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Journal Cover Ecosystem Services
  [SJR: 2.169]   [H-I: 21]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Look beyond peer-reviewed literature and traditional validation when
           assessing ecosystem services modeling efforts: A response to Ochoa and
           Urbina-Cardona’s review
    • Authors: Benjamin P. Bryant; Perrine Hamel; Lisa Mandle
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Benjamin P. Bryant, Perrine Hamel, Lisa Mandle
      Ochoa and Urbina-Cardona’s recent review of tools for spatially modeling ecosystem services calls out lack of validation and transparency as key issues that the community needs to address. While important, we argue that some issues they identify as worrisome are a result of how the peer-reviewed literature selectively represents applied and decision-relevant modeling efforts. We identify several considerations that we believe will benefit reviewers and practitioners in seeking to understand the state of tools and practice for spatial ecosystem services modeling.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Evidence of economic benefits for public investment in MPAs
    • Authors: Nicolas Pascal; Angelique Brathwaite; Luke Brander; Andrew Seidl; Maxime Philip; Eric Clua
      Pages: 3 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Nicolas Pascal, Angelique Brathwaite, Luke Brander, Andrew Seidl, Maxime Philip, Eric Clua
      MPAs enhance some of the Ecosystem Services (ES) provided by coral reefs and clear, robust valuations of these impacts may help to improve stakeholder support and better inform decision-makers. Pursuant to this goal, Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA) of MPAs in 2 different contexts were analysed: a community based MPA with low tourism pressure in Vanuatu, and a government managed MPA with relatively high tourism pressure, in Saint Martin. Assessments were made on six ES: fish biomass, scenic beauty, protection against coastal erosion, bequest and existence values, social capital and CO2 sequestration, which were quantified via different approaches that included experimental fishery, surveys and benefit transfer. Total operating costs for each MPA were collected and the benefit-cost ratio and return on investment based on 25-year discounted projections computed. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on MPA impacts, and discount rates (5%, 7% and 10%). The investment indicators all showed positive results with the impact on the tourism ES being the largest estimated for all MPAs, highlighting the importance of this relationship. The study also demonstrated a relatively high sensitivity of the results to different levels of impacts on ES, which highlights the need for reducing scientific knowledge gaps.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Mapping ecosystem services supply chains for coastal Long Island
           communities: Implications for resilience planning
    • Authors: Anthony Dvarskas
      Pages: 14 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Anthony Dvarskas
      Ecosystem services have become an important component of planning discussions at local, state, national and international levels. These services have also more recently figured into discussions of community resilience to hazard events. For the majority of ecosystem services, some contribution of human capital inputs, which we term Enabling Economic Inputs (EEIs) in this paper, are necessary to convert the raw ecosystem service flow into an ecosystem service benefit obtained by people. This paper evaluates a subset of EEIs related to coastal ecosystem services associated with (1) fishing and shellfishing; (2) recreational boating; and (3) recreational beach use. After developing a conceptual approach for EEIs, this research develops a methodology for spatially evaluating EEIs. Using a hot-spot analysis of establishments based on the North American Industrial Classification System codes, nodes in the supply chain for ecosystem services within the Long Island region are identified and analyzed. The paper concludes with an evaluation of how information on the supply chain of ecosystem services may assist in resiliency planning in coastal communities. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the conveyance system that translocates ecosystem services from supply areas to demand areas, and this research is an initial step in that direction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Tradeoff analysis between electricity generation and ecosystem services in
           the Lower Mekong Basin
    • Authors: Apisom Intralawan; David Wood; Richard Frankel; Robert Costanza; Ida Kubiszewski
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Apisom Intralawan, David Wood, Richard Frankel, Robert Costanza, Ida Kubiszewski
      The Mekong River is the largest freshwater fishery and the third most bio-diverse river system in the world. Two of 11 planned mainstream hydropower projects, Xayaburi and Don Sahong, are nearly completed and a third project proposal, Pak Beng, has been submitted by the Lao PDR government for consideration. This paper builds on previous studies and examines the tradeoffs (between water use, food security supply and energy production) for the proposed mainstream hydropower projects in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB). The paper concludes that the forecast loss of capture fisheries, sediment/nutrients and social mitigation costs measured as Net Present Value (NPV at 10% discount rate) are greater than the benefits from electricity generation, improved irrigation and flood control. The paper also forecasts huge negative economic impacts for Cambodia and Vietnam in contrast to previous Mekong River Commission’s (MRC) conclusions that all countries will benefit from hydropower development. The paper recommends reassessing the economic impacts of hydropower development using full environmental cost accounting. It also recommends that a new LMB energy strategy be developed taking into account less hydropower income than previously anticipated, updated forecasts for LMB power demand and anticipated technology developments for improved energy efficiency & renewable energy (especially solar which is now competitive with hydropower).

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Valuing ecosystem services from blue forests: A systematic review of the
           valuation of salt marshes, sea grass beds and mangrove forests
    • Authors: Amber Himes-Cornell; Linwood Pendleton; Perla Atiyah
      Pages: 36 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Amber Himes-Cornell, Linwood Pendleton, Perla Atiyah
      Coastal ecosystems provide a number of life-sustaining services, from which benefits to humans can be derived. They are often inhabited by aquatic vegetation, such as mangroves, sea grasses and salt marshes. Given their wide geographic distribution and coverage, there is need to prioritize conservation efforts. An understanding of the human importance of these ecosystems can help with that prioritization. Here, we summarize a literature review of ecosystem service valuation studies. We discuss (1) the degree to which current valuation information is sufficient to prioritize blue carbon habitat conservation and restoration, (2) the relevancy of available studies, and (3) what is missing from the literature that would be needed to effectively prioritize conservation. Given the recent focus on blue carbon ecosystems in the international conservation, there are a number of areas where research on blue forest ecosystem assessment and valuation could be improved, from enhancing available methodologies to increasing valuation of rarely studied ecosystem services and wider geographic coverage of valuation studies. This review highlights these gaps and calls for a focus on broadening the ecosystem services that are valued, the methods used, and increasing valuation in underrepresented regions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Participatory multi-criteria decision aid: Operationalizing an integrated
           assessment of ecosystem services
    • Authors: Johannes Langemeyer; Ignacio Palomo; Sergio Baraibar; Erik Gómez-Baggethun
      Pages: 49 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Johannes Langemeyer, Ignacio Palomo, Sergio Baraibar, Erik Gómez-Baggethun
      Ongoing ecosystem alterations underscore the need for ecosystem service assessment to urgently enter policy-making. Participatory methods and a systematic inclusion of stakeholders are crucial yet underdeveloped cornerstones of environmental decision making. This study aims at conducting a transparent and legitimized integrated assessment of ecosystem services that rigorously involves stakeholder knowledge and values in environmental decision making. To this end, participatory multi-criteria decision aid was applied to the case of declining vineyard ecosystems surrounding the National Park of Doñana in south-west Spain. Data was gained by means of a survey (n = 178), interviews (n = 21), and three stakeholder workshops (each with 15–21 participants). We found that stakeholder engagement improved all steps of decision making, including problem structuring, policy evaluation, and operationalization. Our results thereby reinforce two major arguments for adopting participatory methods in integrated ecosystem service assessments: (1) the inclusion of stakeholders and their objectives adds legitimacy to decision making; (2) the integration of stakeholder knowledge provides important information for decision making.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Design considerations in supporting payments for ecosystem services from
           community-managed forests in Nepal
    • Authors: Kiran Paudyal; Himlal Baral; Santosh Prasad Bhandari; Rodney John Keenan
      Pages: 61 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Kiran Paudyal, Himlal Baral, Santosh Prasad Bhandari, Rodney John Keenan
      Despite widespread implementation of payments for ecosystem services (PES), benefits to poor people in developing countries have been limited. The success of PES varies with the local context, policy environment and PES design and its implementation. Until recently, there have been few studies of factors that might contribute to the success of PES and associated outcomes. Ex-ante analysis of design considerations is critical in developing a robust and sustainable PES scheme. This research aimed to determine the key elements of PES design and prioritise those likely to support successful PES for community-managed forests using a case in the Phewa watershed in western Nepal. Community perceptions and expert opinion were used to identify 19 design considerations relevant to stakeholders. These were integrated into a PES design index. Analysis using this index indicated that livelihoods, pro-poor participation, tenure arrangements, transaction and opportunity costs, payment structures and government policy were perceived as most important to stakeholders. Although the effectiveness of a PES scheme has often been measured economically or biologically, our results indicate that the most important design considerations for stakeholders were policy, social, financial and institutional arrangements. The analysis indicated that there are often trade-offs between equity, efficiency, and effectiveness involved in achieving livelihood improvements for rural poor and, consequently, the longer-term sustainability of a PES scheme.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Mapping ecosystem services on brownfields in Leipzig, Germany
    • Authors: Catharina Pueffel; Dagmar Haase; Joerg A. Priess
      Pages: 73 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Catharina Pueffel, Dagmar Haase, Joerg A. Priess
      Urban green brownfields are a particular type of urban green space and contribute to the quality of life by providing a variety of ecosystem services (ES). In this study, we mapped the use of ES and perception of disservices (EDS) on brownfields in the city of Leipzig using the smartphone application MapNat. We assessed the personal valuation and motives of users in relation to site and vicinity characteristics. Results suggest that brownfields play a particular role in the set of urban green spaces, providing characteristic ES such as opportunities to recreate, relax and retreat, partly differing from or complementing ES in formal urban green spaces. We identified spatial use patterns depending on local characteristics and personal preferences. For example, less accessible sites were relatively high valued and often used for dog-walking. Vice versa, better accessible sites were rather visited for informal stays and ‘hang-outs’. The patterns of use identified in this study may be of interest for urban management and planning of public green spaces, especially if no immediate follow up use or conversion of brownfields is planned.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Ecological engagement determines ecosystem service valuation: A case study
           from Rouge National Urban Park in Toronto, Canada
    • Authors: Stuart W. Livingstone; Marc W. Cadotte; Marney E. Isaac
      Pages: 86 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Stuart W. Livingstone, Marc W. Cadotte, Marney E. Isaac
      Understanding stakeholder valuation of ecosystem services (ESs), and perceptions of threats to their conservation, can improve planning for urban protected areas. Our study objectives were to examine ES valuations by Rouge National Urban Park (NUP) users as well as perceptions of the impact of the invasive vine Vincetoxicum rossicum. Further, we sought to determine how those valuations and perceptions are affected by “ecological engagement” (EE). We conducted a social survey of Rouge NUP users and found that valuation of most ESs was significantly greater for EE users. Interestingly, non-EE users tended to give recreation (‘cultural’ ES) the highest importance value. Conversely, EE users tended to assign pollination (‘supporting’ ES), the highest importance. Further, we were surprised to find that 15.2% of EE and 38.4% of non-EE users disagreed or were neutral to the notion that V. rossicum is negatively impacting the Park’s supporting ESs. Similarly, 32% of EE and 54.1% of non-EE users disagreed or were neutral to the notion that V. rossicum is negatively impacting the Park’s aesthetic ESs. We conclude that examination of EE can reveal differential ES valuations and perceptions of invasion impact. Furthermore, we believe such examination can inform conservation management plans and public engagement strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Identifying effective approaches for monitoring national natural capital
           for policy use
    • Authors: L.R. Norton; S.M. Smart; L.C. Maskell; P.A. Henrys; C.M. Wood; A.M. Keith; B.A. Emmett; B.J. Cosby; A. Thomas; P.A. Scholefield; S. Greene; R.D. Morton; C.S. Rowland
      Pages: 98 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): L.R. Norton, S.M. Smart, L.C. Maskell, P.A. Henrys, C.M. Wood, A.M. Keith, B.A. Emmett, B.J. Cosby, A. Thomas, P.A. Scholefield, S. Greene, R.D. Morton, C.S. Rowland
      In order to effectively manage natural resources at national scales national decision makers require data on the natural capital which supports the delivery of Ecosystem Services (ES). Key data sources used for the provision of national natural capital metrics include Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS), which provides information on land cover at an increasing range of resolutions, and field survey, which can provide very high resolution data on ecosystem components, but is constrained in its potential coverage by resource requirements. Here we combine spatially representative field data from a historic national survey of Great Britain (Countryside Survey (CS)) with concurrent low resolution SRS data land cover map within modelling frameworks to produce national natural capital metrics. We present three examples of natural capital metrics; top soil carbon, headwater stream quality and nectar species plant richness which show how highly resolved, but spatially representative field data can be used to significantly enhance the potential of low resolution SRS land cover data for providing national spatial data on natural capital metrics which have been linked to Ecosystem Services (ES). We discuss the role of such metrics in evaluations of ecosystem service provision and areas of further development to improve their utility for stakeholders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Participatory mapping of ecosystem services to understand stakeholders’
           perceptions of the future of the Mactaquac Dam, Canada
    • Authors: Kate Reilly; Jan Adamowski; Kimberly John
      Pages: 107 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Kate Reilly, Jan Adamowski, Kimberly John
      Rebuilding or removing a dam at the end of its lifespan will change provision of and access to ecosystem services. Understanding such changes involves assessing their biophysical provision, economic value and social demand, of which the latter is often neglected. We used participatory mapping to understand the spatial distribution of social benefits from ecosystem services around the Mactaquac Dam, New Brunswick, Canada, and assessed whether perceptions of ecosystem services under future scenarios can be mapped. We asked 32 participants to map places that were important to them for several ecosystem services, and asked how those places and services would change if the dam were rebuilt or removed. Participants benefitted from services throughout the reservoir, downstream of the dam, and in unaffected tributaries. Those who preferred to rebuild the dam mapped places in and around the reservoir, while those who wanted to remove it preferred the tributaries and downstream reach. Most participants could not map service distribution if the dam were removed, but could describe non-place-specific changes. Participatory mapping is useful for understanding how and where stakeholders benefit from ecosystem services, and to prompt discussion of perceived future changes. It is less useful for producing maps of ecosystem services under various scenarios.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Ecosystem services supply and demand assessment: Why social-ecological
           dynamics matter
    • Authors: Marion Mehring; Edward Ott; Diana Hummel
      Pages: 124 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Marion Mehring, Edward Ott, Diana Hummel

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Looking into Pandora’s Box: Ecosystem disservices assessment and
           correlations with ecosystem services
    • Authors: Carole Sylvie Campagne; Philip K. Roche; Jean-Michel Salles
      Pages: 126 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Carole Sylvie Campagne, Philip K. Roche, Jean-Michel Salles
      The concept of ecosystem disservices (EDS) has received much less attention than the concept of ecosystem services (ES). Using an expert-based matrix approach, we assessed the capacity of ecosystem types of the Scarpe-Escaut Regional Natural Park (France) to both provide ES and generate EDS. The matrix is a look-up table that provide for each ecosystem types a score expressing its ES capacity. Our results point to a lower capacity of the considered ecosystems to provide EDS than ES. On average the EDS scores were 60% lower than the ES scores. Of EDS, those linked to human health are the most critical, with higher capacity scores and higher expert’ confidence scores than other EDS than those linked with economic or ecological impacts. We analysed correlations between ES and EDS, the presence of strong and significant positive correlations suggests that the same ecosystem characteristics, ecological functions or species groups may generate both ES and EDS. We emphasise that it is important to evaluate both EDS and ES to implement management of the ecosystems, while respecting the functioning of the ecosystems, to develop positive effects while limiting negative ones.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Changing governance, changing inequalities: Protected area co-management
           and access to forest ecosystem services: a Madagascar case study
    • Authors: Caroline Ward; Lindsay Stringer; George Holmes
      Pages: 137 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 30, Part A
      Author(s): Caroline Ward, Lindsay Stringer, George Holmes
      Access, in reference to Ecosystem services (ES), is defined as the capacity to gain benefits from the environment. There has been a global shift in natural resource governance, particularly increased co-management of protected areas (PAs). Yet there has been little research on how this change may be affecting access to ES. We aim to fill this research gap by considering: (a) what ES are considered most important, (b) what factors are important in determining whether a person can access ES, and (c) how rules and regulations regarding ES access are decided and enforced. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using questionnaires, focus groups and interviews with stakeholders in a case study PA in Madagascar, co-managed by local community associations (VOIs) and an NGO. Data analysis was framed around the IPBES framework and access factors. Respondents considered provisioning services most important, but also valued cultural and regulating services. Institutions and social identity had the largest impact on access to ES. VOI members and individuals who knew VOI committee members had greater access to ES than non-members. Findings show that co-management may be shifting ES access inequalities rather than reducing them, and we outline a number of challenges relating to PA co-management.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Legal aspects of ecosystem services: An introduction and an overview
    • Authors: Volker Mauerhofer
      Pages: 185 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part B
      Author(s): Volker Mauerhofer
      This introductory contribution to a Special Issue (SI) titled “Legal Aspects of Ecosystem Services” intends to provide both a short introduction on the SI-topic as well as a brief overview on the content of each paper therein. The introduction aims to provide an overall entry point into the topic from a legal as well as an interdisciplinary perspective. It first offers initial insights into the relationship between the rule of law as one socially constructed normative framework and ecosystem services. Furthermore, it also points out interrelations among rule-focused, economic-focused and information-focused incentives, all with the potential to influence human behaviour with regard to ecosystem services. The overview delivers as a sort of short-cut a table of authors, levels of the geopolitical scale addressed, types of analysis implemented and themes focused upon within the Special Issue. It further provides an overview of the main direction of each contribution to this SI. The conclusions strive to provide a brief summary of the “why”, the “when”, the “where”, the “how” and the “what” of current and future research on legal aspect of ecosystem services.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.002
  • The law, ecosystem services and ecosystem functions: An in-depth overview
           of coverage and interrelation
    • Authors: V. Mauerhofer
      Pages: 190 - 198
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part B
      Author(s): V. Mauerhofer
      Ecosystem services have been particularly since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 a broadly analysed issue. This discussion has been widely led by scholars from environmental and related economic sciences, while social scientists have paid less attention and legal scholars have hardly entered a deeper controversy about the topic. This paper addresses the following questions 1. in how far law in general already currently covers – perhaps not explicitly - ecosystem services, 2. in how far law goes beyond the pure coverage of these ‘services’ and additionally covers functions of ecosystems which usually are not already considered ‘services’, 3. which consequences arise from this differentiated coverage by law, and 4. which services/functions of ecosystems the law and even governance in the widest sense are not able to cover at all or in particular situations. The whole analysis is implemented by an in-depth review of existing academic literature as well as by means of theoretical and practical cases which support the arguments brought forward. First, it is shown by examples that law covers since millennia the essence of all the main different ecosystem services but not necessarily by using the term ecosystem services. Secondly, several cases describe how law addresses functions of ecosystems which often are not considered (anymore) by humans as ecosystem services, such as river floods, springtides and volcano eruptions. Thirdly, among the consequences found are conflicting interests between more ecocentric related functions and more anthropocentric related services of ecosystems. Law has played in the past a pivotal role in fostering these ecosystem services. With regard to ecosystem functions the role of law has during the past been a less enabling, but rather a restricting one. However, some recent changes of this situation, e.g. in flood protection or wilderness conservation are shown. Fourthly, the paper indicates e.g. natural genetic modifications and fertilizing through volcano eruption as services/functions of ecosystems which the law and even governance in the widest sense is not able to cover at all in the sense of enabling, but only – if at all - can cover in a reactive way. The results of this contribution provide a basic assessment of the relationship between law and the functions as well as the services of ecosystems. In this way, the findings critically reflect potentials and pitfalls to be globally considered when intending to apply law on these features.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.011
  • The Convention on Biological Diversity as a legal framework for
           safeguarding ecosystem services
    • Authors: Christian Prip
      Pages: 199 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part B
      Author(s): Christian Prip
      Biodiversity underpins ecosystem services. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has adopted an ecosystem services approach as a framework for biodiversity management at the national level. Protection of ecosystem services requires far more than traditional nature conservation measures like the designation and management of protected areas. The economic sectors that affect biodiversity and ecosystem services must be involved, to address not merely the symptoms but the root causes of the degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Achieving coherence in policies and actions across economic sectors and the changes involved in values, decision-making and practices, requires legal approaches to ensure buy-in and accountability. Ideally, such approaches should be included in National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), the key instrument for translating the CBD into national action. A review of 20 revised NBSAPs shows that such measures have been introduced only to a very limited extent with many countries still in the earliest stages of preparing measures to protect ecosystem services. Thus, there is a need for further research and practical guidance regarding legal approaches to ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.015
  • Ecosystem services in cities: Towards the international legal protection
           of ecosystem services in urban environments
    • Authors: Aysegül Sirakaya; An Cliquet; Jim Harris
      Pages: 205 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part B
      Author(s): Aysegül Sirakaya, An Cliquet, Jim Harris
      Biodiversity provides many ecosystem services in cities that are beneficial to human well-being including adaptation to the effects of climate change and positive effects of nature on human health. Rapid urbanization however is causing an adverse impact on biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Protecting and restoring urban biodiversity and ecosystem services can increase human well-being of the rapidly increasing urban population. Today, however, the international biodiversity conservation practice mainly focuses on rural areas, and not on urban conservation and restoration. Within city scale, there are several opportunities to green urban living, such as green infrastructure and urban parks and nature reserves. This paper investigates the current scientific practices for promoting and protecting ecosystem services in urban areas. Secondly, the authors review and assess the legally binding instruments on biodiversity at the international and EU level in order to see if there are sufficient existing mechanisms for protection of ecosystem services in urban areas. Thirdly, the paper elaborates on the Aichi Targets in order to explore whether or not these targets are enough to facilitate the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services in urban areas as swiftly as they are needed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.01.001
  • Adoption of the ecosystem services concept in EU policies
    • Authors: Irene Bouwma; Christian Schleyer; Eeva Primmer; Klara Johanna Winkler; Pam Berry; Juliette Young; Esther Carmen; Jana Špulerová; Peter Bezák; Elena Preda; Angheluta Vadineanu
      Pages: 213 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part B
      Author(s): Irene Bouwma, Christian Schleyer, Eeva Primmer, Klara Johanna Winkler, Pam Berry, Juliette Young, Esther Carmen, Jana Špulerová, Peter Bezák, Elena Preda, Angheluta Vadineanu
      The concept of ecosystem services has gained a strong political profile during the last 15 years. However, there is no specific EU policy devoted to governing ecosystem services. This article shows that the ecosystem services concept is already embedded in recent EU (environmentally-related) policies, such as the Biodiversity Strategy 2020 and the Invasive Alien Species Regulation. Our review of 12 policies shows that, overall, the coherence between existing policies and the ecosystem services concept is moderate. Policies showing very high coherence are confined to the policy arenas that address natural ecosystems, forestry, or agriculture. Given the sectoral nature of most EU policies and the limited options for revision in the near future, opportunities for improving coherence are most apparent in furthering the integration of the ecosystem services concept in the implementation of existing EU policies at national and regional levels.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.014
  • Examining the coherence of legal frameworks for ecosystem services toward
           sustainable mineral development in the Association of Southeast Asian
    • Authors: Rene Abcede; Weena Gera
      Pages: 228 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part B
      Author(s): Rene Abcede, Weena Gera
      Within the context of growing economic integration in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), recent questions have been raised with regard to how member states employ law as a means of regional integration to promote sustainable development. Taking into account the primacy of ecosystem services for sustainability, this study examines the coherence of legal frameworks for ecosystem services among ASEAN member states toward a unified regional legal agenda for sustainable mineral development. Analyzed along three aspects of the Ecosystem Services Approach, the paper reviews the different mining related legislations and implementing regulations of member states, and examines whether there is convergence in their legal provisions for ecosystem services. The study shows that all member states provide legal mechanisms for ecosystem management in their mining operations. However, the following could be noted: 1) a lack of coherent identification and targeting of ecosystem services despite ‘intermediate’ services being embedded in provisions for ecosystem conservation; 2) a lack of legal provisions for integration of ecosystem services in mining impact assessments, and for ecosystem services valuation, which render environmental impact assessments, compensation structures and royalty regimes inadequate; and 3) a density of legal differentials around how states allocate regulatory authorities for ecosystem management in mining. These represent a prevailing fragmentation among member states’ legal frameworks for ecosystem services, which does not create an enabling condition for legal integration in ASEAN’s regional mineral strategies for sustainable development.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.003
  • Understanding the role of conceptual frameworks: Reading the ecosystem
           service cascade
    • Authors: M. Potschin-Young; R. Haines-Young; C. Görg; U. Heink; K. Jax; C. Schleyer
      Pages: 428 - 440
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part C
      Author(s): M. Potschin-Young, R. Haines-Young, C. Görg, U. Heink, K. Jax, C. Schleyer
      The aim of this paper is to identify the role of conceptual frameworks in operationalising and mainstreaming the idea of ecosystem services. It builds on some initial discussions from IPBES, which suggested that conceptual frameworks could be used to: ‘simplify thinking’, ‘structure work’, ‘clarify issues’, and ‘provide a common reference point’. The analysis uses the cascade model as a focus and looks at the way it has been used in recent published material and across a set of case studies from the EU-funded OpenNESS Project as a device for conceptual framing. It found that there are examples in the literature that show the cascade model indeed being used as an ‘organising framework’, a tool for ‘re-framing’ perspectives, an ‘analytical template’, and as an ‘application framework’. Although the published materials on the cascade are rich, these accounts lack insights into the process by which the different versions of the model were created, and so we turned to the set of OpenNESS case studies to examine how they read the cascade. We found that the cascade was able to provide a common reference for a diverse set of studies, and that it was sufficiently flexible for it to be developed and elaborated in ways that were meaningful for the different place-based studies. The case studies showed that generalised models like the cascade can have an important ‘awareness-raising’ role. However, we found that using models of this kind it was more difficult for case studies to link their work to broader societal issues such as human well-being, sustainable ecosystem management, governance, and competitiveness, than to their own concerns. We therefore conclude that to be used effectively, conceptual models like the cascade may need to be supported by other materials that help users read it in different, outward looking ways. We also need to find mechanisms for capturing this experience so that it can be shared with others.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.015
  • Knowledge needs for the operationalisation of the concept of ecosystem
    • Authors: Esther Carmen; Allan Watt; Laurence Carvalho; Jan Dick; Ioan Fazey; Gemma Garcia-Blanco; Bruna Grizzetti; Jennifer Hauck; Zita Izakovicova; Leena Kopperoinen; Camino Liquete; David Odee; Eveliene Steingröver; Juliette Young
      Pages: 441 - 451
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part C
      Author(s): Esther Carmen, Allan Watt, Laurence Carvalho, Jan Dick, Ioan Fazey, Gemma Garcia-Blanco, Bruna Grizzetti, Jennifer Hauck, Zita Izakovicova, Leena Kopperoinen, Camino Liquete, David Odee, Eveliene Steingröver, Juliette Young
      As environmental challenges and their management are increasingly recognised as complex and uncertain, the concept of ecosystem services has emerged from within scientific communities and is gaining influence within policy communities. To better understand how this concept can be turned into practice we examine knowledge needs from the perspective of the different stakeholders directly engaged with the operationalisation of ecosystem systems concept within ten socio-ecologically different case studies from different countries, levels of governance and ecosystems. We identify four different but interrelated areas of knowledge needs, namely; (i) needs related to develop a common understanding, (ii) needs related to the role of formal and informal institutions in shaping action on the ground, (iii) needs related to linking knowledge and action, and (iv) and needs related to accessible and easy to use methods and tools. These findings highlight the need to view knowledge as a process which is orientated towards action. We discuss the potential to develop transdisciplinary research approaches and the development of tools and methods explicitly as boundary objects in the ecosystem service science community to develop more collaborative practices with other stakeholders and facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of ecosystem services across contexts.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.012
  • Operationalising ecosystem service assessment in Bayesian Belief Networks:
           Experiences within the OpenNESS project
    • Authors: Ron I. Smith; David N. Barton; Jan Dick; Roy Haines-Young; Anders L. Madsen; Graciela M. Rusch; Mette Termansen; Helen Woods; Laurence Carvalho; Relu Constantin Giucă; Sandra Luque; David Odee; Verónica Rusch; Heli Saarikoski; Cristian Mihai Adamescu; Rob Dunford; John Ochieng; Julen Gonzalez-Redin; Erik Stange; Anghelută Vădineanu; Peter Verweij; Suvi Vikström
      Pages: 452 - 464
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part C
      Author(s): Ron I. Smith, David N. Barton, Jan Dick, Roy Haines-Young, Anders L. Madsen, Graciela M. Rusch, Mette Termansen, Helen Woods, Laurence Carvalho, Relu Constantin Giucă, Sandra Luque, David Odee, Verónica Rusch, Heli Saarikoski, Cristian Mihai Adamescu, Rob Dunford, John Ochieng, Julen Gonzalez-Redin, Erik Stange, Anghelută Vădineanu, Peter Verweij, Suvi Vikström
      Nine Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) were developed within the OpenNESS project specifically for modelling ecosystem services for case study applications. The novelty of the method, its ability to explore problems, to address uncertainty, and to facilitate stakeholder interaction in the process were all reasons for choosing BBNs. Most case studies had some local expertise on BBNs to assist them, and all used expert opinion as well as data to help develop the dependences in the BBNs. In terms of the decision scope of the work, all case studies were moving from explorative and informative uses towards decisive, but none were yet being used for decision-making. Three applications incorporated BBNs with GIS where the spatial component of the management was critical, but several concerns about estimating uncertainty with spatial modelling approaches are discussed. The tool proved to be very flexible and, particularly with its web interface, was an asset when working with stakeholders to facilitate exploration of outcomes, knowledge elicitation and social learning. BBNs were rated as very useful and widely applicable by the case studies that used them, but further improvements in software and more training were also deemed necessary.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.004
  • Practical application of spatial ecosystem service models to aid decision
    • Authors: Grazia Zulian; Erik Stange; Helen Woods; Laurence Carvalho; Jan Dick; Christopher Andrews; Francesc Baró; Pilar Vizcaino; David N. Barton; Megan Nowel; Graciela M. Rusch; Paula Autunes; João Fernandes; Diogo Ferraz; Rui Ferreira dos Santos; Réka Aszalós; Ildikó Arany; Bálint Czúcz; Joerg A. Priess; Christian Hoyer; Gleiciani Bürger-Patricio; David Lapola; Peter Mederly; Andrej Halabuk; Peter Bezak; Leena Kopperoinen; Arto Viinikka
      Pages: 465 - 480
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part C
      Author(s): Grazia Zulian, Erik Stange, Helen Woods, Laurence Carvalho, Jan Dick, Christopher Andrews, Francesc Baró, Pilar Vizcaino, David N. Barton, Megan Nowel, Graciela M. Rusch, Paula Autunes, João Fernandes, Diogo Ferraz, Rui Ferreira dos Santos, Réka Aszalós, Ildikó Arany, Bálint Czúcz, Joerg A. Priess, Christian Hoyer, Gleiciani Bürger-Patricio, David Lapola, Peter Mederly, Andrej Halabuk, Peter Bezak, Leena Kopperoinen, Arto Viinikka
      Ecosystem service (ES) spatial modelling is a key component of the integrated assessments designed to support policies and management practices aiming at environmental sustainability. ESTIMAP (“Ecosystem Service Mapping Tool”) is a collection of spatially explicit models, originally developed to support policies at a European scale. We based our analysis on 10 case studies, and 3 ES models. Each case study applied at least one model at a local scale. We analyzed the applications with respect to: the adaptation process; the “precision differential” which we define as the variation generated in the model between the degree of spatial variation within the spatial distribution of ES and what the model captures; the stakeholders’ opinions on the usefulness of models. We propose a protocol for adapting ESTIMAP to the local conditions. We present the precision differential as a means of assessing how the type of model and level of model adaptation generate variation among model outputs. We then present the opinion of stakeholders; that in general considered the approach useful for stimulating discussion and supporting communication. Major constraints identified were the lack of spatial data with sufficient level of detail, and the level of expertise needed to set up and compute the models.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.005
  • Selecting methods for ecosystem service assessment: A decision tree
    • Authors: Paula A. Harrison; Rob Dunford; David N. Barton; Eszter Kelemen; Berta Martín-López; Lisa Norton; Mette Termansen; Heli Saarikoski; Kees Hendriks; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Bálint Czúcz; Marina García-Llorente; David Howard; Sander Jacobs; Martin Karlsen; Leena Kopperoinen; Andes Madsen; Graciela Rusch; Michiel van Eupen; Peter Verweij; Ron Smith; Diana Tuomasjukka; Grazia Zulian
      Pages: 481 - 498
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part C
      Author(s): Paula A. Harrison, Rob Dunford, David N. Barton, Eszter Kelemen, Berta Martín-López, Lisa Norton, Mette Termansen, Heli Saarikoski, Kees Hendriks, Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Bálint Czúcz, Marina García-Llorente, David Howard, Sander Jacobs, Martin Karlsen, Leena Kopperoinen, Andes Madsen, Graciela Rusch, Michiel van Eupen, Peter Verweij, Ron Smith, Diana Tuomasjukka, Grazia Zulian
      A range of methods are available for assessing ecosystem services. Methods differ in their aims; from mapping and modelling the supply and demand of ecosystem services to appraising their economic and non-economic importance through valuation techniques. Comprehensive guidance for the selection of appropriate ecosystem service assessment methods that address the requirements of different decision-making contexts is lacking. This paper tackles this gap using the experience from 27 case studies which applied different biophysical, socio-cultural and monetary valuation methods to operationalise the ecosystem service concept towards sustainable land, water and urban management. A survey of the reasons why the case study teams selected particular methods revealed that stakeholder-oriented reasons, such as stakeholder participation, inclusion of local knowledge and ease of communication, and decision-oriented reasons, such as the purpose of the case study and the ecosystem services at stake, were key considerations in selecting a method. Pragmatic reasons such as available data, resources and expertise were also important factors. This information was used to develop a set of linked decision trees, which aim to provide guidance to researchers and practitioners in choosing ecosystem service assessment methods that are suitable for their context.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.016
  • Overoptimism and the undervaluation of ecosystem services: A case-study of
           recreational fishing in Townsville, adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef
    • Authors: Marina Farr; Natalie Stoeckl
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Marina Farr, Natalie Stoeckl
      There are numerous methods for estimating the value of different types of ecosystem services. Some methods use observed behaviours to draw inferences about value, but (observed) behaviours are based upon expectations, which can be incorrect. Using data from anglers living in Townsville, adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in a travel-cost model, we show how expectations about the number of fish people believe they will catch on a recreational fishing trip greatly influence estimates of the value of catch reductions (a loss in angler welfare). Experienced fishers have much more accurate expectations about catch than infrequent fishers, highlighting that valuation estimates derived from observable behaviours are most robust when the service being valued is well-known and when people are able to accurately judge the outcome of their behaviours. More broadly, it is clear that under conditions of uncertainty – such as climate change – overly optimistic visions of the future will likely lead us to undervalue (and thus potentially degrade) key ecosystem services – perhaps substantially.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.010
  • Interregional flows of ecosystem services: Concepts, typology and four
    • Authors: Matthias Schröter; Thomas Koellner; Rob Alkemade; Sebastian Arnhold; Kenneth J. Bagstad; Karl-Heinz Erb; Karin Frank; Thomas Kastner; Meidad Kissinger; Jianguo Liu; Laura López-Hoffman; Joachim Maes; Alexandra Marques; Berta Martín-López; Carsten Meyer; Catharina J.E. Schulp; Jule Thober; Sarah Wolff; Aletta Bonn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Matthias Schröter, Thomas Koellner, Rob Alkemade, Sebastian Arnhold, Kenneth J. Bagstad, Karl-Heinz Erb, Karin Frank, Thomas Kastner, Meidad Kissinger, Jianguo Liu, Laura López-Hoffman, Joachim Maes, Alexandra Marques, Berta Martín-López, Carsten Meyer, Catharina J.E. Schulp, Jule Thober, Sarah Wolff, Aletta Bonn
      Conserving and managing global natural capital requires an understanding of the complexity of flows of ecosystem services across geographic boundaries. Failing to understand and to incorporate these flows into national and international ecosystem assessments leads to incomplete and potentially skewed conclusions, impairing society’s ability to identify sustainable management and policy choices. In this paper, we synthesise existing knowledge and develop a conceptual framework for analysing interregional ecosystem service flows. We synthesise the types of such flows, the characteristics of sending and receiving socio-ecological systems, and the impacts of ecosystem service flows on interregional sustainability. Using four cases (trade of certified coffee, migration of northern pintails, flood protection in the Danube watershed, and information on giant pandas), we test the conceptual framework and show how an enhanced understanding of interregional telecouplings in socio-ecological systems can inform ecosystem service-based decision making and governance with respect to sustainability goals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.003
  • Synergies between industry and nature – An emergy evaluation of a
           biodiesel production system integrated with ecological systems
    • Authors: Fabrizio Saladini; Varsha Gopalakrishnan; Simone Bastianoni; Bhavik R. Bakshi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Fabrizio Saladini, Varsha Gopalakrishnan, Simone Bastianoni, Bhavik R. Bakshi
      Techno-ecological synergy (TES) is a framework that encourages integration of technological and ecological systems. Specifically, it incorporates the role of natural capital in engineering assessment and design by quantifying both demand and supply of ecosystem services. Emergy can provide valuable support to improve and interpret TES evaluation, as it is a methodology particularly useful for evaluating systems at the biosphere–technosphere interface. The present study evaluates how the TES framework based on emergy can shed new light by comparing conventional technological alternatives and ecological alternatives for meeting a particular ecosystem service demand. Both the demand and supply of ecosystem services are quantified in consistent units of emergy to obtain aggregated TES metrics. Specifically it was found that additional equipment to treat air pollutants have a higher emergy investment as compared to the forest ecosystem, while the technological unit to treat wastewater requires less emergy as compared to the horizontal subsurface flow wetland, its ecological counterpart. This new approach is tested by application to a biodiesel production plant and by calculating emergy metrics. This work shows that emergy can provide a fundamental improvement to the current TES framework, as it provides an aggregated metric for multiple ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.004
  • Marine recreational ecosystem service value estimation: A meta-analysis
           with cultural considerations
    • Authors: Stephen Hynes; Andrea Ghermandi; Daniel Norton; Heidi Williams
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Stephen Hynes, Andrea Ghermandi, Daniel Norton, Heidi Williams
      Marine and coastal ecosystems provide a wide variety of recreational opportunities that are highly valued by society. For the purposes of conducting a meta-analysis we build an extensive global dataset of marine recreational ecosystem service values from the literature. Using this database we developed a number of meta-regression specifications with the objective of evaluating the study specific effects of location, ecosystem, valuation methodology and statistical estimation methods on the reported value estimates. Furthermore, the paper investigates if cultural differences between studies are an important determinant that should be considered in international (meta-analytical) value transfer. This was achieved by including a number of cultural parameters from previous societal studies and surveys into our meta-regression models. We found that accounting for differences in cultural dimensions across recreation valuation studies had a significant influence on value estimates. While a multi-level modelling approach that controls for study effects, proved to be a better fit than a standard one level specification, we found that the absolute in-sample transfer errors associated with the standard OLS model were slightly less on average based on the differences between the actual and predicted values in our meta-database.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.001
  • Recreational ecosystem services in European cities: Sociocultural and
           geographical contexts matter for park use
    • Authors: L.K. Fischer; J. Honold; A. Botzat; D. Brinkmeyer; R. Cvejić; T. Delshammar; B. Elands; D. Haase; N. Kabisch; S.J. Karle; R. Lafortezza; M. Nastran; A.B. Nielsen; A.P. van der Jagt; K. Vierikko; I. Kowarik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): L.K. Fischer, J. Honold, A. Botzat, D. Brinkmeyer, R. Cvejić, T. Delshammar, B. Elands, D. Haase, N. Kabisch, S.J. Karle, R. Lafortezza, M. Nastran, A.B. Nielsen, A.P. van der Jagt, K. Vierikko, I. Kowarik
      The role of urban parks in delivering cultural ecosystem services related to outdoor recreation is widely acknowledged. Yet, the question remains as to whether the recreational opportunities of parks meet the demands of increasingly multicultural societies and whether recreational patterns vary at spatial scales. In a pan-European survey, we assessed how people use urban parks (in five cities, N = 3814) and how recreational patterns relate to respondents’ sociocultural and geographical contexts (using 19 explanatory variables). Our results show that across Europe (i) respondents share a general pattern in their recreational activities with a prevalence for the physical uses of parks, especially taking a walk; (ii) the geographic context matters, demonstrating a high variety of uses across the cities; and that (iii) the sociocultural context is also important; e.g., the occupation and biodiversity valuations of respondents are significantly associated with the uses performed. The sociocultural context matters particularly for physical park uses and is associated to a lesser extent with nature-related uses. Given that our results attest to a high variety of park uses between sociocultural groups and the geographical context, we conclude that it is important to consider the specific backgrounds of people to enhance recreational ecosystem services in greenspace development.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.015
  • Exploring ecosystem services assessment through Ecological Footprint
    • Authors: Maria Serena Mancini; Alessandro Galli; Luca Coscieme; Valentina Niccolucci; David Lin; Federico Maria Pulselli; Simone Bastianoni; Nadia Marchettini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Maria Serena Mancini, Alessandro Galli, Luca Coscieme, Valentina Niccolucci, David Lin, Federico Maria Pulselli, Simone Bastianoni, Nadia Marchettini
      Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive from Nature. In the last decades, research efforts have been made to better understand the connections between the natural sphere and the human sphere as well as to propose novel approaches to measure the value of ecosystem services. While economic valuation has so far been the most commonly used approach – expressing ecosystem services’ value in monetary units – recent efforts have focused on alternative qualitative or biophysical accounting approaches to express the value of ecosystem service in physical units. The role of Ecological Footprint accounting as a biophysical approach for measuring the value of ecosystem services through a surface-equivalent unit is here investigated. This accounting tool allows keeping track of both the human demand on, and the Nature’s supply of, a precise sub-set of ecosystem services thus being able to make an ecological balance at the country level. A comparison between Ecological Footprint and economic valuation analyses is finally performed, for the forest ecosystem type, to highlight complementarities and correlations of these different approaches.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.010
  • Five reasons why the Science publication “Assessing nature’s
           contributions to people” (Diaz et al. 2018) would not have been accepted
           in Ecosystem Services
    • Authors: Leon C. Braat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Leon C. Braat

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.002
  • An integrated biophysical and ecosystem approach as a base for ecosystem
           services analysis across regions
    • Authors: Dor Fridman; Meidad Kissinger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Dor Fridman, Meidad Kissinger
      In an interconnected world, the ‘food system’ sustainability of any given region is increasingly dependent on ecosystem services originated from supporting regions in different parts of the world. However, commonly used research approaches, such as place based ecosystem service assessments and interregional biophysical accounting, have limited capacity to capture the complex interactions across regions. This research addresses this gap by integrating a global biophysical accounting of food crops with its related local ecosystem dis-services. It combines agricultural and ecosystem indicators to describe different classes of biophysical pressures and potential dis-services from growing 4 key agricultural staples exported to Israel from different agricultural areas around the world. Each class stands as a ‘functional region’ in which either a trade-off or a synergy exists between agricultural efficiency and environmental impact. The research finds that over half of Israel’s crops supply was produced in areas with high soil loss potential, and almost 15% of it originates from areas with high water scarcity. It implies that changes to Israel’s supply sources have the potential to reduce consumption related impacts on ecosystem services. The functional regions typology may be used as a global road map mediating interregional flows assessments with place-based ecosystem service assessments.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.005
  • Corrigendum to “Ecosystem services of the big bend region of the
           chihuahuan desert” [Ecosyst. Services 27 (2017) 48–57]
    • Authors: Nathan T. Taylor; Kendall M. Davis; Helena Abad; Maureen R. McClung; Matthew D. Moran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Nathan T. Taylor, Kendall M. Davis, Helena Abad, Maureen R. McClung, Matthew D. Moran

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.013
  • Ecosystem valuation: Changing discourse in a time of climate change
    • Authors: Maja Vinde Folkersen
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Maja Vinde Folkersen
      Alternative ecosystem valuation methodology can inform policy choices to better reflect local needs, improve living standards and facilitate more effective climate change adaptation strategies. In the context of the South Pacific Island Countries and their reliance on marine resources, this paper outlines the urgent need for exploring alternative ecosystem valuation methodology. The objective behind alternative ecosystem valuation methodology is to enable a more comprehensive identification and elicitation of the various types of ecosystem values. This paper demonstrates how the commonly adopted monetary approach to conducting ecosystem valuation impedes the exploration of climate change adaptation strategies based on non-monetary aspects. These include value-indicators such as time, labour, geographical distance and collective community efforts along with social value, e.g. community incentives to protect and sustain local ecosystems. The paper compares and contrasts various combinations of ecosystem valuation methods that can enable social and non-monetary valuation of ecosystems in low-income settings that reflect social norms and cultural value systems. The paper concludes with a discussion of how alternative ecosystem valuation methodology can enable new pathways towards climate change adaptation and the improvement of living standards that would be particularly suitable for low-income settings where natural resources are vulnerable and financial resources scarce.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.008
  • Non-monetary valuation using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Sensitivity
           of additive aggregation methods to scaling and compensation assumptions
    • Authors: D.M. Martin; M. Mazzotta
      Pages: 13 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): D.M. Martin, M. Mazzotta
      Analytical methods for Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) support the non-monetary valuation of ecosystem services for environmental decision making. Many published case studies transform ecosystem service outcomes into a common metric and aggregate the outcomes to set land use planning and environmental management priorities. Analysts and their stakeholder constituents should be cautioned that results may be sensitive to the methods that are chosen to perform the analysis. In this article, we investigate four common additive aggregation methods: global and local multi-attribute scaling, the analytic hierarchy process, and compromise programming. Using a hypothetical example, we explain scaling and compensation assumptions that distinguish the methods. We perform a case study application of the four methods to re-analyze a data set that was recently published in Ecosystem Services and demonstrate how results are sensitive to the methods.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.022
  • Surveying views on Payments for Ecosystem Services: Implications for
           environmental management and research
    • Authors: Kerry J. Waylen; Julia Martin-Ortega
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Kerry J. Waylen, Julia Martin-Ortega
      The concept of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is globally of increasing interest. However, little is known about the views and expectations of professionals and practitioners expected to enable or implement this concept. Since these individuals design, select, shape and deliver environmental management, their views and expectations are critical to understanding how PES may play out in practice. Using the first survey on this topic, in the UK this research discusses the implications for future research and environmental management. Responses indicate a range of views about PES and its potential effects. Most expect to see greater use of PES in future; and are cautiously positive about the environmental, social and economic consequences of doing so. Many hope PES may overcome existing challenges facing environmental management, subject to conditions or changes. The research also revealed tensions related to broader challenges in environmental governance – e.g. calls for standardisation may conflict with requests for adaptability. Meanwhile, other expectations – e.g. improved engagement with groups currently uninterested in the environment – indicate priorities that may be better addressed with other instruments. Varied views are likely in most countries and must be assessed to better understand the prospects and potential of PES.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.007
  • Consumer demand for urban forest ecosystem services and disservices:
           Examining trade-offs using choice experiments and best-worst scaling
    • Authors: José R. Soto; Francisco J. Escobedo; Hayk Khachatryan; Damian C. Adams
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): José R. Soto, Francisco J. Escobedo, Hayk Khachatryan, Damian C. Adams
      Many studies value urban ecosystem service benefits using residents’ willingness to pay and supply-side analyses of ecosystem attributes. But, few studies account for consumer demand and ecosystem disservices. To address this gap we surveyed 1052 homeowners eliciting consumer demand for key urban forest ecosystem attributes and service-disservice levels in both their properties and surrounding neighborhood. We use an approach integrating focus group, field data, and surveys to identify consumer preferences and trade-offs between urban forest ecosystem structure-functional attributes and their level of services and disservices. This method, called best worst choice, produces more estimates of utility while reducing the likelihood of introducing biases associated with human cognitive tendencies. Results indicate that consumer choices for property value were highest followed by tree condition, a structural proxy for minimizing disservices, and tree shade, a functional proxy for temperature regulation. We also found evidence of trade-offs in demand for different ecosystem services, significant scale effects, and that willingness to pay for ecosystem disservices was negative. Findings suggest that management, and studies that value and map ecosystem services, using fixed scales should account for end-user demand and functional traits, as consumers can discern trade-offs in benefits and disservices across different cognitive and spatial scales.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.009
  • Economic viability of the national-scale forestation program: The case of
           success in the Republic of Korea
    • Authors: Jongyeol Lee; Chul-Hee Lim; Gang Sun Kim; Anil Markandya; Sarwat Chowdhury; Sea Jin Kim; Woo-Kyun Lee; Yowhan Son
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Jongyeol Lee, Chul-Hee Lim, Gang Sun Kim, Anil Markandya, Sarwat Chowdhury, Sea Jin Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee, Yowhan Son
      The forests in the Republic of Korea (ROK) successfully recovered through the national forestation program as did the ecosystem services associated with them. With this positive experience, it is instructive to investigate the economic viability of the forestation program. In this study, we estimated the changes in the key ecosystem services (disaster risk reduction (DRR), carbon sequestration, water yield enhancement, and soil erosion control; 1971–2010) and the monetary investment of the forestation (1960–2010) in the ROK, at a national scale. These benefits and costs were estimated by biophysical and monetary approaches, using statistical data from several public organizations, including the Korea Forest Service and the Korea Meteorological Administration, combined with model simulation. All monetary values were converted to the present value in 2010. The net present value and the benefit-cost ratio of the forestation program were 54,316 million $ and 5.84 in 2010, respectively, in the long-term. The break-even point of the extensive investment on the forestation appeared within two decades. In particular, the enhancements of DRR and carbon sequestration were substantial. This economic viability was ensured by the subsidiary implementations (e.g., participation of villagers, shifting energy source, and administrative regulation). Early and extensive investment in forestation is recommended for economic viability and successful implementation of the program. Our study is expected to provide a scientific rationale for implementing forestation program in other countries.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.001
  • Improving payments for ecosystem services (PES) outcomes through the use
           of Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and the software OPTamos
    • Authors: Nelson Grima; Simron J. Singh; Barbara Smetschka
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Nelson Grima, Simron J. Singh, Barbara Smetschka
      The Earth’s ecosystems provide society with basic goods and services, but this ecosystem provision of benefits is constantly under threat by anthropogenic pressures, mainly related to land use changes. A solution proposed to address these issues is the implementation of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes. However, such schemes have received strong criticism, which suggests that there is a need for improvement. The paper discusses the implementation during the early planning and design stages of PES schemes of a combination of public participation together with Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, supporting the process with the use of the software tool OPTamos. The tool allows structuring the complex information generated with different methods during stakeholder processes. Based on previous studies and experiences, we propose an integrated approach with the participative methods and decision-support tool for PES schemes, aiming to enhance the positive outcomes and to overcome some of the limitations described in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.019
  • Food, money and lobsters: Valuing ecosystem services to align
           environmental management with Sustainable Development Goals
    • Authors: Michelle Ward; Hugh Possingham; Jonathan R. Rhodes; Peter Mumby
      Pages: 56 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Michelle Ward, Hugh Possingham, Jonathan R. Rhodes, Peter Mumby
      With over 1 billion people currently relying on the services provided by marine ecosystems – e.g. food, fibre and coastal protection – governments, scientists and international bodies are searching for innovative research to support decision-makers in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Valuing past and present ecosystem services allows investigation into how different scenarios impact the SDGs, such as economic growth, sustainability, poverty and equity among stakeholders. This paper investigates the past and current value of the lobster fishery located in the Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected Area. It then uses InVEST to highlight future changes under different scenarios. While we found a significant decline in fishery value over the next ten years under all three scenarios, the exclusion of large-scale fisheries from the marine protected area seems to yield the most positive results in regard to South Africa’s SDG commitments. This scenario has the potential to generate approximately 50% more revenue, while also producing the highest available protein to local communities, highest quantity of spawners and highest economic distribution to small-scale fisheries. It is clear through this research that valuing ecosystem services can enable a future of healthy economies, people and environments; the highly sought-after triple-bottom line.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.023
  • Handling a messy world: Lessons learned when trying to make the ecosystem
           services concept operational
    • Authors: Kurt Jax; Eeva Furman; Heli Saarikoski; David N. Barton; Ben Delbaere; Jan Dick; Guy Duke; Christoph Görg; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Paula A. Harrison; Joachim Maes; Marta Pérez-Soba; Sanna-Riikka Saarela; Francis Turkelboom; Jiska van Dijk; Allan D. Watt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Kurt Jax, Eeva Furman, Heli Saarikoski, David N. Barton, Ben Delbaere, Jan Dick, Guy Duke, Christoph Görg, Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Paula A. Harrison, Joachim Maes, Marta Pérez-Soba, Sanna-Riikka Saarela, Francis Turkelboom, Jiska van Dijk, Allan D. Watt
      The concept of ecosystem services is widely used in the scientific literature and increasingly also in policy and practice. Nevertheless, operationalising the concept, i.e. putting it into practice, is still a challenge. We describe the approach of the EU-project OpenNESS (Operationalisation of Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital), which was created in response to this challenge to critically evaluate the concept when applied to real world problems at different scales and in different policy sectors. General requirements for operationalization, the relevance of conceptual frameworks and lessons learnt from 27 case study applications are synthesized in a set of guiding principles. We also briefly describe some integrative tools as developed in OpenNESS which support the implementation of the principles. The guiding principles are grouped under three major headlines: “Defining the problem and opening up the problem space”, “Considering ethical issues” and “Assessing alternative methods, tools and actions”. Real world problems are often “wicked” problems, which at first are seldom clear-cut and well-defined, but often rather complex and subject to differing interpretations and interests. We take account of that complexity and emphasise that there is not one simple and straightforward way to approach real world problems involving ecosystem services. The principles and tools presented are meant to provide some guidance for tackling this complexity by means of a transdisciplinary methodology that facilitates the operationalisation of the ecosystem services concept.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.001
  • Editorial: Operationalisation of natural capital and ecosystem services
           – Special issue
    • Authors: Jiska van Dijk; Jan Dick; Paula Harrison; Kurt Jax; Heli Saarikoski; Eeva Furman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Jiska van Dijk, Jan Dick, Paula Harrison, Kurt Jax, Heli Saarikoski, Eeva Furman

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.013
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