for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
Followed Journals
Journal you Follow: 0
 
Sign Up to follow journals, search in your chosen journals and, optionally, receive Email Alerts when new issues of your Followed Journals are published.
Already have an account? Sign In to see the journals you follow.
Journal Cover Ecosystem Services
  [SJR: 2.169]   [H-I: 21]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Using ecosystem services to underpin cost–benefit analysis: Is it a way
           to protect finite soil resources'
    • Authors: S. Greenhalgh; O. Samarasinghe; F. Curran-Cournane; W. Wright; P. Brown
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): S. Greenhalgh, O. Samarasinghe, F. Curran-Cournane, W. Wright, P. Brown
      Urban encroachment onto versatile land is a global challenge, and as the pressure to develop this land mounts there are moves to assess the broader impacts of these decisions. One common decision support tool for policy decisions is cost–benefit analysis (CBA), and despite criticisms of the approach it enjoys widespread use. Using a case of urban development onto versatile rural land in New Zealand, two issues relating to the use of CBA are tackled – the monetisation of all values and what values to include – along with a discussion of irreversible decisions. To identify which costs and benefits to include in a CBA we provide a structured process using an ecosystem services framework early in a CBA to provide a comprehensive means to identify and justify the costs and benefits to include. Using members of the community to decide which ecosystem services are most important for a given context allows more robust deliberation of values and what to include in the CBA. To demonstrate the value of non-market values (e.g. regulatory services) we use soil characteristics. Our assessment demonstrates the challenges facing decision-makers and ongoing methodological shortfalls as CBA approaches are applied to non-substitutable resources and irreversible decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Do charismatic species groups generate more cultural ecosystem service
           benefits'
    • Authors: James McGinlay; David J. Parsons; Joe Morris; Marie Hubatova; Anil Graves; Richard B. Bradbury; James M. Bullock
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): James McGinlay, David J. Parsons, Joe Morris, Marie Hubatova, Anil Graves, Richard B. Bradbury, James M. Bullock
      The relationship between nature and cultural ecosystem service (CES) benefits is well accepted but poorly understood, as is the potential role of biodiversity in the relationship. By means of a public questionnaire survey in Wiltshire, UK, the relationship between the presence of a range of common species groups, species group ‘charisma’, group abundance in the landscape, and the benefit that people felt that they derived from the species groups was investigated for a lowland multifunctional landscape. Findings showed that species group charisma influenced the benefit reported by respondents for current abundance levels, and influenced their response to potential increases or decreases in abundance. Respondents reported high levels of benefit from species groups hypothesised to be charismatic (birds, flowering plants, butterflies) and there was high consistency in the pattern of response. Respondents reported less benefit from groups hypothesised to be less charismatic (beetles/bugs, brambles and nettles), the latter response patterns showing much greater variation. These results could be used to promote a more holistic understanding of the value of biodiversity by educating and informing the public so that they derive benefit not just from the charismatic, but also from the everyday, the commonplace and less obviously charismatic species.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Optimizing provision of ecosystem services using modern portfolio theory
    • Authors: Sergio Alvarez; Sherry L. Larkin; Andrew Ropicki
      Pages: 25 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Sergio Alvarez, Sherry L. Larkin, Andrew Ropicki
      Portfolio selection is a flexible tool that can be used to support natural resource decision-making to optimize provision of ecosystem services. The natural resource portfolio literature includes applications in fisheries, forestry, agriculture, spatial planning, invasive pest and disease surveillance, climate change adaptation, and biodiversity conservation, among others. We contribute to this growing literature by proposing a set of essential questions to guide the development and implementation of empirical portfolios for natural resource management that deal with (1) the nature and objectives of the portfolio manager, (2) the definition of assets to be included in the portfolio, (3) the way in which returns and risk are measured and distributed, and (4) the definition of constraints in the programming problem. The approach is illustrated using landings data from the Colombian Pacific, a data limited fishery, to set catch limits in fisheries at the ecosystem level. We also develop a set of constraints in the programming problem to simulate potential policy options regarding resource sustainability and social equity. The resulting efficient catch portfolios can be used to optimize the flow of provisioning ecosystem services from this fishery.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Policy-driven China’s Grain to Green Program: Implications for
           ecosystem services
    • Authors: Bing Wang; Peng Gao; Xiang Niu; Jianni Sun
      Pages: 38 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Bing Wang, Peng Gao, Xiang Niu, Jianni Sun
      The policy-driven China’s Grain to Green Program (GTGP) is one of the biggest programs in the world because of its massive scales, largest investment and enormous effects. One research concern surrounding the GTGP is how to evaluate its ecological implications for ecosystem services. Taking Yangtze and Yellow river basins as the study area, we provide an overview of the development status and demand for the GTGP, construct the evaluation index system and distributed measurement methods of ecosystem services, and analyze the implications for ecosystem services of the GTGP as rigorously as possible from various sources of combined data. Although there are time lags in ecological implications, but the GTGP also have global implications because it increase vegetative cover and water conservation, enhance soil fertility and carbon sequestration, and atmosphere environmental purification by controlling soil erosion. The future implications for ecosystem services of the GTGP may be even bigger. The main driving factors on the implications changes were the policy and socioeconomic factors, such as the policy governance, the adjustment of economic structure and increased income of peasant households. By contrast, natural environment factors, such as precipitation, terrain slope, and etc., were in a secondary role. The existing problems and challenges for the GTGP were analyzed, and put forward some recommendations to overcome their shortcomings and enhance their potential. The GTGP can provide important experiences for the implementation of similar ecosystem service programs in China and many other parts of the world.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Recreational cultural ecosystem services: How do people describe the
           value?
    • Authors: Sanna Stålhammar; Eja Pedersen
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Sanna Stålhammar, Eja Pedersen
      Different ways of viewing human-nature interactions affect the ways in which these are conceptualized and operationalized with regards to cultural ecosystem services (CES). To clarify if some conceptualizations provide more appropriate descriptions of benefits, these need to be discussed in relation to the lived experience. This paper addresses some aspects of the controversy around the use of the concept of CES and associated framing of ‘values’. Our aim is to understand potential distinctions between individuals’ expressions of values of their experiences and the language of value of ES. We use Swedish focus group material formed to understand how individuals perceive and express their values of the experiences of spending time in natural environments in their own words. We apply an interpretivist approach inspired by grounded theory and present our findings as the broader interpretative repertoire ‘axiomatic value’. The interpretative repertoire informed three discourses that participants describe as valuable in relation to experiences in nature: ‘indivisibility’, ‘incommensurability’, and ‘the goodness of perceived naturalness’. The latter comprised the underlying themes ‘nature as authentic’, ‘nature as healing’ and ‘nature as beauty, magic and movement’. We discuss implications for conceptualizations of value and question the appropriateness of the non-contextual and categorical language of ES.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem services research in China: A critical review
    • Authors: Wei Jiang
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Wei Jiang
      Research on ecosystem services (ES) in China has become one of the fastest growing areas in the last decades. A systematic literature review with the establishment of a national ES research database was conducted in this paper. The analysis of the database including 175 studies published in international peer-reviewed journals identified six categories of research focus, among which monetary valuation attracted the most attention. Two approaches in the monetary valuation studies are dominant, unit value based approach and primary data based approach. Challenges of Chinese ES research consist in the lack of internationally accepted frameworks, which leads to the confusing use of terminology for ecosystem type and ES class. Critics also exist in the significance of monetary valuation, because most of the case studies in China were based on the unit value transfer method. In addition, Chinese scholars seem to be unaware of the progress of cultural ecosystem services research and few studies with particular focus on CES are found. This paper concludes with the anticipation of a TEEB country study for China.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem services of collectively managed urban gardens: Exploring
           factors affecting synergies and trade-offs at the site level
    • Authors: Matthew Dennis; Philip James
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Matthew Dennis, Philip James
      Collective management of urban green space is being acknowledged and promoted. The need to understand productivity and potential trade-offs between co-occurring ecosystem services arising from collectively managed pockets of green space is pivotal to the design and promotion of both productive urban areas and effective stakeholder participation in their management. Quantitative assessments of ecosystem service production were obtained from detailed site surveys at ten examples of collectively managed urban gardens in Greater Manchester, UK. Correlation analyses demonstrated high levels of synergy between ecological (biodiversity) and social (learning and well-being) benefits related to such spaces. Trade-offs were highly mediated by site size and design, resulting in a tension between increasing site area and the co-management of ecosystem services. By highlighting synergies, trade-offs and the significance of site area, the results offer insight into the spatially sensitive nature of ecosystem services arising from multi-functional collectively managed urban gardens.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • The value of ecosystem services obtained from the protected forest of
           Cambodia: The case of Veun Sai-Siem Pang National Park
    • Authors: Abu S.M.G. Kibria; Alison Behie; Robert Costanza; Colin Groves; Tracy Farrell
      Pages: 27 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Abu S.M.G. Kibria, Alison Behie, Robert Costanza, Colin Groves, Tracy Farrell
      This research provides for the first time a valuation of Veun Sai-Siem Pang National Park (VSSPNP) in Cambodia, which is a forest largely unfamiliar to the international community yet extremely significant in terms of biodiversity value. This study aimed to measure the monetary and non-monetary values of ecosystem services (ESS) of the forest. We estimated the total annual contribution of VSSPNP was US$129.84million. Its primary contribution was air purification (US$56.21millionyr−1) followed by water storage (US$32.31millionyr−1), soil-erosion reduction (US$22.21millionyr−1), soil-fertility improvement (US$9.47million yr−1), carbon sequestration (US$7.87millionyr−1), provisioning services (US$1.76millionyr−1) and recreation (US$0.02millionyr−1). Traditionally the forest is used for timber and non-timber forest products, which in fact, composed only 1.36% of the total benefits. By analysing the published articles and reports on VSSPNP we determined the area had generated valuable academic and non-academic knowledge on natural resources. This forest had also created a diverse network among scientists and different organizations worldwide. We also identified the forest to be of cultural importance for indigenous people as they believe that their ancestors live inside the forest and protect them from vulnerabilities. Despite being part of one of the most important eco-regions in the world VSSPNP is undervalued and facing multiple threats such as illegal logging, poaching, population pressure and corruption. The current estimation of ESS would thus assist in the sustainable management of VSSPNP.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Spatially explicit return on investment to private forest conservation for
           water purification in Indiana, USA
    • Authors: Yangyang Wang; Shady Atallah; Guofan Shao
      Pages: 45 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Yangyang Wang, Shady Atallah, Guofan Shao
      Conservation programs that incentivize the increased provision of ecosystem services on private lands have become common policy instruments. The forgone revenues implied by these programs and the ecosystem services benefits they provide might be spatially heterogeneous. However, such programs are not always spatially targeted to maximize the return on conservation investment (ROI). Here, we use an integrated spatial, ecological-economic modeling approach to assess the ROI for water purification in the case of the Indiana Classified Forest and Wildlands (CFW) Program, United States. We compared the ROI of the existing non-spatially targeted CFW expansion to hypothetical, spatially targeted expansion scenarios in the White River Basin of Indiana. First, we projected nutrient retention services to increase greatly under the hypothetical spatially targeted scenarios and modestly in the non-spatially targeted, baseline case. Second, our results revealed the inclusion of conservation costs could substantially change the conservation priorities. In particular, private forestlands in subwatersheds with average conservation benefits and low conservation costs, as opposed to those with high conservation benefits and high conservation costs, would be prioritized for the CFW program, based on their positive ROIs. Third, we found that the benefits from the single ecosystem service of nutrient retention could exceed the conservation costs of the tax deductions and forgone alternatives (i.e., agriculture) if the program was targeted to contaminated watersheds. This research contributes to the integration of forest economics, forest conservation, and forest ecology to assess the effectiveness of forest conservation programs such as the CFW. It also informs citizens and governments on the benefits and costs of potential targeted increased enrollments of the CFW program in Indiana.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T18:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • What are the benefits of strictly protected nature reserves' Rapid
           assessment of ecosystem service values in Wanglang Nature Reserve, China
    • Authors: Peng Liu; Shiwei Jiang; Lianjun Zhao; Yunxi Li; Pingping Zhang; Li Zhang
      Pages: 70 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Peng Liu, Shiwei Jiang, Lianjun Zhao, Yunxi Li, Pingping Zhang, Li Zhang
      Despite broad recognition that nature reserves protect local biodiversity and rare species effectively, the wider benefits and costs provided by this conservation approach relative to alternative approaches are not well understood. This study addressed this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision of two alternative conservation management approaches in a strictly protected nature reserve in China based on (1) existing strict regulations versus (2) extrapolation of those in an adjacent Natural Forest Protection Project (NFPP) allowing the use of natural resources by local communities. Using a new Toolkit for Ecosystem Services Site-based Assessment (TESSA), we demonstrated the nature reserve provides more valuable ecosystem services than it would have done if managed like the adjacent NFPP. In comparison, the nature reserve provides greater benefits in terms of carbon stock, carbon sequestration, and recreation, at the national and global scale. The monetary benefits of the nature reserve could cover all conservation management costs, making it a more worthwhile approach for conservation and beneficiaries. Thus, our study highlights the importance of strictly protected nature reserves in China, demonstrating the importance of balancing conservation and development to governmental managers and local residents, and could be used to guide eco-compensation for local beneficiaries.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T18:08:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Future impacts of changing land-use and climate on ecosystem services of
           mountain grassland and their resilience
    • Authors: Uta Schirpke; Marina Kohler; Georg Leitinger; Veronika Fontana; Erich Tasser; Ulrike Tappeiner
      Pages: 79 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Uta Schirpke, Marina Kohler, Georg Leitinger, Veronika Fontana, Erich Tasser, Ulrike Tappeiner
      Although the ecosystem services provided by mountain grasslands have been demonstrated to be highly vulnerable to environmental and management changes in the past, it remains unclear how they will be affected in the face of a combination of further land-use/cover changes and accelerating climate change. Moreover, the resilience of ecosystem services has not been sufficiently analysed under future scenarios. This study aimed to assess future impacts on multiple mountain grassland ecosystem services and their resilience. For a study area in the Central Alps (Stubai Valley, Austria), six ecosystem services were quantified using plant trait-based models for current and future conditions (in 2050 and 2100) considering three socio-economic scenarios. Under all scenarios, the greatest changes in ecosystem services were related to the natural reforestation of abandoned grassland, causing a shift from grassland to forest services. Although the high resilience potential of most ecosystem services will be maintained in the future, climate change seems to have negative impacts, especially on the resilience of forage production. Thus, decision makers and farmers will be faced with the higher vulnerability of ecosystem services of mountain grassland. Future policies should consider both socio-economic and environmental dynamics to manage valuable ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T16:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • A need for equal consideration of ecosystem disservices and services when
           valuing nature; countering arguments against disservices
    • Authors: Thomas Schaubroeck
      Pages: 95 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Thomas Schaubroeck
      The ecosystem disservice concept has been introduced, reflecting negative effects of ecosystems on human well-being. However, it does not really seem embraced in some current relevant valuations of nature. In two prominent policy-oriented papers that present clear messages in favour of nature, more precisely ecosystems, consideration of negative effects on human well-being, whether or not called disservices, seems minimized or neglected. Consequently, in this work, arguments are brought forward that counter made statements against the concept of disservices or certain disservices under certain conditions. More importantly, in any nature valuation, it is crucial to explicitly state which services and disservices are considered, i.e. to be transparent, this to shed light on the subjectivity of derived policy messages. In general, subjectivity, e.g. through nature liking, should ideally only be characterized through cultural (dis)services.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T16:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Enhancing ecosystem services through targeted bioenergy support policies
    • Authors: Alex Baumber
      Pages: 98 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Alex Baumber
      While policy-makers in the bioenergy sector have paid considerable attention over the past decade to the risks that energy cropping can pose to forests, soils and food security, there has been less focus on how bioenergy policies can be designed to enhance ecosystem services. Some perennial energy crops have demonstrated the potential to provide habitat for biodiversity, improve soil health, enhance water quality, mitigate dryland salinity and sequester carbon. While much uncertainty exists around which forms of energy cropping might deliver these benefits, opportunities exist to preferentially support beneficial energy crops through the adaptation of existing bioenergy policies. This article provides a global review of bioenergy policy instruments that identifies existing and potential mechanisms for promoting the enhancement of ecosystem services. While many existing bioenergy support policies promote fuel supply (a provisioning service) and climate change mitigation (a regulating service), it is less common for bioenergy policies to actively enhance ecosystem services such as habitat provision, soil improvement and water regulation. Further opportunities to promote these ecosystem services exist through structured tax concessions, sub-mandates, banding and renewable energy auctions, but careful consideration needs to be given to trade-offs between services, risks of disservices and the need for complementary non-energy policies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T16:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • How natural capital delivers ecosystem services: A typology derived from a
           systematic review
    • Authors: A.C. Smith; P.A. Harrison; M. Pérez Soba; F. Archaux; M. Blicharska; B.N. Egoh; T. Erős; N. Fabrega Domenech; Á.I. György; R. Haines-Young; S. Li; E. Lommelen; L. Meiresonne; L. Miguel Ayala; L. Mononen; G. Simpson; E. Stange; F. Turkelboom; M. Uiterwijk; C.J. Veerkamp; V. Wyllie de Echeverria
      Pages: 111 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): A.C. Smith, P.A. Harrison, M. Pérez Soba, F. Archaux, M. Blicharska, B.N. Egoh, T. Erős, N. Fabrega Domenech, Á.I. György, R. Haines-Young, S. Li, E. Lommelen, L. Meiresonne, L. Miguel Ayala, L. Mononen, G. Simpson, E. Stange, F. Turkelboom, M. Uiterwijk, C.J. Veerkamp, V. Wyllie de Echeverria
      There is no unified evidence base to help decision-makers understand how the multiple components of natural capital interact to deliver ecosystem services. We systematically reviewed 780 papers, recording how natural capital attributes (29 biotic attributes and 11 abiotic factors) affect the delivery of 13 ecosystem services. We develop a simple typology based on the observation that five main attribute groups influence the capacity of natural capital to provide ecosystem services, related to: A) the physical amount of vegetation cover; B) presence of suitable habitat to support species or functional groups that provide a service; C) characteristics of particular species or functional groups; D) physical and biological diversity; and E) abiotic factors that interact with the biotic factors in groups A–D. ‘Bundles’ of services can be identified that are governed by different attribute groups. Management aimed at maximising only one service often has negative impacts on other services and on biological and physical diversity. Sustainable ecosystem management should aim to maintain healthy, diverse and resilient ecosystems that can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services in the long term. This can maximise the synergies and minimise the trade-offs between ecosystem services and is also compatible with the aim of conserving biodiversity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T16:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Neglected ecosystem services: Highlighting the socio-cultural perception
           of mangroves in decision-making processes
    • Authors: Luciana de Souza Queiroz; Sergio Rossi; Laura Calvet-Mir; Isabel Ruiz-Mallén; Sara García-Betorz; Júlia Salvà-Prat; Antônio Jeovah de Andrade Meireles
      Pages: 137 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Luciana de Souza Queiroz, Sergio Rossi, Laura Calvet-Mir, Isabel Ruiz-Mallén, Sara García-Betorz, Júlia Salvà-Prat, Antônio Jeovah de Andrade Meireles
      Despite the increasing recognition of the need to conserve mangroves, degradation has continued during the last two decades due to ineffective and non-inclusive decision-making processes exclusively based on economic factors. The purpose of the present study is to give tools to mangrove conservation management and policy, exploring the sociocultural valuation of the ecosystem services of mangroves through a case study in northeastern Brazil, an area highly impacted by shrimp aquaculture. We used a mix of methods to complement ecosystem services identified in the academic literature with those perceived as such by local people. We analyzed these locally perceived mangrove services in relation to community livelihoods, and highlighted that local people identified four additional cultural services related to maintenance of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), creation and maintenance of social relationship, personal satisfaction and mental and physical relaxation. This demonstrates that local people have a symbolic relationship with the mangrove forest, which goes beyond the material approach normally used to evaluate ecosystem services. Such findings suggest that the socio-cultural dimension of mangrove services needs to be considered by policy-makers as an indispensable criterion for confronting the key challenges in coastal ecosystems conservation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T16:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic changes in the value of China’s ecosystem services
    • Authors: Gaodi Xie; Caixia Zhang; Lin Zhen; Leiming Zhang
      Pages: 146 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Gaodi Xie, Caixia Zhang, Lin Zhen, Leiming Zhang
      This study initiated a dynamic assessment method of ecosystem service values (ESV), based on an analogy with the labor theory of value, by modifying and developing the method of equivalence factor per unit area. Using such method, the monthly values from 11 categories of ecosystem services provided by China’s ecosystems in 2010 were dynamically estimated. The results indicated that (1) a total ESV of 5.63 trillion US dollars annually was provided, of which forests provided the highest proportion (46.0%), and the regulating services had the highest contribution among the four categories of services (71.3%); (2) the total ESV from 11 categories showed apparent seasonal variation, with higher values from May to September than from November to February which contributed 76.9% and 7.4% to total ESV, respectively; (3) the highest ESV per unit area mainly distributed in southern and eastern areas, and the value generally decreased from southeast to northwest; and (4) the ratio of ESV per capita to the gloss domestic product (GDP) per capita was about 0.87, and such ratio was lowest in the most economically developed and densely populated areas. Therefore, the dynamic assessment method developed in this study can provide a scientific basis for Chinese policy decision-making.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T16:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • So you want your research to be relevant' Building the bridge between
           ecosystem services research and practice
    • Authors: Lydia Olander; Stephen Polasky; James S. Kagan; Robert J. Johnston; Lisa Wainger; David Saah; Lynn Maguire; James Boyd; David Yoskowitz
      Pages: 170 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Lydia Olander, Stephen Polasky, James S. Kagan, Robert J. Johnston, Lisa Wainger, David Saah, Lynn Maguire, James Boyd, David Yoskowitz
      There is growing demand for information regarding the impacts of decisions on ecosystem services and human benefits. Despite the large and growing quantity of published ecosystem services research, there remains a substantial gap between this research and the information required to support decisions. Research often provides models and tools that do not fully link social and ecological systems; are too complex, specialized, and costly to use; and are targeted to outcomes that differ from those needed by decision makers. Decision makers require cost-effective, straightforward, transferable, scalable, meaningful, and defensible methods that can be readily understood. We provide illustrative examples of these gaps between research and practice and describe how researchers can make their work relevant to decision makers by using Benefit Relevant Indicators (BRIs) and choosing models appropriate for particular decision contexts. We use examples primarily from the United States, including cases that illustrate varying degrees of success in closing these gaps. We include a discussion of the challenges and opportunities researchers face in adapting their work to meet the needs of practitioners.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem potentials to provide services in the view of direct users
    • Authors: Andrzej Norbert Affek; Anna Kowalska
      Pages: 183 - 196
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Andrzej Norbert Affek, Anna Kowalska
      The study aimed to determine how direct users of local ecosystems perceive the potentials of those ecosystems to provide services, and how their assessments are influenced by different factors (i.e. socio-demographic characteristics, the actual use of services and proximity to particular ecosystems). To elicit social values we carried out a door-to-door questionnaire survey among residents and visitors (N=251) staying in Wigry National Park and its vicinity (the Suwałki Lakeland of NE Poland), a renowned area of high natural value. Respondents were asked to detail the frequency of use made of 45 different provisioning and cultural services, and then to evaluate 7 local ecosystem types as regards their capacity to supply 11 groups of services. Direct users of ecosystems were shown to possess a capacity to differentiate local ecosystems in terms of their potentials to provide services. Better education, multifaceted interaction with nature and frequent use of natural resources are all found to contribute to better understanding and more accurate assessments of potential. Between-group hierarchy variations also show clearly how personal experience influences the assessment of ecosystem potentials. The perception of cultural and regulating potential in particular appeared to be affected greatly by the frequency of use of cultural services.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.017
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem model analysis of multi-use forestry in a changing climate
    • Authors: Fredrik Lagergren; Anna Maria Jönsson
      Pages: 209 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Fredrik Lagergren, Anna Maria Jönsson
      The challenge of multi-use forestry is to fulfil a range of economic, ecologic and social goals in a sustainable way, accounting for synergies and trade-offs among the ecosystem services provided. Climate changes add to the complexity via effects on forest ecosystem processes, such as primary production and respiration, and also by adding a new goal on the agenda: the role of forests in climate mitigation. In recent years, the generation of climate model projections, representing a range of future scenarios, has enabled the development of strategic decisions in relation to risk management, and created a demand for cross-sectorial adaptation and mitigation processes. In this ecosystem model study we address these issues from the perspective of Swedish forest owners, by focusing on climate impacts and forest management effects on the potential harvest level, net income, predisposition to storm damage, biodiversity and carbon storage. The objective was to evaluate alternative management strategies, applicable to northern boreal, southern boreal and nemoral conditions. A general finding is that targeted combinations of forest stand management strategies can lead to a higher degree of goal fulfilment at the landscape level than current forest management practice.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Estimating the cooling capacity of green infrastructures to support urban
           planning
    • Authors: L. Zardo; D. Geneletti; M. Pérez-Soba; M. Van Eupen
      Pages: 225 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): L. Zardo, D. Geneletti, M. Pérez-Soba, M. Van Eupen
      Heatwaves are threatening human wellbeing in our cities, but Green Urban Infrastructures (GUI) can contribute to reduce temperatures and the associated health risks, by virtue of their cooling capacity. GUI present different typologies and consequently different key components, such as soil cover, tree canopy cover and shape, which determines their capacity to provide cooling. The aim of this study is to propose an approach to estimate the cooling capacity provided by GUI in order to generate useful information for urban planners. The methods are based on the review of the literature to identify the functions of GUI that are involved in providing cooling, and the components of GUI that determine those functions, and then to combine them to provide an overall assessment of the cooling capacity. The approach was used to assess 50 different typologies of GUI, which are result of different combinations of the components that influence the cooling, for three climatic regions. An illustrative case study in the city of Amsterdam show the applicability of the approach. This work provides a contribution in the panorama of Ecosystem Service assessment tools to support the mainstreaming of Ecosystem-based measures (such as the creation of GUI) in the planning practice.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Making the hidden visible: Economic valuation of tiger reserves in India
    • Authors: Madhu Verma; Dhaval Negandhi; Chandan Khanna; Advait Edgaonkar; Ashish David; Gopal Kadekodi; Robert Costanza; Rajesh Gopal; Bishan Singh Bonal; Satya Prakash Yadav; Sanjay Kumar
      Pages: 236 - 244
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Madhu Verma, Dhaval Negandhi, Chandan Khanna, Advait Edgaonkar, Ashish David, Gopal Kadekodi, Robert Costanza, Rajesh Gopal, Bishan Singh Bonal, Satya Prakash Yadav, Sanjay Kumar
      Tiger reserves in India not only support more than half of the global tiger population and are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, they also provide a wide range of economic, social and cultural benefits in the form of ecosystem services. Ignorance of such values influences public policies, including decisions involving investments and allocation of funding, that may impact their protection status with serious implications on human well-being. Through economic valuation of ecosystem services from 6 tiger reserves in India, we demonstrate that enhanced investment in these tiger reserves is economically rational. The flow benefits from selected tiger reserves range from US$769ha−1 year−1 to US$2923ha−1 year−1. The usefulness of such information for developing incentive-based mechanisms and informing zoning and management of tiger reserves at the landscape level is also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Value-based ecosystem service trade-offs in multi-objective management in
           European mountain forests
    • Authors: Alexandra Langner; Florian Irauschek; Susana Perez; Marta Pardos; Tzvetan Zlatanov; Karin Öhman; Eva-Maria Nordström; Manfred J. Lexer
      Pages: 245 - 257
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Alexandra Langner, Florian Irauschek, Susana Perez, Marta Pardos, Tzvetan Zlatanov, Karin Öhman, Eva-Maria Nordström, Manfred J. Lexer
      Mountain forests provide a diverse range of ecosystem services (ES). In case of conflicting ES, trade-offs must be considered in forest resource planning. In this study, simulation-based scenario analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis is used to analyse expected utilities and value-based trade-offs in multi-objective forest management related to four key ES (timber production, carbon storage, biodiversity conservation, protection against gravitational hazards) in three European mountain regions. In each case study area a set of management alternatives including no-management were simulated over 100years and ES quantified using ES indicators. Multifunctional goal scenarios are employed to aggregate partial ES utilities, accumulated RMSE between ES are used to quantify trade-offs. In two analysed case study areas no-management generated highest ES utilities for biodiversity conservation, carbon storage and protection against gravitational hazards. Alternatives based on small-scale silviculture combined timber production and biodiversity conservation very well. In all case study areas increasing goal preferences for timber production or biodiversity and nature conservation result in increasing overall trade-offs with rather decreasing overall utilities. In all case study areas the analysed managements support multiple ES and can thus be considered as multifunctional. Based on the presented analysis management alternatives could be further improved.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Employing contingent and inferred valuation methods to evaluate the
           conservation of olive groves and associated ecosystem services in
           Andalusia (Spain)
    • Authors: M. Torres-Miralles; I. Grammatikopoulou; A.J. Rescia
      Pages: 258 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): M. Torres-Miralles, I. Grammatikopoulou, A.J. Rescia
      The present study explores how people perceive the conservation of an olive agro-ecosystem within a natural reserve, in Andalusia (southern Spain). Using the contingent and the inferred valuation methods, we performed a field survey to identify the socio-economic factors that affect willingness to pay for conservation of the olive groves, and to specify the priority people give to ecosystem services. Results showed that respondents who gave a high score to cultural and regulating ecosystem services were more likely to pay for a conservation plan. This would indicate that factors linked to the historic presence and ecological functionality of the olive groves prevail over their economic aspect in respondents’ willingness to pay. Willingness to pay is found to be positively correlated to appreciation of ecosystem services. The contingent method revealed that mean willingness to pay ranges from 31 to 43€/year/respondent, whereas the inferred method pointed to a slightly higher range of willingness to pay, from 37€ to 44€/year/respondent. Different alternative policies (for example, payment for ecosystem services) should be considered according to the outcome of our study within a sustainable management plan to attenuate the trends of intensification or abandonment of olive groves and to ensure rural development in the region.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T02:10:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Testing socio-cultural valuation methods of ecosystem services to explain
           land use preferences
    • Authors: Katja Schmidt; Ariane Walz; Berta Martín-López; René Sachse
      Pages: 270 - 288
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Katja Schmidt, Ariane Walz, Berta Martín-López, René Sachse
      Socio-cultural valuation still emerges as a methodological field in ecosystem service (ES) research and until now lacks consistent formalisation and balanced application in ES assessments. In this study, we examine the explanatory value of ES values for land use preferences. We use 563 responses to a survey about the Pentland Hills regional park in Scotland. Specifically, we aim to (1) identify clusters of land use preferences by using a novel visualisation tool, (2) test if socio-cultural values of ESs or (3) user characteristics are linked with land use preferences, and (4) determine whether both socio-cultural values of ESs and user characteristics can predict land use preferences. Our results suggest that there are five groups of people with different land use preferences, ranging from forest and nature enthusiasts to traditionalists, multi-functionalists and recreation seekers. Rating and weighting of ESs and user characteristics were associated with different clusters. Neither socio-cultural values nor user characteristics were suitable predictors for land use preferences. While several studies have explored land use preferences by identifying socio-cultural values in the past, our findings imply that in this case study ES values inform about general perceptions but do not replace the assessment of land use preferences.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T02:10:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Stakeholders’ perceptions of ecosystem services and Pangasius catfish
           farming development along the Hau River in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
    • Authors: Nguyen Thi Kim Quyen; Håkan Berg; Wenresti Gallardo; Chau Thi Da
      Pages: 2 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Nguyen Thi Kim Quyen, Håkan Berg, Wenresti Gallardo, Chau Thi Da
      This study identifies stakeholders’ perceptions of ecosystem services (ESS) along the Mekong River in Vietnam. It evaluates trade-offs made between ESS under different Pangasius catfish development scenarios, and stakeholders’ preferences to these scenarios. The study was conducted through interviews, focus group discussions and a questionnaire survey with 150 households. Rice cultivation and Pangasius catfish farming were identified as the most important economic activities. Provisioning services were scored as the most important ESS, followed by supporting, regulating and cultural services. Most stakeholders perceived that an intensification of Pangasius catfish farming would increase the production of catfish, but decrease nine other ESS, while integrated Pangasius catfish farming would decrease the Pangasius catfish production but increase nine other ESS. An integrated system was preferred by the majority of the respondents, mainly because it was perceived to enhance several ESS and provide benefits to local communities. In conclusion, a sustainable development of Pangasius catfish farming in the Mekong Delta must include local stakeholders’ participation and apply farming strategies that make use of the natural environment without severely or irreversibly degrading it.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T15:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Integrating supply and social demand in ecosystem services assessment: A
           review
    • Authors: Hejie Wei; Weiguo Fan; Xuechao Wang; Nachuan Lu; Xiaobin Dong; Yanan Zhao; Xijia Ya; Yifei Zhao
      Pages: 15 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Hejie Wei, Weiguo Fan, Xuechao Wang, Nachuan Lu, Xiaobin Dong, Yanan Zhao, Xijia Ya, Yifei Zhao
      As a result of the unsustainable way in which natural resources are consumed, the gaps between the supply and social demand of ecosystem services (ES) are gradually widening. In this regard, studies have increasingly assessed both ES supply and demand comprehensively. This current review covers recent case studies about the integrated assessment of ES supply and demand (IAESSD), which is defined as the application of ES supply and demand assessments in one case study. By combining some key words (e.g., ES, supply or capacity, demand or flow), 38 IAESSD case studies were selected. The “indicator-method-mismatches” in the case studies were then analyzed in detail. The results show that different indicators are applied to distinguish supply and demand. Mapping, participatory methods, and modeling are often used in IAESSD. ES supply–demand mismatches, which have a strong impact on human well-being by causing unsatisfied demand, are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors. Because of the complex and interactive nature of ecological and economic systems, IAESSD faces challenges regarding the clarification of different ES components from supply to social demand and the provision of promising methods for the identification of ES mismatches. Thus, a framework for further IAESSD research is proposed. This framework highlights the importance of identifying multi-dimensional mismatches and matching ES supply and demand in practice.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T15:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Refocusing ecosystem services towards sustainability
    • Authors: Matthias Schröter; Klara H. Stumpf; Jacqueline Loos; Alexander P.E. van Oudenhoven; Anne Böhnke-Henrichs; David J. Abson
      Pages: 35 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Matthias Schröter, Klara H. Stumpf, Jacqueline Loos, Alexander P.E. van Oudenhoven, Anne Böhnke-Henrichs, David J. Abson
      Ecosystem services and sustainability have become prominent concepts in international policy and research agendas. However, a common conceptual ground between these concepts is currently underdeveloped. In particular, a vision is missing on how to align ecosystem services with overarching sustainability goals. Originally, the ecosystem service concept focused on sustaining human well-being through biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, studies within the field also consider appropriation beyond carrying capacities, and natural resource management that involves environmentally damaging inputs as ecosystem service provision. This brings the ecosystem service concept into conflict with the core goal of sustainability, i.e. achieving justice within ecological limits over the long term. Here, we link the ecosystem service concept to sustainability outcomes operationalized in terms of justice. Our framing positions sustainability as an overarching goal which can be achieved through seven key strategies: equitable (1) intergenerational and (2) intragenerational distribution, (3) interspecies distribution, (4) fair procedures, recognition and participation, (5) sufficiency, (6) efficiency, and (7) persistence. Applying these strategies has the potential to re-focus the ecosystem service concept towards the normative goal of sustainability. We identify research needs for each strategy and further discuss questions regarding operationalization of the strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T15:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
       
  • Towards systematic analyses of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies:
           Main concepts, methods and the road ahead
    • Authors: Anna F. Cord; Bartosz Bartkowski; Michael Beckmann; Andreas Dittrich; Kathleen Hermans-Neumann; Andrea Kaim; Nele Lienhoop; Karla Locher-Krause; Jörg Priess; Christoph Schröter-Schlaack; Nina Schwarz; Ralf Seppelt; Michael Strauch; Tomáš Václavík; Martin Volk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Anna F. Cord, Bartosz Bartkowski, Michael Beckmann, Andreas Dittrich, Kathleen Hermans-Neumann, Andrea Kaim, Nele Lienhoop, Karla Locher-Krause, Jörg Priess, Christoph Schröter-Schlaack, Nina Schwarz, Ralf Seppelt, Michael Strauch, Tomáš Václavík, Martin Volk
      Ecosystem services (ES), the benefits that humans obtain from nature, are of great importance for human well-being. The challenge of meeting the growing human demands for natural resources while sustaining essential ecosystem functions and resilience requires an in-depth understanding of the complex relationships between ES. These conflicting (‘trade-offs’) or synergistic (‘synergies’) relationships mean that changes in one ES can cause changes in other ES. By synthesizing the growing body of literature on ES relationships, we identified the following four main study objectives: (i) the identification and characterization of co-occurrences of ES, (ii) the identification of drivers that shape ES relationships, (iii) the exploration of biophysical constraints of landscapes and limitations to their multifunctionality, and (iv) the support of environmental planning, management and policy decisions. For each of these objectives we here describe the key concepts, including viewpoints of different disciplines, and highlight the major challenges that need to be addressed. We identified three cross-cutting themes being relevant to all four main types of studies. To help guiding researchers towards more systematic analyses of ES trade-offs and synergies, we conclude with an outlook on suggested future research priorities.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.012
       
  • Mapping and valuation of South Africa's ecosystem services: A local
           perspective
    • Authors: J.K. Turpie; K.J. Forsythe; A. Knowles; J. Blignaut; G. Letley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): J.K. Turpie, K.J. Forsythe, A. Knowles, J. Blignaut, G. Letley
      We used locally-sourced and other relevant information to value ecosystem services provided by South Africa's terrestrial, freshwater and estuarine habitats. Our preliminary estimates suggest that these are worth at least R275 billion per annum to South Africans. Notwithstanding benefits to the rest of the world, natural systems provide a major source of direct income to poor households, and generate significant value in the economy through tourism and property markets, as well as providing considerable non-market benefits. Higher values correspond both to areas of higher biomass, which have higher capacity to supply ecosystem services, and areas of higher population densities, which generate demand as well as threats. The value of regulating services is higher for natural systems closer to population centres. Amenity values are highest in cities and protected areas, with the fragmented green open space areas within cities have among the highest values per ha. Even if the gaps are taken into account, our estimates are far lower than estimates based on average global values, but are likely to be more accurate, relevant and tractable to policymakers. Nevertheless, some services have large global values, the recognition of which is important in developing strategies for financing biodiversity conservation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T02:10:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.008
       
  • Comparing costs and supply of supporting and regulating services provided
           by urban parks at different spatial scales
    • Authors: C.M.V.B. Almeida; M.V. Mariano; F. Agostinho; G.Y. Liu; Z.F. Yang; L. Coscieme; B.F. Giannetti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): C.M.V.B. Almeida, M.V. Mariano, F. Agostinho, G.Y. Liu, Z.F. Yang, L. Coscieme, B.F. Giannetti
      Researchers all over the world have been involved for some time in valuing and measuring ecosystem services. However, methods to value both costs and supply and to match them on the same scale are still under discussion. This study assesses costs and supply of a subset of supporting and regulating ecosystem service in urban parks and discusses the role and the value of these services under an environmental/economic point of view using emergy synthesis. A total of 73 parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, are used as a case study. Results show that green areas in urban parks provide valuable services to the city’s community through transformation processes of natural renewable inputs that would be otherwise wasted. The method can be applied in different locations and contexts to provide useful information to public managers and urban planners.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T02:10:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.003
       
  • Conflicting objectives in production forests pose a challenge for forest
           management
    • Authors: Tähti Pohjanmies; María Triviño; Eric Le Tortorec; Hannu Salminen; Mikko Mönkkönen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Tähti Pohjanmies, María Triviño, Eric Le Tortorec, Hannu Salminen, Mikko Mönkkönen
      Conflicts among different ecosystem services have been shown to be common and potentially exacerbated by management interventions. In order to improve the sustainability of natural resource use, the occurrence of these conflicts and the effects that management actions have on them need to be understood. We studied the conflicts between ecosystem services and the potential to solve them by management choices in boreal production forests. Our study area consisted of nearly 30,000 forest stands which were simulated for 50years into the future under alternative management scenarios. The study included four ecosystem services – timber production, bilberry production, carbon storage, and pest regulation – and one biodiversity conservation objective defined as availability of deadwood resources. We 1) measured the conflicts among each pair of objectives, and 2) identified a compromise solution for each pairwise conflict defined as one which simultaneously minimizes the losses for both objectives. Our results show that conflicts between timber production and other objectives are typical, severe, and difficult to solve, while non-extractive benefits including biodiversity conservation can be more easily reconciled with each other. To mitigate the most severe conflicts in boreal forests, increased diversity in management regimes is required.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:14:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.018
       
  • Managing the risks of ecosystem services markets
    • Authors: Paul V. Martin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Paul V. Martin
      Environmental governance is undergoing innovation in the use of market instruments, including payments for environmental services. As it is in nature, in society change (such as commercial or policy innovation) brings the risk of failure or of unanticipated consequences. Good governance requires intelligent precautions against what can go wrong. In investment markets governance safeguards such as competition and market regulation manage the risk that private gains accrue to the ruthless at the cost of the innocent, or that inexperience or incompetence lead to high public and private costs. For environmental markets risk safeguards are under developed. This paper explores the risk dimension of payments for environmental services, and suggests that systematic risk governance could make it more likely that these innovations will serve the public interest.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T16:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.007
       
  • Understanding the role of conceptual frameworks: Reading the ecosystem
           service cascade
    • Authors: M. Potschin-Young; R. Haines-Young; C. Görg; U. Heink; K. Jax; C. Schleyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): M. Potschin-Young, R. Haines-Young, C. Görg, U. Heink, K. Jax, C. Schleyer
      The aim of this paper is to identify the role of conceptual frameworks in operationalising and mainstreaming the idea of ecosystem services. It builds on some initial discussions from IPBES, which suggested that conceptual frameworks could be used to: ‘simplify thinking’, ‘structure work’, ‘clarify issues’, and ‘provide a common reference point’. The analysis uses the cascade model as a focus and looks at the way it has been used in recent published material and across a set of case studies from the EU-funded OpenNESS Project as a device for conceptual framing. It found that there are examples in the literature that show the cascade model indeed being used as an ‘organising framework’, a tool for ‘re-framing’ perspectives, an ‘analytical template’, and as an ‘application framework’. Although the published materials on the cascade are rich, these accounts lack insights into the process by which the different versions of the model were created, and so we turned to the set of OpenNESS case studies to examine how they read the cascade. We found that the cascade was able to provide a common reference for a diverse set of studies, and that it was sufficiently flexible for it to be developed and elaborated in ways that were meaningful for the different place-based studies. The case studies showed that generalised models like the cascade can have an important ‘awareness-raising’ role. However, we found that using models of this kind it was more difficult for case studies to link their work to broader societal issues such as human well-being, sustainable ecosystem management, governance, and competitiveness, than to their own concerns. We therefore conclude that to be used effectively, conceptual models like the cascade may need to be supported by other materials that help users read it in different, outward looking ways. We also need to find mechanisms for capturing this experience so that it can be shared with others.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T18:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.015
       
  • PANDORA 3.0 plugin: A new biodiversity ecosystem service assessment tool
           for urban green infrastructure connectivity planning
    • Authors: Raffaele Pelorosso; Federica Gobattoni; Francesco Geri; Antonio Leone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Raffaele Pelorosso, Federica Gobattoni, Francesco Geri, Antonio Leone
      Ecosystem services related to landscape connectivity are of paramount importance for biodiversity conservation. However, due to the complexity of urban systems, both landscape connectivity assessment and the analysis of ecosystem services related to landscape connectivity are often inadequately conducted, or even completely lacking, in urban planning. The PANDORA 3.0 model, developed as a QGIS plugin and illustrated here with a study case, is the first free, open-source tool for an integrated evaluation of ecosystem services related to landscape connectivity for biodiversity conservation purposes in urban contexts. The PANDORA 3.0 model plugin aims to be a versatile and innovative tool for assessing Green Infrastructure value in terms of ecological connectivity and biodiversity, useful for the planning of sustainable and resilient landscapes and cities. Its open code availability means that users, scientists, developers and planners involved in urban and landscape ecology will have the opportunity to test the PANDORA 3.0 model in several contexts and even contribute further improvements.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T18:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.016
       
  • The law, ecosystem services and ecosystem functions: An in-depth overview
           of coverage and interrelation
    • Authors: V. Mauerhofer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): V. Mauerhofer
      Ecosystem services have been particularly since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 a broadly analysed issue. This discussion has been widely led by scholars from environmental and related economic sciences, while social scientists have paid less attention and legal scholars have hardly entered a deeper controversy about the topic. This paper addresses the following questions 1. in how far law in general already currently covers – perhaps not explicitly - ecosystem services, 2. in how far law goes beyond the pure coverage of these ‘services’ and additionally covers functions of ecosystems which usually are not already considered ‘services’, 3. which consequences arise from this differentiated coverage by law, and 4. which services/functions of ecosystems the law and even governance in the widest sense are not able to cover at all or in particular situations. The whole analysis is implemented by an in-depth review of existing academic literature as well as by means of theoretical and practical cases which support the arguments brought forward. First, it is shown by examples that law covers since millennia the essence of all the main different ecosystem services but not necessarily by using the term ecosystem services. Secondly, several cases describe how law addresses functions of ecosystems which often are not considered (anymore) by humans as ecosystem services, such as river floods, springtides and volcano eruptions. Thirdly, among the consequences found are conflicting interests between more ecocentric related functions and more anthropocentric related services of ecosystems. Law has played in the past a pivotal role in fostering these ecosystem services. With regard to ecosystem functions the role of law has during the past been a less enabling, but rather a restricting one. However, some recent changes of this situation, e.g. in flood protection or wilderness conservation are shown. Fourthly, the paper indicates e.g. natural genetic modifications and fertilizing through volcano eruption as services/functions of ecosystems which the law and even governance in the widest sense is not able to cover at all in the sense of enabling, but only – if at all - can cover in a reactive way. The results of this contribution provide a basic assessment of the relationship between law and the functions as well as the services of ecosystems. In this way, the findings critically reflect potentials and pitfalls to be globally considered when intending to apply law on these features.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T18:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.011
       
  • Adventure racing enables access to cultural ecosystem services at multiple
           scales
    • Authors: M. Kyle S. Smith; Dirk J. Roux; Jessica Hayes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): M. Kyle S. Smith, Dirk J. Roux, Jessica Hayes
      Protected areas are increasingly being viewed and acknowledged within broader social-ecological landscapes as providing a range of ecosystem services, which offer an important connection between nature and society. We explore non-mechanised adventure racing as a form of nature-based tourism, how this activity enables access to a suite of cultural ecosystem services, and its facilitation by a network of relatively open-access protected landscapes. An international adventure race, set within the Garden Route, South Africa, was used as a case study. The physical setting (appreciating nature’s beauty and experiencing the environment in a different way) played the most important role as a motivating factor for participation within adventure racing. Mountainous scenery, rugged coastlines and encounters with iconic species along with the challenge, physical exertion and social bonding also contributed strongly towards the overall experience. Social media and live tracking provided an opportunity for broad exposure and a virtual experience of cultural ecosystem services at a range of spatial scales. In this manuscript we contribute to profiling adventure tourism within a cultural ecosystem service framework, and highlight some implications for protected area management.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.017
       
  • Reducing landscape restoration costs: Feasibility of generating
           electricity from invasive alien plant biomass on the Agulhas Plain, South
           Africa
    • Authors: William Stafford; James Blignaut
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): William Stafford, James Blignaut
      South Africa has embarked on a large-scale government programme to control invasive alien plants (IAPs). However, to date, very little cost recovery has occurred through the development of value adding industries and the sale of various wood products and bioenergy. Using the Agulhas Plain as a case study, we assess the feasibility of using IAP biomass in modular 250kWe wood gasifiers to produce electricity with biochar as a co-product. There is sufficient IAP biomass available over a 15 year time-frame for the installation of 2.6MWe electricity generation capacity, and the financial feasibility is attractive (net present value US$1.35 million for wood gasifiers, compared to -US$2.1 million for diesel-fuelled generators). However, the feasibility of the value added industry depends on sharing the cost for IAP biomass supply between the bioenergy entrepreneur (US$11.01/green tonne) and government (US$17.56/green tonne). A cost-sharing business model and public-private partnerships will be needed to develop value adding industries, control IAPs and reduce the costs of landscape restoration. These value adding industries will also deliver various other socio-economic benefits; including: increasing water availability, reducing carbon emissions, providing jobs, developing skills, stimulating rural development, and helping to steer South Africa towards a more sustainable development path.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.04.008
       
  • Achieving the national development agenda and the Sustainable Development
           Goals (SDGs) through investment in ecological infrastructure: A case study
           of South Africa
    • Authors: Tracey L. Cumming; Ross T. Shackleton; Johannes Förster; John Dini; Ahmed Khan; Mpho Gumula; Ida Kubiszewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Tracey L. Cumming, Ross T. Shackleton, Johannes Förster, John Dini, Ahmed Khan, Mpho Gumula, Ida Kubiszewski
      Ecological infrastructure (EI) refers to ecosystems that deliver services to society, functioning as a nature-based equivalent of, or complement to, built infrastructure. EI is critical for socio-economic development, supporting a suite of development imperatives at local, national and international scales. This paper presents the myriad of ways that EI supports sustainable development, using South Africa and the South African National Development Plan as a case study, linking to the Sustainable Development Goals on a global level. We show the need for EI across numerous development and sustainability issues, including food security, water provision, and poverty alleviation. A strategic and multi-sectoral approach to EI investment is essential for allocating scarce public and private resources for achieving economic and social-ecological priorities. Opportunities to unlock investment in EI, both internationally and on the national level, are identified. This includes leveraging private sector investment into landscape management and integrating the costs of managing EI into public sectors that benefit directly from ecosystem services, such as the water sector and infrastructure development. Additionally, investing in EI also aligns well with international development and climate change funds. Investment in EI from a range of innovative sources supports global and national development, while complementing other development investments.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T17:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.005
       
  • The future value of ecosystem services: Global scenarios and national
           implications
    • Authors: Ida Kubiszewski; Robert Costanza; Sharolyn Anderson; Paul Sutton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Ida Kubiszewski, Robert Costanza, Sharolyn Anderson, Paul Sutton
      We estimated the future value of ecosystem services in monetary units for 4 alternative global land use and management scenarios based on the Great Transition Initiative (GTI) scenarios to the year 2050. We used previous estimates of the per biome values of ecosystem services in 2011 as the basis for comparison. We mapped projected land-use for 16biomes at 1km2 resolution globally for each scenario. This, combined with differences in land management for each scenario, created estimates of global ecosystem services values that also allowed for examinations of individual countries. Results show that under different scenarios the global value of ecosystem services can decline by $51trillion/yr or increase by USD $30trillion/yr. In addition to the global values, we report totals for all countries and maps for a few example countries. Results show that adopting a set of policies similar to those required to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals, would greatly enhance ecosystem services, human wellbeing and sustainability.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.004
       
  • Making biodiversity offsets work in South Africa – A governance
           perspective
    • Authors: Peter Lukey; Tracey Cumming; Sukie Paras; Ida Kubiszewski; Samuel Lloyd
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Peter Lukey, Tracey Cumming, Sukie Paras, Ida Kubiszewski, Samuel Lloyd
      South Africa is increasingly putting itself into an undesirable state of ecological deficit. Regulatory and other interventions are needed to stop and reverse ecosystem degradation. Biodiversity offsets are seen as one possible method of mitigating the current trends in biodiversity and ecosystem services loss in the country. However, for offsetting to succeed in practice, a number of barriers will have to be overcome. This paper discusses concerns raised by South African stakeholders as part of a policy development process implemented by the Department of Environmental Affairs and proposes how the identified barriers may be overcome in the South African setting.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.001
       
  • The Ecosystems revolution, Mark Everard. Palgrave MacMIllan, ISBN
           978-3-319-31657-4
    • Authors: Leon Braat
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 25
      Author(s): Leon C. Braat


      PubDate: 2017-03-28T15:56:14Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.158.253.134
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016