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Journal Cover   Global Food Security
  [SJR: 0.786]   [H-I: 3]   Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2211-9124
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Climate change through a gendered lens: Examining livestock holder food
           security
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 6
      Author(s): Sarah L. McKune , Erica C. Borresen , Alyson G. Young , Thérèse D Auria Ryley , Sandra L. Russo , Astou Diao Camara , Meghan Coleman , Elizabeth P. Ryan
      Livestock holders experience increased food insecurity because of climate change. We argue that development programs, public health specialists, and practitioners must critically examine gendered impacts of climate change to improve food security of livestock producers. This review illustrates the differential experiences of men and women and how vulnerability, adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity to climatic stimuli are gendered in distinct ways between and among livestock holding communities. We propose a gendered conceptual framework for understanding the impact of climate change on food security among livestock holders, which highlights potential pathways of vulnerability and points of intervention to consider in global health strategies for improving household food security.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T22:31:15Z
       
  • Urbanization and linkages to smallholder farming in sub-Saharan Africa:
           Implications for food security
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 4
      Author(s): Agnes Andersson Djurfeldt
      The article reviews evidence on African urbanization trends and consequences of these for the smallholder sector and rural food security. Urban growth is less rapid than often assumed and consumption rather than production driven, while liberalized trade regimes have globalized food systems. Urban insecurity and rural poverty are handled through self-provisioning arrangements in both rural and urban areas, which may undermine the role of urban areas as sources of demand for rural produce. Smallholders in rural areas close to existing urban areas are likely to benefit most from growing markets for high value products. Food security must be the priority for marginal areas untouched by urbanization.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Upgrading rice value chains: Experimental evidence from 11 African markets
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 5
      Author(s): Matty Demont , Maïmouna Ndour
      Previous research has advanced the hypothesis that improving food security in Africa will require upgrading rice value chains in order to increase the quality-based competitiveness of domestic rice relative to imported rice in urban markets. We review the experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis. During 2008–2012, a research program of framed field experiments based on experimental auctions was implemented to study consumers’ revealed preferences for rice quality attributes in 11 African markets. The experimental results suggest that domestic rice can compete with imported rice in urban markets if its intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes are better tailored to urban consumer preferences. This is important for policy makers who are currently implementing ambitious national rice development strategies throughout Africa.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Rice yield growth analysis for 24 African countries over 1960–2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 5
      Author(s): Kazuki Saito , Ibnou Dieng , Ali A. Toure , Eklou A. Somado , Marco C.S. Wopereis
      In Africa, there have been scattered reports of yield stagnation. This study examined trends in rice yields in 24 African countries based on United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) data from 1960 to 2012 using segmented linear regression, and determined factors affecting variation in yield growth rates across countries. About 74% of rice harvested area in Africa recently witnessed positive rice yield growth rates of greater than 35kgha−1 year−1. Lifting rice yields requires continued investment in rice research on technology development, development or rehabilitation of irrigation schemes, and upgrading of the existing rainfed lowlands to irrigated or partially irrigated systems. Priority should be given to countries with high rice consumption levels, where the investments will be more effective.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • How much have domestic food prices increased in the new era of higher food
           prices?
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 5
      Author(s): David Dawe , Cristian Morales-Opazo , Jean Balie , Guillaume Pierre
      Analysis of domestic price data (adjusted for inflation) from a large range of low- and middle-income countries shows that domestic staple food prices were higher in 2013 than they were in the first half of 2007: consumption-weighted real domestic rice, wheat and maize price indices increased by 19, 19 and 29 percent, respectively. The domestic price indices broadly follow world price movements, but domestic price changes are attenuated to an important extent due to government policies, transport costs, changes in exchange rates and other factors. While world price changes thus overstate the impact on food security of farmers and consumers, the observed increases in domestic prices are still substantial for the poor. Domestic price changes have varied widely across countries, and the changes in any particular country are not necessarily due to changes in world market prices.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • West African rice development: Beyond protectionism versus
           liberalization?
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 5
      Author(s): Patricio Mendez del Villar , Frédéric Lançon
      The 2008 rice-price surge provided ammunition to the opponents of rice trade liberalization in West Africa. However, a comparative analysis of the rice development history and policy changes since the 1980s across selected West African countries shows that neither protectionism nor liberalization had a sustainable impact on West Africa׳s rice import dependency. Both policy options wrongly assume that rice markets are efficient and able to forward price incentives to producers, while they are actually deeply segmented between local and imported rice. Without putting a higher priority on the development of an efficient local rice marketing system, rice development will likely have a limited impact on import dependency level, whatever trade policy options are chosen (protectionism or liberalization).


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 5
      Author(s): Marco C.S. Wopereis



      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Asian rice economy changes and implications for sub-Saharan Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 5
      Author(s): Ramziath T. Adjao , John M. Staatz
      Despite significant increases in rice production, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) still procures about one third of its rice needs through imports, mainly from Asia. Improving the competitiveness of local rice production will be economically sustainable only if production in SSA remains cost-competitive with Asia. Realizing this goal depends not only on conditions in SSA but also on how the rice economy in Asia evolves. Several factors are likely to affect the major Asian rice economies strongly in the coming years: (i) increased diversification of diets as a result of changing age structures and rapid economic growth; (ii) changes in production patterns; and (iii) evolving costs of production in response to higher energy and water costs, and technological change. The aim of the article is to assess the changes in rice-system dynamics of both SSA and Asia and derive their implications for the development of the rice subsector in SSA.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Digital soil assessment for regional agricultural land evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 5
      Author(s): B. Harms , D. Brough , S. Philip , R. Bartley , D. Clifford , M. Thomas , R. Willis , L. Gregory
      The development of irrigated cropping is an important component of the strategy to intensify land use in sparsely populated northern Australia. An integrated resource assessment study has been conducted, with the aim of evaluating the potential for irrigated cropping in the Flinders and Gilbert river catchments – an area of 155,500km2 in north Queensland. The coupling of digitally derived soil and land attributes with a conventional land suitability framework facilitated the rapid evaluation of regional-scale agricultural potential in this remote area. Approximately 50% of the total area was found to be suitable for a range of irrigated crops, but the vast majority of this area has significant soil limitations and other constraints to production. Growing crops successfully in the dry tropics of northern Australia remains a challenge. Quantified uncertainty associated with the digital soil mapping outputs was used to estimate the reliability of the land suitability assessments.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Revised hunger estimates accelerate apparent progress towards the MDG
           hunger target
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 5
      Author(s): Colin David Butler
      In 2012, the Food and Agricultural Organization released new measures of hunger data in its authoritative report “State of Food Insecurity in the World”. These revised estimates of global hunger were not only lower for recent years than previously reported, but also significantly higher for 1990. Both changes have implications for the attainability of the Millennium Development Goal target, set in 2000, making it appear much more within reach. Implications are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • De-mystifying family farming: Features, diversity and trends across the
           globe
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 5
      Author(s): Jiska A. van Vliet , Antonius G.T. Schut , Pytrik Reidsma , Katrien Descheemaeker , Maja Slingerland , Gerrie W.J. van de Ven , Ken E. Giller
      Family farms are defined by two criteria: the importance of family labour and the transfer of ownership, land tenure or management to the next generation. Most farms across the globe are family farms, and they vary in size from <1ha to >10,000ha. Trends in farm size (small farms getting smaller and large farms getting larger) are not directly related to farm ownership and do not necessarily impact global food security. Rather, both the causes and effects of farm size trends depend on the availability of farm resources and off-farm employment opportunities. Similarly, environmental sustainability, though impacted by agriculture, cannot be linked directly to family ownership or farm size. To address issues related to environment, social conditions and food security, focus should not be on the preservation of family farms but on transformations to strive for environmental, social and economic sustainability of farming in all its shapes and forms.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Why crop yields in developing countries have not kept pace with advances
           in agronomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Thomas George
      Crop research generates two distinct sets of products: improved germplasm and advances in agronomy — technologies and knowledge/techniques to efficiently exploit the germplasm yield potential (Yp). The success of the Green Revolution was largely due to high farmer adoption of improved germplasm along with subsidized inputs that greatly increased average yield (Ya) from a low base. Although farmers adopted irrigation, fertilizers, machinery and other inputs that changed their agronomy and led to robust total factor productivity (TFP) growth, the Ya remained well below Yp indicating poor agronomy practice. Policies focusing on total production to meet food demand have also contributed to expansion of harvested area at low Ya and low input efficiency (low productivity of land, labor, water, fertilizer or other). Yield growth has since slowed or Ya has stalled at low levels unlike in developed countries where Ya advanced markedly closer to Yp. This paper argues that poor agronomy practice in developing countries is because of farmers' rational perception, regardless of their information needs, of high risks and low returns which do not justify the additional investments in labor and inputs required to systematically practice agronomy. As such, farmers default to low-risk, low-yield practices, even though they would temporarily switch to high-yield practices in low-risk settings, such as in agricultural projects. With poor agronomy practice, there is also little market feedback in developing countries for agronomy research products. Therefore, the potential for agronomy to dramatically increase Ya and productivity remains untapped in developing countries. To increase farmer yields and incomes without enlarging the agricultural footprint at low Ya, this paper argues that the focus must shift from relying mainly on germplasm-driven increases in total production to increasing both Ya and productivity of inputs through effective agronomy practice. This requires creating low-risk, high-return market settings for the average developing country farmer.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Enhancing the impact of natural resource management research: Lessons from
           a meta-impact assessment of the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Roderick M. Rejesus , Adrienne M. Martin , Phrek Gypmantasiri
      This article present results from a multi-dimensional impact assessment of a large multi-year Natural Resource Management (NRM) research project for rice – the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC) – and uses insights from this assessment to further understand how NRM research can be improved to have more impact in a developing country context. Results of the meta-impact assessment indicate that NRM research generated by the IRRC has provided a wide-range of impacts in multiple dimensions—from micro-level impacts on farmer livelihoods to national-level agricultural policy influence. Based on the IRRC experience, international NRM research institutions can enhance impact in developing countries by: fostering partnerships, collaborations, and cross-country learning; involving social scientists for monitoring, evaluation, and impact assessment; and, having long-term support and involvement of donors.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Soybean production potential in Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Thomas R. Sinclair , Helene Marrou , Afshin Soltani , Vincent Vadez , Krishna C. Chandolu
      Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) could possibly become a major crop in Africa due to its many uses as a food, feed, and in industry. Also, its ability to undertake symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a great advantage over cereal crops. This study simulated yield potential across west and east Africa. A number of areas were excluded from soybean production because of inadequate early season rains to allow timely sowing of the crop. Among the remaining areas, average yields greater than 200gm−2 were commonly simulated. Two drought traits were examined as plant modifications to increase yields. These results identified those areas and plant traits in Africa where soybean has the potential to be an important, viable crop.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Framework for participatory food security research in rural food value
           chains
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): F. Graef , S. Sieber , K. Mutabazi , F. Asch , H.K. Biesalski , J. Bitegeko , W. Bokelmann , M. Bruentrup , O. Dietrich , N. Elly , A. Fasse , J.U. Germer , U. Grote , L. Herrmann , R. Herrmann , H. Hoffmann , F.C. Kahimba , B. Kaufmann , K.-C. Kersebaum , C. Kilembe , A. Kimaro , J. Kinabo , B. König , H. König , M. Lana , C. Levy , J. Lyimo-Macha , B. Makoko , G. Mazoko , S.H. Mbaga , W. Mbogoro , H. Milling , K. Mtambo , J. Mueller , C. Mueller , K. Mueller , E. Nkonja , C. Reif , C. Ringler , S. Ruvuga , M. Schaefer , A. Sikira , V. Silayo , K. Stahr , E. Swai , S. Tumbo , G. Uckert
      Enhancing food security for poor and vulnerable people requires adapting rural food systems to various driving factors. Food security-related research should apply participatory action research that considers the entire food value chain to ensure sustained success. This article presents a research framework that focusses on determining, prioritising, testing, adapting and disseminating food securing upgrading strategies across the multiple components of rural food value chains. These include natural resources, food production, processing, markets, consumption and waste management. Scientists and policy makers jointly use tools developed for assessing potentials for enhancing regional food security at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The research is being conducted in Tanzania as a case study for Sub-Saharan countries and is done in close collaboration with local, regional and national stakeholders, encompassing all activities across all different food sectors.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Feeding capitals: Urban food security and self-provisioning in Canberra,
           Copenhagen and Tokyo
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): John R. Porter , Robert Dyball , David Dumaresq , Lisa Deutsch , Hirotaka Matsuda
      Most people live in cities, but most food system studies and food security issues focus on the rural poor. Urban populations differ from rural populations in their food consumption by being generally wealthier, requiring food trade for their food security, defined as the extent to which people have adequate diets. Cities rarely have the self-provisioning capacity to satisfy their own food supply, understood as the extent to which the food consumed by the city's population is produced from the city's local agro-ecosystems. Almost inevitably, a city's food security is augmented by production from remote landscapes, both internal and external in terms of a state's jurisdiction. We reveal the internal and external food flows necessary for the food security of three wealthy capital cities (Canberra, Australia; Copenhagen, Denmark; Tokyo, Japan). These cities cover two orders of magnitude in population size and three orders of magnitude in population density. From traded volumes of food and their sources into the cities, we calculate the productivity of the city's regional and non-regional ecosystems that provide food for these cities and estimate the overall utilised land area. The three cities exhibit differing degrees of food self-provisioning capacity and exhibit large differences in the areas on which they depend to provide their food. We show that, since 1965, global land area effectively imported to produce food for these cities has increased with their expanding populations, with large reductions in the percentage of demand met by local agro-ecosystems. The physical trading of food commodities embodies ecosystem services, such as water, soil fertility and pollination that are required for land-based food production. This means that the trade in these embodied ecosystem services has become as important for food security as traditional economic mechanisms such as market access and trade. A future policy question, raised by our study, is the degree to which governments will remain committed to open food trade policies in the face of national political unrest caused by food shortages. Our study demonstrates the need to determine the food security and self-provisioning capacity of a wide range of rich and poor cities, taking into account the global location of the ecosystems that are provisioning them.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Erratum to “Biofuels in Brazil: Evolution, achievements and
           perspectives on food security” [Glob. Food Secur. 2 (2013)
           117–125]
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Luiz Augusto Horta Nogueira , Rafael Silva Capaz



      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Five inter-linked transformations in the Asian agrifood economy: Food
           security implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Thomas Reardon , C. Peter Timmer
      “Five interlinked transformations” of the agrifood system are occurring rapidly in Asia and are well along in Latin America and emerging in Africa: (1) urbanization; (2) diet change; (3) agrifood system transformation; (4) rural factor market transformation; (5) intensification of farm technology (the agricultural transformation). These transformations are linked in mutually causal ways in all directions—the transformation is of an integrated system rather than piecemeal, independent changes. This means the overall transformation has the potential to be very rapid and complicated. The new situation is not linear and easily predictable, but there remains the need to act – by both the private and public sectors – in this rapidly changing environment. Having an informed vision of these dynamic interrelationships can sharply improve the potential to act appropriately.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Climate change adaptation in mixed crop–livestock systems in
           developing countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Philip K. Thornton , Mario Herrero
      Mixed crop–livestock systems produce most of the world׳s milk and ruminant meat, and are particularly important for the livelihoods and food security of poor people in developing countries. These systems will bear the brunt of helping to satisfy the burgeoning demand for food from increasing populations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where rural poverty and hunger are already concentrated. The potential impacts of changes in climate and climate variability on these mixed systems are not that well understood, particularly as regards how the food security of vulnerable households may be affected. There are many ways in which the mixed systems may be able to adapt to climate change in the future, including via increased efficiencies of production that sometimes provide important mitigation co-benefits as well. But effective adaptation will require an enabling policy, technical, infrastructural and informational environment, and the development challenge is daunting.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • 40 Years of dialogue on food sovereignty: A review and a look ahead
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ashley Chaifetz , Pamela Jagger
      We review the evolution of the food sovereignty movement from its Green Revolution origins centered on food self-sufficiency to current dialogue focused on reduced use of transgenic crops, supporting small-scale agriculture, eschewing trade liberalization, and promoting agroecology principles. We discuss food sovereignty in the context of a “right to food” as has been put forward by the United Nations. We review food sovereignty discourse to assess what it contributes to key aspects of global food security. We conclude that, while food sovereignty has promise as a normative concept, it is unlikely to be implemented in any substantive way in the near future. Forces affecting the future of food including rapid population growth, upward food price trends, globalization, and institutional path dependence in global food and agricultural input markets are formidable adversaries.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Farm household models to analyse food security in a changing climate: A
           review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): M.T. van Wijk , M.C. Rufino , D. Enahoro , D. Parsons , S. Silvestri , R.O. Valdivia , M. Herrero
      We systematically reviewed the literature on farm household models, with emphasis on those focused on smallholder systems. The models were evaluated on their predictive ability to describe short term (3–10 years) food security of smallholder farm households under climate variability and under different scenarios of climate change. The review of 126, mainly production-oriented, farm household models, showed that integrated analyses of food security at the farm household level are scarce. Some models deal with elements of food security, but the models covered in this review are weak on decision-making theory and risk analyses. These aspects need urgent attention for dealing with more complex adaptation and mitigation questions, in the face of climatic change. Approaches that make use of decision making theory and combine the strengths of (dynamic) mathematical programming and expert systems decision models seem promising in this respect. They could support the robust evaluation of climate change impacts and adaptive management options on smallholder systems.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Climate change adaptation in crop production: Beware of illusions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): David B. Lobell
      A primary goal of studying climate change adaptation is to estimate the net impacts of climate change. Many potential changes in agricultural management and technology, including shifts in crop phenology and improved drought and heat tolerance, would help to improve crop productivity but do not necessarily represent true adaptations. Here the importance of retaining a strict definition of adaptation – as an action that reduces negative or enhances positive impacts of climate change – is discussed, as are common ways in which studies misinterpret the adaptation benefits of various changes. These “adaptation illusions” arise from a combination of faulty logic, model errors, and management assumptions that ignore the tendency for farmers to maximize profits for a given technology. More consistent treatment of adaptation is needed to better inform synthetic assessments of climate change impacts, and to more easily identify innovations in agriculture that are truly more effective in future climates than in current or past ones. Of course, some of the best innovations in agriculture in coming decades may have no adaptation benefits, and that makes them no less worthy of attention.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Eating meat: Constants and changes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Vaclav Smil
      Eating meat has been an important component of human evolution and rising meat consumption has made a major contribution to improved nutrition. Expanding the current practices of meat production would worsen its already considerable environmental consequences but more environmentally sensitive ways of meat production are possible. Although they could not match the current levels of meat supply, they could provide nutritionally adequate levels worldwide. This would mean a break with historical trends but such a shift is already underway in many affluent countries and demographic and economic factors are likely to strengthen it in decades ahead.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Global sustainability standards and food security: Exploring unintended
           effects of voluntary certification in palm oil
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Peter Oosterveer , Betty E. Adjei , Sietze Vellema , Maja Slingerland
      Voluntary labelling and certification schemes have become increasingly used in global agro-food chains. They primarily aim at enhancing the sustainability of agricultural production processes. The global palm oil supply, the different environmental and social problems related to it, and the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) certification clearly illustrate this. However, global sustainability standards may also have unintended impacts on food security and local development, which are not explicitly taken into account. This article explores the unnoticed effects of voluntary palm oil certification in Indonesia and Ghana and identifies their implications on local and national food provision. As voluntary labels and certification schemes are an emerging category of global governance instruments, their role in food security, as a global public good, should be taken seriously and connected to political and scientific debates on their future involvement in realizing food security.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • A review of global food security scenario and assessment studies: Results,
           gaps and research priorities
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): M. van Dijk , G.W. Meijerink
      Over the last decade, scenario analysis increasingly has been used to explore the main drivers affecting global food supply and demand in the future. The aim of this study is to summarise, compare and evaluate global scenarios with a focus on global food security. We find that food security outcomes differ substantially and may be attributed to three main factors: (1) differences in scenario storylines and assumptions on drivers, (2) differences in the models that are employed to process the drivers and generate scenario outcomes, and (3) differences in the way and the extent to which results are reported. We also identify several ways how studies and models may be improved. This paper provides important and helpful suggestions for practitioners, but is also useful for policy-makers, who are usually the ultimate users of these scenario studies.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • A biogeochemical view of the global agro-food system: Nitrogen flows
           associated with protein production, consumption and trade
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Gilles Billen , Luis Lassaletta , Josette Garnier
      Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we propose a generalised representation of the world׳s agro-food systems in 2009, based on the description of nitrogen (i.e. proteins) fluxes from fertilisers to crops and from crops to livestock and human nutrition. This description also includes the resulting environmental losses of nitrogen at each stage of the chain. Current trade and production fluxes of food and feed differentiate 12 macro-regions, strongly contrasted in terms of N transfer patterns. Three major factors determining the performance of the agro-food system are highlighted: (i) the cropland yield–fertilisation relationship, (ii) vegetal to animal protein conversion efficiency in the livestock farming system, as well as its connection to either semi-natural grassland or cropping systems, and (iii) total protein consumption and proportion of animal protein in the human diet.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Rethinking the measurement of undernutrition in a broader health context:
           Should we look at possible causes or actual effects?
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Alexander J. Stein
      When measuring food and nutrition security, focusing on proxy indicators such as food availability, or on selected head count figures such as stunting rates, gives an incomplete picture. Outcome-based global burden of disease (GBD) studies offer an alternative for monitoring the burden of chronic and hidden hunger. Judging by this measure, the international goal of halving global hunger between 1990 and 2015 has already been achieved. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) that are used as metric in GBD studies can be converted into more easily understood monetary terms. The resulting estimate of the annual cost of global hunger of up to 1.9 trillion international dollars may be better suited to illustrate the magnitude of the remaining problem.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Strengthening the engagement of food and health systems to improve
           nutrition security: Synthesis and overview of approaches to address
           malnutrition
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Jessica Fanzo
      The nutritional status of populations often serves as a proxy for the world׳s wider progress and setbacks. Currently, we are facing a crisis: a double burden of both undernutrition and overweight and obesity compounded with food insecurity in many countries. In an increasingly globalized world and interconnected food system, subjected to the pressures of growing populations, climate variability and food price volatility, no country or population is immune to the challenges that lay ahead. While unsettling, we now have more information, both in science and in practice, on how to improve the global food system. The solutions are inherently trans-sectoral, engaging practitioners and experts across agriculture, rural development and public health. Improvements can be driven by resilient food system approaches to ensure better utilization of food and dietary diversity and quality. Strengthening food systems should be complemented with engagement of the public health and the water, sanitation and hygiene systems to ensure adequate food and nutrition security, health and wellbeing for all.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Measuring nutritional diversity of national food supplies
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Roseline Remans , Stephen A. Wood , Nilanjana Saha , Tal Lee Anderman , Ruth S. DeFries
      Improvements in agricultural production have drastically increased grain yields in the past half-century. Despite this growth in productivity and calories available per capita, malnutrition – both undernutrition and, increasingly, overweight – remains pervasive. Though nutrition is critical to human health, it has yet to be systematically integrated into assessments of agricultural and food systems. Using three complementary diversity metrics, we find strong associations between nutritional diversity of national food supplies and key human health outcomes, while controlling for socio-economic factors. For low-income countries the diversity of agricultural goods produced by a country is a strong predictor for food supply diversity; for middle- and high-income countries national income and trade are better predictors. Our results highlight the importance of diversity in national food systems for human health. We provide metrics for agricultural and food security policies to consider nutritional diversity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Regional governance, food security and rice reserves in East Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Paul Belesky
      Many underlying systemic issues that produced the surge in global food prices in 2007–08 continue to exist today. This study proposes that these complex and interconnected transnational issues cannot be adequately addressed solely on a national basis, but instead require broader regional cooperation. This paper will assess the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve as an exemplar of regional cooperation in relation to addressing food insecurity. It is posited that while regional food reserves do have some limitations, they can benefit countries facing food emergencies and are an effective way of promoting regional cooperation and mutual assistance among countries, amid the challenges posed by increasing instability and price volatility in the contemporary global food system.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Historical divergence in public management of foodgrain systems in India
           and Bangladesh: Opportunities to enhance food security
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): O. Banerjee , T. Darbas , P.R. Brown , C.H. Roth
      The Indian government is involved in almost every aspect of foodgrain procurement and distribution. Systemic inefficiencies and irregularities have slowed progress in achieving food security while programme expansion toward universality of coverage has important budgetary implications. Bangladesh offers a stark contrast with the reduced role of government in foodgrain distribution and highly targeted approach to the poor. With the Indian government׳s control of the foodgrain system undergoing an overhaul, this paper explores the evolution of foodgrain systems in India and Bangladesh in search of insights to improve system design and efficiency to enhance food security outcomes. The increasing role of markets, self-targeted programs, conditional programs and technological innovation in foodgrain supply management have been effective in reducing food insecurity in the region.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Post-harvest loss in sub-Saharan Africa—what do farmers say?
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Jonathan Kaminski , Luc Christiaensen
      The 2007–2008 global food crisis has renewed interest in post-harvest loss (PHL), but estimates remain scarce, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper uses self-reported PHL measures from nationally representative household surveys in Malawi, Uganda, and Tanzania. Overall, on-farm PHL adds up to 1.4–5.9 percent of the national maize harvest, substantially lower than the FAO (2011) post-harvest handling and storage loss estimate for cereals of 8 percent. It is also concentrated among few, less than a fifth of households. PHL increases with humidity and temperature, and declines with better market access, post primary education, higher seasonal price differences and possibly also with improved storage practices. Wider use of nationally representative surveys in studying PHL is called for.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Inland capture fishery contributions to global food security and threats
           to their future
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): So-Jung Youn , William W. Taylor , Abigail J. Lynch , Ian G. Cowx , T. Douglas Beard Jr. , Devin Bartley , Felicia Wu
      Inland fish and fisheries play important roles in ensuring global food security. They provide a crucial source of animal protein and essential micronutrients for local communities, especially in the developing world. Data concerning fisheries production and consumption of freshwater fish are generally inadequately assessed, often leading decision makers to undervalue their importance. Modification of inland waterways for alternative uses of freshwater (particularly dams for hydropower and water diversions for human use) negatively impacts the productivity of inland fisheries for food security at local and regional levels. This paper highlights the importance of inland fisheries to global food security, the challenges they face due to competing demands for freshwater, and possible solutions.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Food wedges: Framing the global food demand and supply challenge towards
           2050
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Brian A. Keating , Mario Herrero , Peter S. Carberry , John Gardner , Martin B. Cole
      A projection of global food demand to 2050, with assumptions on population growth, dietary shifts and biofuel expansion, provides an estimate of the amount of additional food needed over the next 40 years to satisfy human needs. This additional food demand, expressed in kilocalories, represents a “mega-wedge” akin to the carbon stabilisation wedges of Pacala and Socolow (2004). This food demand challenge consists of three component “food wedges” classed according to their target pathways: i.e. pathways that target reducing food demand; pathways that target increasing food production; and pathways that target sustaining the productive capacity of food systems. In this paper we examine these wedges in terms of prospective pathways through which food supply and demand can stay in balance over the next 40 years. Within these wedge classes, we nominate 14 pathways that are likely to make up the food security ‘solution space’. These prospective pathways are tested through a survey of 86 food security researchers who provided their views on the likely significance of each pathway to satisfy projected global food demand to 2050. The targeting of pathways that contribute to filling the production gap was ranked as the most important strategy by surveyed experts; they nominated that 46% of the required additional food demand is likely to be achieved through pathways that increase food production. Pathways that contribute to sustaining the productive capacity are nominated to account for 34% of the challenge and 20% might be met by better food demand management. However, not one of the 14 pathways was overwhelmingly ranked higher than other pathways. This paper contributes a simple and comprehensive framing of the “solution space” to the future food demand challenge and a portfolio of investment pathways proposed to meet this challenge.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • The First International Conference on Global Food Security – A
           Synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 3, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Martin K. van Ittersum , Ken E. Giller



      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Benchmarking consumptive water use of bovine milk production systems for
           60 geographical regions: An implication for Global Food Security
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 4
      Author(s): Mst. Nadira Sultana , Mohammad Mohi Uddin , Brad Ridoutt , Torsten Hemme , Kurt Peters
      This study sets out to measure CWU (litre/kg ECM, energy-corrected milk) of typical milk production systems in 60 dairy regions from 49 countries representing 85% of the world׳s milk production. The extended version of TIPI-CAL 5.2 including water model was used for data analysis. The results have shown the CWU/kg ECM ranged between 739L on the Danish farm to 5622 l on the Ugandan farm with a global average of 1833L. When looking at averages per region, the CWU was lowest in Europe (913L) and highest in Africa (3384L) with large intra- and inter-regional differences. Compared with grazing and intensive production system, low yielding cows on small-scale farms have the highest CWU/kg ECM. The key driver for variation in CWU/kg ECM is feed, accounting for 94–99% of the total CWU. Increasing milk productivity might be one of the promising ways to reduce CWU/kg ECM. However, this might also lead to the negative impact into water supply systems if this increase is dependent on land irrigation in water scarce areas. The findings of this study showed the need to address the location of the farm, the feed quality, feeding system and milk production intensity simultaneously when aiming at efficient water resource management which would help to contribute food production and livelihood security of dairy farmers worldwide.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • What should agriculture copy from natural ecosystems?
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 4
      Author(s): R. Ford Denison , Andrew M. McGuire
      Natural ecosystems persist without synthetic inputs. Would mimicking the organization of natural ecosystems enhance the productivity, year-to-year stability, or long-term sustainability of agriculture? Ecological research has disproved once widely accepted ideas, such as the assumption that homeostatic mechanisms in natural ecosystems are as reliable as those in organisms. Although there are still many unanswered questions, we argue that natural-ecosystem organization (diversity, spatial patterns, etc.) is not necessarily superior to that in well-designed agricultural ecosystems, especially by criteria relevant to agriculture. Furthermore, agriculture׳s constraints (exporting protein to cities, challenges in managing mixtures) would limit mimicry even of any hypothetical natural ecosystems with superior organization. Unlike overall ecosystem organization, individual adaptations of wild species have been consistently improved over millennia, via competitive natural selection. These adaptations, which might be applied to improve pest resistance or stress tolerance of crops, may best be studied in the natural ecosystems where they evolved.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Food safety in developing countries: Moving beyond exports
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 4
      Author(s): Laurian Unnevehr
      Food safety is linked to food security through health and livelihoods, and improving food safety is necessary to address food security. An international consensus has emerged that the best way to address food safety is through a risk-based, farm-to-table approach that focuses on cost-effective prevention. In developing countries, this approach has been implemented in supply chains for high-value markets, particularly exports. Evidence shows that improvements are possible where market incentives exist, and where market institutions can ensure that risk reduction practices are followed. To address food safety for food insecure consumers in developing countries, public efforts should focus on the most important risks and cost-effective controls, provide support for capacity building and supply chain coordination, and improve incentives for food safety management.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Food security and the evaluation of risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 4
      Author(s): Stuart J. Smyth , Peter W.B. Phillips , William A. Kerr
      Achieving global food security over the next 40 years will require sustained increases in agricultural productivity. This will require increased investment in agricultural R&D. If there are systemic reasons why agricultural R&D is inhibited, they warrant investigation. New products and technologies require regulatory approval if they are to be commercialized. Approval, or not, is based on risk assessment with only those products that pass the risk assessment contributing to productivity improvements. If the likelihood of meeting the acceptable risk threshold is reduced, investment in R&D will be negatively impacted. This paper investigates the changing methods of risk assessment for agricultural products and notes a deterioration in the likelihood that risk assessment exercises will be completed successfully. Genetically modified products are used as an example. The changing nature of risk assessments is found to be inhibiting international market access, reducing trade and, hence, making investments in productivity enhancing technologies in agriculture less interesting. Achieving future food security goals will be more difficult.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Urban agriculture and food security: A critique based on an assessment of
           urban land constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 4
      Author(s): Madhav G. Badami , Navin Ramankutty
      Urban agriculture (UA) is promoted because of its contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. A considerable literature highlights these benefits, but there are also criticisms that they are overstated. We review these divergent perspectives and assess the potential for UA to contribute to urban food security in different regions, based on a low threshold of urban land required to grow the daily vegetable intake for the urban poor. We find that UA is feasible in these terms in high-income countries, but its potential is low, except in the most optimistic scenario, in low-income countries, where it might be most useful. We conclude that UA can only make a limited contribution in achieving urban food security in low-income countries.


      PubDate: 2015-06-24T16:34:08Z
       
  • Assessment of rice self-sufficiency in 2025 in eight African countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2015
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): P.A.J. van Oort , K. Saito , A. Tanaka , E. Amovin-Assagba , L.G.J. Van Bussel , J. van Wart , H. de Groot , M.K. van Ittersum , K.G. Cassman , M.C.S. Wopereis
      Most African countries are far from self-sufficient in meeting their rice consumption; in eight countries the production: consumption ratio, ranged from 0.16 to 1.18 in 2012. We show that for the year 2025, with population growth, diet change and yield increase on existing land (intensification), countries cannot become fully self-sufficient in rice. This implies that for the future, a mixture of area expansion and imports will be needed on top of yield gap closure. Further research is needed for identification of most suitable new land for rice area expansion and areas that should be protected.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T01:26:27Z
       
 
 
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