for determination of physiological index at the 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after silking. The results showed that TR could increase the chlorophyll content significantly, Fv/Fm, Fv/F 0 and Y(II) values of TR were higher than those of CK while F 0 values were opposite. Compared with CK, TR increased SOD and POD activity and soluble protein content, reduced MDA content. Correlation analysis showed that chlorophyll content had negative correlation with F 0, and MDA content had negative correlation with other indexes. Compared with CK, TR reduced the negative correlation effect between chlorophyll content and MDA, increased the positive correlation effect between chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm , SOD, POD, soluble protein. The study provided theoretical and experimental evidence for the application of the compound mixtures of DCPTA and CCC to the production.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30001-0
  • Evaluation of Insecticidal Potential of Capsicum chinense Jacq. and
           Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Against Trogoderma granarium Everts
           (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in Groundnut
    • Authors: A K Musa; A A Adeyemi
      Pages: 16 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): A K Musa, A A Adeyemi
      The insecticidal potential of seed powders of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Solanaceae) and Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae) was tested against Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in the laboratory at (28±2)°C and 70%±5% relative humidity. The seed powders were tested at the rates of 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% (w/w) of groundnut seeds replicated three times. At the highest rate of treatment, C. chinense caused 56.7% and 76.8% larval mortality at 3 and 7 days post treatment (DPT) respectively while A. melegueta exerted 53.4% and 73.8% larval mortality at 3 and 7 DPT, respectively. Results showed that insecticidal potential of the seed powders against adult mortality of T. granarium and seed damage followed similar trend. The various rates of C. chinense seed powder performed better than A. melegueta seed powder in causing larval and adult mortality and in reducing seed damage. The activity of the seed powders on mortality of the insect, seed weight loss and seed damage were exposure time and rate dependent. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in seed weight loss and seed damage was recorded among the treatments and maximum reduction was observed in the seeds treated with the highest rate of C. chinense seed powder. Percentage seed damage significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increase in the rate of treatment while the highest seed weight loss and seed damage were obtained in the control. The study showed that C. chinense seed powder had higher activity against the test insect pest than A. melegueta seed powder. The two seed powders had high bio-activity against the insect and therefore could be used in formulating environment friendly plant-derived insecticide.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30002-2
  • Genetic Differentiation Analyses Based on mtDNA CO II Gene Sequences Among
           Different Geographic Populations of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
           in Northeast China
    • Authors: Li Ran; Han Lan-lan; Ye Le-fu; Zhang Hong-yu; Sun Wen-peng; Tong Xin; Zhao Kui-jun
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Li Ran, Han Lan-lan, Ye Le-fu, Zhang Hong-yu, Sun Wen-peng, Tong Xin, Zhao Kui-jun
      Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is considered as a cosmopolitan pest of cultivated soybean, major difficulties in its control measures may be due to its higher genetic diversity; however, the knowledge about population genetic diversity of this species is limited. This study aimed to represent the genetic differentiation among different geographic populations of soybean aphid in Northeast China. In order to investigate and assess the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, molecular variance, population structure, ecological importance and evolutionary history of A. glycines, we sequenced a fragment of one protein-coding gene, the cytochrome c oxidase II of mitochondrial DNA gene. The results showed that four haplotypes were defined among CO II gene of 180 sequences of soybean aphid in Northeast China including H1 shared by all the populations. Lower haplotype diversity (Hd=0.3590± 0.0420) and nucleotide diversity (Pi=0.0012±0.0002) were observed and high gene flow was detected in every two populations, while most of the variation (80.81%) arose from variability within A. glycines from individuals. Low genetic differentiation and high gene flow (Nm=2.106) indicated a high migration rate between the populations, which might reveal that gene flow in different geographic populations did not affect by geographical distance. The phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network of A. glycines were obtained based on sequences of CO II gene, there were no significant genealogical branches or clusters recognized in NJ tree, and no clear distribution, delineation of haplotypes were demonstrated in the haplotype network according to geographical location. This study rejected the vicariance hypothesis: geographic isolation could be a barrier and it restricted A. glycines gene flow among 10 populations.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30003-4
  • Effect of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Growth of
           Greenhouse Tomato and Rhizosphere Microbial Community
    • Authors: Ge Xiao-ying; He Chun-e; Li Tao; Ouyang Zhu
      Pages: 32 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ge Xiao-ying, He Chun-e, Li Tao, Ouyang Zhu
      Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) are two of the most important plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture. An in situ trial was conducted on greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) to examine the effect of two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis (CGMCC 1.3343) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (CGMCC 1.1802), on tomato growth, gray mold disease control, catabolic and genetic microbial features of indigenous rhizosphere bacteria under lownitrogen conditions. A commercial inoculant (ETS) was also tested as a comparison. Both B. subtilis and P. fluorescens promoted growth and biomass of seedlings, while only B. subtilis was efficient in reducing gray mold incidence in greenhouse tomato. The two bacterial strains could colonization in tomato rhizosphere soil at the end of experiment (10 days after the last inoculation). Different AWCD trends and DGGE patterns were got in different bacterial treatments; however, analyses of microbial diversities showed that indigenous soil microbes did not seem to have significant differences at either the catabolic or genetic level among treatments. ETS, as a commercial microbial agent, promoted plant growth and gave a higher microbial diversity in rhizosphere soil.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30004-6
  • Induced Polyploidy as a Tool for Increasing Tea (Camellia sinensis L.)
    • Authors: Hasnain Alam; Muhammad Razaq; Salahuddin
      Pages: 43 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hasnain Alam, Muhammad Razaq, Salahuddin
      Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) represents different ploidy levels. In the present paper, we reviewed the recent data on the diploid, aneuploid and polyploid formed their origin and chemically induced polyploidy and predicted it role in teagenetic improvement for better yield. Different polidy levels had different effects on tea physiology. Tetraploid and triploid had more vigour and hardness due to increased size of cells, while triploid could have even more vigours due to increased size of cells and sterilities. Chemically induced polyploidy had been found an important tool for improving plant physiology and production, therefore, induced polyploids should be produced to overcome the problem of low yield and limited rainfall in tea growing areas.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30005-8
  • Predatory Efficacy of Cotton Inhabiting Spiders on Bemisiatabaci,
           Amrascadevastans Thripstabaci and Helicoverpa armigera in Laboratory
    • Authors: S B Mohsin; Li Yi-jing; Tang Li-jie; I Maqsood; Ting Ma-sun; Han Le-meng; U R Khalil; S Andleeb; S K Muhammad; M A Saleem
      Pages: 48 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): S B Mohsin, Li Yi-jing, Tang Li-jie, I Maqsood, Ting Ma-sun, Han Le-meng, U R Khalil, S Andleeb, S K Muhammad, M A Saleem
      Distinction of predator's diet and prey choice preference is a hot topic of current investigations. Spider being generalist predator and cosmopoliter in nature acts as biological control agent in many agro-ecosystems. In the current study, predatory efficacy of five spiders (Pardosa birmanica, Cyclosa insulana, Thomisus projectus, Plexippus paykulli and Lycosa terrestris) inhabiting the cotton fieldevaluated in the laboratory conditions maintained at (27±2)°C temperature, 65%±5% relative humidity and 12 : 12 h of light and dark photoperiod. Four key cotton pests' viz. Bemisiatabaci, Amrascadevastans Thripstabaci and Helicoverpa armigera were utilized in the choice and no-choice predatory studies. The findings of current investigation revealed that each predatory spider utilized at least one pest species. Predation rate was found higher in the no-choice predation because of unavailability of substitutes feeding source. The investigation also indicated each predatory spider killed more pests than consumed. The findings of this study support the predatory role of spiders in controlling the cotton major pests.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30006-x
  • Contents of Trace Metal Elements in Cow Milk Impacted by Different
    • Authors: Song Ren-ju; Tong Hui-li; Huang Jian-guo; Gao Xue-jun
      Pages: 54 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Song Ren-ju, Tong Hui-li, Huang Jian-guo, Gao Xue-jun
      Feedstuff intake plays key role in impacting the yield and quality of milk. In this study, we discussed the contents of trace metal elements in cow milk impacted by different feedstuffs. We detected the contents of Pb, Cd, As, Cu, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn in different feedstuffs and milk by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The determinations of Pb, Cd and As contents were by graphite furnace AAS and Cu, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn was by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that Pb, Cd, As and Cu presented in feedstuffs, but Pb, Cd and As were lowly detected in milk samples, and Cu was not detected in milk samples. The content of Mg in concentrates was lower than that in forages. However, the content of Mg in milk from concentrate feed was higher than that in forage feed. This suggested that the utilization of Mg in concentrate feed was higher than that in forage feed. The contents of Ca and Zn were opposite to Mg, and the utilization of Ca and Zn in forage feed was higher than that in concentrate feed. There was no obviously change law of Fe in different feedstuffs and milk samples. The relationship between the contents of trace metal elements in milk to feedstuffs would provide a theoretical basis for dairy farming. It would be useful for improving the milk yield and milk quality of dairy production.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30007-1
  • Preparation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Cardiomyocyte
           Differentiation Induced with Retinoic Acid and Ascorbic Acid
    • Authors: Zhao Xun-wu; Zheng Peng; Huang Zhi-jun; Zeng Yue; E O Adegoke; Zhang Gui-xue
      Pages: 62 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Zhao Xun-wu, Zheng Peng, Huang Zhi-jun, Zeng Yue, E O Adegoke, Zhang Gui-xue
      The experiment was designed to study effects of retinoic acid and ascorbic acid on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes. Embryonic bodies (EB) were developed from mESC in suspension culture, different levels of concentration of retinoic acid and ascorbic acid were used to determine the optimal conditions for EB formation. The results showed that the optimal concentrations were 10−9 mol • L−1 and 0.1 mg • mL−1 for retinoic acid and ascorbic acids, respectively. 50% of EB which was significantly (p<0.05) different from the control group developed to cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, retinoic acid and ascorbic acid had strong ability to promote cardiomyocyte differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. 10−9 mol • L−1 retinoic acid and 0.10 mg • mL−1 ascorbic acids were recommended to induce differentiation of mouse ES cells toward cardiomyocytes.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30008-3
  • Acceptability of Bush Meat as a Source of Animal Protein in Delta State,
           Nigeria: Implication for Extension Services
    • Authors: S O Ebewore; O J Ovharhe; P O Emaziye
      Pages: 67 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): S O Ebewore, O J Ovharhe, P O Emaziye
      The study examined the acceptability of bush meat to Deltans. The specific objectives were to ascertain the consumption pattern of bush meat; identify the major types of bush meat consumed in the area; determine the likely constraints to bush meat consumption; and stipulate the extension implication of the findings. A systematic sampling technique was used to compose a sample size of 410 respondents. Data used for this study were collected using well structured interview schedule and data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques such as tables, percentages, means and standard deviation, and inferential statistics (linear regression model). The result of the study indicated that almost all the respondents (402) representing about 98% was formally consuming bush meat. The findings also revealed that as many as 323 individuals, representing 78.8% of the respondents did not consume bush meat currently. Only about 12.7% and 8.5% occasionally and regularly consumed bush meat respectively. It was therefore very obvious that people no longer consumed bush meat in Delta state as before. The results further indicated that the predominant bush meat consumed in the area were cane rat (97.70%) and the African giant snails (Achatina and Archachatina) (94.25%). The result of the multiple regression analyses indicated that the coefficient for education (X 3), income (X 5), Ebola (X 6) and availability of game (X 7) were significant at 5%, indicating that these variables were important factors influencing the consumption of bush meat in the study area. However, the coefficients of education level and Ebola factor were negative and significant, suggesting respondents with higher education and aware of Ebola disease were not likely to consume bush meat. As the result, it was concluded that bush meat was now almost unacceptable due to several factors like dread of Ebola disease, unavailability of game, educational level and income, which significantly affected the consumption of bush meat. It was therefore recommended among others that extension delivery services on how to domesticate game species should be available to farmers.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-8104(16)30009-5
  • Analysis on Investment Behavior of Agricultural Sector in China
    • Authors: Sun Zhuo
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sun Zhuo
      In the process of industrialization, China has been a big agricultural country, and the agricultural sector's economic activities have been playing important role in economic growth. This paper established the investment behavior model of agricultural enterprises on the basis of Chinese practice. And then, the model presented the important factors impacting on investment, such as financing cost, wage, and policy factors, etc. Thirdly, this paper in particular used R-studio to estimate the impact of financing cost and policy factor on investment and capital accumulation of primary industry sector by gathering the data from 2003 to 2013. The results showed that the official interest rate of loans of financial institutions could be the proxy variable as the financing cost of agricultural enterprises, and the employment level of agricultural enterprises had negative impact on investment. Finally, this paper provided some explanations and suggestions on the basis of above results.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
  • Design of Non-contact On-load Automatic Regulating Voltage Transformer
    • Authors: Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Zhao Qi
      At present, an automatic-mechanic contact tap-changer is widely used in power system, but it can not frequently operate. In addition, arc will occur when the switch changes. In order to solve these two problems, this paper presented an automatic on-load voltage-regulating distributing transformer which employed non-contact solid-state relay as tap-changer, and mainly introduced its structure, basic principal, design method of each key link and experimental results. Laboratory simulation experiments informed that the scheme was feasible. It was a smooth and effective experiment device, which was practical in application.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
  • Chinese Comprehensive Rural Reform: Institutional Vicissitude, Theoretic
           Framework and Content Structure
    • Authors: Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Zhou Li
      The social and economic development level of rural areas, the productivity of agriculture and the life quality of farmers were always the greatest concerns of Chinese Central Government. Therefore, the research related to rural areas, agriculture and farmers had remained as the prominent parts for a long period and would continue to be prominent in the future to build China into a moderately prosperous nation in an all-round way. Chinese rural area had constantly experienced three significant system reforms since 1978, namely the reform of rural management system, the rural tax and fee reform and the rural comprehensive reform. This paper attempted to analyze the theoretic framework and the content structure of the comprehensive rural reform since it was the higher stage of rural institutional vicissitude, which had changed the governance and operation system and thus promoted the great changes to fundamental social and economic system in rural areas. The theoretic framework of comprehensive rural reform covered three aspects in its content, namely the rural governance theory, the government function theory and the public finance theory. The comprehensive rural reform was a complicated system engineering with multiple dimensions and targets mainly including rural political restructuring, rural economic restructuring and rural public products allocation restructuring. The reform had focused on enhancing the vitality of agricultural and rural development, breaking through the urban and rural binary system, and further reducing the disparity between cities and countrysides, so as to realize the urban-rural integration. It was necessary to clarify and understand the key mechanism and intrinsic logic of the rural comprehensive reform, which was helpful to establish the foundation constituted by scientific methodology to implement the reform and evaluation criterion to judge the reform performance.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T20:40:44Z
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