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Journal Cover Global Food Security
  [SJR: 1.516]   [H-I: 12]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2211-9124
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of
           cropping systems in the developing world to climate change
    • Authors: Gary N. Atlin; Jill E. Cairns; Biswanath Das
      Pages: 31 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 12
      Author(s): Gary N. Atlin, Jill E. Cairns, Biswanath Das
      Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T09:03:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2017)
       
  • What will it take to accelerate improvements in nutrition outcomes in
           Odisha? Learning from the past
    • Authors: Neha Kohli; Rasmi Avula; Mara van den Bold; Elisabeth Becker; Nicholas Nisbett; Lawrence Haddad; Purnima Menon
      Pages: 38 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 12
      Author(s): Neha Kohli, Rasmi Avula, Mara van den Bold, Elisabeth Becker, Nicholas Nisbett, Lawrence Haddad, Purnima Menon
      The Indian state of Odisha has made significant strides to address health and nutrition in the last 25 years. We used public data, policy and program documents, published literature, and interviews (n=75) with program and policy decision-makers, representatives from development partners, and civil society and community members to analyze these changes. Factors that contributed to scale up of health and nutrition interventions and the food security program included overarching policy support, financing at the national and state level, leadership across sectors from government to civil society and development partners, capacity and stability of tenure of bureaucrats, and state innovations in service delivery interventions. Barriers that may impede further progress include lack of sanitation, low levels of women's education, early marriage in girls, livelihood distress, and uneven progress across social groups.

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T09:03:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2017)
       
  • Improving nutrition through biofortification: A review of evidence from
           HarvestPlus, 2003 through 2016
    • Authors: Howarth E. Bouis; Amy Saltzman
      Pages: 49 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 12
      Author(s): Howarth E. Bouis, Amy Saltzman
      Biofortification is a feasible and cost-effective means of delivering micronutrients to populations that may have limited access to diverse diets and other micronutrient interventions. Since 2003, HarvestPlus and its partners have demonstrated that this agriculture-based method of addressing micronutrient deficiency through plant breeding works. More than 20 million people in farm households in developing countries are now growing and consuming biofortified crops. This review summarizes key evidence and discusses delivery experiences, as well as farmer and consumer adoption. Given the strength of the evidence, attention should now shift to an action-oriented agenda for scaling biofortification to improve nutrition globally. To reach one billion people by 2030, there are three key challenges: 1) mainstreaming biofortified traits into public plant breeding programs; 2) building consumer demand; and 3) integrating biofortification into public and private policies, programs, and investments. While many building blocks are in place, institutional leadership is needed to continue to drive towards this ambitious goal.

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T09:03:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2017)
       
  • Food security, farmland access ethics, and land reform
    • Authors: Michael Lipton; Yashar Saghai
      Pages: 59 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 12
      Author(s): Michael Lipton, Yashar Saghai
      Though reducible by known means, food insecurity remains widespread, with tightening constraints on alternative policies to address it. In this article, we argue that in many developing countries more equal distribution of land is a key, yet often neglected, policy option, and that state-led land reform remains a major, ethically defensible route for addressing food insecurity and related disadvantages. In assessing empirically and ethically redistributive land reform to smallholders, we seek to advance the debate in global food security and to make a contribution to farmland-access ethics, that is, the moral evaluation of actions, practices, policies, and laws that affect farmland distribution, allocation, and use.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T01:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2017)
       
  • Food security governance in Latin America: Principles and the way forward
    • Authors: Rafael Pérez-Escamilla; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Jeroen Candel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Jeroen Candel
      In spite of major advances in recent decades, food insecurity continues to be a pressing concern to policymakers across the world. Food security governance (FSG) relates to the formal and informal rules and processes through which interests are articulated, and decisions relevant to food security in a country are made, implemented and enforced on behalf of members of society. Improving FSG is challenging given the many different governance levels, political arenas, and policy domains involved. Whereas food security governance (FSG) is considered central to advancing the human right to food globally and for the attainment of each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, relatively little is known about whether and how existing governance arrangements and practices contribute to achieving these objectives. Therefore, a first step for understanding how to improve FSG involves realizing a better understanding of how governance functions are performed in diverse settings. This special issue highlights FSG lessons from Brazil and Mexico, investigating the effects of civil society involvement and coordination with and within government, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. The experience in Latin America with experience-based food security scales strongly suggests that selecting food insecurity indicators that are useful to policy makers are key for improving FSG in the general population and vulnerable subgroups, including the elderly. Prospective measurement and policy mixed-methods research is needed to better document FSG and understand its optimal architecture in Latin America and beyond.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T20:44:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.07.001
       
  • Poverty, social protection and agriculture: Levels and trends in data
    • Authors: Sarah K. Lowder; Raffaele Bertini; André Croppenstedt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Sarah K. Lowder, Raffaele Bertini, André Croppenstedt
      This paper shows that despite progress in reducing extreme poverty, little progress has been made in reducing the number of people living on between $1.25 and $2 a day and it provides updated estimates of rural and urban poverty for regions throughout the developing world. It then shows the dramatic growth in recent decades in government expenditures on social protection, defined broadly. Next it shows that social assistance coverage is lowest and amounts transferred the smallest in parts of the world where poverty is most widespread. It shows that few households receive both social assistance and agricultural input subsidies. It concludes by summarizing levels and trends in poverty and social protection and identifying data gaps.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T19:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.06.001
       
  • Food security measurement and governance: Assessment of the usefulness of
           diverse food insecurity indicators for policy makers
    • Authors: Rafael Pérez-Escamilla; Muriel B. Gubert; Beatrice Rogers; Amber Hromi-Fiedler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Muriel B. Gubert, Beatrice Rogers, Amber Hromi-Fiedler
      Improving food security governance depends largely on the identification of food insecurity (FI) indicators that are useful for policy makers to improve their targeting and monitoring efforts. We conducted electronic searches and reviewed the authors’ files to identify peer reviewed journal articles that have previously synthesized the literature on FI indicators. We developed a consensus survey tool to assign SMART scores (i.e., utility) for each of 12 FI indicators examined for 5 alternative scenarios. Our findings indicated strong agreement across 4 raters for the top FI indicator choice for each scenario and strongly suggested that the evidence-based decision making methodology developed was helpful to eliminate FI indicators for further consideration. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings and, most importantly, to document if our decision-making tool helps improve food security governance in different contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T19:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.06.003
       
  • Reforming the research policy and impact culture in the CGIAR: Integrating
           science and systemic capacity development
    • Authors: Cees Leeuwis; Laurens Klerkx; Marc Schut
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Cees Leeuwis, Laurens Klerkx, Marc Schut
      This paper argues that the CGIAR -through its CGIAR Research Programmes-is struggling to fulfil its international mandate of conducting strategic research that contributes to agricultural development and global food security. Ongoing reforms have resulted in a situation where the CGIAR is assessed as if it were a development organisation. This leads the CGIAR to raise unrealistic expectations regarding the development impacts of the science conducted, resulting in ever growing distrust between the Centres and the donor community. Moreover, its short-term funding cycle and current mode of safeguarding scientific quality are not conducive to doing strategic and potentially transformative research. The paper proposes changes in the CGIAR impact culture, driven by a shift in policies that govern the everyday implementation and assessment of research. In line with this, we suggest that the best way to combine the international ‘science’ and ‘development’ mandates is through scientific capacity development of staff belonging to national research and innovation systems. This simultaneously requires major changes in the time-horizon of donor funding, and in how research programmes are selected and led. One sentence abstract The CGIAR should not be managed and assessed as a development organisation, and requires a longer-term horizon in its funding and governance arrangements.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T06:59:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.06.002
       
  • Adapting an experiential scale to measure food insecurity in urban slum
           households of India
    • Authors: Chandana Maitra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Chandana Maitra
      In the background of the Sustainable Development Goal 2.1 which proposes promoting universal access to food to all populations across the globe by 2030, this paper measures experiential food insecurity in low income urban households of India. A nine-item experience-based food security scale is constructed by adapting the United States Household Food Security Survey Module in the context of slum households of Kolkata, according to which 15.4% of the households are food insecure. Findings also indicate that multi-sectoral interventions are required to tackle the problem of urban food insecurity – nutritional interventions combined with appropriate education and income support programs and employment generation schemes. Additionally, the experiential indicator has excellent potential to be an alternative metric to measure household food security in urban India.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T15:20:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.005
       
  • Food insecurity measurement among older adults: Implications for policy
           and food security governance
    • Authors: Mireya Vilar-Compte; Pablo Gaitán-Rossi; Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Mireya Vilar-Compte, Pablo Gaitán-Rossi, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
      Understanding food insecurity among older adults (OAs) is a relevant issue. Objectives: Perform a systematic literature review identifying how food insecurity has been measured and how it affects policies, and assess through a psychometric analysis, if experience-based food security scales (EBFSS), can adequately monitor food security governance among OAs. Methods: Research was retrieved from 4 engines and grouped into themes. A psychometric analysis compared a EBFSS's (i.e. the Mexican Food Security Scale) validity in households with and without OAs. Results: 58 manuscripts were synthesized and grouped into 5 themes. The EBFSS showed adequate psychometric properties among OAs. Conclusions: Among older adults, food security governance, can be fostered by an ecological and multisectorial perspective, and by using valid monitoring instruments.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T15:20:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.003
       
  • Food security monitoring in Brazil and other Latin American countries:
           Support for governance with the participation of civil society
    • Authors: Anne W. Kepple; Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Anne W. Kepple, Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa


      PubDate: 2017-06-05T14:33:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.006
       
  • What drives diversification of national food supplies? A cross-country
           analysis
    • Authors: Samira Choudhury; Derek Headey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Samira Choudhury, Derek Headey
      Little previous research has explored what drives the diversification of national food supplies (DFS) across countries and regions. We construct and analyse a cross-country dataset linking a simple DFS indicator - the share of calories supplied by nonstaple foods - with structural transformation and agroecological indicators. Panel econometric models show that several indicators of structural transformation (economic growth, urbanization and demographic change) are strong predictors of diversification within countries, yet time-invariant agroecological factors are also significantly associated with diversification, which appears to explain why some countries have exceptionally low or high DFS relative to their level of economic development. We discuss the implications of these findings for food and nutrition strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T14:33:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.005
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 13


      PubDate: 2017-05-25T14:03:05Z
       
  • Production potential in the “bread baskets” of Eastern Europe
           and Central Asia
    • Authors: Johan Swinnen; Saule Burkitbayeva; Florian Schierhorn; Alexander V. Prishchepov; Daniel Müller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Johan Swinnen, Saule Burkitbayeva, Florian Schierhorn, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Daniel Müller
      Eastern Europe and Central Asia is a major food producer and exporter. Almost a quarter of world wheat exports come from the region, and especially from Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine (RUK). The potential of these countries to become a “bread basket” for the world has been emphasized because of already large production and exports and their “immense land and yield reserves”, referring to the abandonment of more than 50 million hectares of cropland and the large drop in crop productivity in the 1990s. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the potential of this land for food production. In this paper we review interdisciplinary literature and empirical evidence, predictions of production potential and impacts of climate change; and discuss the potential of the region to become a reliable breadbasket of the world. From a biophysical (crop growth) perspective, under different scenarios of increased yields, land use and climate change effects, RUK could produce an additional 40–110 million tons of wheat compared to current production, which would be a substantial additional production. However economic incentives, in particular the evolution of food prices and competition from other crops, are likely to significantly constrain these potentials. In addition, the introduction of export restrictions during recent times of high prices raised concerns on the reliability of RUK as exporters.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T14:03:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.03.005
       
  • Food security governance in Mexico: How can it be improved?
    • Authors: Teresa Shamah-Levy; Verónica Mundo-Rosas; María Margarita Flores-De la Vega; Cassio Luiselli-Fernández
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Teresa Shamah-Levy, Verónica Mundo-Rosas, María Margarita Flores-De la Vega, Cassio Luiselli-Fernández
      The objective of this article is to identify, describe and analyze elements of food security governance in Mexico. As in other emerging nations, tension in Mexico is mounting between the imperatives of obtaining food security – now consecrated by the constitution as a fundamental human right – and the formal governance structure of the agricultural sector. The logic of government (and of power) is markedly vertical. However, this clearly contradicts the inherently horizontal and cross-cutting nature of food policies or, more accurately stated, the imperative of satisfying food security needs. In Mexico, the diverse food, nutrition and public health issues are handled separately by different agencies with highly unequal capacities for action and political power. Fragmentation creates confusion and, we hypothesize, is largely responsible for the extremely weak state of food security governance in Mexico. Additionally, the food and marketing industry is gaining ground and is now a larger contributor to Mexico's GDP than agriculture. Mexico's agro-industrial sector is undergoing acute oligopoly problems that threaten the entire agro-industrial chain and food security as a whole. Conclusion Mexico currently lacks a national food and nutrition strategies that ensure food security for the Mexican people. The time has come to consider implementing either permanent or long-term strategies that will make it possible to evaluate and reflect upon what does/not work in the area of food and nutrition governance.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T13:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.004
       
  • Social safety nets for food and nutrition security in India
    • Authors: Sudha Narayanan; Nicolas Gerber
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Sudha Narayanan, Nicolas Gerber
      This paper brings together existing literature on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNRGEA) and the Public Distribution System (PDS) in India, offering a narrative review of the evidence on impacts on food security, health and nutrition of beneficiaries. Both programs operate on a large scale and have the capacity to impact the factors leading to undernutrition. It is evident that despite the deficiencies in implementation, both the MGNREGA and the PDS are inclusive and reach the poor and the marginalized, who are likely to also experience greater undernutrition and poor health. Data challenges have however prevented researchers from conducting studies that assess the ultimate impact of these two large-scale programs on health and nutrition. The evidence that exists suggests largely positive impacts indicating a clear potential to make these programs more nutrition sensitive not just by incorporating elements that would explicitly address nutritional concerns but also by directing specific attention to innovations that strengthen critical complementarities and synergies that exist between the two programs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T13:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.001
       
  • The bumpy road from food to nutrition security – Slow evolution of
           India's food policy
    • Authors: Prabhu Pingali; Bhaskar Mittra; Andaleeb Rahman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Prabhu Pingali, Bhaskar Mittra, Andaleeb Rahman
      Food Policy, in much of Asia, has been slow to transition from its historic focus on staple grain self-sufficiency to a more integrated approach to nutrition security. Research and policy discussions continue to focus on hunger and calorie deficiency rather than on the need for a balanced diets to address chronic micronutrient malnutrition and the emerging problems of over weight and obesity. Social welfare schemes aimed at improving nutrition also focus on ensuring calorie sufficiency, neglecting quality and diversity of diets and behavioral change towards better nutrition. This paper provides a detailed review of the evolution of food policy in India and a way forward in the transition towards nutrition security.

      PubDate: 2017-05-16T13:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.002
       
  • Marine biotoxins and associated outbreaks following seafood consumption:
           Prevention and surveillance in the 21st century
    • Authors: Jonathan Nicolas; Ron L.A.P. Hoogenboom; Peter J.M. Hendriksen; Marcia Bodero; Toine F.H. Bovee; Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens; Arjen Gerssen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jonathan Nicolas, Ron L.A.P. Hoogenboom, Peter J.M. Hendriksen, Marcia Bodero, Toine F.H. Bovee, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens, Arjen Gerssen
      Marine biotoxins are mostly produced by phytoplankton. Proliferation of algae producing marine biotoxins, also known as harmful algal bloom (HAB), occurs worldwide. Such event depends on environmental conditions, including temperature, water pH/salinity, current patterns and anthropogenic nutrient input. Marine biotoxins can accumulate in seafood products and as such present a threat to consumers. This paper reviews and compiles up-to-date literature on reported human intoxications following exposure to marine biotoxins through seafood consumption. The review includes a discussion about prevention of such outbreaks and surveillance programs to identify possible limitations and approaches for limiting the impact of HABs on human health. It is concluded that marine biotoxins represent a threat to human health as thousands of poisonings following consumption of seafood contaminated with marine biotoxins were reported in the 21st century, emphasizing the need for carrying on/developing surveillance programs to detect the presence of HABs, and for development, validation and implementation of sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting these biotoxins in seafood to protect consumers. Regarding the possible presence of unknown toxins and general lack of standards for many known toxins, in vitro effect-based bioassays may play an important role in the monitoring for biotoxins.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T12:42:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.03.002
       
  • Small-scale poultry and food security in resource-poor settings: A review
    • Authors: J.T. Wong; J. de Bruyn; B. Bagnol; H. Grieve; M. Li; R. Pym; R.G. Alders
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): J.T. Wong, J. de Bruyn, B. Bagnol, H. Grieve, M. Li, R. Pym, R.G. Alders
      Small-scale poultry production systems are mostly found in rural, resource-poor areas that often also experience food insecurity. They are accessible to vulnerable groups of society, and provide households with income and nutritionally-rich food sources. However, they also improve food security in indirect ways, such as enhancing nutrient utilisation and recycling in the environment, contributing to mixed farming practices, contributing to women's empowerment, and enabling access to healthcare and education. Further, they may contribute to several of the Sustainable Development Goals, and to future food security through maintaining biodiverse genomes. In extensive small-scale poultry production systems, significant impediments to achieving these contributions are disease and predation, which can be reduced through improved agricultural and livestock extension and community animal health networks. For small-scale intensive systems, feed price fluctuations and inadequate biosecurity are major constraints.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T13:57:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.003
       
  • Genetic resource policies in international collaborative research for food
           and agriculture: A study of USAID-funded innovation labs
    • Authors: Eric W. Welch; Federica Fusi; Selim Louafi; Michael Siciliano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Eric W. Welch, Federica Fusi, Selim Louafi, Michael Siciliano
      Reduction of global food insecurity depends upon the mobilization of genetic diversity for agricultural research and innovation. Yet increased regulation of genetic materials is profoundly affecting the way agricultural research is conducted, particularly international research that requires access to diverse germplasm. This study draws from an international survey of researchers in USAID Feed the Future Innovation Labs to understand how regulations affect access, exchange and use of genetic material within an international collaborative research environment. Although the effects of regulation depend on the research context – crop, sector, collaborative relationships, country and institutional source – transaction costs are increasing and researchers are changing strategies to access genetic material. The new regulatory environment is merging a traditional informal exchange system, perceived to be more open, with a more formal system that sets rules on access and use of genetic materials to address social, economic and environmental goals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T13:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.004
       
  • Reprint of "What will it take to accelerate improvements in nutrition
           outcomes in Odisha? Learning from the past"
    • Authors: Neha Kohli; Rasmi Avula; Mara van den Bold; Elisabeth Becker; Nicholas Nisbett; Lawrence Haddad; Purnima Menon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Neha Kohli, Rasmi Avula, Mara van den Bold, Elisabeth Becker, Nicholas Nisbett, Lawrence Haddad, Purnima Menon
      The Indian state of Odisha has made significant strides to address health and nutrition in the last 25 years. We used public data, policy and program documents, published literature, and interviews with program and policy decision-makers, development partners, civil society members (n=29) and community members (n=45) to analyze these changes. Factors that contributed to scale up of health and nutrition interventions and the food security program included overarching policy support, financing at the national and state level, leadership across sectors from government to civil society and development partners, capacity and stability of tenure of bureaucrats, and state innovations in service delivery interventions. Barriers that may impede further progress include lack of sanitation, low levels of women's education, early marriage in girls, livelihood distress, and uneven progress across social groups.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T13:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.002
       
  • Approaches to reduce zinc and iron deficits in food systems
    • Authors: Peter J. Gregory; Ammar Wahbi; Joseph Adu-Gyamfi; Maria Heiling; Roman Gruber; Edward J.M. Joy; Martin R. Broadley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Peter J. Gregory, Ammar Wahbi, Joseph Adu-Gyamfi, Maria Heiling, Roman Gruber, Edward J.M. Joy, Martin R. Broadley
      There is a deficit of mineral micronutrients in global food systems, known as ‘hidden hunger’, especially in the global south. This review focuses on zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), whose entry into food systems depends primarily on soil and crop factors. Approaches to increase dietary supplies of Zn and Fe include: (1) supplementation, (2) food fortification, (3) dietary diversification, and (4) crop biofortification, including breeding and fertilizer-based approaches. Supply-based estimates indicate that Zn deficiency might be more widespread than Fe deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, although there are major knowledge gaps at an individual biomarker level. Recent analytical advances, including the use of stable isotopes of Zn and Fe, can play an increasing role in improving our understanding of the movement of micronutrients in food systems, and thereby help to reduce the immense human cost of ‘hidden hunger’.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T13:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.03.003
       
  • Could consumption of insects, cultured meat or imitation meat reduce
           global agricultural land use?
    • Authors: Peter Alexander; Calum Brown; Almut Arneth; Clare Dias; John Finnigan; Dominic Moran; Mark D.A. Rounsevell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Peter Alexander, Calum Brown, Almut Arneth, Clare Dias, John Finnigan, Dominic Moran, Mark D.A. Rounsevell
      Animal products, i.e. meat, milk and eggs, provide an important component in global diets, but livestock dominate agricultural land use by area and are a major source of greenhouse gases. Cultural and personal associations with animal product consumption create barriers to moderating consumption, and hence reduced environmental impacts. Here we review alternatives to conventional animal products, including cultured meat, imitation meat and insects (i.e. entomophagy), and explore the potential change in global agricultural land requirements associated with each alternative. Stylised transformative consumption scenarios where half of current conventional animal products are substituted to provide at least equal protein and calories are considered. The analysis also considers and compares the agricultural land area given shifts between conventional animal product consumption. The results suggest that imitation meat and insects have the highest land use efficiency, but the land use requirements are only slightly greater for eggs and poultry meat. The efficiency of insects and their ability to convert agricultural by-products and food waste into food, suggests further research into insect production is warranted. Cultured meat does not appear to offer substantial benefits over poultry meat or eggs, with similar conversion efficiency, but higher direct energy requirements. Comparison with the land use savings from reduced consumer waste, including over-consumption, suggests greater benefits could be achieved from alternative dietary transformations considered. We conclude that although a diet with lower rates of animal product consumption is likely to create the greatest reduction in agricultural land, a mix of smaller changes in consumer behaviour, such as replacing beef with chicken, reducing food waste and potentially introducing insects more commonly into diets, would also achieve land savings and a more sustainable food system.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T13:07:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.001
       
  • Stories of Change in nutrition: An overview
    • Authors: Stuart Gillespie; Mara van den Bold
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Stuart Gillespie, Mara van den Bold
      After a period of relative success in generating political momentum to address malnutrition, there is an increasing urgency to focus on implementation and impact on the ground. This requires better documentation of the experiences of policymakers, nutrition leaders, program managers and implementers in making decisions on what to do in real time, such as coordinating and implementing multisectoral nutrition plans in dynamic country contexts. The goal of the Stories of Change (SoC) initiative is to foster and support such experiential learning by systematically assessing and analyzing drivers of change in six high-burden contexts (Ethiopia, Zambia, Senegal, Bangladesh, Nepal and Odisha, India) that have had some success in accelerating improvements in nutrition. While recognizing context-specificity, we unpack the key pre-requisites (commitment, coherence, accountability, data, leadership, capacity and finance) that fuel and sustain progress.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T13:07:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.02.004
       
  • Stories of Change: Perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security


      PubDate: 2017-04-01T15:00:41Z
       
  • From coherence towards commitment: Changes and challenges in Zambia's
           nutrition policy environment
    • Authors: Jody Harris; Scott Drimie; Terry Roopnaraine; Namukolo Covic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jody Harris, Scott Drimie, Terry Roopnaraine, Namukolo Covic
      An enabling environment for malnutrition reduction includes creating policy and political momentum, and converting momentum to implementation and impact. We used several qualitative data sources to investigate changes in policy and action over time in Zambia. There now exists coherent policy covering key nutrition issues from several sectors, and multisectoral coordination structures at national level and in pilot districts. However, converting momentum into action faces challenges of limited national political and funding commitment, with increased donor resources currently bridging the gap, and reach into communities is still limited. To sustain recent stunting reductions there are still political challenges to be addressed in Zambia, and citizens and civil society will need to hold government to account for recent commitments on nutrition.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T01:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.02.006
       
  • Tackling vitamin A deficiency with biofortified sweetpotato in sub-Saharan
           Africa
    • Authors: Jan W. Low; Robert O.M. Mwanga; Maria Andrade; Edward Carey; Anna-Marie Ball
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jan W. Low, Robert O.M. Mwanga, Maria Andrade, Edward Carey, Anna-Marie Ball
      Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) is a rich plant-based source of beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. In sub-Saharan Africa, sweetpotato is known as a food security crop but most varieties grown are high dry matter white-fleshed types, lacking beta-carotene. In 1995, researchers recognized the potential of OFSP varieties to address widespread vitamin A deficiency in SSA using an integrated agriculture-nutrition approach. With their partners, they confronted conventional wisdom concerning food-based approaches and institutional barriers, to build the evidence base and breed 42 OFSP varieties adapted to farmer needs and consumer preferences. Subsequently, a multi-partner, multi-donor initiative, launched in 2009, has already reached 2.8 million households. This review summarizes that effort describing how the changing policy environment influenced the process.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T01:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.004
       
  • Bangladesh’s story of change in nutrition: Strong improvements in basic
           and underlying determinants with an unfinished agenda for direct community
           level support
    • Authors: Nicholas Nisbett; Peter Davis; Sivan Yosef; Nazneen Akhtar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Nicholas Nisbett, Peter Davis, Sivan Yosef, Nazneen Akhtar
      Bangladesh has made considerable progress in reducing child stunting and is lauded as a success story in global nutrition fora. This mixed-methods study considers available statistical and qualitative evidence to help reveal the critical factors behind Bangladesh's ‘story of change’ in nutrition. Much of the improvement in nutrition in Bangladesh in recent years is explained by what can be seen as nutrition-sensitive drivers within a wider enabling environment of pro-poor economic growth. Key amongst these factors have been improving incomes; smaller family sizes and greater gaps between births; parental - and particularly women's - education and wider health access. Research and interviews with key stakeholders and work at a community level has helped shed light on the policy and programmatic choices which lie behind these wider determinants. Community based nutrition programmes have not yet been operating at scale as in other countries and the current governance arrangements for nutrition delivery are weak. But as Bangladesh faces growing new nutritional problems and still suffers from a relatively high burden of child stunting, such ‘nutrition-specific’ programmes will have to play a greater role than in the past, as the further gains from some of these wider drivers may be limited and are likely to have plateaued.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T08:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.005
       
  • Accounting for nutritional changes in six success stories: A
           regression-decomposition approach
    • Authors: Derek Headey; John Hoddinott; Seollee Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Derek Headey, John Hoddinott, Seollee Park
      Over the past two decades, many developing countries have made impressive progress in reducing undernutrition. We explore potential explanations of this success by applying consistent statistical methods to multiple rounds of Demographic Health Surveys for Bangladesh, Nepal, Ethiopia, Odisha, Senegal, and Zambia. We find that changes in household wealth, mother's education and access to antenatal care are the largest drivers of nutritional improvement, except for Zambia where large increases in bednet usage is the single largest factor. Other factors play a smaller role in explaining nutritional improvements with improvements in sanitation only appearing to be important in South Asia. Overall, the results point to the need for multidimensional nutritional strategies involving a broad range of nutrition-sensitive sectors.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T08:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.02.003
       
  • Community-level perceptions of drivers of change in nutrition: Evidence
           from South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa
    • Authors: Nicholas Nisbett; Mara van den Bold; Stuart Gillespie; Purnima Menon; Peter Davis; Terry Roopnaraine; Halie Kampman; Neha Kohli; Akriti Singh; Andrea Warren
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Nicholas Nisbett, Mara van den Bold, Stuart Gillespie, Purnima Menon, Peter Davis, Terry Roopnaraine, Halie Kampman, Neha Kohli, Akriti Singh, Andrea Warren
      Changes in the immediate, underlying and basic determinants of nutritional status at the community- and household-level are a logical and empirical prerequisite to reducing high levels of undernutrition in high burden countries. This paper considers these factors directly from the perspective of community members and frontline workers interviewed in six countries in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In each country, in-depth interviews were conducted with mothers, other community members and health workers to understand changes in health and nutrition practices, nutrition-specific interventions, underlying drivers and nutrition-sensitive interventions, and life conditions. Overall, the need for basic improvements in livelihood opportunities and infrastructure are solidly underscored. Nutrition-specific and -sensitive changes represented in most cases by deliberate government or NGO supported community interventions are rolling out at a mixed and uneven pace, but are having some significant impacts where solidly implemented. The synthesis presented here provides an invaluable source of information for understanding how community-level change occurred against a wider backdrop of national level progress.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T11:05:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.006
       
  • Maternal and Child Nutrition in Nepal: Examining drivers of progress from
           the mid-1990s to 2010s
    • Authors: Kenda Cunningham; Derek Headey; Akriti Singh; Chandni Karmacharya; Pooja Pandey Rana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Kenda Cunningham, Derek Headey, Akriti Singh, Chandni Karmacharya, Pooja Pandey Rana
      This paper explores the drivers of Nepal's maternal and child nutrition success using document review, interviews with mothers, and quantitative analysis of DHS datasets. Our qualitative and quantitative analyses both highlight similar policy and community level changes but limited improvements in child feeding and care practices. Improvements in four key drivers of nutritional change emerged: health services, sanitation, education, and wealth. However, the relative contributions of each factor varied by indicator, with health services more important for linear growth among children, and sanitation more important for weight gain among both children and mothers. We conclude with a discussion bringing the qualitative and quantitative findings together into key lessons from Nepal's success.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T11:05:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.02.001
       
  • Mid-level actors and their operating environments for implementing
           nutrition-sensitive programming in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Andrea M. Warren; Edward A. Frongillo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Andrea M. Warren, Edward A. Frongillo
      This paper provides an analysis of mid-level actors and their operating environments in relation to implementing nutrition-sensitive programming in Ethiopia. We used an innovative, multi-sited qualitative method encompassing the group of implementing actors in health, agriculture, and social protection below regional level and a sample of households from a community receiving these government services. Systemic constraints and day-to-day operational challenges within sectoral programming characterized the mid-level operating environment. Communities experienced nutrition-related improvements over time, but were constrained in their ability to engage with government programming by their physical environment. Mid-level actors are subject to complex constraints originating from both systemic factors and day-to-day resource constraints. Further development of existing service provision platforms and attention to community constraints is recommended to align national nutrition agendas with implementation capacities and community needs.

      PubDate: 2017-02-07T08:30:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.010
       
 
 
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