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Journal Cover Ecosystem Services
  [SJR: 2.169]   [H-I: 21]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Recreational cultural ecosystem services: How do people describe the
           value?
    • Authors: Sanna Stålhammar; Eja Pedersen
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Sanna Stålhammar, Eja Pedersen
      Different ways of viewing human-nature interactions affect the ways in which these are conceptualized and operationalized with regards to cultural ecosystem services (CES). To clarify if some conceptualizations provide more appropriate descriptions of benefits, these need to be discussed in relation to the lived experience. This paper addresses some aspects of the controversy around the use of the concept of CES and associated framing of ‘values’. Our aim is to understand potential distinctions between individuals’ expressions of values of their experiences and the language of value of ES. We use Swedish focus group material formed to understand how individuals perceive and express their values of the experiences of spending time in natural environments in their own words. We apply an interpretivist approach inspired by grounded theory and present our findings as the broader interpretative repertoire ‘axiomatic value’. The interpretative repertoire informed three discourses that participants describe as valuable in relation to experiences in nature: ‘indivisibility’, ‘incommensurability’, and ‘the goodness of perceived naturalness’. The latter comprised the underlying themes ‘nature as authentic’, ‘nature as healing’ and ‘nature as beauty, magic and movement’. We discuss implications for conceptualizations of value and question the appropriateness of the non-contextual and categorical language of ES.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem services research in China: A critical review
    • Authors: Wei Jiang
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Wei Jiang
      Research on ecosystem services (ES) in China has become one of the fastest growing areas in the last decades. A systematic literature review with the establishment of a national ES research database was conducted in this paper. The analysis of the database including 175 studies published in international peer-reviewed journals identified six categories of research focus, among which monetary valuation attracted the most attention. Two approaches in the monetary valuation studies are dominant, unit value based approach and primary data based approach. Challenges of Chinese ES research consist in the lack of internationally accepted frameworks, which leads to the confusing use of terminology for ecosystem type and ES class. Critics also exist in the significance of monetary valuation, because most of the case studies in China were based on the unit value transfer method. In addition, Chinese scholars seem to be unaware of the progress of cultural ecosystem services research and few studies with particular focus on CES are found. This paper concludes with the anticipation of a TEEB country study for China.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem services of collectively managed urban gardens: Exploring
           factors affecting synergies and trade-offs at the site level
    • Authors: Matthew Dennis; Philip James
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Matthew Dennis, Philip James
      Collective management of urban green space is being acknowledged and promoted. The need to understand productivity and potential trade-offs between co-occurring ecosystem services arising from collectively managed pockets of green space is pivotal to the design and promotion of both productive urban areas and effective stakeholder participation in their management. Quantitative assessments of ecosystem service production were obtained from detailed site surveys at ten examples of collectively managed urban gardens in Greater Manchester, UK. Correlation analyses demonstrated high levels of synergy between ecological (biodiversity) and social (learning and well-being) benefits related to such spaces. Trade-offs were highly mediated by site size and design, resulting in a tension between increasing site area and the co-management of ecosystem services. By highlighting synergies, trade-offs and the significance of site area, the results offer insight into the spatially sensitive nature of ecosystem services arising from multi-functional collectively managed urban gardens.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • The value of ecosystem services obtained from the protected forest of
           Cambodia: The case of Veun Sai-Siem Pang National Park
    • Authors: Abu S.M.G. Kibria; Alison Behie; Robert Costanza; Colin Groves; Tracy Farrell
      Pages: 27 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Abu S.M.G. Kibria, Alison Behie, Robert Costanza, Colin Groves, Tracy Farrell
      This research provides for the first time a valuation of Veun Sai-Siem Pang National Park (VSSPNP) in Cambodia, which is a forest largely unfamiliar to the international community yet extremely significant in terms of biodiversity value. This study aimed to measure the monetary and non-monetary values of ecosystem services (ESS) of the forest. We estimated the total annual contribution of VSSPNP was US$129.84million. Its primary contribution was air purification (US$56.21millionyr−1) followed by water storage (US$32.31millionyr−1), soil-erosion reduction (US$22.21millionyr−1), soil-fertility improvement (US$9.47million yr−1), carbon sequestration (US$7.87millionyr−1), provisioning services (US$1.76millionyr−1) and recreation (US$0.02millionyr−1). Traditionally the forest is used for timber and non-timber forest products, which in fact, composed only 1.36% of the total benefits. By analysing the published articles and reports on VSSPNP we determined the area had generated valuable academic and non-academic knowledge on natural resources. This forest had also created a diverse network among scientists and different organizations worldwide. We also identified the forest to be of cultural importance for indigenous people as they believe that their ancestors live inside the forest and protect them from vulnerabilities. Despite being part of one of the most important eco-regions in the world VSSPNP is undervalued and facing multiple threats such as illegal logging, poaching, population pressure and corruption. The current estimation of ESS would thus assist in the sustainable management of VSSPNP.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Spatially explicit return on investment to private forest conservation for
           water purification in Indiana, USA
    • Authors: Yangyang Wang; Shady Atallah; Guofan Shao
      Pages: 45 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Yangyang Wang, Shady Atallah, Guofan Shao
      Conservation programs that incentivize the increased provision of ecosystem services on private lands have become common policy instruments. The forgone revenues implied by these programs and the ecosystem services benefits they provide might be spatially heterogeneous. However, such programs are not always spatially targeted to maximize the return on conservation investment (ROI). Here, we use an integrated spatial, ecological-economic modeling approach to assess the ROI for water purification in the case of the Indiana Classified Forest and Wildlands (CFW) Program, United States. We compared the ROI of the existing non-spatially targeted CFW expansion to hypothetical, spatially targeted expansion scenarios in the White River Basin of Indiana. First, we projected nutrient retention services to increase greatly under the hypothetical spatially targeted scenarios and modestly in the non-spatially targeted, baseline case. Second, our results revealed the inclusion of conservation costs could substantially change the conservation priorities. In particular, private forestlands in subwatersheds with average conservation benefits and low conservation costs, as opposed to those with high conservation benefits and high conservation costs, would be prioritized for the CFW program, based on their positive ROIs. Third, we found that the benefits from the single ecosystem service of nutrient retention could exceed the conservation costs of the tax deductions and forgone alternatives (i.e., agriculture) if the program was targeted to contaminated watersheds. This research contributes to the integration of forest economics, forest conservation, and forest ecology to assess the effectiveness of forest conservation programs such as the CFW. It also informs citizens and governments on the benefits and costs of potential targeted increased enrollments of the CFW program in Indiana.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T18:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • What are the benefits of strictly protected nature reserves' Rapid
           assessment of ecosystem service values in Wanglang Nature Reserve, China
    • Authors: Peng Liu; Shiwei Jiang; Lianjun Zhao; Yunxi Li; Pingping Zhang; Li Zhang
      Pages: 70 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Peng Liu, Shiwei Jiang, Lianjun Zhao, Yunxi Li, Pingping Zhang, Li Zhang
      Despite broad recognition that nature reserves protect local biodiversity and rare species effectively, the wider benefits and costs provided by this conservation approach relative to alternative approaches are not well understood. This study addressed this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision of two alternative conservation management approaches in a strictly protected nature reserve in China based on (1) existing strict regulations versus (2) extrapolation of those in an adjacent Natural Forest Protection Project (NFPP) allowing the use of natural resources by local communities. Using a new Toolkit for Ecosystem Services Site-based Assessment (TESSA), we demonstrated the nature reserve provides more valuable ecosystem services than it would have done if managed like the adjacent NFPP. In comparison, the nature reserve provides greater benefits in terms of carbon stock, carbon sequestration, and recreation, at the national and global scale. The monetary benefits of the nature reserve could cover all conservation management costs, making it a more worthwhile approach for conservation and beneficiaries. Thus, our study highlights the importance of strictly protected nature reserves in China, demonstrating the importance of balancing conservation and development to governmental managers and local residents, and could be used to guide eco-compensation for local beneficiaries.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T18:08:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Stakeholders’ perceptions of ecosystem services and Pangasius catfish
           farming development along the Hau River in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
    • Authors: Nguyen Thi Kim Quyen; Håkan Berg; Wenresti Gallardo; Chau Thi Da
      Pages: 2 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Nguyen Thi Kim Quyen, Håkan Berg, Wenresti Gallardo, Chau Thi Da
      This study identifies stakeholders’ perceptions of ecosystem services (ESS) along the Mekong River in Vietnam. It evaluates trade-offs made between ESS under different Pangasius catfish development scenarios, and stakeholders’ preferences to these scenarios. The study was conducted through interviews, focus group discussions and a questionnaire survey with 150 households. Rice cultivation and Pangasius catfish farming were identified as the most important economic activities. Provisioning services were scored as the most important ESS, followed by supporting, regulating and cultural services. Most stakeholders perceived that an intensification of Pangasius catfish farming would increase the production of catfish, but decrease nine other ESS, while integrated Pangasius catfish farming would decrease the Pangasius catfish production but increase nine other ESS. An integrated system was preferred by the majority of the respondents, mainly because it was perceived to enhance several ESS and provide benefits to local communities. In conclusion, a sustainable development of Pangasius catfish farming in the Mekong Delta must include local stakeholders’ participation and apply farming strategies that make use of the natural environment without severely or irreversibly degrading it.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T15:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Integrating supply and social demand in ecosystem services assessment: A
           review
    • Authors: Hejie Wei; Weiguo Fan; Xuechao Wang; Nachuan Lu; Xiaobin Dong; Yanan Zhao; Xijia Ya; Yifei Zhao
      Pages: 15 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Hejie Wei, Weiguo Fan, Xuechao Wang, Nachuan Lu, Xiaobin Dong, Yanan Zhao, Xijia Ya, Yifei Zhao
      As a result of the unsustainable way in which natural resources are consumed, the gaps between the supply and social demand of ecosystem services (ES) are gradually widening. In this regard, studies have increasingly assessed both ES supply and demand comprehensively. This current review covers recent case studies about the integrated assessment of ES supply and demand (IAESSD), which is defined as the application of ES supply and demand assessments in one case study. By combining some key words (e.g., ES, supply or capacity, demand or flow), 38 IAESSD case studies were selected. The “indicator-method-mismatches” in the case studies were then analyzed in detail. The results show that different indicators are applied to distinguish supply and demand. Mapping, participatory methods, and modeling are often used in IAESSD. ES supply–demand mismatches, which have a strong impact on human well-being by causing unsatisfied demand, are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors. Because of the complex and interactive nature of ecological and economic systems, IAESSD faces challenges regarding the clarification of different ES components from supply to social demand and the provision of promising methods for the identification of ES mismatches. Thus, a framework for further IAESSD research is proposed. This framework highlights the importance of identifying multi-dimensional mismatches and matching ES supply and demand in practice.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T15:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Refocusing ecosystem services towards sustainability
    • Authors: Matthias Schröter; Klara H. Stumpf; Jacqueline Loos; Alexander P.E. van Oudenhoven; Anne Böhnke-Henrichs; David J. Abson
      Pages: 35 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Matthias Schröter, Klara H. Stumpf, Jacqueline Loos, Alexander P.E. van Oudenhoven, Anne Böhnke-Henrichs, David J. Abson
      Ecosystem services and sustainability have become prominent concepts in international policy and research agendas. However, a common conceptual ground between these concepts is currently underdeveloped. In particular, a vision is missing on how to align ecosystem services with overarching sustainability goals. Originally, the ecosystem service concept focused on sustaining human well-being through biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, studies within the field also consider appropriation beyond carrying capacities, and natural resource management that involves environmentally damaging inputs as ecosystem service provision. This brings the ecosystem service concept into conflict with the core goal of sustainability, i.e. achieving justice within ecological limits over the long term. Here, we link the ecosystem service concept to sustainability outcomes operationalized in terms of justice. Our framing positions sustainability as an overarching goal which can be achieved through seven key strategies: equitable (1) intergenerational and (2) intragenerational distribution, (3) interspecies distribution, (4) fair procedures, recognition and participation, (5) sufficiency, (6) efficiency, and (7) persistence. Applying these strategies has the potential to re-focus the ecosystem service concept towards the normative goal of sustainability. We identify research needs for each strategy and further discuss questions regarding operationalization of the strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T15:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • How auctions to allocate payments for ecosystem services contracts impact
           social equity
    • Authors: F.L. McGrath; L.R. Carrasco; B. Leimona
      Pages: 44 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): F.L. McGrath, L.R. Carrasco, B. Leimona
      Conservation auctions are used in Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme implementation as they are an efficient way to identify participants. Ensuring a fair implementation process is important when considering an equitable PES scheme. Currently the implications, such as impacts on social dynamics and participant perceptions, of auctions at both the individual and community level are poorly understood. Using a case study a long-standing and well-established PES scheme in Sumberjaya, Indonesia, we aim to explore the relationship between farmer characteristics and their perceived auction fairness/satisfaction and impacts on the community social dynamics. We find that a fair auction process allowing all to participate leads to perceived fairness at the individual level. However, at the community level, we find that individuals perceive more social impacts. Our results also find that information quality is the main factor in increasing fairness and reducing community impacts. Our results suggest that while it is possible to have an equitable implementation process, ensuring procedural equity may potentially compromise contextual equity. These results can aid in the implementation of PES schemes and shed some light into which characteristics to identify within potential participants and communities to avoid social disruptions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T14:32:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Scenarios for land use and ecosystem services under global change
    • Authors: Maria Jose Martinez-Harms; Brett A. Bryan; Eugenio Figueroa; Patricio Pliscoff; Rebecca K. Runting; Kerrie A. Wilson
      Pages: 56 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Maria Jose Martinez-Harms, Brett A. Bryan, Eugenio Figueroa, Patricio Pliscoff, Rebecca K. Runting, Kerrie A. Wilson
      Scenarios provide a platform to explore the provision of ecosystem services under global change. Despite their relevance to land-use policy, there is a paucity of such assessments, particularly in developing countries. Central Chile provides a good example from the Latin American realm as the region has experienced rapid transformation from natural landscapes to urbanization and agricultural development. Local experts from Central Chile identified climate change, urbanization, and fire regimes as key drivers of change. Scenarios depicting plausible future trajectories of change were developed to assess the combined effects on carbon storage, wine production, and scenic beauty for the year 2050. Across the region, the action of the drivers reduced the total amount of carbon storage (by 85%) and wine production (by 52%) compared with a baseline scenario, with minor changes incurred for scenic beauty. The carbon storage and wine production had declined by 90% and scenic beauty by 28% when the reaction to changed fire regimes was also taken into account. The cumulative outcomes of climate change and urbanization are likely to place substantial pressures on ecosystem services in Central Chile by mid-century, revealing the need for stronger planning regulations to manage land-use change.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T14:32:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • An economic perspective on land use decisions in agricultural landscapes:
           Insights from the TEEB Germany Study
    • Authors: Christian Albert; Christoph Schröter-Schlaack; Bernd Hansjürgens; Alexandra Dehnhardt; Ralf Döring; Hubert Job; Johann Köppel; Sebastian Krätzig; Bettina Matzdorf; Michaela Reutter; Stefan Schaltegger; Mathias Scholz; Marianna Siegmund-Schultze; Hubert Wiggering; Manuel Woltering; Christina von Haaren
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Christian Albert, Christoph Schröter-Schlaack, Bernd Hansjürgens, Alexandra Dehnhardt, Ralf Döring, Hubert Job, Johann Köppel, Sebastian Krätzig, Bettina Matzdorf, Michaela Reutter, Stefan Schaltegger, Mathias Scholz, Marianna Siegmund-Schultze, Hubert Wiggering, Manuel Woltering, Christina von Haaren
      Agricultural landscapes safeguard ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity upon which human well-being depends. However, only a fraction of these services are generally considered in land management decisions, resulting in trade-offs and societally inefficient solutions. The TEEB Study (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) spearheaded the development of assessments of the economic significance of ES and biodiversity. Several national TEEB follow-ups have compiled case studies and derived targeted policy advice. By synthesizing insights from “Natural Capital Germany – TEEB DE” and focusing on rural areas, the objectives of this study were (i) to explore causes of the continued decline of ES and biodiversity, (ii) to introduce case studies exemplifying the economic significance of ES and biodiversity in land use decisions, and (iii) to synthesize key recommendations for policy, planning and management. Our findings indicate that the continued decrease of ES and biodiversity in Germany can be explained by implementation deficits within a well-established nature conservation system. Three case studies on grassland protection, the establishment of riverbank buffer zones and water-sensitive farming illustrate that an economic perspective can convey recognition of the values of ES and biodiversity. We conclude with suggestions for enhanced consideration, improved conservation and sustainable use of ES and biodiversity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T14:32:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Analysis of publication trends in ecosystem services research
    • Authors: Kelsey McDonough; Stacy Hutchinson; Trisha Moore; J.M. Shawn Hutchinson
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Kelsey McDonough, Stacy Hutchinson, Trisha Moore, J.M. Shawn Hutchinson
      Scholarly journal publications on the topic of ecosystem services have substantially grown throughout the past decade, which is evidenced by an expanding world-wide research base. However, several challenges in the field of ecosystem services still remain, including conflicting approaches to ecosystem services terminology, classification schemes, research methods, and reporting requirements. We assess the development and disciplinary focus of ecosystem service research over the last decade using a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed journal publications. The journals of Shengtai Xuebao Acta Ecologica Sinica, Ecosystem Services, PLoS One, and Ecological Economics lead scholarly journals publishing ecosystem services-focused articles. The European Union leads ecosystem services publications (42%), while the United States is responsible for 30% of ecosystem services publications. This analysis is supplemented by a discussion on ecosystem services-focused research and policy to identify trends that encourage future study to resolve some of the current issues faced by the research community.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T14:32:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Rapid Assessment of Wetland Ecosystem Services (RAWES): An example from
           Colombo, Sri Lanka
    • Authors: R.J. McInnes; M. Everard
      Pages: 89 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): R.J. McInnes, M. Everard
      Wetlands make essential positive contributions to multiple dimensions of human wellbeing. However, recognition of these benefits is often lacking in decision-making, compromising the wellbeing of both the ecosystem and is many linked human beneficiaries. Wetland site managers, decision-makers and stakeholders all need to better understand the benefits provided by wetlands. Despite a plethora of available assessment techniques, very few approaches are genuinely rapid, applicable across different wetland types or consider the realities of time and money resource constraints. The Rapid Assessment of Wetland Ecosystem Services (RAWES) approach is presented as a method that meets these needs, illustrated through its practical application in over 60 different wetland sites supporting development of a Wetland Strategy for the Metro Colombo Region, Sri Lanka. The approach is based on the trained, local assessors using a variety of field indicators in order to assess the positive or negative contribution over 30 wetland ecosystem services provide at local, regional or global scales. Outputs are simplified, signalling to decision-makers the diversity of interlinked ecosystem service outcomes consequent from management policies and actions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T06:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Natural capital in practice: How to include its value in Dutch
           decision-making processes
    • Authors: Arjan Ruijs; Petra van Egmond
      Pages: 106 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Arjan Ruijs, Petra van Egmond
      Scientific and policy attention for natural capital and ecosystem services have grown fast during the last decade. As a result, awareness on the value of the stock of natural capital and the flow of ecosystem services it provides increased. Decision-makers from governments, business and nature organisations nowadays have much better insights into the opportunities its sustainable use provides, for themselves and for society. Yet, translating lessons from natural capital research to policy remains complex. In this paper, on the basis of the results of the two-year Natural Capital Netherlands programme, it is elaborated how, in practice, governments, businesses and nature organisations can include the value of natural capital in their decision-making processes. The planning and decision-making processes studied in this programme can be clustered into three domains: sustainable entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial nature management and area development. For each domain of decision-making, the approach to be followed differs somewhat and different policies should be developed to reach the situation in which it is mainstream to include the value of natural capital in decision-making. Moreover, it is shown that incorporating natural capital leads to innovation, with new market opportunities, new nature development and new collaborations between various parties as a result.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T06:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Expanding the suite of Cultural Ecosystem Services to include ingenuity,
           perspective, and life teaching
    • Authors: Rachelle K. Gould; Noa Kekuewa Lincoln
      Pages: 117 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Rachelle K. Gould, Noa Kekuewa Lincoln
      Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) are a crucial but relatively understudied component of the ecosystem services framework. While the number and diversity of categories of other types of ES have steadily increased, CES categories are still largely defined by a few existing typologies. Based on our empirical data, we suggest that those typologies need updating. We analyzed data from interviews conducted in adjacent Hawaiian ecosystems—one agricultural and one forested. We found that current categories of CES do not capture the diversity and nuance of the nonmaterial benefits that people described receiving from ecosystems. We propose three new CES categories: ingenuity, life teaching, and perspective. We discuss issues of lumping and splitting CES categories, and advocate that creating categories for these emerging themes will help us to more fully capture nonmaterial benefits in ecosystem services research and policy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T12:15:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Are ecosystem service studies presenting the right information for
           decision making?
    • Authors: William C.C. Wright; Florian V. Eppink; Suzie Greenhalgh
      Pages: 128 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): William C.C. Wright, Florian V. Eppink, Suzie Greenhalgh
      Monetary valuation is often used as a measure of ecosystem service value but is not appropriate for all Ecosystem Services. The ecosystem service literature has devised various formats to present monetary values together with other types of ecosystem service information, but these are rarely tested in a decision-making context. We search the literature to identify and classify formats used to present combinations of ecosystem service information types, and develop criteria to determine which features of these formats support instrumental and conceptual decisions. We find that many of the presentation formats present ecosystem service information in a way that supports conceptual discussions, but only a few formats present the information needed to make instrumental decisions. Furthermore, some of our assessment criteria are not met by any of the presentation formats. These gaps suggest further research areas to strengthen the usefulness of ecosystem service assessments in decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T12:15:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Remote sensing combined with social-ecological data: The importance of
           diverse land uses for ecosystem service provision in north-eastern
           Madagascar
    • Authors: J.G. Zaehringer; G. Schwilch; O.R. Andriamihaja; B. Ramamonjisoa; P. Messerli
      Pages: 140 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): J.G. Zaehringer, G. Schwilch, O.R. Andriamihaja, B. Ramamonjisoa, P. Messerli
      Through ongoing deforestation in the tropics, forest-related ecosystem services are declining, while ecosystem services provided by agricultural land uses are on the increase. Land system science provides a framework for analysing the links between land use change and the resulting socio-environmental trade-offs. However, the evidence base to support the navigation of such trade-offs is often lacking, as information on land use cannot directly be obtained through remote sensing and census data is often unavailable at sufficient spatial resolution. The global biodiversity hotspot of north-eastern Madagascar exemplifies these challenges. Combining land use data obtained through remote sensing with social-ecological data from a regional level household survey, we attempt to make the links between land use and ecosystem service benefits explicit. Our study confirmed that remotely sensed information on landscapes reflects households’ involvement in rice production systems. We further characterized landscapes in terms of “ecosystem service bundles” linked to specific land uses, as well as in terms of ecosystem service benefits to households. The map of landscape types could help direct future conservation and development efforts towards places where there is potential for success.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T05:09:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • “Things are different now”: Farmer perceptions of cultural ecosystem
           services of traditional rice landscapes in Vietnam and the Philippines
    • Authors: Vera Tekken; Joachim H. Spangenberg; Benjamin Burkhard; Monina Escalada; Susanne Stoll-Kleemann; Dao Thanh Truong; Josef Settele
      Pages: 153 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Vera Tekken, Joachim H. Spangenberg, Benjamin Burkhard, Monina Escalada, Susanne Stoll-Kleemann, Dao Thanh Truong, Josef Settele
      Traditional rice production has shaped distinctive cultural landscapes in SE Asia. Rice cultivation is closely linked to socio-cultural values and has created specific agrobiodiversity. Increasing development pressures lead to an intensification of small-scale production systems and with this to changes of landscapes and associated ecosystems services. With a focus on cultural ecosystem services and along different land use gradients a qualitative assessment of farmer’s perceptions regarding cultural values of their landscapes was conducted. Interviews focused on traditional farming methods and the abundance of cultural values and perceptions that support the preservation of low-input, sustainable land management strategies. 73 indicators for Cultural Identity, Landscape Aesthetics, and Knowledge Systems were derived, revealing that socio-cultural structures and the socioeconomic situation of farmers influence their view on landscape-related cultural services. The qualitative approach of this research provides an important contribution to the field of ecosystem service assessments because these are the values people perceive based on culturally embedded and socially shaped preferences. For the implementation of ecological engineering, which is based on participation and on the belief into the natural resilience of ecosystems, the assessment of cultural ecosystem services provides important evidence in which areas this theoretical concept could find higher acceptance.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T05:09:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Challenges for valuing ecosystem services from an Indigenous estate in
           northern Australia
    • Authors: Kamaljit K. Sangha; Jeremy Russell-Smith; Scott C. Morrison; Robert Costanza; Andrew Edwards
      Pages: 167 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Kamaljit K. Sangha, Jeremy Russell-Smith, Scott C. Morrison, Robert Costanza, Andrew Edwards
      Recent Australian government policy for developing northern Australia applies a standard financial approach that disregards the importance of Ecosystem Services (ES), and the significance of associated socio-cultural benefits of ES for the wellbeing of Indigenous people who constitute the majority of the regional rural population. First, we assess available ES valuation methods for estimating non-market and market values of ES from an Indigenous estate, Fish River Station (FRS), representative of ‘typical’ regional savannas. Second, we estimate the direct (fire and weed management) and indirect (foregone income from pastoral enterprise) costs associated with maintaining those services. For valuation of ES, we applied a conventional Basic Value Transfer technique using global databases including available regional studies—providing valuations of USD 286 and 84My−1, respectively. However, constituent studies used in these valuations had limited relevance to both the ecosystems and socio-cultural contexts of our study. For evaluating Indigenous socio-ecological benefits of ES, estimated conservatively at USD 2.21My−1, we applied a local wellbeing valuation technique. The minimum costs required to maintain ES flows were estimated as USD 5.6ha−1 y−1. Our study illustrates that, to better inform regional development policy, significant challenges remain for appropriate valuation of ES from north Australian savannas, including recognition of socio-cultural services and wellbeing benefits incorporating Indigenous values.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T05:14:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Cultural ecosystem services: Characteristics, challenges and lessons for
           urban green space research
    • Authors: Dawn C. Dickinson; Richard J. Hobbs
      Pages: 179 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Dawn C. Dickinson, Richard J. Hobbs
      City dwellers have fewer opportunities to connect with nature, with urban green space (UGS) often one of the few places where this can occur. Natural environments are known to contribute to human wellbeing, although to date research has largely focused on quantifiable benefits. The less tangible benefits obtained from ecosystems have commonly been referred to as ‘Cultural Ecosystem Services’ (CES). However, challenges persist around the definition and measurement of CES. A qualitative review of literature was conducted to identify key characteristics of CES, challenges to CES research, and lessons for the future of UGS research. The review found that CES have tended to be characterised by intangibility and incommensurability, when perhaps the most distinguishing features are the form and extent of human-environment co-production, and association between CES and held values. Despite ongoing challenges, researchers have applied a range of methods to capture and analyse CES, including non-economic and participatory/deliberative approaches. As urbanisation increases, it is important to understand how CES from UGS affect wellbeing. The review found that attention to date has mainly focused on identifying CES but scope exists to research the effects of UGS attributes, and how the socio-cultural diversity of cities might influence co-production of CES.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T05:14:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • To what extent have the links between ecosystem services and human
           well-being been researched in Africa, Asia, and Latin America?
    • Authors: Gisella S. Cruz-Garcia; Erwan Sachet; Genowefa Blundo-Canto; Martha Vanegas; Marcela Quintero
      Pages: 201 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Gisella S. Cruz-Garcia, Erwan Sachet, Genowefa Blundo-Canto, Martha Vanegas, Marcela Quintero
      Most studies to date assume that there are multiple relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being, but there are few studies that quantify these relationships. Our objectives were: (1) to investigate the trends and understudied areas within ecosystem services and well-being research; and (2) within these general trends, to analyze to what extent the linkages between ecosystem services and well-being presented in empirical research in Africa, Asia, and Latin America were part of a tested hypothesis, and to assess which conceptual frameworks were used in understanding this interface. The results of this study highlighted that most publications assumed that ecosystem services and well-being were interlinked but did not analyze their relationship as part of the hypothesis to test. While different frameworks on well-being were adopted by empirical research, only one out of the 29 post-Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) conceptual frameworks that illustrate the linkages between ecosystem services and well-being was documented, and most case studies adopted the MEA. Finally, trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services and disaggregated well-being were understudied. Considering these knowledge gaps in future studies will help empirical ecosystem services research to simultaneously contribute to improved well-being and environmental sustainability when applied at multiple policy or institutional levels.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T11:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Incentive-compatible payments for watershed services along the Eastern
           Route of China’s South-North Water Transfer Project
    • Authors: Jichuan Sheng; Michael Webber
      Pages: 213 - 226
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Jichuan Sheng, Michael Webber
      In transboundary rivers, upstream and downstream users have different interests, which affect their willingness to pay to protect the river’s ecological services. This is true of the Eastern Route of China’s South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP), with the added complication that the State Council Office (of SNWT Construction Committee) supervises upstream and downstream users. This paper analyses the strategies of upstream users, downstream users and the State Council Office, to explore an incentive-compatible system of payments for watershed services through a tripartite evolutionary game model. The results demonstrate that: First, whether lower Yangtze governments can obtain payments for reduced access to water depends on State Council Office’s supervision costs. Second, upstream and downstream users’ initial willingness to participate may determine the ultimate evolutionary stable strategy. Third, State Council Office could ensure that payment system works, by increasing punishment for users that are initially unwilling to pay for watershed services. Fourth, high opportunity costs and high payments to upstream governments reduce the upstream and downstream users’ incentives to participate. All these factors need to be considered in designing payment systems for watershed services to establish an incentive-compatible scheme and realize appropriate water governance in SNWTP.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T11:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Social preference-based valuation of the links between home gardens,
           ecosystem services, and human well-being in Lefke Region of North Cyprus
    • Authors: Gulay Cetinkaya Ciftcioglu
      Pages: 227 - 236
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Gulay Cetinkaya Ciftcioglu
      The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between ecosystem services (ESs) and human well-being (HWB) in the home gardens of Lefke Region located in North Cyprus. The objectives of the study include: to examine the plant composition; to evaluate the key ESs delivered by the home gardens; to assess the contribution of ESs to HWB; and to evaluate the relationship between ESs and HWB. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, a social preference method and relevant tools (e.g. questionnaire) were used to evaluate the importance of ESs and HWB, which were expressed on a five point Likert scale. The results revealed that approximately 183 plant species are cultivated in the home gardens, which deliver 21 ESs with a perceived average relative value ranging from moderate (e.g. ‘sense of belonging’ in the cultural ESs) to very low (e.g. provisioning ESs) degree. These services mostly influence the security (a secure environment) and at least the basic material component of HWB. The results of this study can contribute to improving our understanding of the social values of ESs, their influence on HWB, and developing relevant policy responses in terms of sustainable landscape development.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T23:21:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Uncertainty assessment in ecosystem services analyses: Seven challenges
           and practical responses
    • Authors: Perrine Hamel; Benjamin P. Bryant
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Perrine Hamel, Benjamin P. Bryant
      Ecosystem services (ES) analyses are increasingly used to address societal challenges, but too often are not accompanied by uncertainty assessment. This omission limits the validity of their findings and may undermine the ‘science-based’ decisions they inform. We summarize and analyze seven commonly perceived challenges to conducting uncertainty assessment that help explain why it often receives superficial treatment in ES studies. We connect these challenges to solutions in relevant scientific literature and guidance documents. Since ES science is based on a multiplicity of disciplines (e.g. ecology, hydrology, economics, environmental modeling, policy sciences), substantial knowledge already exists to identify, quantify, and communicate uncertainties. The integration of these disciplines for solution-oriented modeling has been the focus of the integrated assessment community for many years, and we argue that many insights and best practices from this field can be directly used to improve ES assessments. We also recognize a number of issues that hinder the adoption of uncertainty assessment as part of standard practice. Our synthesis provides a starting point for ES analysts and other applied modelers looking for further guidance on uncertainty assessment and helps scientists and decision-makers to set reasonable expectations for characterizing the level of confidence associated with an ES assessment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-22T19:35:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Understanding the role of conceptual frameworks: Reading the ecosystem
           service cascade
    • Authors: M. Potschin-Young; R. Haines-Young; C. Görg; U. Heink; K. Jax; C. Schleyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): M. Potschin-Young, R. Haines-Young, C. Görg, U. Heink, K. Jax, C. Schleyer
      The aim of this paper is to identify the role of conceptual frameworks in operationalising and mainstreaming the idea of ecosystem services. It builds on some initial discussions from IPBES, which suggested that conceptual frameworks could be used to: ‘simplify thinking’, ‘structure work’, ‘clarify issues’, and ‘provide a common reference point’. The analysis uses the cascade model as a focus and looks at the way it has been used in recent published material and across a set of case studies from the EU-funded OpenNESS Project as a device for conceptual framing. It found that there are examples in the literature that show the cascade model indeed being used as an ‘organising framework’, a tool for ‘re-framing’ perspectives, an ‘analytical template’, and as an ‘application framework’. Although the published materials on the cascade are rich, these accounts lack insights into the process by which the different versions of the model were created, and so we turned to the set of OpenNESS case studies to examine how they read the cascade. We found that the cascade was able to provide a common reference for a diverse set of studies, and that it was sufficiently flexible for it to be developed and elaborated in ways that were meaningful for the different place-based studies. The case studies showed that generalised models like the cascade can have an important ‘awareness-raising’ role. However, we found that using models of this kind it was more difficult for case studies to link their work to broader societal issues such as human well-being, sustainable ecosystem management, governance, and competitiveness, than to their own concerns. We therefore conclude that to be used effectively, conceptual models like the cascade may need to be supported by other materials that help users read it in different, outward looking ways. We also need to find mechanisms for capturing this experience so that it can be shared with others.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T18:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.015
       
  • PANDORA 3.0 plugin: A new biodiversity ecosystem service assessment tool
           for urban green infrastructure connectivity planning
    • Authors: Raffaele Pelorosso; Federica Gobattoni; Francesco Geri; Antonio Leone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Raffaele Pelorosso, Federica Gobattoni, Francesco Geri, Antonio Leone
      Ecosystem services related to landscape connectivity are of paramount importance for biodiversity conservation. However, due to the complexity of urban systems, both landscape connectivity assessment and the analysis of ecosystem services related to landscape connectivity are often inadequately conducted, or even completely lacking, in urban planning. The PANDORA 3.0 model, developed as a QGIS plugin and illustrated here with a study case, is the first free, open-source tool for an integrated evaluation of ecosystem services related to landscape connectivity for biodiversity conservation purposes in urban contexts. The PANDORA 3.0 model plugin aims to be a versatile and innovative tool for assessing Green Infrastructure value in terms of ecological connectivity and biodiversity, useful for the planning of sustainable and resilient landscapes and cities. Its open code availability means that users, scientists, developers and planners involved in urban and landscape ecology will have the opportunity to test the PANDORA 3.0 model in several contexts and even contribute further improvements.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T18:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.016
       
  • The law, ecosystem services and ecosystem functions: An in-depth overview
           of coverage and interrelation
    • Authors: V. Mauerhofer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): V. Mauerhofer
      Ecosystem services have been particularly since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 a broadly analysed issue. This discussion has been widely led by scholars from environmental and related economic sciences, while social scientists have paid less attention and legal scholars have hardly entered a deeper controversy about the topic. This paper addresses the following questions 1. in how far law in general already currently covers – perhaps not explicitly - ecosystem services, 2. in how far law goes beyond the pure coverage of these ‘services’ and additionally covers functions of ecosystems which usually are not already considered ‘services’, 3. which consequences arise from this differentiated coverage by law, and 4. which services/functions of ecosystems the law and even governance in the widest sense are not able to cover at all or in particular situations. The whole analysis is implemented by an in-depth review of existing academic literature as well as by means of theoretical and practical cases which support the arguments brought forward. First, it is shown by examples that law covers since millennia the essence of all the main different ecosystem services but not necessarily by using the term ecosystem services. Secondly, several cases describe how law addresses functions of ecosystems which often are not considered (anymore) by humans as ecosystem services, such as river floods, springtides and volcano eruptions. Thirdly, among the consequences found are conflicting interests between more ecocentric related functions and more anthropocentric related services of ecosystems. Law has played in the past a pivotal role in fostering these ecosystem services. With regard to ecosystem functions the role of law has during the past been a less enabling, but rather a restricting one. However, some recent changes of this situation, e.g. in flood protection or wilderness conservation are shown. Fourthly, the paper indicates e.g. natural genetic modifications and fertilizing through volcano eruption as services/functions of ecosystems which the law and even governance in the widest sense is not able to cover at all in the sense of enabling, but only – if at all - can cover in a reactive way. The results of this contribution provide a basic assessment of the relationship between law and the functions as well as the services of ecosystems. In this way, the findings critically reflect potentials and pitfalls to be globally considered when intending to apply law on these features.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T18:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.011
       
  • Adventure racing enables access to cultural ecosystem services at multiple
           scales
    • Authors: M. Kyle S. Smith; Dirk J. Roux; Jessica Hayes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): M. Kyle S. Smith, Dirk J. Roux, Jessica Hayes
      Protected areas are increasingly being viewed and acknowledged within broader social-ecological landscapes as providing a range of ecosystem services, which offer an important connection between nature and society. We explore non-mechanised adventure racing as a form of nature-based tourism, how this activity enables access to a suite of cultural ecosystem services, and its facilitation by a network of relatively open-access protected landscapes. An international adventure race, set within the Garden Route, South Africa, was used as a case study. The physical setting (appreciating nature’s beauty and experiencing the environment in a different way) played the most important role as a motivating factor for participation within adventure racing. Mountainous scenery, rugged coastlines and encounters with iconic species along with the challenge, physical exertion and social bonding also contributed strongly towards the overall experience. Social media and live tracking provided an opportunity for broad exposure and a virtual experience of cultural ecosystem services at a range of spatial scales. In this manuscript we contribute to profiling adventure tourism within a cultural ecosystem service framework, and highlight some implications for protected area management.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.017
       
  • Reducing landscape restoration costs: Feasibility of generating
           electricity from invasive alien plant biomass on the Agulhas Plain, South
           Africa
    • Authors: William Stafford; James Blignaut
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): William Stafford, James Blignaut
      South Africa has embarked on a large-scale government programme to control invasive alien plants (IAPs). However, to date, very little cost recovery has occurred through the development of value adding industries and the sale of various wood products and bioenergy. Using the Agulhas Plain as a case study, we assess the feasibility of using IAP biomass in modular 250kWe wood gasifiers to produce electricity with biochar as a co-product. There is sufficient IAP biomass available over a 15 year time-frame for the installation of 2.6MWe electricity generation capacity, and the financial feasibility is attractive (net present value US$1.35 million for wood gasifiers, compared to -US$2.1 million for diesel-fuelled generators). However, the feasibility of the value added industry depends on sharing the cost for IAP biomass supply between the bioenergy entrepreneur (US$11.01/green tonne) and government (US$17.56/green tonne). A cost-sharing business model and public-private partnerships will be needed to develop value adding industries, control IAPs and reduce the costs of landscape restoration. These value adding industries will also deliver various other socio-economic benefits; including: increasing water availability, reducing carbon emissions, providing jobs, developing skills, stimulating rural development, and helping to steer South Africa towards a more sustainable development path.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.008
       
  • Achieving the national development agenda and the Sustainable Development
           Goals (SDGs) through investment in ecological infrastructure: A case study
           of South Africa
    • Authors: Tracey L. Cumming; Ross T. Shackleton; Johannes Förster; John Dini; Ahmed Khan; Mpho Gumula; Ida Kubiszewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Tracey L. Cumming, Ross T. Shackleton, Johannes Förster, John Dini, Ahmed Khan, Mpho Gumula, Ida Kubiszewski
      Ecological infrastructure (EI) refers to ecosystems that deliver services to society, functioning as a nature-based equivalent of, or complement to, built infrastructure. EI is critical for socio-economic development, supporting a suite of development imperatives at local, national and international scales. This paper presents the myriad of ways that EI supports sustainable development, using South Africa and the South African National Development Plan as a case study, linking to the Sustainable Development Goals on a global level. We show the need for EI across numerous development and sustainability issues, including food security, water provision, and poverty alleviation. A strategic and multi-sectoral approach to EI investment is essential for allocating scarce public and private resources for achieving economic and social-ecological priorities. Opportunities to unlock investment in EI, both internationally and on the national level, are identified. This includes leveraging private sector investment into landscape management and integrating the costs of managing EI into public sectors that benefit directly from ecosystem services, such as the water sector and infrastructure development. Additionally, investing in EI also aligns well with international development and climate change funds. Investment in EI from a range of innovative sources supports global and national development, while complementing other development investments.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.005
       
  • The future value of ecosystem services: Global scenarios and national
           implications
    • Authors: Ida Kubiszewski; Robert Costanza; Sharolyn Anderson; Paul Sutton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Ida Kubiszewski, Robert Costanza, Sharolyn Anderson, Paul Sutton
      We estimated the future value of ecosystem services in monetary units for 4 alternative global land use and management scenarios based on the Great Transition Initiative (GTI) scenarios to the year 2050. We used previous estimates of the per biome values of ecosystem services in 2011 as the basis for comparison. We mapped projected land-use for 16biomes at 1km2 resolution globally for each scenario. This, combined with differences in land management for each scenario, created estimates of global ecosystem services values that also allowed for examinations of individual countries. Results show that under different scenarios the global value of ecosystem services can decline by $51trillion/yr or increase by USD $30trillion/yr. In addition to the global values, we report totals for all countries and maps for a few example countries. Results show that adopting a set of policies similar to those required to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals, would greatly enhance ecosystem services, human wellbeing and sustainability.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.004
       
  • Making biodiversity offsets work in South Africa – A governance
           perspective
    • Authors: Peter Lukey; Tracey Cumming; Sukie Paras; Ida Kubiszewski; Samuel Lloyd
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Peter Lukey, Tracey Cumming, Sukie Paras, Ida Kubiszewski, Samuel Lloyd
      South Africa is increasingly putting itself into an undesirable state of ecological deficit. Regulatory and other interventions are needed to stop and reverse ecosystem degradation. Biodiversity offsets are seen as one possible method of mitigating the current trends in biodiversity and ecosystem services loss in the country. However, for offsetting to succeed in practice, a number of barriers will have to be overcome. This paper discusses concerns raised by South African stakeholders as part of a policy development process implemented by the Department of Environmental Affairs and proposes how the identified barriers may be overcome in the South African setting.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.001
       
  • Protected areas as outdoor classrooms and global laboratories:
           Intellectual ecosystem services flowing to-and-from a National Park
    • Authors: Izak P.J. Smit; Dirk J. Roux; Louise K. Swemmer; Nelius Boshoff; Peter Novellie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Izak P.J. Smit, Dirk J. Roux, Louise K. Swemmer, Nelius Boshoff, Peter Novellie
      Education opportunities, capacity building and scientific knowledge are poorly studied intellectual ecosystem services (IES), especially as generated by protected areas (PAs). Based on the cascade model of ecosystem services, we use simple indicators to quantify IES generated in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. IES are potentially valuable in guiding and capacitating conservation management and policy. We consider measures and conditions to enhance this important role. Benefits from IES are valued by external researchers and educators, as is evident from their willingness to engage and collaborate in the production and dispersal of benefits. Collaboration was enhanced by measures (subsidized accommodation for visiting scientists, sites for the development of education facilities, administrative support, a culture of shared learning) designed to attract and maintain partnerships between KNP staff and external researchers and educators. These measures enabled the dispersal of IES benefits across scales, and helped to ensure that benefits fed back to park management. Collaborative planning to mainstream ecosystems services is needed to improve alignment between IES production and PA management needs. There is also evidence of wide disparities between individual PAs in the generation of IES, resulting from features that are attractive to researchers. Such disparities can be mitigated by measures to attract research collaboration.

      PubDate: 2017-06-03T08:23:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.003
       
  • Determining eco-compensation standards based on the ecosystem services
           value of the mountain ecological forests in Beijing, China
    • Authors: Wenping Sheng; Lin Zhen; Gaodi Xie; Yu Xiao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Wenping Sheng, Lin Zhen, Gaodi Xie, Yu Xiao
      Ecological forests play a key role in the maintenance of urban ecological security in Beijing, and 91% of these ecosystems are located in mountain areas. To better address the issues that are related to ecological conservation and the environmental, eco-compensation programs that target mountain ecological forests have been implemented by the local government since 2004. However, these eco-compensation programs that are currently conducted in Beijing now are still confronted with issues regarding payment standards. In this study, three eco-compensation standards for the mountain ecological forests in Beijing are presented based on the ecosystem services value and location diversity indicators that include major function oriented zoning, population density, and ecological importance and ecological fragility. The average payment in Beijing varies from 1607RMB/ha/a to 2051RMB/ha/a and is approximately from 0.7 to 1.2 times higher than the current standard. The increase from the current payment standard to the recommended ones is consistent with recent social and economic development in Beijing. The recommended eco-compensation standards also reflect the relative importance of forest ecosystem services that consider geographical location. These recommended standards also have the potential for use in the establishment of differentiated compensation standards based on the different protection results of mountain ecological forests. This study will help policy and decision makers to design eco-compensation initiatives with a high success rate and contribute to the conservation and sustainability of the forest resources in Beijing.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T23:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.016
       
  • The benefits and costs of clearing invasive alien plants in northern
           Zululand, South Africa
    • Authors: N.P. Nkambule; J.N. Blignaut; T. Vundla; T. Morokong; S. Mudavanhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): N.P. Nkambule, J.N. Blignaut, T. Vundla, T. Morokong, S. Mudavanhu
      More than 60% of northern Zululand is tribal land with a substantial area falling within protected areas. Much of the land is invaded by invasive alien plant species (IAPs) such as Chromolaena odorata and Lantana camara. Most of these species do not have any economic value and compromises communal livelihoods and biodiversity. This paper aims to investigate the benefits and costs of clearing IAPs in northern Zululand. A system dynamics model was developed specifically for this analysis. A number of scenarios characterised by various IAP spread rates and clearing investment interventions were formulated and evaluated. The study finds that the highest net returns from clearing the IAPs were generated by value-added products (VAPs), followed by the value of water not consumed by the IAPs. The clearing of IAPs was found to be more cost-effective than augmenting water supply. Supplementing clearing investment operations through private sector co-finance reduces the stock of invasion, increases the area cleared, increases biomass for VAPs, saves more water and clears a greater area for livestock and maize production. The co-finance scenario proved to be the better management option. This scenario generated the most benefits and had a positive net present value (R2.5 million).

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T23:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.011
       
  • The potential of green infrastructure application in urban runoff control
           for land use planning: A preliminary evaluation from a southern Italy case
           study
    • Authors: Viviana Pappalardo; Daniele La Rosa; Alberto Campisano; Paolo La Greca
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Viviana Pappalardo, Daniele La Rosa, Alberto Campisano, Paolo La Greca
      Among the approaches for run-off regulation, green infrastructure is identified as non-traditional measure to compensate the effects of soil sealing generated from urban development. It is recognized as a way to increase the provision of urban ecosystem services and is increasingly being used in research and practice on storm-water management through Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). The adoption of SUDS in urban planning might protect hydrological and ecological dimensions of landscapes while providing resilient options to face flood risk management. This paper shows the assessment of SUDS potential to increase the regulating service capacity in a dense urban catchment in southern Italy. A comparison between scenarios of pre-implementation and post-implementation of SUDS is performed through catchment simulations with a hydraulic model. Results showed different effectiveness of SUDS options, in terms of variations of the indicator chosen as proxy of the regulating service capacity. Results showed a better performance obtained by green roofs than permeable pavements, highlighting a limited capacity of run-off regulation achieved with SUDS deployment in public areas only. This suggests that innovative policies to encourage private land owners to adopt measures of SUDS could be fundamental for the retrofitting of urban settlements.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T23:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.015
       
  • Collaborative learning to unlock investments for functional ecological
           infrastructure: Bridging barriers in social-ecological systems in South
           Africa
    • Authors: Per Angelstam; Garth Barnes; Marine Elbakidze; Christo Marais; Alex Marsh; Sarah Polonsky; David M. Richardson; Nina Rivers; Ross T. Shackleton; William Stafford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Per Angelstam, Garth Barnes, Marine Elbakidze, Christo Marais, Alex Marsh, Sarah Polonsky, David M. Richardson, Nina Rivers, Ross T. Shackleton, William Stafford
      Maintenance of functional ecological (or green) infrastructure is threatened by habitat conversion, fragmentation and loss, water scarcity, invasive species, climate change, resource extraction, poor policy implementation and societal inequity. Using South Africa as a case study, our transdisciplinary team identified actions likely to be effective in scaling up research and development projects that support implementation of policy about ecological infrastructure by active adaptive management. Based on expert knowledge at three scales, we analysed South Africa's opportunity to active adaptive management and to unlock investments that enhance functional ecological infrastructure. Barriers included lack of trust among actors, limited collaborative governance and integrated planning, including local partnerships; as well as a poor inclusion of evidence-based knowledge based on monitoring of landscape restoration efforts and its social and ecological consequences. Bridges include practicing transdisciplinary knowledge production, enhancing social learning among actors and stakeholders, and advocacy based on improved understanding. We propose a portfolio of place-based actions that could help to facilitate unlocking investments for functional ecological infrastructure by prioritising conservation, management and restoration through integrated cross-scale, collaborative and multi-sector spatial planning. Understanding the structure and dynamics of social-ecological systems, identifying champions, framing key messages for different audiences, and sharing failures and success stories internationally, are crucial requirements to unlock investments.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T23:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.012
       
  • Revealed social preference for ecosystem services using the eco-price
    • Authors: Elliott T. Campbell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Elliott T. Campbell
      Ecosystem services have predominately been valued from the perspective of individual preference, where the willingness to pay of an individual is measured either directly or indirectly. However, when one observes where money is spent on increasing ecosystem services, preserving them, compensating for their loss, or replacing lost services it is almost always through collective action of governments, corporations, or non-governmental organizations. This work suggests that revealed social preference is the most appropriate economic perspective for institutions to use in analyzing the value of ecosystem services, particularly when the scale of inference is large, the decisions to be made are multiple, or the final use of the ecosystem service is uncertain. The eco-price collates instances where society has paid for an increase in ecosystem services, to avoid their loss or restore damages, in the form of $ paid per biophysical unit of ecosystem service. Eco-prices are categorized by type of biophysical work done (i.e. water, carbon, nutrients, soil, and biodiversity). Applying the categorical eco-prices to biophysical ecosystem services flows for average forest and freshwater wetland conditions in Maryland yields an estimate of the annual ecosystem service benefit of $5,767 per hectare of forest and $9,693 per hectare of freshwater wetlands.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T11:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.009
       
  • Examining the coherence of legal frameworks for ecosystem services toward
           sustainable mineral development in the Association of Southeast Asian
           Nations
    • Authors: Rene Abcede; Weena Gera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Rene Abcede, Weena Gera
      Within the context of growing economic integration in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), recent questions have been raised with regard to how member states employ law as a means of regional integration to promote sustainable development. Taking into account the primacy of ecosystem services for sustainability, this study examines the coherence of legal frameworks for ecosystem services among ASEAN member states toward a unified regional legal agenda for sustainable mineral development. Analyzed along three aspects of the Ecosystem Services Approach, the paper reviews the different mining related legislations and implementing regulations of member states, and examines whether there is convergence in their legal provisions for ecosystem services. The study shows that all member states provide legal mechanisms for ecosystem management in their mining operations. However, the following could be noted: 1) a lack of coherent identification and targeting of ecosystem services despite ‘intermediate’ services being embedded in provisions for ecosystem conservation; 2) a lack of legal provisions for integration of ecosystem services in mining impact assessments, and for ecosystem services valuation, which render environmental impact assessments, compensation structures and royalty regimes inadequate; and 3) a density of legal differentials around how states allocate regulatory authorities for ecosystem management in mining. These represent a prevailing fragmentation among member states’ legal frameworks for ecosystem services, which does not create an enabling condition for legal integration in ASEAN’s regional mineral strategies for sustainable development.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T12:15:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.003
       
  • The World Bank’s environmental strategies: Assessing the influence of a
           biased use of New Institutional Economics on legal issues
    • Authors: Benoît Prévost; Audrey Rivaud
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Benoît Prévost, Audrey Rivaud
      The World Bank considers itself as “a leader in piloting payments for ecosystem services”. This article explores how the World Bank gradually integrated environmental and legal issues within its strategic framework with a particular focus on its economic theoretical influences. In the early 1990s, the New Institutional Economics became the main influence concerning the analysis of institutional arrangements and legal issues. We distinguish between different branches within the NIE. One remained very close to the mainstream or orthodox economics and tended to focus on private property rights as the central legal issue. We demonstrate that this branch fitted with both the market-friendly policies supported by the WB, and with the theoretical and statistical tools used by the WB's economists. It induced a very specific analysis of legal and institutional issues. It also involved a kind of theoretical path dependency, which influenced a market-oriented analysis of ecosystem services and impoverished the institutional and legal debates concerning the WB's environmental strategy. We suggest that the other branch of the NIE, as developed by the Bloomington School, offered another framework to tackle environmental issues regarding the diversity of institutional and legal arrangements. We conclude on the ambiguous use of economic theory for addressing environmental and legal issues.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T12:15:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.014
       
  • Urban national parks in the global South: Linking management perceptions,
           policies and practices to water-related ecosystem services
    • Authors: Gregg Brill; Pippin Anderson; Patrick O'Farrell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Gregg Brill, Pippin Anderson, Patrick O'Farrell


      PubDate: 2017-04-19T07:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.023
       
  • Integrating ecosystem services supply potential from future land-use
           scenarios in protected area management: A Bangladesh case study
    • Authors: Sharif A. Mukul; Md. Shawkat I. Sohel; John Herbohn; Luis Inostroza; Hannes König
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Sharif A. Mukul, Md. Shawkat I. Sohel, John Herbohn, Luis Inostroza, Hannes König
      The establishment of protected areas (PAs) is a key strategy to conserve declining forests and biodiversity worldwide. Due to poor infrastructure and a limited capacity of PA managers, most of the PAs in developing countries fail to achieve their management targets. In this paper, the potential to integrate ecosystem services (ES) into land-use planning was assessed in order to better manage PAs in tropical countries. Firstly, we mapped the relative capacity of different land-use/land cover (LULC) to supply ES in and around the Satchari National Park (SNP) located in northeast Bangladesh. Two alternative scenarios to envisage the likely future supply of ES in the area were then analysed. The study reveals a relatively higher supply of supporting ES from LULC located inside the park compared to the ES supplied from surrounding forests, tea gardens, and oil palm and rubber plantations. Provisioning ES were greater in surrounding forests than from SNP. Both regulating and cultural ES were also higher in LULC within the park. Spatially explicit ES supply assessment and mapping was found to be useful for land use planning and the prioritization of future management actions. Based on our findings, we suggest that PA managers should consider the ES framework as an effective tool for the future-oriented PAs management.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T07:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.001
       
  • The Ecosystems revolution, Mark Everard. Palgrave MacMIllan, ISBN
           978-3-319-31657-4
    • Authors: Leon Braat
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Leon C. Braat


      PubDate: 2017-03-28T15:56:14Z
       
 
 
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