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Journal Cover   Global Food Security
  [SJR: 0.786]   [H-I: 3]   Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2211-9124
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Demand side drivers of global food security
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2013
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 2, Issue 3
      Author(s): Anita Regmi , Birgit Meade
      Drawing upon a series of cross-country demand analyses conducted using International Comparison Program (ICP) data from 1980, 1996 and 2005, this paper highlights how consumer preferences for food evolve over time. Income and price elasticities were estimated for an increasing number of countries, reaching 144 in the 2005 ICP analysis. Consumers in lower income countries spend a higher share of income on food, are most responsive to income and price changes, and are increasingly diversifying their diets toward more protein and fat containing foods such as meats and fish. Consumers, in general, also make larger adjustments to non-food expenditures when food prices change than they do to food expenditures when the price of non-food items change.


      PubDate: 2015-05-27T12:35:03Z
       
  • Assessment of rice self-sufficiency in 2025 in eight African countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2015
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): P.A.J. van Oort , K. Saito , A. Tanaka , E. Amovin-Assagba , L.G.J. Van Bussel , J. van Wart , H. de Groot , M.K. van Ittersum , K.G. Cassman , M.C.S. Wopereis
      Most African countries are far from self-sufficient in meeting their rice consumption; in eight countries the production: consumption ratio, ranged from 0.16 to 1.18 in 2012. We show that for the year 2025, with population growth, diet change and yield increase on existing land (intensification), countries cannot become fully self-sufficient in rice. This implies that for the future, a mixture of area expansion and imports will be needed on top of yield gap closure. Further research is needed for identification of most suitable new land for rice area expansion and areas that should be protected.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T01:26:27Z
       
  • How do weather and climate influence cropping area and intensity?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Toshichika Iizumi , Navin Ramankutty
      Most studies of the influence of weather and climate on food production have examined the influence on crop yields. However, climate influences all components of crop production, includes cropping area (area planted or harvested) and cropping intensity (number of crops grown within a year). Although yield increases have predominantly contributed to increased crop production over the recent decades, increased cropping area as well as increases in cropping intensity, especially in the tropics, have played a substantial role. Therefore, we need to consider these important aspects of production to get a more complete understanding of the future impacts of climate change. This article reviews available evidence on how climate might influence these under-studied components of crop production. We also discuss how farmer decision making and technology might modulate the production response to climate. We conclude by discussing important knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in future research and potential ways for moving forward.


      PubDate: 2014-12-23T10:53:17Z
       
  • Improved global cropland data as an essential ingredient for food security
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2014
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Linda See , Steffen Fritz , Liangzhi You , Navin Ramankutty , Mario Herrero , Chris Justice , Inbal Becker-Reshef , Philip Thornton , Karlheinz Erb , Peng Gong , Huajun Tang , Marijn van der Velde , Polly Ericksen , Ian McCallum , Florian Kraxner , Michael Obersteiner
      Lack of accurate maps on the extent of global cropland, and particularly the spatial distribution of major crop types, hampers policy and strategic investment and could potentially impede efforts to improve food security in an environment characterized by continued market volatility and a changing climate. Here we discuss the pressing need for the provision of spatially explicit cropland datasets at a global scale and review the strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches used to develop such data.


      PubDate: 2014-11-07T10:02:47Z
       
  • Tree cover transitions and food security in Southeast Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2014
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Meine van Noordwijk , Viola Bizard , Prasit Wangpakapattanawong , Hesti L. Tata , Grace B. Villamor , Beria Leimona
      Trees are sources of food, especially fruits, critical for healthy diets. Trees also modify microclimate, water and nutrient flows for crops and livestock, and are a source of income, allowing forest-edge communities to be food-sufficient through trade without cutting down forests. Opportunities for ecological intensification, utilizing trees in agricultural landscapes, vary along stages of a tree cover transition of forest alteration and deforestation followed by agroforestation. The nonlinear forest transition curve can provide both a theory of change (similarity of processes) and a theory of place (configuration of state variables). We reviewed local perspectives on food security for four configurations of the forest and landscape transition in Southeast Asia, with local human population densities ranging from less than 10 to 900km−2 to explore how current generic ‘theories of change’ on how to achieve global food security need more explicit ‘theories of place’ that take such differences into account.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-11-02T17:22:31Z
       
  • The potential of Russia to increase its wheat production through cropland
           expansion and intensification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2014
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Florian Schierhorn , Daniel Müller , Alexander V. Prishchepov , Monireh Faramarzi , Alfons Balmann
      Russia is a major player in the global wheat market, but extensive unused land resources and large yield gaps suggest that wheat production can be substantially increased. We combined time series of cultivated cropland, abandoned cropland and yield gap estimates to assess the potential production of wheat in European Russia. Current wheat production is constrained by volatile inter-annual precipitation patterns and low applications of nitrogen fertilizers. We demonstrate that modest increases in the crop productivity and the recultivation of the recently abandoned croplands could increase wheat production by 9–32 million tons under rainfed conditions. Increases in the wheat yields, particularly within the fertile black soil belt in southern European Russia, will contribute the major share of the prospective production increases. Frequently recurring droughts, likely exacerbated by future climate change, and adverse market conditions jeopardize the exploitation of the production potentials. Improved adaptation to the volatile climate conditions and substantial institutional and political reforms in the agricultural sector are necessary to leverage the agricultural production potential of Russia.


      PubDate: 2014-10-25T17:01:46Z
       
  • Drought and food security – Improving decision-support via new
           technologies and innovative collaboration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2014
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Markus Enenkel , Linda See , Rogerio Bonifacio , Vijendra Boken , Nathaniel Chaney , Patrick Vinck , Liangzhi You , Emanuel Dutra , Martha Anderson
      Governments, aid organizations and people affected by drought are struggling to mitigate the resulting impact on both water resources and crops. In this paper we focus on improved decision-support for agricultural droughts that threaten the livelihoods of people living in vulnerable regions. We claim that new strategic partnerships are required to link scientific findings to actual user requirements of governments and aid organizations and to turn data streams into useful information for decision-support. Furthermore, we list several promising approaches, ranging from the integration of satellite-derived soil moisture measurements that link atmospheric processes to anomalies on the land surface to improved long-range weather predictions and mobile applications. The latter can be used for the dissemination of relevant information, but also for validating satellite-derived datasets or for collecting additional information about socio-economic vulnerabilities. Ideally, the consequence is a translation of early warning into local action, strengthening disaster preparedness and avoiding the need for large-scale external support.


      PubDate: 2014-09-11T09:29:13Z
       
  • Does intensification slow crop land expansion or encourage
           deforestation'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2014
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Derek Byerlee , James Stevenson , Nelson Villoria
      The role of intensification in minimizing cropland and slowing deforestation is often disputed. We make a broad distinction between technology-induced and market-induced intensification. We find evidence at the local level that technical progress in a few cases may induce land expansion although much depends on where the technical change occurs (near the forest frontier or away from it) and the type of market (local or global). At a global level, technology-driven intensification is strongly land saving although deforestation in specific regions is likely to continue to occur. Market-driven intensification, however, is often a major cause of land expansion and deforestation especially for export commodities in times of high prices. Beyond land saving, the type of intensification matters a lot for environmental outcomes. Finally, technology-driven intensification by itself is unlikely to arrest deforestation unless accompanied by stronger governance of natural resources.


      PubDate: 2014-06-18T16:27:18Z
       
  • Does the conversion of grasslands to row crop production in semi-arid
           areas threaten global food supplies?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2014
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): David E. Clay , Sharon A. Clay , Kurtis D. Reitsma , Barry H. Dunn , Alexander J. Smart , Gregg G. Carlson , David Horvath , James J. Stone
      In the world's semi-arid regions, high crop demands have produced short term economic incentives to convert food production on native grasslands to dryland row crop food production, while genetic enhancements and equipment have reduced the risk of crop failure. The objectives of this paper were to discuss (1) the importance of considering the long-term sustainability of changing land use in semi-arid regions; (2) the impact of extreme climatic events on ecosystem functioning; and (3) factors contributing to higher crop yields in semi-arid regions. Semi-arid regions contain fragile areas where extreme climate events may be a tipping point that converts an apparent sustainable system to a non-sustainable ecosystem. However, semi-arid regions also contain zones where “better” management practices have reduced the agricultural impacts on the environment, increased soil carbon levels, and stimulated economic development. Research suggests that food production can be increased by enhancing the productivity of existing cropped land. However, this statement does not infer that crop production on all existing cropped lands in semi-arid regions is sustainable. Worldwide, targeted research should be conducted to clearly identify local barriers to conservation practice adoption and identify the long-term ramifications of extreme climatic events and land-use changes on semi-arid ecosystem functioning.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T00:03:24Z
       
  • Taking planetary nutrient boundaries seriously: Can we feed the
           people?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2013
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Helena Kahiluoto , Miia Kuisma , Anna Kuokkanen , Mirja Mikkilä , Lassi Linnanen
      Recent research suggests that anthropogenic nutrient flows may have transgressed the regulatory capacity of the earth. Agrifood systems account for most of the flows, and the food supply is limited more by reducing the excessive flows than by phosphorus (P) reserves or population growth. The food supply is limited primarily by the P flow tolerated by freshwater ecosystems and next by the needed reduction in the conversion of nitrogen (N) to reactive form in fertilizer manufacture, legume cultivation and fossil fuel combustion. The required reduction in P and N flows would reduce the food supply to 250 and 710kcalcapita−1 d−1, respectively, in the current agrifood systems. Dietary changes, waste prevention and nutrient recycling are parts of the necessary transformation.


      PubDate: 2013-12-08T02:59:44Z
       
  • Fisheries in transition: Food and nutrition security implications for the
           global South
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2013
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Ben Belton , Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted
      Fisheries and fish supply are undergoing a fundamental structural transition, as indicated by a ten country analysis. Aquaculture now provides around half the fish for direct human consumption and is set to grow further, but capture fisheries continue to make essential contributions to food and nutrition security throughout the global South. Capture fisheries provide diverse, nutritionally valuable fish and fish products which are often culturally preferred and easily accessed by the poor. Technological changes in aquaculture have dramatically increased fish supply, lowered relative fish prices, and reigned in price volatility. Policies that recognize and safeguard the diversity and complementarity of roles played by capture fisheries and aquaculture are needed to ensure that the transition in fisheries sustainably improves food and nutrition security in the global South.


      PubDate: 2013-11-10T00:08:55Z
       
 
 
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