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Global Food Security
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.809
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2211-9124
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Priorities for wheat intensification in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains
    • Authors: Alex G. Park; Adam S. Davis; Andrew J. McDonald
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 17
      Author(s): Alex G. Park, Adam S. Davis, Andrew J. McDonald

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Assessing the chemical and microbiological quality of farmed tilapia in
           Egyptian fresh fish markets
    • Authors: Mahmoud Eltholth; Kimberly Fornace; Delia Grace; Jonathan Rushton; Barbara Häsler
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 17
      Author(s): Mahmoud Eltholth, Kimberly Fornace, Delia Grace, Jonathan Rushton, Barbara Häsler
      Fish make important contributions to food and nutrition security in low and middle income countries; however, they are also prone to contamination with a range of chemical and biological hazards. The presence of people's perception and health hazards has implications for consumer acceptability and hence the potential contribution of fish to nutrition and health. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical and microbiological quality of farmed tilapia in Egypt. We conducted a systematic literature review resulting in 38 papers meeting inclusion criteria. We also conducted a survey of seven hazardous chemicals in fish sampled from farms (300 samples from 100 farms) and of 5 biological hazards as well as total bacterial counts in fish sampled from retailers (300 samples from 100 retailers). The results showed that the level of contamination with heavy metals and pesticides was lower than the national and international permissible limits. On the other hand, level of contamination of a considerable proportion of samples with microbial pollutants was higher than the permissible limits. Results from the literature indicated that, the level of contamination of wild tilapia was higher than farmed tilapia, again in contradiction to common perceptions. Our results indicate that the risk of human exposure to heavy metals and pesticides via consumption of farmed tilapia is negligible compared to microbial hazards. These findings suggest that post-harvest contamination is the major health risk in the tilapia fish value chain and we make recommendations for addressing this.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • The global burden of chronic and hidden hunger: Trends and determinants
    • Authors: Theda Gödecke; Alexander J. Stein; Matin Qaim
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 17
      Author(s): Theda Gödecke, Alexander J. Stein, Matin Qaim
      Eradicating hunger in all its forms, including chronic and hidden hunger, requires good understanding of the problem's magnitude, trends, and determinants. Existing studies measure “hunger” through proxies that all have shortcomings. We use a more comprehensive metric, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), to quantify the burden of hunger and show related trends. While the burden of chronic hunger more than halved since 1990, it remains larger than the burden of hidden hunger. Cross-country regressions show that economic growth was a major determinant of reducing the hunger burden. However, growth and other country-level determinants have larger effects on the burden of chronic hunger than on the burden of hidden hunger. Complementary micro-level interventions are required to end hunger in all its forms.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Commercial farming within the urban built environment – Taking stock of
           an evolving field in northern countries
    • Authors: Khadija Benis; Paulo Ferrão
      Pages: 30 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 17
      Author(s): Khadija Benis, Paulo Ferrão
      Urban horticulture has historically contributed to the supply of fresh produce to urban dwellers and has been gaining popularity over the last years in the Global North, with growing awareness of environmental and health concerns. Over the past few years, commercial farms have been emerging in major northern cities, promoting a trend of environmentally friendly food, grown in highly efficient installations on top of or in buildings. This paper presents a scoping study, including: (i) a review of the scientific literature addressing environmental, economic and social aspects of commercial farming in urban contexts; and (ii) a consultation exercise to inform and validate findings from the review, consisting of semi-structured interviews with a few practitioners in the Netherlands. The main findings are: (1) while the recent proliferation of commercial farms in major cities shows that these new modes of urban agricultural production are gaining momentum, establishing their viability as compared to conventional agricultural practices is a challenge when it comes to scalability, resource efficiency, and cost-effectiveness; (2) as it is still a relatively new field, very few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess the impacts of commercial farming in urban areas; (3) given the complex environmental, economic and social dimensions of urban agriculture, holistic decision support tools could help integrating them in urban areas.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Complementarity and synergisms among ecosystem services supporting crop
    • Authors: Lucas A. Garibaldi; Georg K.S. Andersson; Fabrice Requier; Thijs P.M. Fijen; Juliana Hipólito; David Kleijn; Néstor Pérez-Méndez; Orianne Rollin
      Pages: 38 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 17
      Author(s): Lucas A. Garibaldi, Georg K.S. Andersson, Fabrice Requier, Thijs P.M. Fijen, Juliana Hipólito, David Kleijn, Néstor Pérez-Méndez, Orianne Rollin
      Understanding how ecosystem services interact to support crop yield is essential for achieving food security. Here we evaluate the interactions among biotic pest regulation, pollination, and nutrient cycling. We found only 16 studies providing 20 analyses of two-way interactions. These studies show that multiple services limit crop yield simultaneously. Complementary effects (no interactions) between ecosystem services were the most common, followed by synergistic effects (positive interactions), while evidence for negative interactions was weak. Most studies evaluated two levels of service delivery, thus did not quantify the functional response of crop yield. Although this function is expected to be non-linear, most studies assume linear relations. We conclude that the lack of evidence for negative interactions has important implications for agricultural management.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Sub-Saharan African maize-based foods: Technological perspectives to
           increase the food and nutrition security impacts of maize breeding
    • Authors: Onu Ekpa; Natalia Palacios-Rojas; Gideon Kruseman; Vincenzo Fogliano; Anita R. Linnemann
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 17
      Author(s): Onu Ekpa, Natalia Palacios-Rojas, Gideon Kruseman, Vincenzo Fogliano, Anita R. Linnemann
      The demand for maize in Sub-Saharan Africa will triple by 2050 due to rapid population growth, while challenges from climate change will threaten agricultural productivity. Most maize breeding programmes have focused on improving agronomic properties and have paid relatively little attention to postharvest qualities, thus missing important opportunities to increase the contribution to food and nutrition security. This paper considers current and potential food uses of maize in Africa and proposes six objectives to enhance the contribution of maize breeding programmes to food and nutrition security: (1) enhance nutrient density; (2) enhance suitability for use in bread and snacks; (3) improve characteristics for consumption as green maize; (4) improve characteristics that enhance the efficiency of local processing; (5) reduce waste by maximising useful product yield and minimising nutrient losses; (6) reduce the anti-nutrient content of grain.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Exploiting ecosystem services in agriculture for increased food security
    • Authors: Riccardo Bommarco; Giulia Vico; Sara Hallin
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 17
      Author(s): Riccardo Bommarco, Giulia Vico, Sara Hallin
      Despite contributing to economy and food security, Ecosystem Services (ES) are still not fully exploited in agriculture. Instead, external inputs have been used to boost yields, while exacting costs on public goods. Ecological intensification capitalizes on ecosystem services to enhance and stabilize production and reduce the need for external inputs, while sparing the environment. Of particular relevance are biodiversity-based ES connected to soil fertility, pest control and pollination. Ecological intensification is applicable in all regions, but for food security purposes, particular attention should be dedicated to implement it as ecological enhancement in regions with wide yield gaps, coinciding with poor food security. Diversified cropping system show promise to create win-win situations. Knowledge on ecology and socio-economy of ES will be needed, and agricultural research and innovation need to heed to resource use efficiency, production stability, minimal environmental impact, buffering of extreme events and adaptation to local conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Reforming the research policy and impact culture in the CGIAR: Integrating
           science and systemic capacity development
    • Authors: Cees Leeuwis; Laurens Klerkx; Marc Schut
      Pages: 17 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 16
      Author(s): Cees Leeuwis, Laurens Klerkx, Marc Schut
      This paper argues that the CGIAR -through its CGIAR Research Programmes-is struggling to fulfil its international mandate of conducting strategic research that contributes to agricultural development and global food security. Ongoing reforms have resulted in a situation where the CGIAR is assessed as if it were a development organisation. This leads the CGIAR to raise unrealistic expectations regarding the development impacts of the science conducted, resulting in ever growing distrust between the Centres and the donor community. Moreover, its short-term funding cycle and current mode of safeguarding scientific quality are not conducive to doing strategic and potentially transformative research. The paper proposes changes in the CGIAR impact culture, driven by a shift in policies that govern the everyday implementation and assessment of research. In line with this, we suggest that the best way to combine the international ‘science’ and ‘development’ mandates is through scientific capacity development of staff belonging to national research and innovation systems. This simultaneously requires major changes in the time-horizon of donor funding, and in how research programmes are selected and led. One sentence abstract The CGIAR should not be managed and assessed as a development organisation, and requires a longer-term horizon in its funding and governance arrangements.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2018)
  • Nutrition sensitive value chains: Theory, progress, and open questions
    • Authors: Summer Allen; Alan de Brauw
      Pages: 22 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 16
      Author(s): Summer Allen, Alan de Brauw
      The second Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) challenges the world to achieve food security and improve nutrition by 2030 but food insecurity and micronutrient deficiencies remain stubbornly high and rates of overweight and obesity are rising throughout the world. To attain SDG 2, food systems must deliver more nutritious food to populations. For food systems to do so, value chains for micronutrient-rich foods must be improved, making such foods more available and affordable to consumers. In this paper, we take a consumer focus on the value chains to consider the types of interventions that could lead to improved intakes of micronutrient-rich foods, and review the present literature on the types of value chain assessments, interventions, and initiatives that are attempting to improve nutrition as well as potential future directions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2018)
  • How much of the world's food do smallholders produce'
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 17
      Author(s): Vincent Ricciardi, Navin Ramankutty, Zia Mehrabi, Larissa Jarvis, Brenton Chookolingo

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:31:37Z
  • Is agricultural productivity slowing'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Keith O. Fuglie
      Declining rates of growth in crop yields, slowing investment in agricultural research, and rising commodity prices has raised concerns of a general slowdown in global agricultural productivity. However, there is no evidence of a general slowdown in the rate of growth in agricultural output. Thus, for productivity to slow, input use in agriculture would have to be expanding at an accelerated rate. Available data suggest that growth rates in agricultural land, labor and inputs in total have been steadily slowing over time, leading to accelerated growth rates in their average productivities. Increased cropping intensity has compensated for declining growth in average yield per harvest to keep land productivity growth from falling. Most of the acceleration in world agricultural productivity growth has taken place in developing countries; for industrialized countries, long-term trends show gradually declining agricultural productivity growth.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:31:37Z
  • Public agricultural R&D in high-income countries: Old and new roles in
           a new funding environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Paul W. Heisey, Keith O. Fuglie
      In recent years, public agricultural R&D investment in high-income countries has grown considerably more slowly than public agricultural R&D in developing countries, private R&D for agricultural inputs, or private food R&D. Funding trends in these countries have resulted in part from structural changes in the economy, changes in general agricultural policy, and an expanded research agenda. Shifts in agricultural research policy have had a mixed record of success in meeting objectives and have had limited impact in expanding the real resources devoted to agricultural research. However, public agricultural R&D in these countries continues to produce high quality scientific output and measurable impacts on productivity. These research systems continue to be an integral part of the global agricultural research effort.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:31:37Z
  • Animal genetic resources diversity and ecosystem services
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Gregoire Leroy, Roswitha Baumung, Paul Boettcher, Badi Besbes, Tatiana From, Irene Hoffmann
      Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) are a component of agricultural biodiversity making a large contribution to ecosystem services, resulting from their complex interaction with their respective environments. This review investigates how AnGR diversity, which includes more than 7000 distinct local and 1000 transboundary livestock breeds of around 40 species plus domesticated honeybees and other pollinators, influences, through livestock production systems and practices, the generation of a diversity of provisioning, regulating and maintenance, as well as cultural ecosystem services. The main use of domestic animals is for their provisional services of food production, with a large contribution from commercial breeds in industrial production systems in developed and emerging countries. However, in rural areas of developing countries, local livestock breeds often play a crucial role in food security, nutrition and health. Less intensive systems, located especially in harsh climate conditions, offer more diverse ecosystem services, including important regulating and maintenance services, with indirect use or non-use values, while permitting the use of land not suitable for crop production. Breeds used in such systems have often developed specific adaptive features for those environments. The identification and integration of traits relevant for ecosystem services within breeding programmes represent however a particular challenge, especially in low-input systems. The keepers of the livestock that offer these services are often marginalised and isolated from markets and excluded from decision making processes, however. It is therefore important to recognize the existence and value of these ecosystem services to better understand the trade-offs and synergies associated with their maintenance, and to account for them in policy and legal frameworks at national and international levels including providing appropriate incentives to the communities contributing to the generation of those services.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:31:37Z
  • Trade-offs in livestock development at farm level: Different actors with
           different objectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Gareth Salmon, Nils Teufel, Isabelle Baltenweck, Mark van Wijk, Lieven Claessens, Karen Marshall
      The livestock sector in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is evolving. In response to growing demand for livestock products, it is likely that smallholder production systems will experience varying forms of intensification. Associated decision making is made complex, not only with the intrinsic characteristics of livestock in LMICs (for instance as sources of income, assets, or social symbols), but also by diverse objectives of stakeholders and agricultural development paradigms. This paper discusses trade-offs that are likely to arise in the choice of livestock production systems; with a focus at household and farm level, economic gains, gender equity, environmental concerns, human nutrition and food safety are all considered. We begin by describing trajectories of livestock intensification in LMICs. Then potential trade-offs during such intensification are depicted; with examples concerning environmental, economic and social aspects. Recognising and understanding trade-offs is imperative; therefore we discuss decision making methods, the management of trade-offs and the balance between providing an average benefit for a population and the variation in benefit for individuals. Finally, a (partial) trade-off analysis is illustrated by use of a case study on household dairy cattle enterprises in Senegal. The discussion advocates for holistic approaches to agricultural development efforts, which include recognition of the multiple objectives and the associated trade-offs.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:31:37Z
  • The use of systems models to identify food waste drivers
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 16
      Author(s): Matthew James Grainger, Lusine Aramyan, Katja Logatcheva, Simone Piras, Simone Righi, Marco Setti, Matteo Vittuari, Gavin Bruce Stewart
      In developed countries, the largest share of food waste is produced at household level. Most studies on consumers’ food waste use models that identify covariates as significant when in fact they may not be, particularly where these models use many variables. Here, using EU-level Eurobarometer data from 2013, we use alternative analytical methods that avoid these problems (Bayesian Networks) to identify the impact of household characteristics and other variables on self-assessed food waste. Our analysis confirmed that the country, the age of the respondent, the status (student/non-student), and a belief that the family wastes too much are related to the level of self-assessed food waste. But we found no evidence that waste behaviours differ between people living in urban and rural areas, and little support of a difference between genders. Households from lower-income EU countries (e.g. Portugal, Greece, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Latvia), as well as students and young adults tend to report higher levels of food waste. Hence, the adoption of an EU strategy based on the concept of subsidiarity, and of country-level policy measures targeting different age groups is suggested. Furthermore, our analysis shows that policy makers need to be wary of relying on analysis based on large datasets that do not control for false-positives, particularly when sample sizes are small.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:31:37Z
  • Culture and food security
    • Authors: Elena Briones Alonso; Lara Cockx; Johan Swinnen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Elena Briones Alonso, Lara Cockx, Johan Swinnen
      This paper reviews available cross-disciplinary evidence on how culture affects food security. We discuss the impact of culture on all four dimensions (availability, access and choice, utilization, and stability). There is large heterogeneity in the size and breadth of available evidence, with research often biased toward high-come countries. The dynamics as well as the magnitude and relative importance of cultural effects on food security are still poorly understood. Despite these gaps in the literature, it is clear that how and why we obtain, process, prepare, and eat food is influenced by culture in various ways. Gender, family, and decision-making power play a critical role in interacting with culture and its impact on food security. There remains ample scope for improving food security policy by taking culture better into account.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.02.002
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 16

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:39:34Z
  • Prospects for cultivation of genetically engineered food crops in China
    • Authors: Carl Pray; Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Haiyan Deng; Jun Yang; Xenia K. Morin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Carl Pray, Jikun Huang, Ruifa Hu, Haiyan Deng, Jun Yang, Xenia K. Morin
      Major food crops that contain genetically engineered (GE) traits cannot be legally grown in China, despite major investments in biotechnology research and despite government decisions that GE maize, soybeans, and canola are safe to import and eat. The paper uses a political economy model to analyze why GE maize and GE rice have not been commercialized in China and whether they are like to be commercialized soon. This model draws on recently completed studies of consumers’ and business managers’ attitudes towards the safety and the profitability of GE rice and GE maize and on new publications of the potential economic impact of these crops. Consumer opposition and the absence of competitive GE traits from Chinese companies were two major factors constraining commercialization of GE food in the past. This paper predicts that GE maize is, however, likely to be commercialized in the near future due to recent developments in GE technology, the Chinese economy, and Chinese politics.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.01.003
  • Drying tendency dominating the global grain production area
    • Authors: Zhaoli Wang; Jun Li; Chengguang Lai; Raymond Yu Wang; Xiaohong Chen; Yanqing Lian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Zhaoli Wang, Jun Li, Chengguang Lai, Raymond Yu Wang, Xiaohong Chen, Yanqing Lian
      Drought is considered an environmental disaster with a direct and devastating impact on agriculture. However, little research focuses on climate change related drought variations across the global grain production area (GGPA). Thus, the variation of crop yield across different grain production regions that experience severe drought remains inadequately studied. We analyzed drought variations across the GGPA to study the impacts of severe droughts on the yields of four major crops (maize, rice, wheat, and soybean). This analysis was based on the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the crop yield dataset from 1951 to 2011. The results indicated that the entire GGPA experienced a significant increase in drought duration, impacted area, and severity of hazards. There was an average of 2.2 dry months and the dry area increased by 1.109% per decade. Regional variations existed across the GGPA, although the majority presented a tendency to increasing drought. Southern and Northern America tended to become wetter, while Eastern Asia, Southern Europe, and Africa (except for Eastern Africa) tended to become dryer. Developing countries and regions are generally more susceptible to extreme droughts and suffer more losses than developed countries and regions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.02.001
  • Food security and the environment: Interdisciplinary research to increase
           productivity while exercising environmental conservation
    • Authors: Miguel F. Acevedo; David R. Harvey; Florencia G. Palis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Miguel F. Acevedo, David R. Harvey, Florencia G. Palis
      Global food insecurity is increasing in absolute terms despite recent decreases in percentage terms. Options to increase food production while protecting the environment exclude further expansion of cropland, leaving increased agricultural productivity as an option assuming we address its associated technological and societal challenges while exercising environmental conservation. Improving productivity requires redoubled efforts in interdisciplinary work to design and implement sound agricultural management practices and efficient use of inputs. Based on a historical perspective of the last few decades on hypothesized environmental limits to food production and looking at prospective futures, we analyze the required type of interdisciplinary research to improve productivity. We conclude that bringing together increased food supply and environmental conservation requires research that integrates engineering, technology, science, policy, and action.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.01.001
  • Assessing current and future meat and fish consumption in Sub-Sahara
           Africa: Learnings from FAO Food Balance Sheets and LSMS household survey
    • Authors: Sam Desiere; Yung Hung; Wim Verbeke; Marijke D’Haese
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Sam Desiere, Yung Hung, Wim Verbeke, Marijke D’Haese
      Driven by economic growth, the consumption of animal-based foods is expected to increase substantially in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). This study examined meat and fish consumption and its income elasticity in Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda, using macro data from the FAO Food Balance Sheets and micro data from the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) household surveys. The convergence and divergence between the inferences drawn from these two datasets were assessed. FAO Food Balance Sheets data on meat consumption were in line with the estimates based on the LSMS household surveys, whereas figures on fish consumption were less consistent. Assuming that the seven countries in our study are representative for SSA, per capita meat and fish consumption is expected to increase by 54–69% if GDP of SSA doubles. Substantial variation exists between countries and across households within a country. Higher income elasticities for meat and fish consumption were found for poorer countries and poorer households. These estimates provide valuable inputs for future research with simulation models and for effective tailoring of agricultural and food policies for sustainable livestock production and consumption.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.12.004
  • Horticultural exports and food security in Senegal
    • Authors: Goedele Van den Broeck; Kaat Van Hoyweghen; Miet Maertens
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Goedele Van den Broeck, Kaat Van Hoyweghen, Miet Maertens
      Horticultural exports from developing countries are expanding. While concerns are rising about the consequences of this growth for local food security, there is no empirical evidence that directly measures this impact. We provide such evidence for Senegal, one of the African countries with a sharp growth in horticultural exports. Using secondary data and panel survey data, we analyse the link between horticultural exports and the availability, access, utilization and stability components of food security. Results suggest that horticultural exports contribute to the capacity to import food, and do not jeopardize availability of food at the macro-economic level. At the micro-economic level, we find that female wage employment in the horticultural export sector reduces the probability of self-reported food insecurity, improves the quality of food consumption, and shortens the hunger season.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.12.002
  • How comparable are cross-country data on agricultural public
    • Authors: Tewodaj Mogues; Richard Anson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Tewodaj Mogues, Richard Anson
      Sound cross-country data on agricultural public expenditures are key for determining public resource needs to support food security in the developing world. This article reviews all international initiatives that produce such data, and analyses the scope and methodologies underlying these data. We find that while, combined, all 13 data initiatives cover a rich spectrum, there remains an absence of crucial datasets such as on extension and on agricultural subsidies. Although there are several points of interaction between the data initiatives, significant (in some cases staggering) differences across datasets exist on seemingly the same variables, countries, and years. There is thus scope for greater collaboration across the data initiatives to develop shared standards in cross-country compilation of agricultural expenditure data.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.001
  • Grazing systems expansion and intensification: Drivers, dynamics, and
    • Authors: Cécile M. Godde; Tara Garnett; Philip K. Thornton; Andrew J. Ash; Mario Herrero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Cécile M. Godde, Tara Garnett, Philip K. Thornton, Andrew J. Ash, Mario Herrero
      Grazing systems dynamics are driven by a complex combination of socio-economic, political and environmental contexts. Although the drivers and dynamics can be highly location-specific, we focus on describing global trends as well as trends by agro-ecological, socio-economic and political contexts. Global grasslands have expanded in area over the last decades. A decreasing trend has however been observed since the 21st century. Grazing systems’ management has also intensified. While these dynamics can have socio-economic and environmental benefits, they have often led to unsustainable systems, exemplified by deforestation and land degradation. Opportunities for land expansion without damaging forests and natural ecosystems are increasingly limited around the world and future increases in grazing systems production will need to mainly come from increases in productivity per animal and per unit area. We highlight some priority research areas and issues for policy makers to consider to help the movement towards more sustainable systems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.11.003
  • EU policies and global food security
    • Authors: Jean-Christophe Bureau; Johan Swinnen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jean-Christophe Bureau, Johan Swinnen
      This paper reviews evidence on the impact of EU policies on global food security, focusing on several EU policy areas: agricultural policy, bioenergy policy, food standards, trade policy, and development (food aid) policy. Old concerns related to the detrimental impact of EU farm subsidies, food aid and tariffs on poor countries’ food security. New concerns relate to impacts of EU food standards and bioenergy policies. The EU policies which created the largest distortions on global markets (in the area of trade, agriculture, food aid, and bioenergy) have been substantially reformed over the past decades. Recent global food price fluctuations have also re-emphasized that the impact of EU policies on the poor's food security differ depending on whether these are consumers or producers, or whether countries are exporters or importers. Overall, our review explains that in many areas the impact of EU policies on global food security is less obvious and more complex than often argued.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.12.001
  • The rise in global biodiesel production: Implications for food security
    • Authors: Rosamond L. Naylor; Matthew M. Higgins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Rosamond L. Naylor, Matthew M. Higgins

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.10.004
  • Not just for the wealthy: Rethinking farmed fish consumption in the Global
    • Authors: Ben Belton; Simon R. Bush; David C. Little
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Ben Belton, Simon R. Bush, David C. Little
      Aquaculture’s contributions to food security in the Global South are widely misunderstood. Dominant narratives suggest that aquaculture contributes mainly to international trade benefiting richer Northern consumers, or provides for wealthy urban consumers in Southern markets. On the supply side, the literature promotes an idealized vision of ‘small-scale’, low input, semi-subsistence farming as the primary means by which aquaculture can contribute to food security, or emphasizes the role of ‘industrial’ export oriented aquaculture in undermining local food security. In fact, farmed fish is produced predominantly by a ‘missing middle’ segment of commercial and increasingly intensive farms, and overwhelmingly remains in Southern domestic markets for consumption by poor and middle income consumers in both urban and rural areas, making an important but underappreciated contribution to global food security.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.10.005
  • Women in agriculture: Four myths
    • Authors: Cheryl Doss; Ruth Meinzen-Dick; Agnes Quisumbing; Sophie Theis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Cheryl Doss, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Agnes Quisumbing, Sophie Theis

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T10:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.10.001
  • Social protection and agriculture: Introduction to the special issue
    • Authors: Andre Croppenstedt; Marco Knowles; Sarah K. Lowder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Andre Croppenstedt, Marco Knowles, Sarah K. Lowder
      Social protection programmes have expanded rapidly in many developing regions over the past two decades, covering about 2.1 billion people. The evidence shows social protection not only has positive welfare impacts, it also stimulates productive activity among beneficiary households and the local economy. Most of the extreme poor live in rural areas, with agriculture an important part of their livelihoods and policies to promote agricultural growth being essential. Both social protection and agricultural policies are needed for poverty reduction. However, the synergies inherent between the two are not yet fully understood. We review some of the key issues related to maximizing synergies between social protection and agricultural policies: targeting, informal support systems, gender, institutional demand, impact evaluation and research priorities.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T15:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.006
  • Tapping the economic and nutritional power of vegetables
    • Authors: Pepijn Schreinemachers; Emmy B. Simmons; Marco C.S. Wopereis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Pepijn Schreinemachers, Emmy B. Simmons, Marco C.S. Wopereis
      Vegetables are increasingly recognized as essential for food and nutrition security. Vegetable production provides a promising economic opportunity for reducing rural poverty and unemployment in developing countries and is a key component of farm diversification strategies. Vegetables are mankind's most affordable source of vitamins and minerals needed for good health. Today, neither the economic nor nutritional power of vegetables is sufficiently realized. To tap the economic power of vegetables, governments will need to increase their investment in farm productivity (including improved varieties, alternatives to chemical pesticides, and the use of protected cultivation), good postharvest management, food safety, and market access. To tap the nutritional power of vegetables, consumers need to know how vegetables contribute to health, and find them at affordable prices or be able to grow them themselves. Vegetable consumption must therefore be nurtured through a combination of supply-side interventions and behavioral change communication emphasizing the importance of eating vegetables for good nutrition and health. To fully tap the economic and nutritional power of vegetables, governments and donors will need to give vegetables much greater priority than they currently receive. Now is the time to prioritize investments in vegetables, providing increased economic opportunities for smallholder farmers and providing healthy diets for all.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T15:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.005
  • Measuring nutritional quality of agricultural production systems:
           Application to fish production
    • Authors: Jessica R. Bogard; Geoffrey C. Marks; Stephen Wood; Shakuntala H. Thilsted
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jessica R. Bogard, Geoffrey C. Marks, Stephen Wood, Shakuntala H. Thilsted
      Reorienting food systems towards improving nutrition outcomes is vital if the global goal of ending all forms of malnutrition is to be achieved. Crucial to transitioning to nutrition-sensitive agriculture is valuing and measuring nutritional quality of the outputs of agricultural production. We review existing indicators which capture an element of nutritional quality applicable to different stages of the food and nutrition system. Applying relevant indicators from the agricultural production stage to selected aquaculture systems, we compare and contrast their strengths and limitations. ‘Nutritional yields’, ‘potential nutrient adequacy’ and ‘Rao's quadratic entropy’ show particular promise in capturing the ability of a production system to nourish the most people and could be useful tools for prioritising investments and decision-making in the public, non-government and private sectors driving agriculture.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T10:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.004
  • Study context shapes recommendations of land-sparing and sharing; a
           quantitative review
    • Authors: Matthew Scott Luskin; Janice S.H. Lee; David P. Edwards; Luke Gibson; Matthew D. Potts
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Matthew Scott Luskin, Janice S.H. Lee, David P. Edwards, Luke Gibson, Matthew D. Potts
      Minimizing the negative impacts of tropical agricultural expansion and intensification on biodiversity and food security has been intensively discussed in the context of the land-sparing/land-sharing framework. Here, we evaluate how study scope, methodologies, and geographical focus, number of species studied, and type of cropping system helped to shape authors’ recommendations. First, we found that empirical studies focusing on tropical biodiversity were primarily in favor of land sparing (67%, 12 of 18 studies), whereas reviews and perspectives with a non-biodiversity (e.g. ecosystem services and food security) were more likely to favor of land sharing (58%, 7 of 12 studies). Second, wildlife-friendly tree crops or shaded systems (e.g. coffee and cacao) were the focus of most applied ecology research, while annual crops accounted for the majority of tropical cropland area and recent expansion. While these trends lend support that land sparing—by closing yield gaps paired with the protection of large contiguous habitats—is favored to limit the impacts on sensitive tropical forest biodiversity, the necessary policies and enforcement mechanisms may not yet be present or effective, nor is there adequate understanding and mitigation of negative food security impacts. By illustrating how a study's context shapes recommendations, our results help move the land-sparing/land-sharing debate forward by clarifying the origins of long-standing disagreements.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T09:55:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.08.002
  • Trade-offs between environment and livelihoods: Bridging the global land
           use and food security discussions
    • Authors: Patrick Meyfroidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Patrick Meyfroidt
      This paper connects the discussion on the trade-offs between agricultural production and environmental concerns, including the asserted need for global land use expansion, and the issues of rural livelihoods and food security. Several widespread narratives are challenged. The key insights are: 1/ There is a severe research gap about how concrete interventions can reduce the need for agricultural expansion through changing consumption. 2/ Increasing global food production can hardly be achieved without environmental trade-offs. 3/ The food security/environment trade-offs can be mitigated by recognizing that some supply chains benefit little to food security, while entailing high environmental impacts such as deforestation. 4/ Through prices, global food production is linked to food security of the - mainly urban - low income, net food buyers. 5/ Developing commercial farming, including medium-scale farms providing high labor productivity employment, can contribute to food security through rural wages. 6/ Developing such value chains based on commodities with high income- and price-elasticity of demand requires interventions to avoid deforestation through a rebound-effect.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:46:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.08.001
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