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Journal Cover Global Food Security
  [SJR: 1.516]   [H-I: 12]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2211-9124
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3040 journals]
  • Livestock: On our plates or eating at our table? A new analysis of the
           feed/food debate
    • Authors: Anne Mottet; Cees de Haan; Alessandra Falcucci; Giuseppe Tempio; Carolyn Opio; Pierre Gerber
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Anne Mottet, Cees de Haan, Alessandra Falcucci, Giuseppe Tempio, Carolyn Opio, Pierre Gerber
      Livestock contribute to food security by supplying essential macro- and micro-nutrients, providing manure and draught power, and generating income. But they also consume food edible by humans and graze on pastures that could be used for crop production. Livestock, especially ruminants, are often seen as poor converters of feed into food products. This paper analyses global livestock feed rations and feed conversion ratios, with specific insight on the diversity in production systems and feed materials. Results estimate that livestock consume 6 billion tonnes of feed (dry matter) annually – including one third of global cereal production – of which 86% is made of materials that are currently not eaten by humans. In addition, soybean cakes, which production can be considered as main driver or land-use, represent 4% of the global livestock feed intake. Producing 1kg of boneless meat requires an average of 2.8kg human-edible feed in ruminant systems and 3.2kg in monogastric systems. While livestock is estimated to use 2.5 billion ha of land, modest improvements in feed use efficiency can reduce further expansion.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T19:09:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.001
  • Interplay of food security, agriculture and tourism within GCC countries
    • Authors: Sanaa I. Pirani; Hassan A. Arafat
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 9
      Author(s): Sanaa I. Pirani, Hassan A. Arafat
      For the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates), food security is critical. Currently, these countries import most of what they consume and will continue to do so, since locally producing the majority of food needed is not a viable option. This paper looks into multiple pathways which can be used to secure food imports, particularly foreign agricultural land acquisition. It also looks at the rapidly expanding GCC tourism sector and its relevance to food security. The sector has contributed significantly to the amounts of food consumed and wasted in the region. It is concluded that the way forward for the GCC countries must involve diversified food supplies along with decreasing food demand in the first place.

      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
  • Sustainability of rice intensification in Uruguay from 1993 to 2013
    • Authors: Cameron M. Pittelkow; Gonzalo Zorrilla; José Terra; Sara Riccetto; Ignacio Macedo; Camila Bonilla; Alvaro Roel
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 9
      Author(s): Cameron M. Pittelkow, Gonzalo Zorrilla, José Terra, Sara Riccetto, Ignacio Macedo, Camila Bonilla, Alvaro Roel
      Despite increasing calls for the sustainable intensification (SI) of agriculture, environmental impacts associated with historical patterns of yield increase remain poorly understood, particularly involving multiple sustainability indicators. The objective of this study was to examine the sustainability of rice intensification in Uruguay from 1993 to 2013. National rice production and crop management records were used to estimate energy, nitrogen, water, and carbon footprints and agrochemical contamination risk for the rice phase of typical rice-pasture rotations in Uruguay. Results suggest that increases in national production were achieved with simultaneous increases in net energy yield and water use efficiency (56% and 41%, respectively). Although carbon footprint per unit of production decreased (−30%), potential nitrogen losses increased (37%) and elevated agrochemical contamination risk occurred in specific years. This study highlights the potential role of improved agronomy in balancing food production and environmental goals, while also indicating that similar holistic assessments are needed for other rice growing regions to better evaluate SI strategies and quantify potential tradeoffs.

      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
  • Improving food security in Asia through consumer-focused rice breeding
    • Authors: Marie Claire Custodio; Matty Demont; Alice Laborte; Jhoanne Ynion
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 9
      Author(s): Marie Claire Custodio, Matty Demont, Alice Laborte, Jhoanne Ynion
      Public rice breeding plays a crucial role in food security in Asia, but it is often supply-focused. Consumer-focused rice breeding incorporates consumer preferences in varietal development and benefits (i) consumers by fostering availability of affordable rice with characteristics that meet their food preferences, and (ii) farmers by facilitating market access and enabling them to capture consumer surplus. We review historical evidence and survey urban consumers across 24 cities in seven Asian countries to assess heterogeneity and trends of consumer preferences for intrinsic attributes of rice. We conclude that to improve food security in Asia, public rice breeding programs should incorporate widely preferred attributes such as softness in Southeast Asia and slenderness in South Asia, while considering geographic heterogeneity and specificity of preferences.

      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
  • Approaches for increasing nitrogen and water use efficiency simultaneously
    • Authors: Miguel Quemada; Jose L. Gabriel
      Pages: 29 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 9
      Author(s): Miguel Quemada, Jose L. Gabriel
      Enhancement of water and nitrogen use efficiency simultaneously may provide advantages over optimization of water and nitrogen inputs separately. In addition, water is the driver of the main environmental problems caused by excessive nitrogen use, such as nitrate contamination of water bodies or increasing emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Therefore, management practices oriented towards reducing nitrogen losses and maintaining farm productivity should rely on optimizing nitrogen and water inputs at the same time. This manuscript identifies agricultural systems with strong interactions between water- and nitrogen-use efficiency. Measurements and approaches for applying new technologies to increasing nitrogen and water efficiency simultaneously are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
  • Robust seed systems, emerging technologies, and hybrid crops for Africa
    • Authors: Jim Gaffney; Jennifer Anderson; Cleve Franks; Sarah Collinson; John MacRobert; Worede Woldemariam; Marc Albertsen
      Pages: 36 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 9
      Author(s): Jim Gaffney, Jennifer Anderson, Cleve Franks, Sarah Collinson, John MacRobert, Worede Woldemariam, Marc Albertsen
      Hybrid crops are underutilized in many developing countries. Subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) rely predominantly on outdated hybrids and open-pollinated varieties, which has limited the region's ability to achieve food security and agricultural sustainability goals. Key challenges in SSA include lack of access to improved hybrid seed, insufficient infrastructure to support a formal seed system, and limited smallholder farmer access to input and output markets. Implementing improved seed systems and creating greater market access will require engagement from the public and private sector and the governments within Africa. This paper reviews the importance of hybrids in agriculture, the challenges associated with creating new hybrids, and the technological advancements that will enable more efficient production of quality hybrids in Africa.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:08:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
  • Adoption and impacts of international rice research technologies
    • Authors: Takashi Yamano; Aminou Arouna; Ricardo A. Labarta; Zenaida M. Huelgas; Samarendu Mohanty
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 8
      Author(s): Takashi Yamano, Aminou Arouna, Ricardo A. Labarta, Zenaida M. Huelgas, Samarendu Mohanty
      To meet rising demand for rice, it is estimated that the global rice production needs to increase by 116milliontons by 2035. Much of the increase has to come from smallholder rice farmers in developing countries. In this article, we review 25 evaluation studies on new rice technologies and practices that have been tried and used by smallholder rice farmers in developing countries. Stress-tolerant rice varieties are found among promising new rice varieties. African farmers benefit from New Rice for Africa (NERICA) varieties. Some natural resource management (NRM) practices have been evaluated in farmer trials and found beneficial. However, the NRM evaluation studies faced with difficulties in defining NRM “technology” and “adoption”, and the difficulties remain as future challenges for evaluation studies.

      PubDate: 2016-02-14T22:21:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2016)
  • An integrated approach to maintaining cereal productivity under climate
    • Authors: Matthew P. Reynolds; Emma Quilligan; Pramod K. Aggarwal; Kailash C. Bansal; Anthony J. Cavalieri; Scott C. Chapman; Saharah M. Chapotin; Swapan K. Datta; Etienne Duveiller; Kulvinder S. Gill; Krishna S.V. Jagadish; Arun K. Joshi; Ann-Kristin Koehler; Petr Kosina; Srivalli Krishnan; Renee Lafitte; Rajendra S. Mahala; Raveendran Muthurajan; Andrew H. Paterson; Boddupalli M. Prasanna; Sujay Rakshit; Mark W. Rosegrant; Indu Sharma; Ravi P. Singh; Shoba Sivasankar; Vincent Vadez; Ravi Valluru; P.V. Vara Prasad; Om Prakash Yadav
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 8
      Author(s): Matthew P. Reynolds, Emma Quilligan, Pramod K. Aggarwal, Kailash C. Bansal, Anthony J. Cavalieri, Scott C. Chapman, Saharah M. Chapotin, Swapan K. Datta, Etienne Duveiller, Kulvinder S. Gill, Krishna S.V. Jagadish, Arun K. Joshi, Ann-Kristin Koehler, Petr Kosina, Srivalli Krishnan, Renee Lafitte, Rajendra S. Mahala, Raveendran Muthurajan, Andrew H. Paterson, Boddupalli M. Prasanna, Sujay Rakshit, Mark W. Rosegrant, Indu Sharma, Ravi P. Singh, Shoba Sivasankar, Vincent Vadez, Ravi Valluru, P.V. Vara Prasad, Om Prakash Yadav
      Wheat, rice, maize, pearl millet, and sorghum provide over half of the world's food calories. To maintain global food security, with the added challenge of climate change, there is an increasing need to exploit existing genetic variability and develop cultivars with superior genetic yield potential and stress adaptation. The opportunity to share knowledge between crops and identify priority traits for future research can be exploited to increase breeding impacts and assist in identifying the genetic loci that control adaptation. A more internationally coordinated approach to crop phenotyping and modeling, combined with effective sharing of knowledge, facilities, and data, will boost the cost effectiveness and facilitate genetic gains of all staple crops, with likely spill over to more neglected crops.

      PubDate: 2016-03-07T05:05:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2016)
  • Assessing U.S. food wastage and opportunities for reduction
    • Authors: Zhengxia Dou; James D. Ferguson; David T. Galligan; Alan M. Kelly; Steven M. Finn; Robert Giegengack
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 8
      Author(s): Zhengxia Dou, James D. Ferguson, David T. Galligan, Alan M. Kelly, Steven M. Finn, Robert Giegengack
      Reducing food wastage is one of the key strategies to combat hunger and sustainably feed the world. We present a comprehensive analysis of available data, despite uncertainties due to data limitation, indicating that the U.S. loses at least 150 million metric tonnes (MMT) of food between farm and fork annually, of which about 70MMT is edible food loss. Currently, <2% of the edible food loss is recovered for human consumption. A reasonably-attainable goal of food waste reduction at the source by 20% would save more food than the annual increase in total food production and would feed millions of people. This is an opportunity of significant magnitude, offering food security and resource and environmental benefits with few negatives. Seizing this opportunity requires technological innovation, policy intervention, and public outreach. This U.S.-based analysis is pertinent to other mid- to high-income countries.

      PubDate: 2016-03-07T05:05:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2016)
  • Debunking the ‘new normal’: Why world food prices are expected to
           resume their long run downward trend
    • Authors: Uris Lantz C. Baldos; Thomas W. Hertel
      Pages: 27 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 8
      Author(s): Uris Lantz C. Baldos, Thomas W. Hertel
      Contrary to the opinions expressed by many commentators, the recent episode of higher prices for agricultural commodities is likely a transitory phenomenon. When compared to the last half-century, population growth is expected to be much slower in the coming decades, with nearly all of the growth occurring in lower income countries, where added population places less pressure on global markets. The impact of the recent surge in growth rates in the developing world, and the associated dietary upgrading, will be insufficient to overcome the population effect. Further, earlier projections of biofuels growth are proving overly enthusiastic in the wake of lower oil prices and environmental concerns. Consequently, our projections using the SIMPLE model of global agriculture suggest that, in the long run, food prices are expected to be slightly lower at mid-century than they were prior to the food price crisis (2006). However, this outcome is shown to depend critically on the rate of productivity growth in agriculture. Our projections involve expected global productivity growth over the 2006–2050 period which is only 60% as fast as over the historical period: 1961–2006. If total factor productivity growth slows more than this, perhaps due to adverse climate impacts or reduced investment in R&D, then prices could rise in the coming decades. Also, we cannot rule out the possibility of a steeper price decline in the wake of recent signs of robust productivity growth in the developing world.

      PubDate: 2016-04-02T17:38:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2016)
  • Agricultural interventions for improved nutrition: A review of livelihood
           and environmental dimensions
    • Authors: Kathryn J. Fiorella; Rona L. Chen; Erin M. Milner; Lia C.H. Fernald
      Pages: 39 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 8
      Author(s): Kathryn J. Fiorella, Rona L. Chen, Erin M. Milner, Lia C.H. Fernald
      A diverse group of agricultural interventions aim to improve the nutritional status of women and children. These interventions range from the cultivation of bio-fortified crop varieties to home gardening to livestock intensification. We systematically review 42 evaluations of agricultural interventions for improved maternal and child nutrition. Using these evaluations, we identify three intervention typologies – Enhancement, Diversification, and Substitution – that reflect the differential impact of interventions on household livelihoods and patterns of food consumption. Our typologies allow for a nuanced approach to categorize and generalize about pathways of impact for agricultural interventions. In applying our typologies to existing evaluations, we summarize the evidence base and emphasize areas for further inquiry, particularly in terms of understanding these interventions amid complex environmental, political and economic local contexts.

      PubDate: 2016-04-20T11:04:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2016)
  • Food security and the global agrifood system: Ethical issues in historical
           and sociological perpspective
    • Authors: John Wilkinson
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): John Wilkinson
      The world food system was developed under the auspices of free trade. Very quickly though free trade was countered with protectionism in the form of policies favoring national and cultural food security. The traumas of World War led to the introduction of international commitments on individual rights with respect to labor and the right to freedom from hunger. From the seventies, the pendulum swung back in favor of free trade, this time provoking a response in the form of fair and ethical trade. The introduction of new food markets promoted by social movements as from the eighties where values were attached to the conditions and processes of production rather than the product itself led to agriculture and food markets becoming imbued with ethical attributes. At the same time, an increasingly holistic concept of food security became adopted in international forums pointing to the need for policies which were no longer reducible to food aid. While for a period, broader ethical values were identified only with alternative food networks, as from the turn of the new millennium, under the collective umbrella of economic, social and environmental sustainability, they became adopted by the global agri-food players as the triple bottom line for all agricultural and food markets. Although a new consensus has been achieved on the centrality of sustainability and food security a range of tensions and conflicts persist over the relation between food security and trade, investment, biofuels, producer and consumer rights, animal welfare, nature and the environment.

      PubDate: 2016-01-01T03:50:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2015.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Food losses and waste: Navigating the inconsistencies
    • Authors: Géraldine Chaboud; Benoit Daviron
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 12
      Author(s): Géraldine Chaboud, Benoit Daviron
      In recent years, the question of food losses and waste (FLW) has been the subject of much debate. When it comes to food security, the preservation of natural resources and potential economic benefits, the general public, scientists and politicians all agree that FLW needs to be reduced. However, there are numerous inconsistencies in terms of how the problem of FLW has been presented and analysed. This article aims to highlight these inconsistencies and help identify the areas of research that could contribute to a more effective handling of FLW issues. The article examines: (i) whether the choice of definition(s) adopted are consistent with the problem(s) targeted; (ii) the efficiency of the methodologies used to address the issues raised, and (iii) the relevance of arguments put forward concerning FLW reduction.

      PubDate: 2016-12-17T13:27:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2016)
  • Agronomic biofortification of crops to fight hidden hunger in sub-Saharan
    • Authors: A.W. de Valença; A. Bake; I.D. Brouwer; K.E. Giller
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 12
      Author(s): A.W. de Valença, A. Bake, I.D. Brouwer, K.E. Giller
      Micronutrient deficiencies or ‘hidden hunger’ resulting from unbalanced diets based on starchy staple crops are prevalent among the population of sub-Saharan Africa. This review discusses the effectiveness of agronomic biofortification - the application of mineral micronutrient fertilizers to soils or plant leaves to increase micronutrient contents in edible parts of crops – and it's potential to fight hidden hunger. There is evidence that agronomic biofortification can increase yields and the nutritional quality of staple crops, but there is a lack of direct evidence that this leads to improved human health. Micronutrient fertilization is most effective in combination with NPK, organic fertilizers and improved crop varieties, highlighting the importance of integrated soil fertility management. Agronomic biofortification provides an immediate and effective route to enhancing micronutrient concentrations in edible crop products, although genetic biofortification may be more cost effective in the long run.

      PubDate: 2016-12-17T13:27:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2016)
  • Innovations continuously enhance crop breeding and demand new strategic
    • Authors: Richard B. Flavell
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 12
      Author(s): Richard B. Flavell
      Food security relies on continuous supplies of improved products from plant breeding and their assimilation into agriculture. Extraordinary innovations in the life sciences have brought plant breeding into a new phase of opportunity. These include the means to discover, manage and select better versus poorer versions of genes and the ability to change gene sequences in situ by gene editing. Genomics is also revealing the thousands of different microbes in all plants and the roles that their genomes play in determining crop traits that can be further improved by addition of the right microbes. Assimilation of such innovations into breeding strategies can have major impacts on rates of breeding gain but to achieve this will require comprehensive strategic leadership, planning and investments by scientists, leading global agencies and all governments based on appreciation of (i) the continuous streams of innovations underpinning crop improvement and (ii) the necessities for more rapid crop improvements everywhere to help avert otherwise inevitable catastrophes.

      PubDate: 2016-12-24T14:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2016)
  • Enhancing food security: Food crop portfolio choice in response to
           climatic risk in India
    • Authors: Aditya R. Khanal; Ashok K. Mishra
      Pages: 22 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 12
      Author(s): Aditya R. Khanal, Ashok K. Mishra
      Food security is highly sensitive to climate risks in rainfed areas, particularly in South Asia where agriculture is highly dependent on rainfall. About 56% of India's land mass is agricultural land, and only 43% is net cultivated area; 60% of India's total cropped area is still rain-fed and therefore dependent on the monsoon. Changes in climatic variables such as rainfall can have an adverse impact on output and income, food prices and human health, and the food security. This study considers the combination of food crop choices as one of the ex-ante risk management strategies and examines farm households’ food crop portfolio choices as a response to climatic risk in semi-arid tropics of India. Unlike in other countries, intercropping and mixed cropping are prevalent among Indian farmers. Taking this into consideration and data from Indian farms findings show that farmers in semi-arid tropics of India are growing less risky food crop portfolio. Secondly, we find that in the presence of climatic risk, farmers tend to choose less risky crops and as a result less risky food crop portfolios. Finally, in the presence of climatic risk wealthy farmers and farmers with more cash on hand are more likely to choose relatively riskier food crop portfolio.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T12:16:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2016)
  • Nutrition indicators in agriculture projects: Current measurement,
           priorities, and gaps
    • Authors: Anna Herforth; Terri J. Ballard
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 10
      Author(s): Anna Herforth, Terri J. Ballard
      How agriculture can improve human nutrition is a topic of debate. Recent reviews demonstrate little impact on nutritional status but do not critically examine the choice of appropriate outcome indicators. This paper reviews which nutrition impact indicators are currently used in agriculture-nutrition projects, and highlights priorities and gaps in measurement. Many project evaluations are statistically underpowered to observe impact on nutritional status, but appear to be powered to observe impacts on food consumption and dietary quality, which we conclude are an appropriate level of impact of agriculture-nutrition projects. To improve the evidence base, there is a need to develop indicators of outcomes that are not being fully measured, including dietary quality and food security, women's empowerment, health environments, and food environments.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T09:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2016)
  • Horticultural exports and food security in developing countries
    • Authors: Goedele Van den Broeck; Miet Maertens
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 10
      Author(s): Goedele Van den Broeck, Miet Maertens
      This article reviews the channels through which horticultural exports affect food security in developing countries. We describe the trends in horticultural export chains and investigate the macro- and micro-level effects on the different components of food security, including availability, access, utilization and stability. The available evidence suggests that horticultural exports contribute to food security in developing countries, particularly through the development of rural labor markets and female wage employment in companies. Important challenges remain; most notably the provision of secure employment at remunerative conditions and the sustainable use of water resources. Overcoming these challenges requires tighter national legislation but also private food standards may contribute. Empirical evidence that directly measures the impact of horticultural exports on food security and the underlying impact pathways is still completely missing and highly needed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T09:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2016)
  • Land tenure reforms, tenure security and food security in poor agrarian
           economies: Causal linkages and research gaps
    • Authors: Stein T. Holden; Hosaena Ghebru
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 10
      Author(s): Stein T. Holden, Hosaena Ghebru
      This paper reviews the literature to identify the relationship between tenure security and food security. The literatures on tenure issues and food security issues are not well connected and the scientific evidence on the causal links between tenure security and food security is very limited. The paper explores the conceptual linkages between land tenure reforms, tenure security and food security and illustrates how these vary across diverse contexts. The paper then reviews the limited number of high quality studies that contribute to a causal chain analysis between tenure security and food security and identifies important research gaps.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T09:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2016)
  • The growing role of the private sector in agricultural research and
           development world-wide
    • Authors: Keith Fuglie
      Pages: 29 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 10
      Author(s): Keith Fuglie
      The private sector is playing an important role in developing technologies to raise productivity in agriculture. This paper presents new estimates of private agricultural and food R&D spending trends over the past 25 years. Global private spending on agricultural R&D (excluding R&D by food industries) rose from $5.1billion in 1990 to $15.6billion by 2014. Private R&D investment accelerated as agricultural commodity prices began to rise in 2003. Although the companies that account for most agricultural R&D spending are based in developed countries, their technologies have considerable and growing importance for developing countries. Some implications of these trends for public R&D policy are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T09:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2016)
  • Why African rural development strategies must depend on small farms
    • Authors: Donald F. Larson; Rie Muraoka; Keijiro Otsuka
      Pages: 39 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 10
      Author(s): Donald F. Larson, Rie Muraoka, Keijiro Otsuka
      Improving the productivity of smallholder farms in Sub-Saharan Africa offers the best chance to reduce poverty among this generation of rural poor by building on the few resources farming households already own. It is also the best and shortest path to meet rising food needs. Using examples from farmers' maize and rice fields, comparisons with Asia, and an extensive literature review, we explain why the set of technologies promoted to date have produced localized successes rather than transformational change. We also examine the limitations of alternative policies that are not centered on small farms. We give indicative examples of how resource-management technologies can supplement seed-fertilizer technologies to speed an African Green Revolution.

      PubDate: 2016-08-17T09:58:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2016)
  • The interaction between social protection and agriculture: A review of
    • Authors: Nyasha Tirivayi; Marco Knowles; Benjamin Davis
      Pages: 52 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 10
      Author(s): Nyasha Tirivayi, Marco Knowles, Benjamin Davis
      Both agricultural interventions and social protection interventions are needed for combatting hunger and poverty among poor smallholder farmers. Yet, coordination between these two sectors is generally limited and, until recently, little attention has been paid to the interaction between them and how this potentially improves rural livelihoods. Our review analyses the empirical evidence on how social protection impacts agricultural production and how agricultural interventions reduce risks and vulnerability at the household and local economy levels. Most studies show that social protection can increase agricultural production while agricultural interventions can lower vulnerability. However, the availability of evidence is uneven across outcomes and developing regions. We conclude that existing evidence largely provides an empirical rationale for building synergies between social protection and smallholder agriculture.

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T10:55:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2016)
  • Structural approaches to modeling the impact of climate change and
           adaptation technologies on crop yields and food security
    • Authors: Shahnila Islam; Nicola Cenacchi; Timothy B. Sulser; Sika Gbegbelegbe; Guy Hareau; Ulrich Kleinwechter; Daniel Mason-D'Croz; Swamikannu Nedumaran; Richard Robertson; Sherman Robinson; Keith Wiebe
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 10
      Author(s): Shahnila Islam, Nicola Cenacchi, Timothy B. Sulser, Sika Gbegbelegbe, Guy Hareau, Ulrich Kleinwechter, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Swamikannu Nedumaran, Richard Robertson, Sherman Robinson, Keith Wiebe
      Achieving and maintaining global food security is challenged by changes in population, income, and climate, among other drivers. Assessing these threats and weighing possible solutions requires a robust multidisciplinary approach. One such approach integrates biophysical modeling with economic modeling to explore the combined effects of climate stresses and future socioeconomic trends, thus providing a more accurate picture of how agriculture and the food system may be affected in the coming decades. We review and analyze the literature on this structural approach and present a case study that follows this methodology explicitly modeling drought and heat tolerant crop varieties. We show that yield gains from adoption of these varieties differ by technology and region, but are generally comparable in scale to (and thus able to offset) adverse effects of climate change. However, yield increases over the projection period are dominated by the effects of growth in population, income, and general productivity, highlighting the importance of joint assessment of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers to better understand climate impacts and responses.

      PubDate: 2016-09-20T12:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2016)
  • Translating the Sustainable Development Goals into action: A participatory
           backcasting approach for developing national agricultural transformation
    • Authors: David R. Kanter; Marie-Hélène Schwoob; Walter E. Baethgen; José E. Bervejillo; Miguel Carriquiry; Achim Dobermann; Bruno Ferraro; Bruno Lanfranco; Mario Mondelli; Cecilia Penengo; Rodrigo Saldias; María Eugenia Silva; Juan Manuel Soares de Lima
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 10
      Author(s): David R. Kanter, Marie-Hélène Schwoob, Walter E. Baethgen, José E. Bervejillo, Miguel Carriquiry, Achim Dobermann, Bruno Ferraro, Bruno Lanfranco, Mario Mondelli, Cecilia Penengo, Rodrigo Saldias, María Eugenia Silva, Juan Manuel Soares de Lima
      A new set of objectives for sustainable development are now in place, known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and countries need to develop concrete policy roadmaps to achieve them. This is particularly challenging in the agricultural sector given the heterogeneity of local conditions, the diffuse nature of its environmental impacts, and the important interactions with various aspects of sustainable development – from education and poverty alleviation, to human health and the environment. And yet it is precisely because of these interactions that vibrant, resilient and sustainable national agricultural sectors are key to the SDGs’ success. This paper presents a practical backcasting approach and methodological toolkit – developed by the Agricultural Transformation Pathways (ATP) initiative under the auspices of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) – for countries to develop policy roadmaps towards 2030 using local tools and expertise that could help transform national agricultural sectors in a way that is consistent with the SDGs. This approach is illustrated using the Uruguayan beef sector as a case study, where productivity and environmental targets were developed in tandem with a wide range of stakeholders in order to maximize productivity, while minimizing a suite of environmental impacts – from carbon footprint and biodiversity, to nitrogen losses. This marks the beginning of a new approach to achieving the SDGs in the agricultural sector: participatory target setting and pathway development across a number of areas crucial to sustainable development – all under a harmonized framework provided by the ATP initiative. We hope the methodological approach and results of the Uruguay case study will become a touchstone for future work in this area.

      PubDate: 2016-09-20T12:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2016)
  • Linking agriculture and social protection for food security: The case of
    • Authors: Silvio Daidone; Benjamin Davis; Joshua Dewbre; Borja Miguelez; Ousmane Niang; Luca Pellerano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Silvio Daidone, Benjamin Davis, Joshua Dewbre, Borja Miguelez, Ousmane Niang, Luca Pellerano
      In July 2013 FAO Lesotho began a pilot initiative called the Linking Food Security to Social Protection Programme (LFSSP). The programme's objective was to improve the food security of poor and vulnerable households by providing vegetable seeds and training on improved homestead gardening. The programme was intentionally provided to households eligible for a large-scale social cash transfer, the Child Grants Programme (CGP). In this paper we present findings from the impact evaluation of the two programmes. Overall we find positive effects of the programmes on homestead gardening and productive agricultural activities. Many of these observed outcomes appear driven by the combination of the two programmes. An additional year of CGP along with one year of the LFSSP achieved a number of outcomes which two years of receiving the CGP alone did not. This pilot has been used as the basis for the design of a national upscale response to El Nino drought in Lesotho including Home Gardening and Nutrition assistance for all CGP beneficiaries who were affected by a sharp increase of food prices.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T12:16:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.12.002
  • Global footprints of water and land resources through China's food trade
    • Authors: Tariq Ali; Jikun Huang; Jinxia Wang; Wei Xie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Tariq Ali, Jikun Huang, Jinxia Wang, Wei Xie
      China's rapid increase in food imports has repercussions for China's and global resources. This study reviews the recent literature on China's virtual water and land trade through food trade, presents updated results for 2000–2015, and makes projections for 2030. The results show that the increased imports of virtual water and land have significantly eased pressure on these resources in China. Soybean imports have been the main contributor towards China's domestic savings of virtual water and land. China's food trade has increasingly contributed towards global savings of virtual water and land. Our projections suggest that the trend in savings of domestic and global virtual water and land will continue, with significant variations due to changes in resource use efficiency.

      PubDate: 2016-11-26T23:09:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.11.003
  • Measuring sustainable intensification in smallholder agroecosystems: A
    • Authors: Alex Smith; Sieglinde Snapp; Regis Chikowo; Peter Thorne; Mateete Bekunda; Jerry Glover
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Alex Smith, Sieglinde Snapp, Regis Chikowo, Peter Thorne, Mateete Bekunda, Jerry Glover
      Sustainable intensification (SI) is at the forefront of food security discussions as a means to meet the growing demand for agricultural production while conserving land and other resources. A broader definition of SI is emerging that takes into account the human condition, nutrition and social equity. Next steps require identification of indicators and associated metrics, to track progress, assess tradeoffs and identify synergies. Through a systematic, qualitative review of the literature we identified SI indicators, with a primary focus on African smallholder farming systems. We assessed indicators and metrics for which there is consensus, and those that remain contested. We conclude that, while numerous metrics for evaluating SI systems exist, many often-cited indicators lack strong sets of associated metrics.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T22:19:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.11.002
  • Meeting the global food security challenge: Obstacles and opportunities
    • Authors: Christopher B. Barrett; Cheryl Palm
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Christopher B. Barrett, Cheryl Palm

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T22:14:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.11.001
  • Transforming gender constraints in the agricultural sector: The potential
           of social protection programmes
    • Authors: Nicola Jones; Rebecca Holmes; Elizabeth Presler-Marshall; Maria Stavropoulou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Nicola Jones, Rebecca Holmes, Elizabeth Presler-Marshall, Maria Stavropoulou
      Gender inequality continues to constrain women's opportunities in the agricultural sector, both in terms of achieving food security and increasing agricultural productivity. However, investment in gender-responsive programming which promotes women's empowerment can help to overcome these constraints. This article discusses experiences in social protection programming design and implementation with respect to gender equality, food security and agricultural productivity: we find that while a large part of social protection programming remains focused on supporting women's domestic and care roles and responsibilities, there have also been important advances in thoughtful programming which supports more transformative changes in women's roles as producers. These types of programmes typically recognise the multiple risks and vulnerabilities that women face, both in their reproductive and productive roles, and aim to overcome these through integrated programming combining support for basic needs as well as broader empowerment goals.

      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.09.004
  • Understanding recent challenges and new food policy in China
    • Authors: Jikun Huang; Guolei Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jikun Huang, Guolei Yang
      Despite of remarkable achievements in the past, China is also facing several major challenges, in particular on ensuring sustainable growth of agriculture, improving food security, increasing farmers' income. The paper reviews China's agricultural and food policy with specific focus on recent challenges, initial policy responses and their consequences, and re-adjusting in policies. The results show that the policy responses to the challenges of sustainable agriculture are strong and encouraging. Adjusting the national food security target in response to sustainable agriculture and major efforts to improve food security are significant. To increase farmer's income, China has shifted its policy regime from taxing to subsidizing and protecting agriculture in the past decade. However, the results of these efforts are mixture. Price interventions increased farmers' income, they also resulted in several serious problems. Good news is that some new efforts to solve these problems may bring China's market reform back to the right track though they still needs to be evaluated. The paper concludes that the previous experiences on agricultural development through institutional reform, technology change, market reform, and investment in agriculture should still be the keys for successfully ensuring food security and sustainable agriculture for China in the future.

      PubDate: 2016-11-08T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.10.002
  • Can yield gap analysis be used to inform R&amp;D prioritisation'
    • Authors: P.A.J. van; Oort Saito Dieng Grassini K.G. Cassman M.K. van
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): P.A.J. van Oort, K. Saito, I. Dieng, P. Grassini, K.G. Cassman, M.K. van Ittersum
      The phrase “biggest bang for a buck” is associated with the policy making question that governments and development agencies face: “Where and which crops should receive highest priority for improving local and global food supply'”. A first step of prioritisation is to identify region x crop combinations for which high impact can be anticipated. We developed a new method for this prioritisation exercise and applied it to data from the Global Yield Gap and Water Productivity Atlas (GYGA). Our prioritisation distinguishes between two policy objectives (humanitarian and economic) and builds upon the relative yield gap and climate risk. Results of the prioritisation are presented and visualised in Google Earth.

      PubDate: 2016-10-27T21:43:58Z
  • Making the case for Institutional Demand: Supporting smallholders through
           procurement and food assistance programmes
    • Authors: Ryan Nehring; Ana Miranda; Andrew Howe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Ryan Nehring, Ana Miranda, Andrew Howe
      This paper focuses on the rationale for supporting market interventions for smallholders through what we call Institutional Demand. Institutional Demand consists of different interventions that target procurement from smallholder farmers and distribute their surplus to vulnerable populations. This policy intervention links the goals of both agricultural development and social protection through three key areas: price stabilization; income generation and; food security. We argue that Institutional Demand should be a key policy intervention as it can directly address both rural poverty and malnutrition. It does this by linking the productive capacity of smallholder farmers with populations living in situations of food insecurity. Impact evaluations and assessments of Institutional Demand programmes are limited in scope and depth. Therefore, while this paper outlines much of the evidence thus far, the primary purpose of this paper is to push forward a new research agenda that looks at the ways in which Institutional Demand can promote policy synergies between the goals of social protection and agricultural development. The issues outlined in this paper present fruitful areas for more qualitative and quantitative assessments of Institutional Demand programmes.

      PubDate: 2016-10-19T15:54:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.09.003
  • Targeting social protection and agricultural interventions: The potential
           for synergies
    • Authors: Cristina Cirillo; Mario Györi; Fabio Veras Soares
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Cristina Cirillo, Mario Györi, Fabio Veras Soares
      Social protection programmes and agricultural interventions for family farmers tend to operate in isolation from each other. This paper shows how coherent targeting mechanisms can help to coordinate both policy areas and create synergies. We argue that target groups and targeting methods used in both areas are often very similar or potentially complementary, which constitutes a promising basis for better coordination. Moreover, the paper describes relevant cases to illustrate how targeting is already being used to foster synergies between the two areas. We conclude based on these case studies that targeting coordination and overall coherence are indispensable tools to generate positive synergies between social protection and agricultural interventions – a potential basis for addressing food security more effectively in the future.

      PubDate: 2016-10-19T15:54:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.08.006
  • Design and rural context in antipoverty transfers: Implications for
           programme outcomes
    • Authors: Armando Barrientos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Armando Barrientos
      The expansion of antipoverty transfers in low- and middle-income countries focuses on poverty reduction but it also raises important questions regarding their contribution to growth and development. The paper considers the role of design and context in programme outcomes. Distinguishing three main programmes types identified, the analysis relies on insights from theory and practice to identify rural context conditions capable of enhancing or undermining programme outcomes. It finds that context conditions are important and require careful consideration by programmers.

      PubDate: 2016-10-19T15:54:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.09.002
  • Harnessing informal institutions to strengthen social protection for the
           rural poor
    • Authors: Maria Stavropoulou; Rebecca Holmes; Nicola Jones
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Maria Stavropoulou, Rebecca Holmes, Nicola Jones
      Social protection has emerged as an effective policy response to tackle food insecurity, increase agricultural productivity and promote rural development across the developing world. Despite the proliferation of social protection programmes, their coverage is still low and informal support systems continue to be the key means of protection for the majority of the rural poor and vulnerable. Although their significance has remained largely invisible in policy and programming, there is growing interest to explore their potential and to support linkages with formal programmes. This article reviews the main types of informal social protection with their strengths and weaknesses, identifies their linkages to formal social protection, and proposes ways to strengthen them for more robust and inclusive social protection systems.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T13:13:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.08.005
  • Impact of cash transfer programs on food security and nutrition in
           sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-country analysis
    • Authors: Smriti Tiwari; Silvio Daidone; Maria Angelita Ruvalcaba; Ervin Prifti; Sudhanshu Handa; Benjamin Davis; Ousmane Niang; Luca Pellerano; Paul Quarles van Ufford; David Seidenfeld
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Smriti Tiwari, Silvio Daidone, Maria Angelita Ruvalcaba, Ervin Prifti, Sudhanshu Handa, Benjamin Davis, Ousmane Niang, Luca Pellerano, Paul Quarles van Ufford, David Seidenfeld
      This paper explores the extent to which government-run cash transfer programs in four sub-Saharan countries affect food security and nutritional outcomes. These programs include Ghana's Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty, Kenya's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, Lesotho's Child Grants Program and Zambia's Child Grant model of the Social Cash Transfer program. Our cross-country analysis highlights the importance of robust program design and implementation to achieve the intended results. We find that a relatively generous and regular and predictable transfer increases the quantity and quality of food and reduces the prevalence of food insecurity. On the other hand, a smaller, lumpy and irregular transfer does not lead to impacts on food expenditures. We complement binary treatment analysis with continuous treatment analysis to understand not only the impact of being in the program but also the variability in impacts by the extent of treatment.

      PubDate: 2016-09-20T12:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.009
  • Developing approaches to achieve adequate nutrition among urban
           populations requires an understanding of urban development
    • Authors: S. Bloem; S. de Pee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): S. Bloem, S. de Pee
      Since 2008 the world has become predominantly urban. By 2050, there will be 2.5 billion more people living in cities and most of these will be in small and medium-size cities in Africa and Asia. These continents are home to high malnutrition rates. Policy makers will need to ensure that food and nutrition security can be achieved by the growing urban populations, including the urban poor, in order for this urban growth to generate equitable economic growth. This paper demonstrates how understanding urban dynamics such as city size, urban infrastructures, and rural-urban linkages are critical for planning for adequate urban nutrition. In particular it highlights the potential strength of strategically investing in medium-size cities as they are more likely to generate equitable growth, including for their surrounding hinterlands, thus strengthening local foods systems and creating better enabling environments for improved urban nutrition through better sanitation infrastructures and increased access to nutritious foods by the urban poor.

      PubDate: 2016-09-20T12:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.09.001
  • The dynamics of beef trade between Brazil and Russia and their
           environmental implications
    • Authors: Florian Schierhorn; Patrick Meyfroidt; Thomas Kastner; Tobias Kuemmerle; Alexander V. Prishchepov; Daniel Müller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Florian Schierhorn, Patrick Meyfroidt, Thomas Kastner, Tobias Kuemmerle, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Daniel Müller
      Changes in the production or consumption of agricultural commodities in one place can drastically affect land use and the environment elsewhere. We show how changes in beef production and consumption in Russia following the breakdown of the Soviet Union in 1991 contributed to the emergence of a beef trade linkage between Brazil and Russia. We argue that the decline of Russian beef production after 1991, the rebound of domestic consumption since the late 1990s, the global beef trade constellation of the early 2000s, and the booming Brazilian cattle sector during the same periods forged a strong and lasting telecoupling in the beef trade between Brazil and Russia. As a result, Russia became the largest importer of both CO2 and non-CO2 emissions embodied in Brazilian beef exports since the 2000s. Our review exemplifies how the combination of institutional and socioeconomic shocks along with major changes in global markets can couple food systems and redistribute environmental footprints across long distances. Incorporating telecouplings in assessments of sustainable food systems is therefore important.

      PubDate: 2016-08-21T10:28:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.08.001
  • Biofuel policies and the impact of developing countries’ policy
           responses to the 2007–2008 food price boom
    • Authors: Harry de Gorter; Dušan Drabik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Harry de Gorter, Dušan Drabik
      Economists have been unanimous that developing countries’ policy responses to high food grain prices in 2007–2008 in restricting exports and promoting imports increased both world food grain price levels and volatility. Furthermore, the literature emphasizes the self-defeating aspects of policy responses: world prices increase even further, thereby raising domestic prices in countries imposing policies to protect domestic consumers. We show that because of the crop-biofuel price linkages that took hold in 2007 caused by biofuel policies, developing countries’ policy responses had little impact on world prices in 2008 and maximum impact in reducing domestic price in developing countries. There is little empirical evidence of a policy responses increasing world prices. Instead, the incidence of those developing countries with policy responses were mostly in reducing domestic prices while those countries that did not respond (including all developed countries) faced high world prices locked onto crude oil prices and unaffected by policy responses. Given that most studies on developing countries’ policy response analyze the impacts on poverty in developing countries, this paper has important policy implications, especially food security analysis which now requires understanding how biofuel policies impact food commodity prices.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T09:38:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.008
  • Benefits to smallholders? Evaluating the World Food Programme's
           Purchase for Progress pilot
    • Authors: Erin Lentz; Joanna Upton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Erin Lentz, Joanna Upton
      The United Nations World Food Programme's (WFP's) Purchase for Progress (P4P), a multi-year, multi-country pilot, sought to improve smallholder farmer wellbeing through a combination of food purchases from farmer organizations and supply-side interventions. We examine the impacts of P4P on smallholder farmers in Tanzania, using panel data on members of participating and comparison farmer organizations. P4P targeted participants based on pre-existing warehouses locations. To account for possible selection on observables, we use propensity score matching, limiting the sample to participating farmers and their matches, and then compute conditional difference-in-differences. While participating small farmers increase their commercial farming activity relative to comparison farmers, we do not find evidence of increased income, increased food consumption scores or increased crop value. We discuss possible factors contributing to these findings, including WFP's diverse objectives and the targeting of farmer organizations rather than smallholders.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T09:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.003
  • Synergies and trade-offs for sustainable agriculture: Nutritional yields
           and climate-resilience for cereal crops in Central India
    • Authors: Ruth DeFries; Pinki Mondal; Deepti Singh; Ishan Agrawal; Jessica Fanzo; Roseline Remans; Stephen Wood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Ruth DeFries, Pinki Mondal, Deepti Singh, Ishan Agrawal, Jessica Fanzo, Roseline Remans, Stephen Wood
      Sustainable agriculture has multiple objectives, including efficient use of land to produce nutrients for human consumption, climate resilience, and income for farmers. We illustrate an approach to examine trade-offs and synergies among these objectives for monsoon cereal crops in central India. We estimate nutritional yields for protein, energy and iron and examine the sensitivity of yields to monsoon rainfall and temperature. Rice, the dominant crop in the region, is the least land efficient for providing iron and most sensitive to rainfall variability. Sorghum and maize provide high nutritional yields while small millet is most resilient to climate variability. Price incentives are strong for rice. No single crop is superior for all objectives in this region. Instead, understanding which crops, or combinations of crops, are most suitable requires identifying household-, community-, and region-specific priorities coupled with empirical analysis that considers multiple objectives.

      PubDate: 2016-07-25T09:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.07.001
  • Reducing risks to food security from climate change
    • Authors: B.M. Campbell; S.J. Vermeulen; P.K. Aggarwal; C. Corner-Dolloff; E. Girvetz; A.M. Loboguerrero; J. Ramirez-Villegas; T. Rosenstock; L. Sebastian; P. Thornton; E. Wollenberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): B.M. Campbell, S.J. Vermeulen, P.K. Aggarwal, C. Corner-Dolloff, E. Girvetz, A.M. Loboguerrero, J. Ramirez-Villegas, T. Rosenstock, L. Sebastian, P. Thornton, E. Wollenberg
      Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on crop, livestock and fisheries production, and will change the prevalence of crop pests. Many of these impacts are already measurable. Climate impact studies are dominated by those on crop yields despite the limitations of climate-crop modelling, with very little attention paid to more systems components of cropping, let alone other dimensions of food security. Given the serious threats to food security, attention should shift to an action-oriented research agenda, where we see four key challenges: (a) changing the culture of research; (b) deriving stakeholder-driven portfolios of options for farmers, communities and countries; (c) ensuring that adaptation actions are relevant to those most vulnerable to climate change; (d) combining adaptation and mitigation.

      PubDate: 2016-07-06T14:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.06.002
  • Why behavioral economics matters to global food policy
    • Authors: David R. Just; Gnel Gabrielyan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): David R. Just, Gnel Gabrielyan
      As developed countries have grappled with rising rates of obesity, policymakers’ efforts have been frustrated. Traditional approaches have treated food consumers as if they were making deliberate and calculated food decisions, leading to policies that provide more detailed health information, pricing incentives and direct prohibitions. The results have fallen far short of expectations, and have often generated significant backlash in the process. Alternative approaches recognizing the passive nature of food decisions has recently gained some traction. These approaches, based on behavioral economics, rely on subtle changes in the food choice environment. The hallmark of these “nudges” are relatively large impacts on choice within the altered environment, relatively low costs, and little in the way of consumer resistance. In this paper we review the relevant literature within the developed world, and document the systematic policy applications. One key theme has been the importance of such interventions in food environments affecting the poor and food insecure. This is the case for two distinct reasons: First, it is the food insecure that are at greatest risk for obesity; second, the food insecure are most likely to be susceptible to food choice nudges. For these reasons, nudges may be of import in developing country settings. As obesity is on the rise in many developing countries, lessons learned in developed countries may be directly applicable. Alternatively, similar principles may be of use in ensuring proper nutrition among the food insecure as a means to prevent malnutrition or other acute diet related diseases. We provide some discussion of what these applications may look like, as well as the research needed to make effective use of behavioral choice in this new frontier.

      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.05.006
  • Oil crops, aquaculture, and the rising role of demand: A fresh perspective
           on food security
    • Authors: Rosamond L. Naylor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Rosamond L. Naylor
      The global economy has experienced remarkable growth during the past twenty-five years. Rising incomes have helped to alleviate extreme poverty and calorie deficiencies worldwide, and have fueled demand for animal protein and processed foods. Income disparities have also widened, leaving the majority of the world's population in the lower income groups. This paper explores how economic growth, income distribution, and trade have influenced patterns of food demand and food security since 1990. It focuses on two of the most rapidly expanding segments of the world food economy, tropical oil crops and aquaculture. These commodity groups involve multinational companies and smallholder producers oriented mainly around global markets. To date, however, Sub-Saharan Africa has largely been by-passed by growth in both sectors.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T22:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.05.001
  • Food security, farmland access ethics, and land reform
    • Authors: Michael Lipton; Yashar Saghai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Michael Lipton, Yashar Saghai
      Though reducible by known means, food insecurity remains widespread, with tightening constraints on alternative policies to address it. In this article, we argue that in many developing countries more equal distribution of land is a key, yet often neglected, policy option, and that state-led land reform remains a major, ethically defensible route for addressing food insecurity and related disadvantages. In assessing empirically and ethically redistributive land reform to smallholders, we seek to advance the debate in global food security and to make a contribution to farmland-access ethics, that is, the moral evaluation of actions, practices, policies, and laws that affect farmland distribution, allocation, and use.

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T21:49:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.004
  • Sustainable food security and nutrition: Demystifying conventional beliefs
    • Authors: Shenggen Fan; Joanna Brzeska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Shenggen Fan, Joanna Brzeska
      The global food system today faces the significant challenge of feeding more people amid dwindling natural resources and a more fragile natural environment. The path toward sustainable food security and nutrition is often riddled with inaccurate and oversimplified beliefs regarding the requirements and impacts of such a strategy. This includes the belief that trade-offs are inevitable when linking environmental sustainability with food security and nutrition strategies—which means that stakeholders have to prioritize one area at the expense of the other. Likewise, policymakers and researchers alike often make inaccurate assumptions about technological innovations, gender, biofuels, and smallholder farming. Such sustainable food security and nutrition “myths” pose a significant challenge to the effective design and promotion of more environmentally-friendly agricultural and food systems. This paper will explore the myths and realities surrounding the relationship between environmental sustainability, food security, and nutrition. It will focus on debunking some of the common myths that hamper sustainable food security and nutrition efforts and will highlight actions that can mutually reinforce food security, nutrition, and environmental sustainability. Providing the world's growing population with a more secure and sustainable supply of nutritious food is possible but not automatic and requires an accurate and comprehensive understanding of the dynamics surrounding sustainable food security and nutrition pathways.

      PubDate: 2016-04-24T11:44:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.005
  • Growing advantage of large farms in Asia and its implications for global
           food security
    • Authors: Keijiro Otsuka; Yanyan Liu; Futoshi Yamauchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Keijiro Otsuka, Yanyan Liu, Futoshi Yamauchi
      When the wage rate is low, a labour-intensive production method is chosen. Since it is costly to monitor hired labourers in agriculture, small-scale farms dependent on family labour are more efficient than large farms relying on hired labour. This leads to the inverse relationship between farm size and productivity, if land markets do not reallocate land. When the wage rate increases, labour-saving and machine-using production methods become efficient. If machinery and land are complementary and machines are indivisible to some extent, large-scale mechanized farms become more efficient, which tends to weaken the inverse farm size-productivity relationship. This article argues that if small-scale farms continue to dominate in the face of the increasing wage rate in Asia, many countries in this region will lose their comparative advantage in agriculture.

      PubDate: 2016-04-02T17:38:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.001
  • The role of food retailers in improving resilience in global food supply
    • Authors: Sarina Macfadyen; Jason Tylianakis Deborah Letourneau Tim Benton Pablo Tittonell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Sarina Macfadyen, Jason M. Tylianakis, Deborah K. Letourneau, Tim G. Benton, Pablo Tittonell, Michael P. Perring, Carla Gómez-Creutzberg, András Báldi, John M. Holland, Linda Broadhurst, Kimiko Okabe, Anna R. Renwick, Barbara Gemmill-Herren, Henrik G. Smith
      We urgently need a more resilient food supply system that is robust enough to absorb and recover quickly from shocks, and to continuously provide food in the face of significant threats. The simplified global food supply chain we currently rely upon exacerbates threats to supply and is unstable. Much attention has been given to how producers can maximise yield, but less attention has been given to other stakeholders in the supply chain. Increasingly, transnational food retailers (supermarkets) occupy a critical point in the chain, which makes them highly sensitive to variability in supply, and able to encourage change of practice across large areas. We contend that the concentration in the chain down to a few retailers in each country provides an opportunity to increase resilience of future supply given appropriate, scale-dependent interventions. We make ten recommendations aimed at reducing variability in supply that can be driven by retailers (although some of the interventions will be implemented by producers). Importantly, resilience in our food supply requires the restoration and expansion of ecosystem services at the landscape-scale.

      PubDate: 2016-01-25T05:51:14Z
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