Journal Cover Ecosystem Services
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3118 journals]
  • Ecosystem valuation: Changing discourse in a time of climate change
    • Authors: Maja Vinde Folkersen
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Maja Vinde Folkersen
      Alternative ecosystem valuation methodology can inform policy choices to better reflect local needs, improve living standards and facilitate more effective climate change adaptation strategies. In the context of the South Pacific Island Countries and their reliance on marine resources, this paper outlines the urgent need for exploring alternative ecosystem valuation methodology. The objective behind alternative ecosystem valuation methodology is to enable a more comprehensive identification and elicitation of the various types of ecosystem values. This paper demonstrates how the commonly adopted monetary approach to conducting ecosystem valuation impedes the exploration of climate change adaptation strategies based on non-monetary aspects. These include value-indicators such as time, labour, geographical distance and collective community efforts along with social value, e.g. community incentives to protect and sustain local ecosystems. The paper compares and contrasts various combinations of ecosystem valuation methods that can enable social and non-monetary valuation of ecosystems in low-income settings that reflect social norms and cultural value systems. The paper concludes with a discussion of how alternative ecosystem valuation methodology can enable new pathways towards climate change adaptation and the improvement of living standards that would be particularly suitable for low-income settings where natural resources are vulnerable and financial resources scarce.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Non-monetary valuation using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Sensitivity
           of additive aggregation methods to scaling and compensation assumptions
    • Authors: D.M. Martin; M. Mazzotta
      Pages: 13 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): D.M. Martin, M. Mazzotta
      Analytical methods for Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) support the non-monetary valuation of ecosystem services for environmental decision making. Many published case studies transform ecosystem service outcomes into a common metric and aggregate the outcomes to set land use planning and environmental management priorities. Analysts and their stakeholder constituents should be cautioned that results may be sensitive to the methods that are chosen to perform the analysis. In this article, we investigate four common additive aggregation methods: global and local multi-attribute scaling, the analytic hierarchy process, and compromise programming. Using a hypothetical example, we explain scaling and compensation assumptions that distinguish the methods. We perform a case study application of the four methods to re-analyze a data set that was recently published in Ecosystem Services and demonstrate how results are sensitive to the methods.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Surveying views on Payments for Ecosystem Services: Implications for
           environmental management and research
    • Authors: Kerry J. Waylen; Julia Martin-Ortega
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Kerry J. Waylen, Julia Martin-Ortega
      The concept of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is globally of increasing interest. However, little is known about the views and expectations of professionals and practitioners expected to enable or implement this concept. Since these individuals design, select, shape and deliver environmental management, their views and expectations are critical to understanding how PES may play out in practice. Using the first survey on this topic, in the UK this research discusses the implications for future research and environmental management. Responses indicate a range of views about PES and its potential effects. Most expect to see greater use of PES in future; and are cautiously positive about the environmental, social and economic consequences of doing so. Many hope PES may overcome existing challenges facing environmental management, subject to conditions or changes. The research also revealed tensions related to broader challenges in environmental governance – e.g. calls for standardisation may conflict with requests for adaptability. Meanwhile, other expectations – e.g. improved engagement with groups currently uninterested in the environment – indicate priorities that may be better addressed with other instruments. Varied views are likely in most countries and must be assessed to better understand the prospects and potential of PES.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Consumer demand for urban forest ecosystem services and disservices:
           Examining trade-offs using choice experiments and best-worst scaling
    • Authors: José R. Soto; Francisco J. Escobedo; Hayk Khachatryan; Damian C. Adams
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): José R. Soto, Francisco J. Escobedo, Hayk Khachatryan, Damian C. Adams
      Many studies value urban ecosystem service benefits using residents’ willingness to pay and supply-side analyses of ecosystem attributes. But, few studies account for consumer demand and ecosystem disservices. To address this gap we surveyed 1052 homeowners eliciting consumer demand for key urban forest ecosystem attributes and service-disservice levels in both their properties and surrounding neighborhood. We use an approach integrating focus group, field data, and surveys to identify consumer preferences and trade-offs between urban forest ecosystem structure-functional attributes and their level of services and disservices. This method, called best worst choice, produces more estimates of utility while reducing the likelihood of introducing biases associated with human cognitive tendencies. Results indicate that consumer choices for property value were highest followed by tree condition, a structural proxy for minimizing disservices, and tree shade, a functional proxy for temperature regulation. We also found evidence of trade-offs in demand for different ecosystem services, significant scale effects, and that willingness to pay for ecosystem disservices was negative. Findings suggest that management, and studies that value and map ecosystem services, using fixed scales should account for end-user demand and functional traits, as consumers can discern trade-offs in benefits and disservices across different cognitive and spatial scales.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Economic viability of the national-scale forestation program: The case of
           success in the Republic of Korea
    • Authors: Jongyeol Lee; Chul-Hee Lim; Gang Sun Kim; Anil Markandya; Sarwat Chowdhury; Sea Jin Kim; Woo-Kyun Lee; Yowhan Son
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Jongyeol Lee, Chul-Hee Lim, Gang Sun Kim, Anil Markandya, Sarwat Chowdhury, Sea Jin Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee, Yowhan Son
      The forests in the Republic of Korea (ROK) successfully recovered through the national forestation program as did the ecosystem services associated with them. With this positive experience, it is instructive to investigate the economic viability of the forestation program. In this study, we estimated the changes in the key ecosystem services (disaster risk reduction (DRR), carbon sequestration, water yield enhancement, and soil erosion control; 1971–2010) and the monetary investment of the forestation (1960–2010) in the ROK, at a national scale. These benefits and costs were estimated by biophysical and monetary approaches, using statistical data from several public organizations, including the Korea Forest Service and the Korea Meteorological Administration, combined with model simulation. All monetary values were converted to the present value in 2010. The net present value and the benefit-cost ratio of the forestation program were 54,316 million $ and 5.84 in 2010, respectively, in the long-term. The break-even point of the extensive investment on the forestation appeared within two decades. In particular, the enhancements of DRR and carbon sequestration were substantial. This economic viability was ensured by the subsidiary implementations (e.g., participation of villagers, shifting energy source, and administrative regulation). Early and extensive investment in forestation is recommended for economic viability and successful implementation of the program. Our study is expected to provide a scientific rationale for implementing forestation program in other countries.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Improving payments for ecosystem services (PES) outcomes through the use
           of Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and the software OPTamos
    • Authors: Nelson Grima; Simron J. Singh; Barbara Smetschka
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Nelson Grima, Simron J. Singh, Barbara Smetschka
      The Earth’s ecosystems provide society with basic goods and services, but this ecosystem provision of benefits is constantly under threat by anthropogenic pressures, mainly related to land use changes. A solution proposed to address these issues is the implementation of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes. However, such schemes have received strong criticism, which suggests that there is a need for improvement. The paper discusses the implementation during the early planning and design stages of PES schemes of a combination of public participation together with Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, supporting the process with the use of the software tool OPTamos. The tool allows structuring the complex information generated with different methods during stakeholder processes. Based on previous studies and experiences, we propose an integrated approach with the participative methods and decision-support tool for PES schemes, aiming to enhance the positive outcomes and to overcome some of the limitations described in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Food, money and lobsters: Valuing ecosystem services to align
           environmental management with Sustainable Development Goals
    • Authors: Michelle Ward; Hugh Possingham; Jonathan R. Rhodes; Peter Mumby
      Pages: 56 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Michelle Ward, Hugh Possingham, Jonathan R. Rhodes, Peter Mumby
      With over 1 billion people currently relying on the services provided by marine ecosystems – e.g. food, fibre and coastal protection – governments, scientists and international bodies are searching for innovative research to support decision-makers in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Valuing past and present ecosystem services allows investigation into how different scenarios impact the SDGs, such as economic growth, sustainability, poverty and equity among stakeholders. This paper investigates the past and current value of the lobster fishery located in the Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected Area. It then uses InVEST to highlight future changes under different scenarios. While we found a significant decline in fishery value over the next ten years under all three scenarios, the exclusion of large-scale fisheries from the marine protected area seems to yield the most positive results in regard to South Africa’s SDG commitments. This scenario has the potential to generate approximately 50% more revenue, while also producing the highest available protein to local communities, highest quantity of spawners and highest economic distribution to small-scale fisheries. It is clear through this research that valuing ecosystem services can enable a future of healthy economies, people and environments; the highly sought-after triple-bottom line.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Distilling the role of ecosystem services in the Sustainable Development
           Goals
    • Authors: Sylvia L.R. Wood; Sarah K. Jones; Justin A. Johnson; Kate A. Brauman; Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer; Alexander Fremier; Evan Girvetz; Line J. Gordon; Carrie V. Kappel; Lisa Mandle; Mark Mulligan; Patrick O'Farrell; William K. Smith; Louise Willemen; Wei Zhang; Fabrice A. DeClerck
      Pages: 70 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Sylvia L.R. Wood, Sarah K. Jones, Justin A. Johnson, Kate A. Brauman, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Alexander Fremier, Evan Girvetz, Line J. Gordon, Carrie V. Kappel, Lisa Mandle, Mark Mulligan, Patrick O'Farrell, William K. Smith, Louise Willemen, Wei Zhang, Fabrice A. DeClerck
      Achieving well-being for all, while protecting the environment, is one of the most pressing global challenges of our time, and a central idea in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We believe that integrating ecosystem services, the benefits nature provides to people, into strategies for meeting the SDGs can help achieve this. Many development goals are likely underpinned by the delivery of one or more ecosystem services. Understanding how these services could support multiple development targets will be essential for planning synergistic and cost-effective interventions. Here we present the results of an expert survey on the contributions of 16 ecosystem services to achieving SDG targets linked to environment and human well-being, and review the capacity of modelling tools to evaluate SDG-relevant ecosystem services interactions. Survey respondents judged that individual ecosystem services could make important contributions to achieving 41 targets across 12 SDGs. The provision of food and water, habitat & biodiversity maintenance, and carbon storage & sequestration were perceived to each make contributions to >14 SDG targets, suggesting cross-target interactions are likely, and may present opportunities for synergistic outcomes across multiple SDGs. Existing modelling tools are well-aligned to support SDG-relevant ecosystem service planning. Together, this work identifies entry points and tools to further analyze the role of ecosystem services to support the SDGs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • A new perspective on valuating marine climate regulation: The Israeli
           Mediterranean as a case study
    • Authors: Yoav Peled; Shiri Zemah Shamir; Mordechai Shechter; Eyal Rahav; Alvaro Israel
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Yoav Peled, Shiri Zemah Shamir, Mordechai Shechter, Eyal Rahav, Alvaro Israel
      Marine climate regulation, the absorption and deposition of atmospheric carbon in the marine environment, is considered a valuable ecosystem service. Past valuations of this ecosystem service neglected to account for its temporal context, either by equating it with primary productivity, an underlying ecosystem process, or disregarded the temporal aspects related to its supply, thus leading to inaccurate valuations. This study presents a simplified spatiotemporal economic valuation methodology of the climate regulation ecosystem service, intended to address these shortcomings. The valuation was applied to the Israeli Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) by accounting for permanent and temporary carbon sequestration and the use of Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) values. Based on different carbon prices, the estimated value of climate regulation within the Israeli EEZ ranges between 265.1 and 1270.9 € km−2 year−1, which is significantly lower compared with past methodologies applied in other areas.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Disaggregating ecosystem service values and priorities by wealth, age, and
           education
    • Authors: Jacqueline D. Lau; Christina C. Hicks; Georgina G. Gurney; Joshua E. Cinner
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Jacqueline D. Lau, Christina C. Hicks, Georgina G. Gurney, Joshua E. Cinner
      Ecosystem services support the livelihoods and wellbeing of millions of people in developing countries. However, the benefits from ecosystem services are rarely, if ever, distributed equally within communities. Little work has examined whether and how socio-economic characteristics (e.g. age, poverty, education) are related to how people value and prioritize ecosystem services. We interviewed 372 people connected to coral reef fisheries in 28 communities across four countries in the western Indian Ocean. Each fisher ranked the importance of nine ecosystem service benefits, and then rated which services they most desired an improvement in quantity or quality. We disaggregated their responses to see whether age, poverty, or years of formal schooling influence how fishers rank and prioritize coral reef ecosystem services. Overall, we found little empirical evidence of strong differences between groups. However, the wealthiest fishers did prioritize improvements in habitat ecosystem services and recreational benefits more than other fishers. Our findings emphasize that people directly dependent on coral reef fisheries for their livelihood hold mostly similar values and priorities for ecosystem services. However, poverty influences whether fishers prioritize improvements in supporting ecosystem services associated with environmental care, in this case habitat benefits. Making the differences and similarities between the importance of and priorities for ecosystem services explicit can help decision-makers to target and frame management to be more socially inclusive and equitable and therefore, more effective.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Environmental justice and ecosystem services: A disaggregated analysis of
           community access to forest benefits in Nepal
    • Authors: Sunita Chaudhary; Andrew McGregor; Donna Houston; Nakul Chettri
      Pages: 99 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Sunita Chaudhary, Andrew McGregor, Donna Houston, Nakul Chettri
      The concept of ecosystem services is influencing how environmental stakeholders pursue dual conservation and community development goals. While rapidly growing in popularity, the ecosystem services approach has been criticized for adopting a homogenous approach to communities and failing to consider social diversity and associated power structures influencing access to benefits. In this paper, we adopt an environmental justice lens to analyse access to ecosystem services in a case study of community forestry in Nepal. Using mixed methods, our disaggregated analysis shows that access to ecosystem services is differentiated by social characteristics such as caste, income and gender with uneven distributive outcomes and participation. High-income groups were able to disproportionately access the benefits despite the social equity provisions built into policy and institutional structures. Our study shows that some of the protections oriented at assisting disadvantaged groups were experienced as onerous and should be amended if they are to have beneficial outcomes. In highlighting entrenched inequities, we argue that the ecosystem services approach needs to make environmental justice more central to avoid further marginalising the marginalized, and have far and just outcomes. The current emphasis on aggregated analysis may contribute little to practically implementing programs that will contribute to sustainable socio-ecological wellbeing.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Not so biocentric – Environmental benefits and harm associated with the
           acceptance of forest management objectives by future environmental
           professionals
    • Authors: Brent D. Matthies; Annukka Vainio; Dalia D'Amato
      Pages: 128 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Brent D. Matthies, Annukka Vainio, Dalia D'Amato
      It is not yet completely clear how individuals weigh positive and negative consequences of specific environmental actions to the self, others and nature, and how these evaluations are associated with the acceptance of such environmental actions. We explored how the acceptance of ecosystem service-related forest management objectives were associated with perceived positive and negative consequences, perceived knowledge of these objectives, and gender among future professionals in the bioeconomy context. We analysed a survey collected among Finnish university students majoring in agriculture and forestry, and biological and environmental sciences (N = 159). We found that environmental concerns followed a two-factor structure: concerns for humans and concerns for the environment. Perceived harm to nature and humans reduced the acceptance of timber and bioenergy objectives, but only the effect of perceived harm to humans remained when they were considered together with perceived benefits. Perceived knowledge of the objectives had little effect on acceptance of the objectives. Females endorsed the biodiversity and climate objectives more than males, whereas males endorsed timber objectives more than females. These results show that in the context of ecosystem service management, positive consequences are more important than negative when evaluating bioeconomy objectives, and that consequences to humans are more important than consequences to the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • The impact of relative individual ecosystem demand on stacking ecosystem
           credit markets
    • Authors: Marzieh Motallebi; Dana L. Hoag; Ali Tasdighi; Mazdak Arabi; Deanna L. Osmond; Randall B. Boone
      Pages: 137 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Marzieh Motallebi, Dana L. Hoag, Ali Tasdighi, Mazdak Arabi, Deanna L. Osmond, Randall B. Boone
      A blended actual and hypothetical vertical ecosystem services stacking scenario is developed for a water quality trading (WQT) program in North Carolina. Demand is estimated for total nitrogen reduction and simulated for total phosphorous reduction. Nitrogen and phosphorus are complementary pollutants jointly produced by a single conservation practice, riparian buffers. The supply of reduction is based on the amount of riparian buffers that would be implemented by farmers at a given offering price for WQT credits. Nitrogen reduction is the primary ecosystem service that already has a market in the form of a WQT program. Phosphorus reduction is a hypothetical, secondary ecosystem service that we introduce to evaluate ecosystem stacking. We specifically evaluate stacking in thin markets, where there are few buyers and/or sellers. Our detailed analysis shows that the relative size of demand for different services plays a profound role in the success of stacking when markets are thin; and many if not most ecosystem markets are thin. A secondary service with relatively low demand will either be too small (insufficient) to generate any new credits, or, in a non-competitive market with few sellers, produce no additionality of the secondary service (double dipping). In these two cases, sponsors of the secondary market should not make payments since they will receive no additional benefits above what would have been achieved under conservation practices implemented for the primary ecosystem service. We find that ecosystem stacking is most likely to generate more revenue to producers and to reduce pollution emissions when demand for the secondary service is comparable in magnitude to the primary service. Accurate assessment of relative demand can help policy makers determine where stacking might work, and help purchasers avoid paying for services without results, especially where markets are thin.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Where concepts meet the real world: A systematic review of ecosystem
           service indicators and their classification using CICES
    • Authors: Bálint Czúcz; Ildikó Arany; Marion Potschin-Young; Krisztina Bereczki; Miklós Kertész; Márton Kiss; Réka Aszalós; Roy Haines-Young
      Pages: 145 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 29, Part A
      Author(s): Bálint Czúcz, Ildikó Arany, Marion Potschin-Young, Krisztina Bereczki, Miklós Kertész, Márton Kiss, Réka Aszalós, Roy Haines-Young
      We present a ‘concept matching’ systematic review linking the classes of the Common International Classification for Ecosystem Services (CICES, v4.3) to the ways scientists define and apply ES indicators in published studies. With the dual aim of creating an overview how the different services are measured in the studies, and determining if CICES provides an appropriate structure to accommodate the ES assessed in the practical literature, we reviewed 85 scientific papers from which 440 indicators were identified. Almost all CICES classes were represented, with cultural and some regulating (e.g. global climate regulation, pollination) ES being the most frequently considered. The four most frequently studied CICES classes (or class clusters) were global climate regulation, aesthetic beauty, recreation, and bio-remediation. Regulating and cultural services were more often assessed than provisioning services. Normalisation to unit area and time was common for indicators of several regulating and provisioning ES. Scores were most frequently used for cultural ES (except recreation) and some regulating services (e.g. flood protection). Altogether 20% of the ES indicators were quantified as an economic value, and monetisation is most frequently done for cultural and provisioning ES. Few regulating services, on the other hand, were monetised (including ones, like global climate regulation, for which appropriate techniques are relatively easily available). The work enabled a library of indicators to be compiled and made available. The findings can be used to help improve CICES so that it can provide a more robust and comprehensive framework for ecosystem assessments.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
       
  • Twenty years of ecosystem services: How far have we come and how far do we
           still need to go'
    • Authors: Robert Costanza; Rudolf de Groot; Leon Braat; Ida Kubiszewski; Lorenzo Fioramonti; Paul Sutton; Steve Farber; Monica Grasso
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Robert Costanza, Rudolf de Groot, Leon Braat, Ida Kubiszewski, Lorenzo Fioramonti, Paul Sutton, Steve Farber, Monica Grasso
      It has been 20years since two seminal publications about ecosystem services came out: an edited book by Gretchen Daily and an article in Nature by a group of ecologists and economists on the value of the world’s ecosystem services. Both of these have been very highly cited and kicked off an explosion of research, policy, and applications of the idea, including the establishment of this journal. This article traces the history leading up to these publications and the subsequent debates, research, institutions, policies, on-the-ground actions, and controversies they triggered. It also explores what we have learned during this period about the key issues: from definitions to classification to valuation, from integrated modelling to public participation and communication, and the evolution of institutions and governance innovation. Finally, it provides recommendations for the future. In particular, it points to the weakness of the mainstream economic approaches to valuation, growth, and development. It concludes that the substantial contributions of ecosystem services to the sustainable wellbeing of humans and the rest of nature should be at the core of the fundamental change needed in economic theory and practice if we are to achieve a societal transformation to a sustainable and desirable future.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T01:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Monetary value of urban green space as an ecosystem service provider: A
           case study of urban runoff management in Finland
    • Authors: Sveta Silvennoinen; Maija Taka; Vesa Yli-Pelkonen; Harri Koivusalo; Markku Ollikainen; Heikki Setälä
      Pages: 17 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Sveta Silvennoinen, Maija Taka, Vesa Yli-Pelkonen, Harri Koivusalo, Markku Ollikainen, Heikki Setälä
      The predicted increase in the number of urban flood events can result in substantial monetary losses to society. These costs may be alleviated by preserving ecosystem services, such as urban runoff management. We studied the monetary value of this ecosystem service by applying the replacement cost method in six catchments with varying land-use intensities in two cities in Finland. The economic analysis was based on metric data of urban runoff generation, provided by automatic monitoring stations in the catchments. A hydrological model was applied to estimate evaporation from impervious surfaces, and to simulate runoff in the catchments. Our results suggest that leaving green space unconstructed results in significant monetary savings. The cost of managing runoff correlated with land-use intensity. The ecosystem service value (ESV) was generally higher in catchments with high land-use intensity, low proportion of green space, and high costs of runoff management. Depending on the degree of imperviousness, the ESV ranged from 90,000–270,000€ha−1. Further, our results suggest that estimates of runoff generation and evaporation are key hydrological factors for assessing ESV. Our study demonstrates how the combination of field data and hydrological and monetary analyses can support regional planning in cold climates.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:25:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Modelling feedback processes underpinning management of ecosystem
           services: The role of participatory systems mapping
    • Authors: Rita Lopes; Nuno Videira
      Pages: 28 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Rita Lopes, Nuno Videira
      Ecosystem services are dynamically interdependent. When conducting studies on ecosystem services valuation and assessment, the interdependencies and feedback structures underpinning ecosystem functioning should be identified and explicitly considered in management processes, especially when the goal is to pursue a plural and integrative approach that accounts for multiple values. This paper explores the role of a participatory system dynamics modelling approach – participatory systems mapping – as a tool to articulate different value dimensions of ecosystem services. The application of the tool is illustrated with a case study conducted in a protected area in Portugal, wherein inter-organisational stakeholder groups collaborated in the conceptualization of feedback processes characterizing ecosystem services during a group modelling workshop. The outcomes of the participatory workshop were submitted to a post-production process and returned to participants though an individual online survey aiming to validate the changes. Food production, recreation and ecotourism, biodiversity conservation and climate regulation were the ecosystem services explored. Results show that by accommodating the co-creation of causal system maps with stakeholders, the proposed approach fosters sharing of insights on the underlying cause–effect mechanisms and leverage points, supporting the identification of interrelationships between different ecosystem services and the selection of key indicators for management processes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:25:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Mechanisms mediating the contribution of ecosystem services to human
           well-being and resilience
    • Authors: Giacomo Fedele; Bruno Locatelli; Houria Djoudi
      Pages: 43 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Giacomo Fedele, Bruno Locatelli, Houria Djoudi
      Human benefits from ecosystems result from complex interactions between ecological and social processes. People affect ecosystems’ capacity to deliver services that contribute to the well-being of humans and their resilience. The delivery of ecosystem services (ES) has often been considered asa linear and direct flow from nature to people without feedbacks or human inputs. We adjusted the widely used ES cascade to highlight how humans mediate each step in the ES delivery. We then applied the proposed framework to empirical field studies in Indonesia. We focused on the role of forested landscapes to increase rural people’s resilience to climate hazards such as drought and floods. We found that human actions determine benefits from ES through several mechanisms (ES management, mobilization, allocation-appropriation, and appreciation). These mechanisms are influenced by peoples’ decisions along the ES cascade, which depend on specific factors related to rules, assets, values, and spatial context. By facilitating or hindering ES flows, some stakeholders can determine who benefits from ES and influence the well-being of others. A better understanding of the mediating mechanisms, factors, and feedbacks in ES delivery can support the design of sound environmental assessments and sustainable land management practices.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:25:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Challenges for developing Forest Stewardship Council certification for
           ecosystem services: How to enhance local adoption'
    • Authors: Sini Savilaakso; Manuel R. Guariguata
      Pages: 55 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Sini Savilaakso, Manuel R. Guariguata
      The rise of ecosystem services (ES) as a conservation and management tool has changed the way forests are conceived, but so far its translation into management actions has been limited. In this paper, we discuss the development of certification of forest ecosystem services (FES) from the perspective of those implementing it at the local level. We focus on the lessons that emerged from applying the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification framework at selected sites in Chile, Indonesia, Nepal and Vietnam. Our results indicate a clear relationship between local and global levels in the development of FSC FES certification. Although the FSC already had a broad vision of ES, it was only through local-level learning within a specific pilot experiment that the vision evolved and resulted in more formal FES certification becoming part of FSC forest management certification. We also found that those sites where participatory approaches to management and decision-making were applied could work with an undefined vision of the future system, and still successfully design and implement management activities. However, overall the lack of specific vision and detailed information about future FES certification was problematic in attracting market interest in FSC certified ES.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:25:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Trade-offs and synergies among ecosystem services under different forest
           management scenarios – The LEcA tool
    • Authors: Xi Pang; Eva-Maria Nordström; Hannes Böttcher; Renats Trubins; Ulla Mörtberg
      Pages: 67 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Xi Pang, Eva-Maria Nordström, Hannes Böttcher, Renats Trubins, Ulla Mörtberg
      Forests provide a multitude of ecosystem services. In Sweden, the goal to replace fossil fuels could induce substantial changes in the current management and use of forests. Therefore, methods and tools are needed to assess synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem services for policy and planning alternatives. The aim of this study was to develop methods for integrated sustainability assessment of forest management strategies for long-term provisioning of various ecosystem services. For this purpose, the Landscape simulation and Ecological Assessment (LEcA) tool was developed to analyse synergies and trade-offs among five ecosystem services: bioenergy feedstock and industrial wood production, forest carbon storage, recreation areas and habitat networks. Forest growth and management were simulated for two scenarios; the EAF-tot scenario dominated by even-aged forestry (EAF), and the CCF-int scenario with a combination of continuous-cover forestry (CCF) and intensified EAF. The results showed trade-offs between industrial wood and bioenergy production on one side and habitat, recreation and carbon storage on the other side. The LEcA tool showed great potential for evaluation of impacts of alternative policies for land zoning and forest management on forest ecosystem services. It can be used to assess the consequences of forest management strategies related to renewable energy and conservation policies.

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T17:08:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Citizen science for assessing ecosystem services: Status, challenges and
           opportunities
    • Authors: Matthias Schröter; Roland Kraemer; Martin Mantel; Nadja Kabisch; Susanne Hecker; Anett Richter; Veronika Neumeier; Aletta Bonn
      Pages: 80 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Matthias Schröter, Roland Kraemer, Martin Mantel, Nadja Kabisch, Susanne Hecker, Anett Richter, Veronika Neumeier, Aletta Bonn
      Citizen science approaches provide opportunities to support ecosystem service assessments. To evaluate the recent trends, challenges and opportunities of utilizing citizen science in ecosystem service studies we conducted a systematic literature and project review. We reviewed the range of ecosystem services and formats of participation in citizen science in 17 peer-reviewed scientific publications and 102 ongoing or finished citizen science projects, out of over 500 screened publications and over 1400 screened projects. We found that citizen science is predominantly applied in assessing regulating and cultural services. The assessments were often performed by using proxy indicators that only implicitly provide information on ecosystem services. Direct assessments of ecosystem services are still rare. Participation formats mostly comprise contributory citizen science projects that focus on volunteered data collection. However, there is potential to increase citizen involvement in comprehensive ecosystem service assessments, including the development of research questions, design, data analysis and dissemination of findings. Levels of involvement could be enhanced to strengthen strategic knowledge on the environment, scientific literacy and the empowerment of citizens in helping to inform and monitor policies and management efforts related to ecosystem services. We provide an outlook how to better operationalise citizen science approaches to assess ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:53:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • The relevance of cross-scale connections and spatial interactions for
           ecosystem service delivery by protected areas: Insights from southern
           Africa
    • Authors: A. De Vos; G.S. Cumming; D.J. Roux
      Pages: 133 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part B
      Author(s): A. De Vos, G.S. Cumming, D.J. Roux
      The ecosystem services (ES) concept can frame the value of protected areas (PAs) to society and identify management actions that bridge biodiversity conservation and human benefits. In this special issue on ES flows to and from southern African PAs we consider two themes: (1) water as a biophysical and social-ecological connector; and (2) cross-scale interactions and connections as influences on cultural ecosystem service (CES) provision. Freshwater flows have supporting, regulating, and cultural elements, leading to complexities in governance as well as place attachment, intellectual, and recreational services. Scale dependence in CES creates trade-offs that challenge the usefulness of the ES framework for PA management. Ecosystem service production can potentially create political support for PAs and helps to build connections and feedbacks that increase PA resilience. Papers in the feature highlight a need to understand trade-offs in optimising for biodiversity vs. particular bundles of ES; impacts of investment in built infrastructure on ES use; how managers facilitate ES; scale and heterogeneity as influences; the role of adaptive monitoring of PAs as social–ecological systems; and services and benefits from PAs that are not well-articulated in ES classifications. PA research can thus add nuance, depth and substance to broader thinking around CES.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Beyond benefit sharing: Place attachment and the importance of access to
           protected areas for surrounding communities
    • Authors: Georgina Cundill; Joana Carlos Bezerra; Alta De Vos; Nokuthula Ntingana
      Pages: 140 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part B
      Author(s): Georgina Cundill, Joana Carlos Bezerra, Alta De Vos, Nokuthula Ntingana
      The concept of place attachment can assist to integrate relational values into ecosystem service research, and assist us to rethink the notion of benefits in contemporary protected area thinking. We present a case study from South Africa, where the concept of two-dimensional place attachment was used to understand the relationship between a protected area and a land claimant community that now owns part of this protected area but does not have physical access to the land. A place attachment lens helps refocus access to protected areas as cornerstone to long term sustainability of such areas. Such access must be considered in the context of spatially and economically differentiated users, including a focus on trade-offs between such users. Our findings highlight that when communities previously displaced from protected areas respond to offers of ‘benefit sharing’ with demands for access and recognition as land owners, they are asking for a recognition of relational values, and identity, based on close interaction with nature. A place attachment and relational values perspective raises questions about the extent to which traditional conservation practice can accommodate such values, and therefore meet local people’s expectations and remain viable in the long term.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Adventure racing enables access to cultural ecosystem services at multiple
           scales
    • Authors: M. Kyle S. Smith; Dirk J. Roux; Jessica Hayes
      Pages: 149 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part B
      Author(s): M. Kyle S. Smith, Dirk J. Roux, Jessica Hayes
      Protected areas are increasingly being viewed and acknowledged within broader social-ecological landscapes as providing a range of ecosystem services, which offer an important connection between nature and society. We explore non-mechanised adventure racing as a form of nature-based tourism, how this activity enables access to a suite of cultural ecosystem services, and its facilitation by a network of relatively open-access protected landscapes. An international adventure race, set within the Garden Route, South Africa, was used as a case study. The physical setting (appreciating nature’s beauty and experiencing the environment in a different way) played the most important role as a motivating factor for participation within adventure racing. Mountainous scenery, rugged coastlines and encounters with iconic species along with the challenge, physical exertion and social bonding also contributed strongly towards the overall experience. Social media and live tracking provided an opportunity for broad exposure and a virtual experience of cultural ecosystem services at a range of spatial scales. In this manuscript we contribute to profiling adventure tourism within a cultural ecosystem service framework, and highlight some implications for protected area management.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Tracing the cost/benefit pathway of protected areas: A case study of the
           Kruger National Park, South Africa
    • Authors: Louise Swemmer; Helen Mmethi; Wayne Twine
      Pages: 162 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part B
      Author(s): Louise Swemmer, Helen Mmethi, Wayne Twine
      The sustainability of protected areas is dependent on societal support. Protected area relevance (meaning and value) to society is based on vested interest grown through conservation related benefit accrual that outweighs costs. Protected areas generally don’t report on their total societal impact in part due to a lack of an appropriate framework that accounts simultaneously for positive and negative, tangible and intangible components. We develop a framework and pathway that (1) includes ecosystem dis-services provided by protected areas, and (2) provides a tool for protected area managers to report on benefit sharing as a whole towards managing cost-benefit trade-offs. Ecosystem services and products from Kruger National Park were classified into themes, followed by a quantitative inventory of cost/benefit processes for the KNP. We demonstrate the skewed nature of costs versus benefits, with most beneficiaries living far from the park. Most local residents receive few benefits and are often recipients of costs. The framework highlights the need to understand the impact of benefit sharing on human well-being; the lack of an understanding of the outputs and outcomes from direct ecosystem service flows from parks; and the need for an understanding of the links between benefit accrual and conservation-related outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Cross-scale governance and ecosystem service delivery: A case narrative
           from the Olifants River in north-eastern South Africa
    • Authors: H.C. Biggs; J.K. Clifford-Holmes; S. Freitag; F.J. Venter; J. Venter
      Pages: 173 - 184
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part B
      Author(s): H.C. Biggs, J.K. Clifford-Holmes, S. Freitag, F.J. Venter, J. Venter
      In late 2005 the lower stretches of the Olifants river in South Africa, flowing through the Kruger National Park before entering Mocambique, dried up for 78days, curtailing critical ecosystem services. Our retrospective case study attributes this to failure of effective cross-scale collaboration and co-constructed action. We detail how a more effective response was mounted after the governance crisis had first deepened, which, along with more recent broader but related societal responses, has maintained these water-related ecosystem services. The narrative describes part crisis response, part chance emergence, and along the way building of trust. Persistent staff capacity across agencies, whose members developed a sufficiently overlapping vision, was deemed crucial. The widening of linkages across scales and levels was a key feature, though attention is drawn to other important factors such as power dynamics. The difficulties encountered gave birth to new hope, with full recognition that such messy and dynamic social-ecological systems need to be navigated as best possible using complexity-friendly adaptive approaches, containing elements (including important cross-scale ones) that came together in this case. This case narrative is believed to contain generic lessons for ecosystem service governance.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Urban national parks in the global South: Linking management perceptions,
           policies and practices to water-related ecosystem services
    • Authors: Gregg Brill; Pippin Anderson; Patrick O'Farrell
      Pages: 185 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part B
      Author(s): Gregg Brill, Pippin Anderson, Patrick O'Farrell


      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Patterns and perceived sustainability of provisioning ecosystem services
           on the edge of a protected area in times of crisis
    • Authors: Chloé Guerbois; Hervé Fritz
      Pages: 196 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part B
      Author(s): Chloé Guerbois, Hervé Fritz
      Beyond their conservation mandate, one of the underestimated strengths of protected areas (PAs) is the provision of safety nets to rural communities in times of social or climatic crises. Here we draw on our long-term research in Zimbabwe to illustrate the multiple services provided by PAs to subsistence farmers in the context of environmental change, socio-economic pressures and political crises. We studied the social-ecological determinants of the contribution from PAs to nutrition, material and energy provisioning services crucial to rural livelihoods. The contribution from PAs decreased with increasing distance from PAs, and showed a corresponding increase with population growth on the edge of PAs, except for nutrition. The distance from PAs and the population increase on the edge also contributed to the perceived stress on resources, an index of perceived sustainability in ecosystem services provision. Access to PAs and perceived stress varied with wealth, gender and age. Our results highlight potential drivers of the sustainability of PA-dependent subsistence livelihoods, including (1) changing resource availability, (2) changing human population, (3) honey pot-effects, and (4) buffering capacity of PAs. We stress the need to implement long-term monitoring of these social-ecological processes to support the management of PAs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Towards systematic analyses of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies:
           Main concepts, methods and the road ahead
    • Authors: Anna F. Cord; Bartosz Bartkowski; Michael Beckmann; Andreas Dittrich; Kathleen Hermans-Neumann; Andrea Kaim; Nele Lienhoop; Karla Locher-Krause; Jörg Priess; Christoph Schröter-Schlaack; Nina Schwarz; Ralf Seppelt; Michael Strauch; Tomáš Václavík; Martin Volk
      Pages: 264 - 272
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part C
      Author(s): Anna F. Cord, Bartosz Bartkowski, Michael Beckmann, Andreas Dittrich, Kathleen Hermans-Neumann, Andrea Kaim, Nele Lienhoop, Karla Locher-Krause, Jörg Priess, Christoph Schröter-Schlaack, Nina Schwarz, Ralf Seppelt, Michael Strauch, Tomáš Václavík, Martin Volk
      Ecosystem services (ES), the benefits that humans obtain from nature, are of great importance for human well-being. The challenge of meeting the growing human demands for natural resources while sustaining essential ecosystem functions and resilience requires an in-depth understanding of the complex relationships between ES. These conflicting (‘trade-offs’) or synergistic (‘synergies’) relationships mean that changes in one ES can cause changes in other ES. By synthesizing the growing body of literature on ES relationships, we identified the following four main study objectives: (i) the identification and characterization of co-occurrences of ES, (ii) the identification of drivers that shape ES relationships, (iii) the exploration of biophysical constraints of landscapes and limitations to their multifunctionality, and (iv) the support of environmental planning, management and policy decisions. For each of these objectives we here describe the key concepts, including viewpoints of different disciplines, and highlight the major challenges that need to be addressed. We identified three cross-cutting themes being relevant to all four main types of studies. To help guiding researchers towards more systematic analyses of ES trade-offs and synergies, we conclude with an outlook on suggested future research priorities.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Integrating ecosystem service bundles and socio-environmental conditions
           – A national scale analysis from Germany
    • Authors: Andreas Dittrich; Ralf Seppelt; Tomáš Václavík; Anna F. Cord
      Pages: 273 - 282
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part C
      Author(s): Andreas Dittrich, Ralf Seppelt, Tomáš Václavík, Anna F. Cord
      Understanding the relationship and spatial distribution of multiple ecosystem services (ES) in the context of underlying socio-environmental conditions is an essential element of national ecosystem assessments. Here, we use Germany as an example to present a reproducible blueprint approach for mapping and analysing ecosystem service bundles (ESB) and associated socio-environmental gradients. We synthesized spatial indicators of eleven provisioning, regulating and cultural ES in Germany and used the method of self-organizing maps (SOM) to define and map ESBs. Likewise, we collated data from 18 covariates to delineate socio-environmental clusters (SEC). Finally, we used an overlap analysis to characterise the relationship between the spatial configuration of ESBs and co-occurring SECs. We identified and mapped eight types of ESBs that were characterized to varying degrees by provisioning, cultural and regulating/maintenance services. While ESBs dominated by provisioning ES were linked to regions with distinct environmental characteristics, cultural ESBs were associated with areas where environmental and socio-economic gradients had similar importance. Furthermore, spatial stratification of ESBs indicated hot spots where more detailed analysis is needed within national assessments. Our approach can serve as a blueprint for ESB analysis that can be reproduced in other geographical and environmental settings.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem services mapping for detection of bundles, synergies and
           trade-offs: Examples from two Norwegian municipalities
    • Authors: Martina Fernandez-Campo; Beatriz Rodríguez-Morales; Wenche E. Dramstad; Wendy Fjellstad; Emilio R. Diaz-Varela
      Pages: 283 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part C
      Author(s): Martina Fernandez-Campo, Beatriz Rodríguez-Morales, Wenche E. Dramstad, Wendy Fjellstad, Emilio R. Diaz-Varela
      The main objective of this work was to analyse how increased harvesting for bioenergy production might affect other Ecosystem Services (ES) in two Norwegian municipalities (Ringsaker and Voss). The aim was to identify locations where synergies or conflicts between ES could be expected. The spatial distribution of eight different ES (3 provision, 3 regulation and 2 cultural services) was modelled using information provided by land use spatial databases and additional data sources. Model parameters were set by integrating existing research and expert knowledge. Maps showing the level of provision of ES were analysed using a moving window to analyse scale dependence in the spatial distribution of ES provision. Map algebra was then used to identify areas providing multiple ES, thus defining the most important areas on which to focus the management of both synergies and trade-offs. Finally, specific ‘binary bundles’ maps, where bioenergy provision was compared with each of the other ES, were developed. The methodology proved its utility to assess the compatibility of bioenergy uses with other services. This straightforward approach is readily replicable in other regions and can be used as a decision support tool for planning and designing provision areas, and to ensure sustainable forest management approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Conflicting objectives in production forests pose a challenge for forest
           management
    • Authors: Tähti Pohjanmies; María Triviño; Eric Le Tortorec; Hannu Salminen; Mikko Mönkkönen
      Pages: 298 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part C
      Author(s): Tähti Pohjanmies, María Triviño, Eric Le Tortorec, Hannu Salminen, Mikko Mönkkönen
      Conflicts among different ecosystem services have been shown to be common and potentially exacerbated by management interventions. In order to improve the sustainability of natural resource use, the occurrence of these conflicts and the effects that management actions have on them need to be understood. We studied the conflicts between ecosystem services and the potential to solve them by management choices in boreal production forests. Our study area consisted of nearly 30,000 forest stands which were simulated for 50years into the future under alternative management scenarios. The study included four ecosystem services – timber production, bilberry production, carbon storage, and pest regulation – and one biodiversity conservation objective defined as availability of deadwood resources. We 1) measured the conflicts among each pair of objectives, and 2) identified a compromise solution for each pairwise conflict defined as one which simultaneously minimizes the losses for both objectives. Our results show that conflicts between timber production and other objectives are typical, severe, and difficult to solve, while non-extractive benefits including biodiversity conservation can be more easily reconciled with each other. To mitigate the most severe conflicts in boreal forests, increased diversity in management regimes is required.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.018
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • An assessment method of ecosystem services based on stakeholders
           
    • Authors: Hélène Rey-Valette; Syndhia Mathé; Jean Michel Salles
      Pages: 311 - 319
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part C
      Author(s): Hélène Rey-Valette, Syndhia Mathé, Jean Michel Salles
      Using a classification of existing approaches in environment economics and ecological economics, this article presents a method of valuing ecosystem services based on perception surveys. It assesses, on one hand, the level of familiarity with services among a diverse array of stakeholders, citizens and/or service users- and, on the other hand, appraises the relative importance of all the services pertaining to a defined geographical area using two indicators, citation frequency and hierarchical ranking of services selected. In accordance with pragmatist principles, the relative nature of the approach is designed to improve the quality of the assessment. The incentive role of information is given priority to identify learning and communication measures that encourage pro-environmental behaviour and voluntary, individual and collective measures in favour of ecosystem service conservation. The protocol proposed also enables additional information to be collected, especially on the rationale behind choices or the level of familiarity with services. An illustration provided by a case study attests to the pertinence and efficiency of the method which can be used as a tool for decision-making support at regional levels and assisting governance and the enhancement of ecosystem heritage.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Developing an indicator for the physical health benefits of recreation in
           woodlands
    • Authors: Darren Moseley; Thomas Connolly; Louise Sing; Kevin Watts
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Darren Moseley, Thomas Connolly, Louise Sing, Kevin Watts
      Woodlands provide a range of ecosystem services (ES), yet indicators largely focus on the more tangible and quantifiable ‘goods’ such as timber rather than the benefits from cultural ES such as recreation. Physical health ‘benefits’ from recreation can improve life chances and reduce the burden on public health budgets. Whilst woodland managers recognise that these types of cultural ES are important, they often need quantitative measures to demonstrate their value and justify resource allocation. We develop a quantitative indicator of the benefits from physical recreation in woodlands using on-site visitor survey data. For each woodland sampled, we calculate the energy expenditure realised from recreational activities undertaken by each individual visitor. These values are converted to Quality Adjusted Life Years (a measure of the health benefits that combine duration and quality of life) and economically assessed. We demonstrate that annual recreation values vary considerably between woodlands due to the range of facilities provided, activities undertaken, frequency of visits and proximity of population. Monetary estimates ranged from £6 to £8542 per person to £2581 to £70,832 per woodland. This new indicator has the potential to inform future woodland management and enable managers to consider a wider portfolio of ES.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.12.008
       
  • Predation by small mammalian carnivores in rural agro-ecosystems: An
           undervalued ecosystem service'
    • Authors: Samual T. Williams; Naudene Maree; Peter Taylor; Steven R. Belmain; Mark Keith; Lourens H. Swanepoel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Samual T. Williams, Naudene Maree, Peter Taylor, Steven R. Belmain, Mark Keith, Lourens H. Swanepoel
      Africa is endowed with a diverse guild of small carnivores, which could benefit stakeholders by providing ecosystem services while fostering conservation tolerance for carnivores. To investigate the potential of small carnivores for the biological control of rodents within agro-ecosystems, we assessed both the ecological and social landscapes within two rural villages in the Vhembe Biosphere Reserve, South Africa. We employed a camera trapping survey underpinned by an occupancy modelling framework to distinguish between ecological and observation processes affecting small carnivore occupancy. We also used questionnaires to investigate perceptions of small carnivores and their role in pest control. We found the greatest diversity of small carnivores in land used for cropping in comparison to grazing or settlements. Probability of use by small carnivores was influenced negatively by the relative abundance of domestic dogs and positively by the relative abundance of livestock. Greater carnivore diversity and probability of use could be mediated through habitat heterogeneity, food abundance, or reduced competition from domestic carnivores. Village residents failed to appreciate the role of small carnivores in rodent control. Our results suggest that there is significant, although undervalued, potential for small carnivores to provide ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.12.006
       
  • (Dis) integrated valuation – Assessing the information gaps in ecosystem
           service appraisals for governance support
    • Authors: D.N. Barton; E. Kelemen; J. Dick; B. Martin-Lopez; E. Gómez-Baggethun; S. Jacobs; C.M.A. Hendriks; M. Termansen; M. García- Llorente; E. Primmer; R. Dunford; P.A. Harrison; F. Turkelboom; H. Saarikoski; J. van Dijk; G.M. Rusch; I. Palomo; V.J. Yli-Pelkonen; L. Carvalho; F. Baró; J. Langemeyer; J. Tjalling van der Wal; P. Mederly; J.A. Priess; S. Luque; P. Berry; R. Santos; D. Odee; G. Martines Pastur; G. García Blanco; S-R. Saarela; D. Silaghi; G. Pataki; F. Masi; A. Vădineanu; R. Mukhopadhyay; D.M. Lapola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): D.N. Barton, E. Kelemen, J. Dick, B. Martin-Lopez, E. Gómez-Baggethun, S. Jacobs, C.M.A. Hendriks, M. Termansen, M. García- Llorente, E. Primmer, R. Dunford, P.A. Harrison, F. Turkelboom, H. Saarikoski, J. van Dijk, G.M. Rusch, I. Palomo, V.J. Yli-Pelkonen, L. Carvalho, F. Baró, J. Langemeyer, J. Tjalling van der Wal, P. Mederly, J.A. Priess, S. Luque, P. Berry, R. Santos, D. Odee, G. Martines Pastur, G. García Blanco, S-R. Saarela, D. Silaghi, G. Pataki, F. Masi, A. Vădineanu, R. Mukhopadhyay, D.M. Lapola
      The operational challenges of integrated ecosystem service (ES) appraisals are determined by study purpose, system complexity and uncertainty, decision-makers’ requirements for reliability and accuracy of methods, and approaches to stakeholder–science interaction in different decision contexts. To explore these factors we defined an information gap hypothesis, based on a theory of cumulative uncertainty in ES appraisals. When decision context requirements for accuracy and reliability increase, and the expected uncertainty of the ES appraisal methods also increases, the likelihood of methods being used is expected to drop, creating a potential information gap in governance. In order to test this information gap hypothesis, we evaluate 26 case studies and 80 ecosystem services appraisals in a large integrated EU research project. We find some support for a decreasing likelihood of ES appraisal methods coinciding with increasing accuracy and reliability requirements of the decision-support context, and with increasing uncertainty. We do not find that information costs are the explanation for this information gap, but rather that the research project interacted mostly with stakeholders outside the most decision-relevant contexts. The paper discusses how alternative definitions of integrated valuation can lead to different interpretations of decision-support information, and different governance approaches to dealing with uncertainty.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.021
       
  • Revealing spatial and temporal patterns of outdoor recreation in the
           European Alps and their surroundings
    • Authors: Uta Schirpke; Claude Meisch; Thomas Marsoner; Ulrike Tappeiner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Uta Schirpke, Claude Meisch, Thomas Marsoner, Ulrike Tappeiner
      Outdoor recreation contributes vitally to human well-being, but spatio-temporal mapping on large scales of this ecosystem service is rarely addressed in a comprehensive manner. In this study, we aim to map recreation supply, demand, and flow, combining different approaches and data sources, including spatially explicit indicators and crowd-sourced information from social media. We analyse spatial and temporal patterns in the European Alps and their surrounding areas (Alpine Space area) and explore societal preferences. Our results indicate that especially mountainous areas provide high ecosystem service supply, while high demand is characteristic of strongly urbanised areas. The spatio-temporal pattern of flow hot spots shows two major trends: recreational landscapes around urban agglomerations are frequented all year round, whereas visitation rates in remote mountain areas depend greatly on the season. By means of a cluster analysis, we identify five types of municipalities, distinguishing municipalities with little importance for recreation, prevailing demand, or supply, and highly used areas. Further, our results suggest that societal preferences can be explained by landscape attributes and tourism infrastructure. In addition to revealing a large-scale spatio-temporal pattern, this study explores methodological possibilities to provide a basis for decision-making and landscape planning regarding recreational ecosystem services.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.017
       
  • Handling a messy world: Lessons learned when trying to make the ecosystem
           services concept operational
    • Authors: Kurt Jax; Eeva Furman; Heli Saarikoski; David N. Barton; Ben Delbaere; Jan Dick; Guy Duke; Christoph Görg; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Paula A. Harrison; Joachim Maes; Marta Pérez-Soba; Sanna-Riikka Saarela; Francis Turkelboom; Jiska van Dijk; Allan D. Watt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Kurt Jax, Eeva Furman, Heli Saarikoski, David N. Barton, Ben Delbaere, Jan Dick, Guy Duke, Christoph Görg, Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Paula A. Harrison, Joachim Maes, Marta Pérez-Soba, Sanna-Riikka Saarela, Francis Turkelboom, Jiska van Dijk, Allan D. Watt
      The concept of ecosystem services is widely used in the scientific literature and increasingly also in policy and practice. Nevertheless, operationalising the concept, i.e. putting it into practice, is still a challenge. We describe the approach of the EU-project OpenNESS (Operationalisation of Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital), which was created in response to this challenge to critically evaluate the concept when applied to real world problems at different scales and in different policy sectors. General requirements for operationalization, the relevance of conceptual frameworks and lessons learnt from 27 case study applications are synthesized in a set of guiding principles. We also briefly describe some integrative tools as developed in OpenNESS which support the implementation of the principles. The guiding principles are grouped under three major headlines: “Defining the problem and opening up the problem space”, “Considering ethical issues” and “Assessing alternative methods, tools and actions”. Real world problems are often “wicked” problems, which at first are seldom clear-cut and well-defined, but often rather complex and subject to differing interpretations and interests. We take account of that complexity and emphasise that there is not one simple and straightforward way to approach real world problems involving ecosystem services. The principles and tools presented are meant to provide some guidance for tackling this complexity by means of a transdisciplinary methodology that facilitates the operationalisation of the ecosystem services concept.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.001
       
  • Optimising recreation services from protected areas – Understanding the
           role of natural values, built infrastructure and contextual factors
    • Authors: E.C. Heagney; J.M. Rose; A. Ardeshiri; M. Kovač
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): E.C. Heagney, J.M. Rose, A. Ardeshiri, M. Kovač
      Effective management of recreation within protected areas requires a comprehensive understanding of the drivers of site visitation. To date, large multi-site studies that compare recreation demand for protected areas in response to underlying site attributes are rare, and have generally been restricted to high-profile, high-visitation sites. Our study, undertaken in south-eastern Australia, is the first to use random utility travel cost methods to explore recreational preferences across all sites within a large protected area network. We applied a novel zero-inflation statistical correction to identify the value of recreation demand arising in response to a broad range of site attributes, including protected area size, remoteness, natural values and built infrastructure. We find a strong influence of built infrastructure on recreation demand, but only a subset of the 9 infrastructure types modelled consistently generated recreation demand across the protected areas network. Other infrastructure contributed positively or negatively to tourism demand depending on contextual factors like site remoteness and the availability of recreation substitutes. We discuss the implications for protected area management at both the site- and network- scales, and as well as implications for designing more effective travel cost studies that allow the robust transfer of study findings to other protected area sites.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.007
       
  • Editorial: Operationalisation of natural capital and ecosystem services
           – Special issue
    • Authors: Jiska van Dijk; Jan Dick; Paula Harrison; Kurt Jax; Heli Saarikoski; Eeva Furman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Jiska van Dijk, Jan Dick, Paula Harrison, Kurt Jax, Heli Saarikoski, Eeva Furman


      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:50:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.11.013
       
  • Understanding how access shapes the transformation of ecosystem services
           to human well-being with an example from Costa Rica
    • Authors: Marta Berbés-Blázquez; Martin J. Bunch; Peter R. Mulvihill; Garry D. Peterson; Berna van Wendel de Joode
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Marta Berbés-Blázquez, Martin J. Bunch, Peter R. Mulvihill, Garry D. Peterson, Berna van Wendel de Joode
      Increasingly, ecosystem services have been applied to guide poverty alleviation and sustainable development in resource-dependent communities. Yet, questions of access, which are paramount in determining benefits from the production of ecosystem services, remain theoretically underdeveloped. That is, ecosystem assessments typically have paid little attention to identifying real or hypothetical beneficiaries and the mechanisms by which benefits may be realized. This limits their ability to guide policy and interventions at the local scale. Through a qualitative mixed methods approach, this article analyzes how access to different aspects of the production of provisioning services is negotiated in Bribri communities (Costa Rica) of small-scale plantain farmers with alternative modes of agricultural production. The analysis considers access to land, labour, knowledge, tools, markets, and credit. Our analysis reveals how institutions of access are organized differently in traditional vs. conventional systems of agriculture and how these shape power dynamics and pathways to well-being. We conclude that understanding institutions regulating access to ecosystem services provides more useful insights for poverty alleviation than approaches that assume homogeneous access to benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T17:08:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.010
       
 
 
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