Journal Cover Global Food Security
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2211-9124
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Prospects for cultivation of genetically engineered food crops in China
    • Authors: Carl Pray; Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Haiyan Deng; Jun Yang; Xenia K. Morin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Carl Pray, Jikun Huang, Ruifa Hu, Haiyan Deng, Jun Yang, Xenia K. Morin
      Major food crops that contain genetically engineered (GE) traits cannot be legally grown in China, despite major investments in biotechnology research and despite government decisions that GE maize, soybeans, and canola are safe to import and eat. The paper uses a political economy model to analyze why GE maize and GE rice have not been commercialized in China and whether they are like to be commercialized soon. This model draws on recently completed studies of consumers’ and business managers’ attitudes towards the safety and the profitability of GE rice and GE maize and on new publications of the potential economic impact of these crops. Consumer opposition and the absence of competitive GE traits from Chinese companies were two major factors constraining commercialization of GE food in the past. This paper predicts that GE maize is, however, likely to be commercialized in the near future due to recent developments in GE technology, the Chinese economy, and Chinese politics.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.01.003
       
  • Drying tendency dominating the global grain production area
    • Authors: Zhaoli Wang; Jun Li; Chengguang Lai; Raymond Yu Wang; Xiaohong Chen; Yanqing Lian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Zhaoli Wang, Jun Li, Chengguang Lai, Raymond Yu Wang, Xiaohong Chen, Yanqing Lian
      Drought is considered an environmental disaster with a direct and devastating impact on agriculture. However, little research focuses on climate change related drought variations across the global grain production area (GGPA). Thus, the variation of crop yield across different grain production regions that experience severe drought remains inadequately studied. We analyzed drought variations across the GGPA to study the impacts of severe droughts on the yields of four major crops (maize, rice, wheat, and soybean). This analysis was based on the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the crop yield dataset from 1951 to 2011. The results indicated that the entire GGPA experienced a significant increase in drought duration, impacted area, and severity of hazards. There was an average of 2.2 dry months and the dry area increased by 1.109% per decade. Regional variations existed across the GGPA, although the majority presented a tendency to increasing drought. Southern and Northern America tended to become wetter, while Eastern Asia, Southern Europe, and Africa (except for Eastern Africa) tended to become dryer. Developing countries and regions are generally more susceptible to extreme droughts and suffer more losses than developed countries and regions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.02.001
       
  • Food security and the environment: Interdisciplinary research to increase
           productivity while exercising environmental conservation
    • Authors: Miguel F. Acevedo; David R. Harvey; Florencia G. Palis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Miguel F. Acevedo, David R. Harvey, Florencia G. Palis
      Global food insecurity is increasing in absolute terms despite recent decreases in percentage terms. Options to increase food production while protecting the environment exclude further expansion of cropland, leaving increased agricultural productivity as an option assuming we address its associated technological and societal challenges while exercising environmental conservation. Improving productivity requires redoubled efforts in interdisciplinary work to design and implement sound agricultural management practices and efficient use of inputs. Based on a historical perspective of the last few decades on hypothesized environmental limits to food production and looking at prospective futures, we analyze the required type of interdisciplinary research to improve productivity. We conclude that bringing together increased food supply and environmental conservation requires research that integrates engineering, technology, science, policy, and action.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2018.01.001
       
  • Assessing current and future meat and fish consumption in Sub-Sahara
           Africa: Learnings from FAO Food Balance Sheets and LSMS household survey
           data
    • Authors: Sam Desiere; Yung Hung; Wim Verbeke; Marijke D’Haese
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Sam Desiere, Yung Hung, Wim Verbeke, Marijke D’Haese
      Driven by economic growth, the consumption of animal-based foods is expected to increase substantially in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). This study examined meat and fish consumption and its income elasticity in Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda, using macro data from the FAO Food Balance Sheets and micro data from the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) household surveys. The convergence and divergence between the inferences drawn from these two datasets were assessed. FAO Food Balance Sheets data on meat consumption were in line with the estimates based on the LSMS household surveys, whereas figures on fish consumption were less consistent. Assuming that the seven countries in our study are representative for SSA, per capita meat and fish consumption is expected to increase by 54–69% if GDP of SSA doubles. Substantial variation exists between countries and across households within a country. Higher income elasticities for meat and fish consumption were found for poorer countries and poorer households. These estimates provide valuable inputs for future research with simulation models and for effective tailoring of agricultural and food policies for sustainable livestock production and consumption.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.12.004
       
  • Horticultural exports and food security in Senegal
    • Authors: Goedele Van den Broeck; Kaat Van Hoyweghen; Miet Maertens
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Goedele Van den Broeck, Kaat Van Hoyweghen, Miet Maertens
      Horticultural exports from developing countries are expanding. While concerns are rising about the consequences of this growth for local food security, there is no empirical evidence that directly measures this impact. We provide such evidence for Senegal, one of the African countries with a sharp growth in horticultural exports. Using secondary data and panel survey data, we analyse the link between horticultural exports and the availability, access, utilization and stability components of food security. Results suggest that horticultural exports contribute to the capacity to import food, and do not jeopardize availability of food at the macro-economic level. At the micro-economic level, we find that female wage employment in the horticultural export sector reduces the probability of self-reported food insecurity, improves the quality of food consumption, and shortens the hunger season.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.12.002
       
  • How comparable are cross-country data on agricultural public
           expenditures'
    • Authors: Tewodaj Mogues; Richard Anson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Tewodaj Mogues, Richard Anson
      Sound cross-country data on agricultural public expenditures are key for determining public resource needs to support food security in the developing world. This article reviews all international initiatives that produce such data, and analyses the scope and methodologies underlying these data. We find that while, combined, all 13 data initiatives cover a rich spectrum, there remains an absence of crucial datasets such as on extension and on agricultural subsidies. Although there are several points of interaction between the data initiatives, significant (in some cases staggering) differences across datasets exist on seemingly the same variables, countries, and years. There is thus scope for greater collaboration across the data initiatives to develop shared standards in cross-country compilation of agricultural expenditure data.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.001
       
  • Livestock: On our plates or eating at our table' A new analysis of the
           feed/food debate
    • Authors: Anne Mottet; Cees de Haan; Alessandra Falcucci; Giuseppe Tempio; Carolyn Opio; Pierre Gerber
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 14
      Author(s): Anne Mottet, Cees de Haan, Alessandra Falcucci, Giuseppe Tempio, Carolyn Opio, Pierre Gerber
      Livestock contribute to food security by supplying essential macro- and micro-nutrients, providing manure and draught power, and generating income. But they also consume food edible by humans and graze on pastures that could be used for crop production. Livestock, especially ruminants, are often seen as poor converters of feed into food products. This paper analyses global livestock feed rations and feed conversion ratios, with specific insight on the diversity in production systems and feed materials. Results estimate that livestock consume 6 billion tonnes of feed (dry matter) annually – including one third of global cereal production – of which 86% is made of materials that are currently not eaten by humans. In addition, soybean cakes, which production can be considered as main driver or land-use, represent 4% of the global livestock feed intake. Producing 1kg of boneless meat requires an average of 2.8kg human-edible feed in ruminant systems and 3.2kg in monogastric systems. While livestock is estimated to use 2.5 billion ha of land, modest improvements in feed use efficiency can reduce further expansion.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T11:37:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
       
  • Growing water scarcity, food security and government responses in China
    • Authors: Jinxia Wang; Yanrong Li; Jikun Huang; Tingting Yan; Tianhe Sun
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 14
      Author(s): Jinxia Wang, Yanrong Li, Jikun Huang, Tingting Yan, Tianhe Sun
      China's food production depends highly on irrigation, but irrigated agriculture has been threatened by increasing water scarcity. As such, the overall goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of the changing trends in water supply and demand balance, their impacts on food production, and government policy responses. The results show that water scarcity in China is a regional issue, mainly in northern areas. This is reflected in the limited and uneven distribution of water resources, decline of surface water resources, depletion of groundwater resources, degradation of water quality and increasing water demand. Climate change has further aggravated water scarcity in several river basins in northern China, resulting in the reduction of irrigated areas and a fall in food production. Consequently, the Chinese government has tried to control total water withdrawal, improve water use efficiency, and control water pollution. While these policy responses are encouraging, their effectiveness in resolving the growing water scarcity in China needs to be examined.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T11:37:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
       
  • Robust spatial frameworks for leveraging research on sustainable crop
           intensification
    • Authors: Patricio Grassini; Cameron M. Pittelkow; Kenneth G. Cassman; Haishun S. Yang; Sotirios Archontoulis; Mark Licht; Kendall R. Lamkey; Ignacio A. Ciampitti; Jeffrey A. Coulter; Sylvie M. Brouder; Jeffrey J. Volenec; Noemi Guindin-Garcia
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 14
      Author(s): Patricio Grassini, Cameron M. Pittelkow, Kenneth G. Cassman, Haishun S. Yang, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark Licht, Kendall R. Lamkey, Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Jeffrey A. Coulter, Sylvie M. Brouder, Jeffrey J. Volenec, Noemi Guindin-Garcia
      Meeting demand for food, fiber, feed, and fuel in a world with 9.7 billion people by 2050 without negative environmental impact is the greatest scientific challenge facing humanity. We hypothesize that this challenge can only be met with current and emerging technologies if guided by proactive use of a broad array of relevant data and geospatial scaling approaches to ensure local to global relevance for setting research priorities and implementing agricultural systems responsive to real-time status of weather, soils, crops, and markets. Despite increasing availability of field-scale agricultural data, robust spatial frameworks are lacking to convert these data into actionable knowledge. This commentary article highlights this knowledge gap and calls attention to the need for developing robust spatial frameworks that allow appropriate scaling to larger spatial domains by discussing a recently developed example of a data-driven strategy for estimating yield gaps of agricultural systems. To fully leverage research on sustainable intensification of cropping systems and inform policy development at different scales, we call for new approaches combining the strengths of top-down and bottom-up approaches which will require coordinated efforts between field scientists, crop modelers, and geospatial researchers at an unprecedented level.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T11:37:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
       
  • Economic impacts of invasive alien species on African smallholder
           livelihoods
    • Authors: Corin F. Pratt; Kate L. Constantine; Sean T. Murphy
      Pages: 31 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 14
      Author(s): Corin F. Pratt, Kate L. Constantine, Sean T. Murphy
      In developing countries, invasive alien species (IAS) threaten smallholder farmer production and the food security of subsistence growers, but economic impacts are widely under-reported. Here, the economic impacts of IAS that threaten smallholder mixed maize farming in eastern Africa are presented. Maize is important for most smallholders and is commonly grown with horticultural crops and other cereals which collectively provide nutrition and income. These crops are also important for national economies. Estimates of the economic impacts of five major IAS: Chilo partellus, Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease, Parthenium hysterophorus, Liriomyza spp. and Tuta absoluta on mixed maize smallholders in six countries gave current combined annual losses of US$0.9–1.1 billion; and future annual losses (next 5–10 years) of US$1.0–1.2 billion.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T11:37:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
       
  • Food waste for livestock feeding: Feasibility, safety, and sustainability
           implications
    • Authors: Zhengxia Dou; John D. Toth; Michael L. Westendorf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Zhengxia Dou, John D. Toth, Michael L. Westendorf
      Food waste is a matter intrinsically linked with the growing challenges of food security, resource and environmental sustainability, and climate change. In developed economies, the largest food waste stream occurs in the consumption stage at the end of the food chain. Current approaches for dealing with the wasted food have serious limitations. Historically, livestock animals had functioned as bio-processors, turning human-inedible or -undesirable food materials into meat, eggs, and milk. Contemporary treatment technologies can help convert the food waste into safe, nutritious, and value-added feed products. Recovering consumption-stage food waste for animal feeding is a viable solution that simultaneously addresses the issues of waste management, food security, resource conservation, and pollution and climate-change mitigation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.12.003
       
  • Grazing systems expansion and intensification: Drivers, dynamics, and
           trade-offs
    • Authors: Cécile M. Godde; Tara Garnett; Philip K. Thornton; Andrew J. Ash; Mario Herrero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Cécile M. Godde, Tara Garnett, Philip K. Thornton, Andrew J. Ash, Mario Herrero
      Grazing systems dynamics are driven by a complex combination of socio-economic, political and environmental contexts. Although the drivers and dynamics can be highly location-specific, we focus on describing global trends as well as trends by agro-ecological, socio-economic and political contexts. Global grasslands have expanded in area over the last decades. A decreasing trend has however been observed since the 21st century. Grazing systems’ management has also intensified. While these dynamics can have socio-economic and environmental benefits, they have often led to unsustainable systems, exemplified by deforestation and land degradation. Opportunities for land expansion without damaging forests and natural ecosystems are increasingly limited around the world and future increases in grazing systems production will need to mainly come from increases in productivity per animal and per unit area. We highlight some priority research areas and issues for policy makers to consider to help the movement towards more sustainable systems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.11.003
       
  • EU policies and global food security
    • Authors: Jean-Christophe Bureau; Johan Swinnen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jean-Christophe Bureau, Johan Swinnen
      This paper reviews evidence on the impact of EU policies on global food security, focusing on several EU policy areas: agricultural policy, bioenergy policy, food standards, trade policy, and development (food aid) policy. Old concerns related to the detrimental impact of EU farm subsidies, food aid and tariffs on poor countries’ food security. New concerns relate to impacts of EU food standards and bioenergy policies. The EU policies which created the largest distortions on global markets (in the area of trade, agriculture, food aid, and bioenergy) have been substantially reformed over the past decades. Recent global food price fluctuations have also re-emphasized that the impact of EU policies on the poor's food security differ depending on whether these are consumers or producers, or whether countries are exporters or importers. Overall, our review explains that in many areas the impact of EU policies on global food security is less obvious and more complex than often argued.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.12.001
       
  • Pathways from women's group-based programs to nutrition change in South
           Asia: A conceptual framework and literature review
    • Authors: Neha Kumar; Samuel Scott; Purnima Menon; Samyuktha Kannan; Kenda Cunningham; Parul Tyagi; Gargi Wable; Kalyani Raghunathan; Agnes Quisumbing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Neha Kumar, Samuel Scott, Purnima Menon, Samyuktha Kannan, Kenda Cunningham, Parul Tyagi, Gargi Wable, Kalyani Raghunathan, Agnes Quisumbing
      Improving the nutritional status of women and children in South Asia remains a high public health and development priority. Women's groups are emerging as platforms for delivering health- and nutrition-oriented programs and addressing gender and livelihoods challenges. We propose a framework outlining pathways through which women's group participation may facilitate improvements in nutrition. Evidence is summarized from 36 studies reporting on 24 nutritional indicators across infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, intake/diet, and anthropometry. Our findings suggest that women's group-based programs explicitly triggering behavior change pathways are most successful in improving nutrition outcomes, with strongest evidence for IYCF practices. Future investigators should link process and impact evaluations to better understand the pathways from women's group participation to nutritional impact.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.11.002
       
  • The rise in global biodiesel production: Implications for food security
    • Authors: Rosamond L. Naylor; Matthew M. Higgins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Rosamond L. Naylor, Matthew M. Higgins


      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.10.004
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 15


      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
       
  • Biofortification: A review of ex-ante models
    • Authors: Keith Lividini; John L. Fiedler; Fabiana F. De Moura; Mourad Moursi; Manfred Zeller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Keith Lividini, John L. Fiedler, Fabiana F. De Moura, Mourad Moursi, Manfred Zeller


      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.11.001
       
  • Not just for the wealthy: Rethinking farmed fish consumption in the Global
           South
    • Authors: Ben Belton; Simon R. Bush; David C. Little
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Ben Belton, Simon R. Bush, David C. Little
      Aquaculture’s contributions to food security in the Global South are widely misunderstood. Dominant narratives suggest that aquaculture contributes mainly to international trade benefiting richer Northern consumers, or provides for wealthy urban consumers in Southern markets. On the supply side, the literature promotes an idealized vision of ‘small-scale’, low input, semi-subsistence farming as the primary means by which aquaculture can contribute to food security, or emphasizes the role of ‘industrial’ export oriented aquaculture in undermining local food security. In fact, farmed fish is produced predominantly by a ‘missing middle’ segment of commercial and increasingly intensive farms, and overwhelmingly remains in Southern domestic markets for consumption by poor and middle income consumers in both urban and rural areas, making an important but underappreciated contribution to global food security.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T15:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.10.005
       
  • Women in agriculture: Four myths
    • Authors: Cheryl Doss; Ruth Meinzen-Dick; Agnes Quisumbing; Sophie Theis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Cheryl Doss, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Agnes Quisumbing, Sophie Theis


      PubDate: 2017-11-09T10:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.10.001
       
  • A review of trends, constraints and opportunities of smallholder
           irrigation in East Africa
    • Authors: Prossie Nakawuka; Simon Langan; Petra Schmitter; Jennie Barron
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Prossie Nakawuka, Simon Langan, Petra Schmitter, Jennie Barron
      Smallholder irrigation expansion would significantly increase agricultural production, and reduce food insecurity and poverty levels in East Africa. This paper reviews literature on trends, constraints and opportunities of smallholder irrigation in four East African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Irrigation development has been slow in these countries, and has been mainly through traditional schemes. Recently, individual irrigation technologies such as small motorized pumps, drip kits, treadle pumps, rope and washer pumps are being promoted. Adoption of these technologies and expansion of smallholder irrigation however face a number of challenges including land tenure issues; lack of access to appropriate irrigation technologies, improved agricultural inputs, reliable markets, finance and credit services, and research support; poor transport and communication infrastructures; poor irrigation water management; poor extension systems; and the over dependence on national governments, NGOs and donors for support. Despite these challenges, opportunities exist for smallholder irrigation expansion in East Africa. Such opportunities include: high untapped irrigation potential; rainwater harvesting to improve water availability; high commitment of national governments, NGOs and donors to smallholder irrigation expansion; low cost irrigation technologies adaptable to local conditions; traditional schemes rehabilitation; growing urbanization; and increased use of mobile phones that can be used to disseminate information.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T10:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.10.003
       
  • Dietary change in Bangladesh from 1985 to 2010
    • Authors: Jillian L. Waid; Masum Ali; Shakuntala H. Thilsted; Sabine Gabrysch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jillian L. Waid, Masum Ali, Shakuntala H. Thilsted, Sabine Gabrysch
      In many countries, dietary change is tracked using food supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheets. It is difficult to draw conclusions on individual or sub-national food consumption from these data and impossible to study inequalities. We analyzed seven Household [Income and] Expenditure Surveys (H[I]ES) in Bangladesh from 1985 to 2010 to track changes in consumption patterns. There was a broad national trend of incorporating more non-starch foods into the diet, similar to what is seen in food supply data, but dietary diversification was limited among the poorest quintile. There were also several differences in estimates from food supply data, e.g. vegetable consumption was much higher. Further analyses of this kind will help to better understand dietary change.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T10:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.003
       
  • Global learnings to inform the local adaptation of conservation
           agriculture in Eastern and Southern Africa
    • Authors: Brendan Brown; Rick Llewellyn; Ian Nuberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Brendan Brown, Rick Llewellyn, Ian Nuberg
      Conservation Agriculture (CA) has been widely promoted as a part of the process of sustainable agricultural intensification in several major grain producing regions but in many developing countries, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa, its uptake has been low. Through a broader view of the uptake of CA beyond binary adoption, this review addresses two research questions: (1) how has CA been modified in various regions around the world?; and (2) what processes occurred to enable CA uptake? We compare global learnings with the context in Sub-Saharan Africa to reassess expectations for uptake and leverage points to address limited practice change in African smallholder systems. Our findings indicate that there is limited evidence to suggest that continued use of a ‘complete’ three component version of CA has been widely implemented in any region and so should not be expected to readily occur in the African situation. Likewise, we find that there are multiple processes and developments required beyond acute erosion issues to enable CA uptake, namely: (1) strong perceptions of individual benefit; (2) economic stimulus to enable and motivate investment in CA systems; (3) functional market exchange mechanisms to supply the required resources to implement CA; (4) development of farmer driven organisations to drive local adaptation of CA; and (5) collaboration of farmer organisations with other institutions to create an enabling environment for further CA adaptation. The situation in many countries across eastern and southern Africa is without these required developments to enable CA utilisation. With this in mind, we identify three key learnings from a review of CA in the global context and the implications for Africa: (1) financial stimulation of households will be required to enable African smallholder farmers to transition to market orientation through utilisation of CA components; (2) farmer organisations require further development to enable context specific adaptation of CA which will require strong collaboration with various stakeholders and institutions; and (3) expectations on both the type of, and period for, CA utilisation must be lowered, noting the substantial institutional change required.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T10:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.10.002
       
  • Social protection and agriculture: Introduction to the special issue
    • Authors: Andre Croppenstedt; Marco Knowles; Sarah K. Lowder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Andre Croppenstedt, Marco Knowles, Sarah K. Lowder
      Social protection programmes have expanded rapidly in many developing regions over the past two decades, covering about 2.1 billion people. The evidence shows social protection not only has positive welfare impacts, it also stimulates productive activity among beneficiary households and the local economy. Most of the extreme poor live in rural areas, with agriculture an important part of their livelihoods and policies to promote agricultural growth being essential. Both social protection and agricultural policies are needed for poverty reduction. However, the synergies inherent between the two are not yet fully understood. We review some of the key issues related to maximizing synergies between social protection and agricultural policies: targeting, informal support systems, gender, institutional demand, impact evaluation and research priorities.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T15:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.006
       
  • Tapping the economic and nutritional power of vegetables
    • Authors: Pepijn Schreinemachers; Emmy B. Simmons; Marco C.S. Wopereis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Pepijn Schreinemachers, Emmy B. Simmons, Marco C.S. Wopereis
      Vegetables are increasingly recognized as essential for food and nutrition security. Vegetable production provides a promising economic opportunity for reducing rural poverty and unemployment in developing countries and is a key component of farm diversification strategies. Vegetables are mankind's most affordable source of vitamins and minerals needed for good health. Today, neither the economic nor nutritional power of vegetables is sufficiently realized. To tap the economic power of vegetables, governments will need to increase their investment in farm productivity (including improved varieties, alternatives to chemical pesticides, and the use of protected cultivation), good postharvest management, food safety, and market access. To tap the nutritional power of vegetables, consumers need to know how vegetables contribute to health, and find them at affordable prices or be able to grow them themselves. Vegetable consumption must therefore be nurtured through a combination of supply-side interventions and behavioral change communication emphasizing the importance of eating vegetables for good nutrition and health. To fully tap the economic and nutritional power of vegetables, governments and donors will need to give vegetables much greater priority than they currently receive. Now is the time to prioritize investments in vegetables, providing increased economic opportunities for smallholder farmers and providing healthy diets for all.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T15:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.005
       
  • Measuring nutritional quality of agricultural production systems:
           Application to fish production
    • Authors: Jessica R. Bogard; Geoffrey C. Marks; Stephen Wood; Shakuntala H. Thilsted
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jessica R. Bogard, Geoffrey C. Marks, Stephen Wood, Shakuntala H. Thilsted
      Reorienting food systems towards improving nutrition outcomes is vital if the global goal of ending all forms of malnutrition is to be achieved. Crucial to transitioning to nutrition-sensitive agriculture is valuing and measuring nutritional quality of the outputs of agricultural production. We review existing indicators which capture an element of nutritional quality applicable to different stages of the food and nutrition system. Applying relevant indicators from the agricultural production stage to selected aquaculture systems, we compare and contrast their strengths and limitations. ‘Nutritional yields’, ‘potential nutrient adequacy’ and ‘Rao's quadratic entropy’ show particular promise in capturing the ability of a production system to nourish the most people and could be useful tools for prioritising investments and decision-making in the public, non-government and private sectors driving agriculture.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T10:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.004
       
  • Is it time to take vertical indoor farming seriously'
    • Authors: Per Pinstrup-Andersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Per Pinstrup-Andersen


      PubDate: 2017-09-25T10:23:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.002
       
  • Study context shapes recommendations of land-sparing and sharing; a
           quantitative review
    • Authors: Matthew Scott Luskin; Janice S.H. Lee; David P. Edwards; Luke Gibson; Matthew D. Potts
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Matthew Scott Luskin, Janice S.H. Lee, David P. Edwards, Luke Gibson, Matthew D. Potts
      Minimizing the negative impacts of tropical agricultural expansion and intensification on biodiversity and food security has been intensively discussed in the context of the land-sparing/land-sharing framework. Here, we evaluate how study scope, methodologies, and geographical focus, number of species studied, and type of cropping system helped to shape authors’ recommendations. First, we found that empirical studies focusing on tropical biodiversity were primarily in favor of land sparing (67%, 12 of 18 studies), whereas reviews and perspectives with a non-biodiversity (e.g. ecosystem services and food security) were more likely to favor of land sharing (58%, 7 of 12 studies). Second, wildlife-friendly tree crops or shaded systems (e.g. coffee and cacao) were the focus of most applied ecology research, while annual crops accounted for the majority of tropical cropland area and recent expansion. While these trends lend support that land sparing—by closing yield gaps paired with the protection of large contiguous habitats—is favored to limit the impacts on sensitive tropical forest biodiversity, the necessary policies and enforcement mechanisms may not yet be present or effective, nor is there adequate understanding and mitigation of negative food security impacts. By illustrating how a study's context shapes recommendations, our results help move the land-sparing/land-sharing debate forward by clarifying the origins of long-standing disagreements.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T09:55:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.08.002
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Global Food Security, Volume 14


      PubDate: 2017-09-12T11:37:51Z
       
  • Trade-offs between environment and livelihoods: Bridging the global land
           use and food security discussions
    • Authors: Patrick Meyfroidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Patrick Meyfroidt
      This paper connects the discussion on the trade-offs between agricultural production and environmental concerns, including the asserted need for global land use expansion, and the issues of rural livelihoods and food security. Several widespread narratives are challenged. The key insights are: 1/ There is a severe research gap about how concrete interventions can reduce the need for agricultural expansion through changing consumption. 2/ Increasing global food production can hardly be achieved without environmental trade-offs. 3/ The food security/environment trade-offs can be mitigated by recognizing that some supply chains benefit little to food security, while entailing high environmental impacts such as deforestation. 4/ Through prices, global food production is linked to food security of the - mainly urban - low income, net food buyers. 5/ Developing commercial farming, including medium-scale farms providing high labor productivity employment, can contribute to food security through rural wages. 6/ Developing such value chains based on commodities with high income- and price-elasticity of demand requires interventions to avoid deforestation through a rebound-effect.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:46:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.08.001
       
  • Food security governance in Latin America: Principles and the way forward
    • Authors: Rafael Pérez-Escamilla; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Jeroen Candel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Jeroen Candel
      In spite of major advances in recent decades, food insecurity continues to be a pressing concern to policymakers across the world. Food security governance (FSG) relates to the formal and informal rules and processes through which interests are articulated, and decisions relevant to food security in a country are made, implemented and enforced on behalf of members of society. Improving FSG is challenging given the many different governance levels, political arenas, and policy domains involved. Whereas food security governance (FSG) is considered central to advancing the human right to food globally and for the attainment of each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, relatively little is known about whether and how existing governance arrangements and practices contribute to achieving these objectives. Therefore, a first step for understanding how to improve FSG involves realizing a better understanding of how governance functions are performed in diverse settings. This special issue highlights FSG lessons from Brazil and Mexico, investigating the effects of civil society involvement and coordination with and within government, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. The experience in Latin America with experience-based food security scales strongly suggests that selecting food insecurity indicators that are useful to policy makers are key for improving FSG in the general population and vulnerable subgroups, including the elderly. Prospective measurement and policy mixed-methods research is needed to better document FSG and understand its optimal architecture in Latin America and beyond.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T20:44:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.07.001
       
  • Poverty, social protection and agriculture: Levels and trends in data
    • Authors: Sarah K. Lowder; Raffaele Bertini; André Croppenstedt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Sarah K. Lowder, Raffaele Bertini, André Croppenstedt
      This paper shows that despite progress in reducing extreme poverty, little progress has been made in reducing the number of people living on between $1.25 and $2 a day and it provides updated estimates of rural and urban poverty for regions throughout the developing world. It then shows the dramatic growth in recent decades in government expenditures on social protection, defined broadly. Next it shows that social assistance coverage is lowest and amounts transferred the smallest in parts of the world where poverty is most widespread. It shows that few households receive both social assistance and agricultural input subsidies. It concludes by summarizing levels and trends in poverty and social protection and identifying data gaps.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T19:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.06.001
       
  • Food security measurement and governance: Assessment of the usefulness of
           diverse food insecurity indicators for policy makers
    • Authors: Rafael Pérez-Escamilla; Muriel B. Gubert; Beatrice Rogers; Amber Hromi-Fiedler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Muriel B. Gubert, Beatrice Rogers, Amber Hromi-Fiedler
      Improving food security governance depends largely on the identification of food insecurity (FI) indicators that are useful for policy makers to improve their targeting and monitoring efforts. We conducted electronic searches and reviewed the authors’ files to identify peer reviewed journal articles that have previously synthesized the literature on FI indicators. We developed a consensus survey tool to assign SMART scores (i.e., utility) for each of 12 FI indicators examined for 5 alternative scenarios. Our findings indicated strong agreement across 4 raters for the top FI indicator choice for each scenario and strongly suggested that the evidence-based decision making methodology developed was helpful to eliminate FI indicators for further consideration. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings and, most importantly, to document if our decision-making tool helps improve food security governance in different contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T19:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.06.003
       
  • Adapting an experiential scale to measure food insecurity in urban slum
           households of India
    • Authors: Chandana Maitra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Chandana Maitra
      In the background of the Sustainable Development Goal 2.1 which proposes promoting universal access to food to all populations across the globe by 2030, this paper measures experiential food insecurity in low income urban households of India. A nine-item experience-based food security scale is constructed by adapting the United States Household Food Security Survey Module in the context of slum households of Kolkata, according to which 15.4% of the households are food insecure. Findings also indicate that multi-sectoral interventions are required to tackle the problem of urban food insecurity – nutritional interventions combined with appropriate education and income support programs and employment generation schemes. Additionally, the experiential indicator has excellent potential to be an alternative metric to measure household food security in urban India.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T15:20:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.005
       
  • Food insecurity measurement among older adults: Implications for policy
           and food security governance
    • Authors: Mireya Vilar-Compte; Pablo Gaitán-Rossi; Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Mireya Vilar-Compte, Pablo Gaitán-Rossi, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
      Understanding food insecurity among older adults (OAs) is a relevant issue. Objectives: Perform a systematic literature review identifying how food insecurity has been measured and how it affects policies, and assess through a psychometric analysis, if experience-based food security scales (EBFSS), can adequately monitor food security governance among OAs. Methods: Research was retrieved from 4 engines and grouped into themes. A psychometric analysis compared a EBFSS's (i.e. the Mexican Food Security Scale) validity in households with and without OAs. Results: 58 manuscripts were synthesized and grouped into 5 themes. The EBFSS showed adequate psychometric properties among OAs. Conclusions: Among older adults, food security governance, can be fostered by an ecological and multisectorial perspective, and by using valid monitoring instruments.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T15:20:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.003
       
  • Food security monitoring in Brazil and other Latin American countries:
           Support for governance with the participation of civil society
    • Authors: Anne W. Kepple; Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Anne W. Kepple, Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa


      PubDate: 2017-06-05T14:33:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.006
       
  • What drives diversification of national food supplies? A cross-country
           analysis
    • Authors: Samira Choudhury; Derek Headey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Samira Choudhury, Derek Headey
      Little previous research has explored what drives the diversification of national food supplies (DFS) across countries and regions. We construct and analyse a cross-country dataset linking a simple DFS indicator - the share of calories supplied by nonstaple foods - with structural transformation and agroecological indicators. Panel econometric models show that several indicators of structural transformation (economic growth, urbanization and demographic change) are strong predictors of diversification within countries, yet time-invariant agroecological factors are also significantly associated with diversification, which appears to explain why some countries have exceptionally low or high DFS relative to their level of economic development. We discuss the implications of these findings for food and nutrition strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T14:33:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.005
       
  • Production potential in the “bread baskets” of Eastern Europe
           and Central Asia
    • Authors: Johan Swinnen; Saule Burkitbayeva; Florian Schierhorn; Alexander V. Prishchepov; Daniel Müller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Johan Swinnen, Saule Burkitbayeva, Florian Schierhorn, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Daniel Müller
      Eastern Europe and Central Asia is a major food producer and exporter. Almost a quarter of world wheat exports come from the region, and especially from Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine (RUK). The potential of these countries to become a “bread basket” for the world has been emphasized because of already large production and exports and their “immense land and yield reserves”, referring to the abandonment of more than 50 million hectares of cropland and the large drop in crop productivity in the 1990s. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the potential of this land for food production. In this paper we review interdisciplinary literature and empirical evidence, predictions of production potential and impacts of climate change; and discuss the potential of the region to become a reliable breadbasket of the world. From a biophysical (crop growth) perspective, under different scenarios of increased yields, land use and climate change effects, RUK could produce an additional 40–110 million tons of wheat compared to current production, which would be a substantial additional production. However economic incentives, in particular the evolution of food prices and competition from other crops, are likely to significantly constrain these potentials. In addition, the introduction of export restrictions during recent times of high prices raised concerns on the reliability of RUK as exporters.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T14:03:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.03.005
       
  • Food security governance in Mexico: How can it be improved?
    • Authors: Teresa Shamah-Levy; Verónica Mundo-Rosas; María Margarita Flores-De la Vega; Cassio Luiselli-Fernández
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Teresa Shamah-Levy, Verónica Mundo-Rosas, María Margarita Flores-De la Vega, Cassio Luiselli-Fernández
      The objective of this article is to identify, describe and analyze elements of food security governance in Mexico. As in other emerging nations, tension in Mexico is mounting between the imperatives of obtaining food security – now consecrated by the constitution as a fundamental human right – and the formal governance structure of the agricultural sector. The logic of government (and of power) is markedly vertical. However, this clearly contradicts the inherently horizontal and cross-cutting nature of food policies or, more accurately stated, the imperative of satisfying food security needs. In Mexico, the diverse food, nutrition and public health issues are handled separately by different agencies with highly unequal capacities for action and political power. Fragmentation creates confusion and, we hypothesize, is largely responsible for the extremely weak state of food security governance in Mexico. Additionally, the food and marketing industry is gaining ground and is now a larger contributor to Mexico's GDP than agriculture. Mexico's agro-industrial sector is undergoing acute oligopoly problems that threaten the entire agro-industrial chain and food security as a whole. Conclusion Mexico currently lacks a national food and nutrition strategies that ensure food security for the Mexican people. The time has come to consider implementing either permanent or long-term strategies that will make it possible to evaluate and reflect upon what does/not work in the area of food and nutrition governance.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T13:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.004
       
  • Social safety nets for food and nutrition security in India
    • Authors: Sudha Narayanan; Nicolas Gerber
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Sudha Narayanan, Nicolas Gerber
      This paper brings together existing literature on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNRGEA) and the Public Distribution System (PDS) in India, offering a narrative review of the evidence on impacts on food security, health and nutrition of beneficiaries. Both programs operate on a large scale and have the capacity to impact the factors leading to undernutrition. It is evident that despite the deficiencies in implementation, both the MGNREGA and the PDS are inclusive and reach the poor and the marginalized, who are likely to also experience greater undernutrition and poor health. Data challenges have however prevented researchers from conducting studies that assess the ultimate impact of these two large-scale programs on health and nutrition. The evidence that exists suggests largely positive impacts indicating a clear potential to make these programs more nutrition sensitive not just by incorporating elements that would explicitly address nutritional concerns but also by directing specific attention to innovations that strengthen critical complementarities and synergies that exist between the two programs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T13:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.001
       
  • The bumpy road from food to nutrition security – Slow evolution of
           India's food policy
    • Authors: Prabhu Pingali; Bhaskar Mittra; Andaleeb Rahman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Prabhu Pingali, Bhaskar Mittra, Andaleeb Rahman
      Food Policy, in much of Asia, has been slow to transition from its historic focus on staple grain self-sufficiency to a more integrated approach to nutrition security. Research and policy discussions continue to focus on hunger and calorie deficiency rather than on the need for a balanced diets to address chronic micronutrient malnutrition and the emerging problems of over weight and obesity. Social welfare schemes aimed at improving nutrition also focus on ensuring calorie sufficiency, neglecting quality and diversity of diets and behavioral change towards better nutrition. This paper provides a detailed review of the evolution of food policy in India and a way forward in the transition towards nutrition security.

      PubDate: 2017-05-16T13:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.05.002
       
  • Marine biotoxins and associated outbreaks following seafood consumption:
           Prevention and surveillance in the 21st century
    • Authors: Jonathan Nicolas; Ron L.A.P. Hoogenboom; Peter J.M. Hendriksen; Marcia Bodero; Toine F.H. Bovee; Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens; Arjen Gerssen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jonathan Nicolas, Ron L.A.P. Hoogenboom, Peter J.M. Hendriksen, Marcia Bodero, Toine F.H. Bovee, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens, Arjen Gerssen
      Marine biotoxins are mostly produced by phytoplankton. Proliferation of algae producing marine biotoxins, also known as harmful algal bloom (HAB), occurs worldwide. Such event depends on environmental conditions, including temperature, water pH/salinity, current patterns and anthropogenic nutrient input. Marine biotoxins can accumulate in seafood products and as such present a threat to consumers. This paper reviews and compiles up-to-date literature on reported human intoxications following exposure to marine biotoxins through seafood consumption. The review includes a discussion about prevention of such outbreaks and surveillance programs to identify possible limitations and approaches for limiting the impact of HABs on human health. It is concluded that marine biotoxins represent a threat to human health as thousands of poisonings following consumption of seafood contaminated with marine biotoxins were reported in the 21st century, emphasizing the need for carrying on/developing surveillance programs to detect the presence of HABs, and for development, validation and implementation of sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting these biotoxins in seafood to protect consumers. Regarding the possible presence of unknown toxins and general lack of standards for many known toxins, in vitro effect-based bioassays may play an important role in the monitoring for biotoxins.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T12:42:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.03.002
       
  • Small-scale poultry and food security in resource-poor settings: A review
    • Authors: J.T. Wong; J. de Bruyn; B. Bagnol; H. Grieve; M. Li; R. Pym; R.G. Alders
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): J.T. Wong, J. de Bruyn, B. Bagnol, H. Grieve, M. Li, R. Pym, R.G. Alders
      Small-scale poultry production systems are mostly found in rural, resource-poor areas that often also experience food insecurity. They are accessible to vulnerable groups of society, and provide households with income and nutritionally-rich food sources. However, they also improve food security in indirect ways, such as enhancing nutrient utilisation and recycling in the environment, contributing to mixed farming practices, contributing to women's empowerment, and enabling access to healthcare and education. Further, they may contribute to several of the Sustainable Development Goals, and to future food security through maintaining biodiverse genomes. In extensive small-scale poultry production systems, significant impediments to achieving these contributions are disease and predation, which can be reduced through improved agricultural and livestock extension and community animal health networks. For small-scale intensive systems, feed price fluctuations and inadequate biosecurity are major constraints.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T13:57:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.003
       
  • Genetic resource policies in international collaborative research for food
           and agriculture: A study of USAID-funded innovation labs
    • Authors: Eric W. Welch; Federica Fusi; Selim Louafi; Michael Siciliano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Eric W. Welch, Federica Fusi, Selim Louafi, Michael Siciliano
      Reduction of global food insecurity depends upon the mobilization of genetic diversity for agricultural research and innovation. Yet increased regulation of genetic materials is profoundly affecting the way agricultural research is conducted, particularly international research that requires access to diverse germplasm. This study draws from an international survey of researchers in USAID Feed the Future Innovation Labs to understand how regulations affect access, exchange and use of genetic material within an international collaborative research environment. Although the effects of regulation depend on the research context – crop, sector, collaborative relationships, country and institutional source – transaction costs are increasing and researchers are changing strategies to access genetic material. The new regulatory environment is merging a traditional informal exchange system, perceived to be more open, with a more formal system that sets rules on access and use of genetic materials to address social, economic and environmental goals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T13:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.004
       
  • Approaches to reduce zinc and iron deficits in food systems
    • Authors: Peter J. Gregory; Ammar Wahbi; Joseph Adu-Gyamfi; Maria Heiling; Roman Gruber; Edward J.M. Joy; Martin R. Broadley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Peter J. Gregory, Ammar Wahbi, Joseph Adu-Gyamfi, Maria Heiling, Roman Gruber, Edward J.M. Joy, Martin R. Broadley
      There is a deficit of mineral micronutrients in global food systems, known as ‘hidden hunger’, especially in the global south. This review focuses on zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), whose entry into food systems depends primarily on soil and crop factors. Approaches to increase dietary supplies of Zn and Fe include: (1) supplementation, (2) food fortification, (3) dietary diversification, and (4) crop biofortification, including breeding and fertilizer-based approaches. Supply-based estimates indicate that Zn deficiency might be more widespread than Fe deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, although there are major knowledge gaps at an individual biomarker level. Recent analytical advances, including the use of stable isotopes of Zn and Fe, can play an increasing role in improving our understanding of the movement of micronutrients in food systems, and thereby help to reduce the immense human cost of ‘hidden hunger’.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T13:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.03.003
       
  • Could consumption of insects, cultured meat or imitation meat reduce
           global agricultural land use?
    • Authors: Peter Alexander; Calum Brown; Almut Arneth; Clare Dias; John Finnigan; Dominic Moran; Mark D.A. Rounsevell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Peter Alexander, Calum Brown, Almut Arneth, Clare Dias, John Finnigan, Dominic Moran, Mark D.A. Rounsevell
      Animal products, i.e. meat, milk and eggs, provide an important component in global diets, but livestock dominate agricultural land use by area and are a major source of greenhouse gases. Cultural and personal associations with animal product consumption create barriers to moderating consumption, and hence reduced environmental impacts. Here we review alternatives to conventional animal products, including cultured meat, imitation meat and insects (i.e. entomophagy), and explore the potential change in global agricultural land requirements associated with each alternative. Stylised transformative consumption scenarios where half of current conventional animal products are substituted to provide at least equal protein and calories are considered. The analysis also considers and compares the agricultural land area given shifts between conventional animal product consumption. The results suggest that imitation meat and insects have the highest land use efficiency, but the land use requirements are only slightly greater for eggs and poultry meat. The efficiency of insects and their ability to convert agricultural by-products and food waste into food, suggests further research into insect production is warranted. Cultured meat does not appear to offer substantial benefits over poultry meat or eggs, with similar conversion efficiency, but higher direct energy requirements. Comparison with the land use savings from reduced consumer waste, including over-consumption, suggests greater benefits could be achieved from alternative dietary transformations considered. We conclude that although a diet with lower rates of animal product consumption is likely to create the greatest reduction in agricultural land, a mix of smaller changes in consumer behaviour, such as replacing beef with chicken, reducing food waste and potentially introducing insects more commonly into diets, would also achieve land savings and a more sustainable food system.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T13:07:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.001
       
  • Tackling vitamin A deficiency with biofortified sweetpotato in sub-Saharan
           Africa
    • Authors: Jan W. Low; Robert O.M. Mwanga; Maria Andrade; Edward Carey; Anna-Marie Ball
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Global Food Security
      Author(s): Jan W. Low, Robert O.M. Mwanga, Maria Andrade, Edward Carey, Anna-Marie Ball
      Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) is a rich plant-based source of beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. In sub-Saharan Africa, sweetpotato is known as a food security crop but most varieties grown are high dry matter white-fleshed types, lacking beta-carotene. In 1995, researchers recognized the potential of OFSP varieties to address widespread vitamin A deficiency in SSA using an integrated agriculture-nutrition approach. With their partners, they confronted conventional wisdom concerning food-based approaches and institutional barriers, to build the evidence base and breed 42 OFSP varieties adapted to farmer needs and consumer preferences. Subsequently, a multi-partner, multi-donor initiative, launched in 2009, has already reached 2.8 million households. This review summarizes that effort describing how the changing policy environment influenced the process.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T01:01:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.004
       
 
 
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