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Ecosystem Services
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.743
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Does an agroforestry scheme with payment for ecosystem services (PES)
           economically empower women in sub-Saharan Africa'
    • Authors: Emmanuel O. Benjamin; Oreoluwa Ola; Gertrud Buchenrieder
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Emmanuel O. Benjamin, Oreoluwa Ola, Gertrud Buchenrieder
      In rural sub-Saharan Africa, poor women often face socioeconomic constraints that limit their participation in agroforestry. Agroforestry schemes with payment for ecosystem services (PES) endeavor to strike a gender balance making female smallholder farmers’ operations as profitable and sustainable as those of their male counterparts. Yet, few studies to date have investigated the theoretical and empirical links between the economic as well as gender balance objectives of agroforestry with PES and women empowerment. Our study proposes an equity and economic efficiency evaluation of agroforestry schemes with PES to test whether this approach can truly promote economic empowerment among women. The results suggest that women participation in agroforestry schemes with PES reduces their profit inefficiency and thus contributes to their economic empowerment. In addition, women with larger farms derive even more benefits from participating in agroforestry with PES as compared to smaller farms. For non-participants, an additional year of formal education and experience could reduce profit inefficiency. Thus, these schemes should target poor female smallholders if they want to get the most economic empowerment out of their program. If the poorest women are targeted, the marginal effect might be smaller as compared to poor women, but still positive.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Using institutional grammar to improve understanding of the form and
           function of payment for ecosystem services programs
    • Authors: Aaron M. Lien; Edella Schlager; Ashly Lona
      Pages: 21 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Aaron M. Lien, Edella Schlager, Ashly Lona
      Payments for ecosystem services (PES) schemes are governed by complex institutional arrangements. Specific rules are needed to control who can participate in buying and selling of services, under what circumstances participation is allowed, how transactions are regulated, and many other actions. Decisions made by the developers of PES schemes about what rules to include and what form these rules take are likely to have an impact on the eventual success or failure of the scheme. This paper applies the Institutional Analysis and Develop Framework’s rules typology and Institutional Grammar Tool to develop a new method of classifying and summarizing institutional arrangements of PES schemes. We use 21 water quality trading schemes and develop the institutional rules classification and summary system. The classification system enables comparative assessment of institutional diversity across PES schemes. We demonstrate the utility of the classification system for this purpose by showing that there is significant institutional diversity among water quality trading schemes, despite their common environmental objectives and market-based approaches to addressing environmental challenges. We conclude with suggestions for applying the classification system to comparative research to understand the effectiveness of PES schemes generally and how differences in institutional arrangements may contribute to success or failure.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Energy modeling simulation of changes in ecosystem services before and
           after the implementation of a Grain-for-Green program on the Loess
           Plateau—A case study of the Zhifanggou valley in Ansai County, Shaanxi
           Province, China
    • Authors: Zihan Xu; Hejie Wei; Weiguo Fan; Xuechao Wang; Bingling Huang; Nachuan Lu; Jiahui Ren; Xiaobin Dong
      Pages: 32 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Zihan Xu, Hejie Wei, Weiguo Fan, Xuechao Wang, Bingling Huang, Nachuan Lu, Jiahui Ren, Xiaobin Dong
      Understanding the relationship between land use change and ecosystem services is critical for achieving sustainable ecosystem services and for developing scientifically effective eco-conservation policies. The Zhifanggou watershed is a typical hill and gully region on the Loess Plateau that has experienced a process of serious damage and rapid recovery in recent decades, and the accompanying land use changes have been dramatic. Taking the Zhifanggou watershed as an example, this study built an energy flow model for the watershed considering croplands, woodlands and grasslands as components. This study evaluated the changes in ecosystem service values before and after the implementation of a Grain for Green (GFG) program using the method of equivalent value factor per-unit of ecosystem area. Then changes in ecosystem service values in the Zhifanggou watershed were simulated. The results were as follows: (1) the total value of ecosystem services showed a linear increase (P < 0.01) from 1995 to 2010, increase 44.2% over this time. In addition, the provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural service values showed a cooperative growth trend (P < 0.01). (2) The change in ecosystem service values in the watershed was very small over the period examined and if the GFG program continues, it will stabilize after a slight net increase. Provisioning services showed a downward trend, while regulating, supporting and cultural services show an upward trend, furthermore, provisioning services showed a trade-off relationship with the other three services (P < 0.01). (3) If the cycle of deforestation and reclamation to agriculture continues, the ecosystem service values will decrease by approximately 83% in the next 30 years, the ecosystems will be seriously damaged again, and the values of all four types of ecosystem services will show a decreasing trend (P < 0.01). In general, the ecological environment of the Zhifanggou watershed has been stabilized by the Grain for Green program. However, the government’s scientific and rational policies to ensure that the GFG program results are not destroyed and to achieve stable and sustainable development on the Loess Plateau are still needed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Linking ecosystem services supply, social demand and human well-being in a
           typical mountain–oasis–desert area, Xinjiang, China
    • Authors: Hejie Wei; Huiming Liu; Zihan Xu; Jiahui Ren; Nachuan Lu; Weiguo Fan; Peng Zhang; Xiaobin Dong
      Pages: 44 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Hejie Wei, Huiming Liu, Zihan Xu, Jiahui Ren, Nachuan Lu, Weiguo Fan, Peng Zhang, Xiaobin Dong
      Identifying the links among ecosystem services (ES) supply, social demand and human well-being is important to realize sustainability, especially in mountain–oasis–desert (MOD) areas, which are facing an intense conflict between socioeconomic development and ecological conservation. Using a biophysical model, we mapped six ES in the Manas River Basin, which is a typical MOD area. A questionnaire survey was employed to evaluate social demand for ES and human well-being in four different regional units (i.e., high mountain, low hills, oasis and desert) in our site. Spider diagrams were applied to identify the links among ES supply, social demand and human well-being. The results showed that a high supply of provisioning services occurred in the oasis, while a high supply of regulating services existed in the high mountain region. The ES social demand was not completely accordant with the biophysical supply in spatial distribution, and the factors from the supply side and demand side could both cause ES supply–demand mismatches. The total well-being level of all indicators was higher in the oasis and desert than in the upstream areas (i.e., the high mountain region and low hills region), but some indicators (e.g., water consumption) were the inverse. The supply–demand mismatches in provisioning services had a strong impact on human well-being, while the supply–demand mismatches in regulating services had a low impact on human well-being. This can be explained by the ES social demand questionnaire results, which showed that the level of social importance was higher for provisioning services than for regulating services at our site. In accordance with our results, we recommended several policies to promote ecological conservation and improve human well-being in the Manas River Basin, and these policies could also be applied in other MOD areas.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Gendered perspectives of ecosystem services: A systematic review
    • Authors: Y.C. Ethan Yang; Simone Passarelli; Robin J. Lovell; Claudia Ringler
      Pages: 58 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Y.C. Ethan Yang, Simone Passarelli, Robin J. Lovell, Claudia Ringler
      Women and men often have differential access to and derive different benefits from ecosystem services; therefore, their perception and knowledge of ecosystem services also differ. Understanding these differences is critical to ensuring that policies aimed at enhancing access to and use of ecosystem services can provide benefits to all genders. We conducted a systematic review of studies that aim to understand the relationship between gender and ecosystem service perceptions to summarize research from this emerging topic and to identify patterns between gender and ecosystem service perceptions from different case studies. The results show that highly gendered ecosystem services include medicinal products from forest or mangrove ecosystems and freshwater supply. Women have a stronger perception of water quality and erosion control, soil formation, habitat conservation and sustaining biodiversity. Men, on the other hand, had more knowledge of fuel and timber and extreme event mitigation services. Our review also identifies the limitations of sample size for this interdisciplinary topic, calls for more case studies and comparative studies to identify relationships between gender and ecosystem service perceptions, and calls for the development of models on ecosystem services that incorporate gender. Finally, we discuss how our review can augment existing gender frameworks for policymaking.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Integrating Ecosystem Services values for sustainability' Evidence
           from the Belgium Ecosystem Services community of practice
    • Authors: Nicolas Dendoncker; Francis Turkelboom; Fanny Boeraeve; Annelies Boerema; Steven Broekx; Corentin Fontaine; Rolinde Demeyer; Rik De Vreese; Guénaël Devillet; Hans Keune; Lieve Janssens; Inge Liekens; Evelyne Lord-Tarte; Florin Popa; Ilse Simoens; Nele Smeets; Paula Ulenaers; Ann Van Herzele; Katia Van Tichelen; Sander Jacobs
      Pages: 68 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Nicolas Dendoncker, Francis Turkelboom, Fanny Boeraeve, Annelies Boerema, Steven Broekx, Corentin Fontaine, Rolinde Demeyer, Rik De Vreese, Guénaël Devillet, Hans Keune, Lieve Janssens, Inge Liekens, Evelyne Lord-Tarte, Florin Popa, Ilse Simoens, Nele Smeets, Paula Ulenaers, Ann Van Herzele, Katia Van Tichelen, Sander Jacobs
      Through a reflexive study, we performed a reality check of how Ecosystem Services valuation is performed compared to what could be referred to as a “theoretical ideal” of the BElgium Ecosystem Services (BEES) community of practice, reflecting the salient recent international literature on integrated valuation. By surveying the most recent case studies doing valuation, our results highlight that stakeholders are always included, a variety of values are generally accounted for using a diversity of methods, and increasingly transdisciplinary approaches. However, the main findings that (1) impacts on decision-making remain unclear, (2) real transdisciplinary studies, co-constructed by scientists and stakeholders are yet to be undertaken, and (3) sustainability issues (thresholds & fairness) are largely ignored, call for further research on how to conduct integrated and inclusive ES valuations. We argue that communities of practice such as BEES are appropriate arenas to foster such transdisciplinary studies, by facilitating the inclusion of a broad range of values and actors. We call for a broader review of best practices for ES integrated valuation, to identify factors of success, and guide further scientific research that aims at improving ES practice for decision-making.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Forest ecosystem services in rural areas of Germany: Insights from the
           national TEEB study
    • Authors: Matthias Bösch; Peter Elsasser; Kristin Franz; Martin Lorenz; Christoph Moning; Roland Olschewski; Anne Rödl; Heike Schneider; Bettina Schröppel; Priska Weller
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Matthias Bösch, Peter Elsasser, Kristin Franz, Martin Lorenz, Christoph Moning, Roland Olschewski, Anne Rödl, Heike Schneider, Bettina Schröppel, Priska Weller
      In Germany, forests cover approximately one third of the total land area, thereby providing a high variety of ecosystem services (ES), such as timber production, carbon sequestration, recreation, and other cultural services related to biodiversity protection. A national TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) report published recently focused on ES and biodiversity in rural areas. By drawing on insights from this report, the objective of this paper is to delineate: (i) which ES forests provide especially in the rural areas of Germany, (ii) what is known about the economic values these ES have for forest enterprises and the society, and (iii) if and how the provision of these ES can be safeguarded and possibly expanded. It is shown that the German public is in general highly appreciative of forests. Nevertheless, many of the societally desirable forest ES are not being marketed at the moment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Exploring the complex relations between water resources and social
           indicators: The Biobío Basin (Chile)
    • Authors: María Elisa Díaz; Ricardo Figueroa; M. Luisa Suárez Alonso; M. Rosario Vidal-Abarca
      Pages: 84 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): María Elisa Díaz, Ricardo Figueroa, M. Luisa Suárez Alonso, M. Rosario Vidal-Abarca
      Basins are one of the bio-geo-physical areas where the ecological processes that generate the ecosystem services (ES) and contribute to human well-being (HWB) are more evident. They are also the physical scenario where the nature-human interaction is more intense. The explicit relationships that link biodiversity, ES and HWB, and the direct and indirect causes responsible for their degradation, have been rarely explored. We used the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework to explore the relationships between the river ecosystem and the Biobío Basin’s social system. We selected 65 basin and regional-scale indicators to analyse the existing trends and associations among the different DPSIR components. The trend analysis results showed major biodiversity loss and how the regulating services and non-material goods of the HWB component deteriorated, while cultural services, direct and indirect pressures and institutional responses increased. The relationships among the different DPSIR components revealed biodiversity loss to be positively associated with cultural services, the material goods of the HWB component and pressures. Indirect drivers were negatively associated with regulating and cultural services, non-material goods and pressures. Institutional responses did not correlate with any DPSIR component. However, these results do not reflect the complexity of the Biobío Basin’s socio-ecosystem. We estimate that the DPSIR framework shows a corseted and reductionist vision of a greater complexity than merely a unidirectional nature-human relationship.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Ecosystem services as a post-normal field of science
    • Authors: Jacob Ainscough; Meriwether Wilson; Jasper O. Kenter
      Pages: 93 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Jacob Ainscough, Meriwether Wilson, Jasper O. Kenter
      The ecosystem services (ES) concept is increasingly being integrated in to policy and decision making at all scales of environmental governance. Yet ES assessments are often characterised by high levels of uncertainty, are heavily value-laden and seek to contribute towards time-critical decision making and policy development. We assess the suitability of post-normal science as a broad scientific framework to guide research practice in such situations. Results of a literature review on the current use of post-normal science in ES literature are presented, and we discuss how the framing can contribute to three emergent threads in ES assessment: managing uncertainty, participation and knowledge validation, and dealing with value plurality. We conclude by arguing for the adoption of a post-normal science posture within ES research, due to its broad applicability, consistent philosophical underpinning and in-built reflexivity. A short list of questions is presented to help guide the application of a post-normal approach to ES research.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • The role of socio-economic factors in planning and managing urban
           ecosystem services
    • Authors: Marit L. Wilkerson; Matthew G.E. Mitchell; Danielle Shanahan; Kerrie A. Wilson; Christopher D. Ives; Catherine E. Lovelock; Jonathan R. Rhodes
      Pages: 102 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Marit L. Wilkerson, Matthew G.E. Mitchell, Danielle Shanahan, Kerrie A. Wilson, Christopher D. Ives, Catherine E. Lovelock, Jonathan R. Rhodes
      How green spaces in cities benefit urban residents depends critically on the interaction between biophysical and socio-economic factors. Urban ecosystem services are affected by both ecosystem characteristics and the social and economic attributes of city dwellers. Yet, there remains little synthesis of the interactions between ecosystem services, urban green spaces, and socio-economic factors. Articulating these linkages is key to their incorporation into ecosystem service planning and management in cities and to ensuring equitable outcomes for city inhabitants. We present a conceptual model of these linkages, describe three major interaction pathways, and explore how to operationalize the model. First, socio-economic factors shape the quantity and quality of green spaces and their ability to supply services by influencing management and planning decisions. Second, variation in socio-economic factors across a city alters people’s desires and needs and thus demands for different ecosystem services. Third, socio-economic factors alter the type and amount of benefit for human wellbeing that a service provides. Integrating these concepts into green space policy, planning, and management would be a considerable improvement on ‘standards-based’ urban green space planning. We highlight the implications of this for facilitating tailored planning solutions to improve ecosystem service benefits across the socio-economic spectrum in cities.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • An ecosystem services framework to evaluate indigenous and local
           peoples’ connections with nature
    • Authors: Kamaljit K. Sangha; Luke Preece; Jaramar Villarreal-Rosas; Juma J. Kegamba; Kiran Paudyal; Tui Warmenhoven; P.S. RamaKrishnan
      Pages: 111 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Kamaljit K. Sangha, Luke Preece, Jaramar Villarreal-Rosas, Juma J. Kegamba, Kiran Paudyal, Tui Warmenhoven, P.S. RamaKrishnan
      Indigenous and local peoples’ connections with nature are not only limited to the benefits or services people derive from ecosystems, as considered by international frameworks, but also entail peoples’ capabilities (knowledges and skills) that enable people to derive those benefits. Applying Sen’s (1993) Capability Approach, this paper proposes an ecosystem services framework that underscores peoples’ capabilities along with well-being benefits, to inform policy decision-making about the value of natural resources towards Indigenous and local peoples’ well-being. We offer an economic perspective of considering Indigenous and local estates as a source of opportunities, and construct an integrated framework based on six case studies across the globe. We argue that supporting Indigenous and local peoples to utilize and build capabilities to manage natural systems will deliver manifold benefits to them as well as to the wider public. Moreover, learning Indigenous and local ethics to care for nature will help many of us to better manage and value our fast depleting natural resources.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • A meta-analysis of economic valuation of ecosystem services in Mexico
    • Authors: José Alberto Lara-Pulido; Alejandro Guevara-Sanginés; Camilo Arias Martelo
      Pages: 126 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): José Alberto Lara-Pulido, Alejandro Guevara-Sanginés, Camilo Arias Martelo
      This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the economic values for ecosystem goods and services in Mexico. We analyzed 106 studies that estimated an economic value for any given environmental good or service in the country. In total, we coded and classified 352 values according to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) and the Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) ecosystem classification. We then estimated an econometric model to compare the value of different services in different ecosystems. We show that regulation services are more valuable than cultural and provisioning services, that wetlands are more valuable than forests and cultivated systems, and that deforestation for arable land is not cost-effective, because the regulation services of forests are more valuable than the provisioning services of crops. We also calculate the elasticity between the value of ecosystem services that forests provide in Mexico (in USD/hectare per year) and the supply of each ecosystem (in hectares). This elasticity is statistically significant and equal to −0.37. This estimate is relevant in policy terms, since it adds an economic rationale for conservation to other moral and philosophical criteria, especially in areas currently experiencing a high degree of deforestation and degradation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • An exploration of the relationships between cultural ecosystem services,
           socio-cultural values and well-being
    • Authors: Craig Bullock; Deirdre Joyce; Marcus Collier
      Pages: 142 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Craig Bullock, Deirdre Joyce, Marcus Collier
      Although there is a growing literature on cultural ecosystem services, their relationship with well-being is still being explored. This paper reports on the application of a combination of deliberative and instrumental approaches to a coastal environment. The experience supports the ecosystem services approach and confirms the role of cultural services in providing for material as well as non-material benefits, but finds that the potential contribution to quality of life is often held-back by inadequate infrastructure provision compounded by human-induced environmental impacts and failures to mitigate these. The application revealed that stakeholders are knowledgeable on facilities and local impacts and are most comfortable when discussing the natural environment in these terms. We argue that, if stakeholders are introduced to the concept of ecosystem services, these insights can be combined with local knowledge to strengthen communities’ ability to work with the responsible authorities to achieve improved environment quality and management.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Managing forests for global and local ecosystem services: A case study of
           carbon, water and livelihoods from eastern Indonesia
    • Authors: Yeon-Su Kim; Sitti Latifah; Mansur Afifi; Mark Mulligan; Sophia Burke; Larry Fisher; Ewa Siwicka; Kyriaki Remoundou; Michael Christie; Sharon Masek Lopez; Jeff Jenness
      Pages: 153 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Yeon-Su Kim, Sitti Latifah, Mansur Afifi, Mark Mulligan, Sophia Burke, Larry Fisher, Ewa Siwicka, Kyriaki Remoundou, Michael Christie, Sharon Masek Lopez, Jeff Jenness
      Despite a recent increase of interest in global payment for ecosystem services (PES) mechanisms, there has been little comprehensive assessment of PES impacts on ecosystem services (ESs) at smaller scales. Better understanding of localized impacts of global PES can help balance ES deliveries for global benefits with those for meeting landscape and local level needs. Using a case study from eastern Indonesia, we assessed trade-offs and potential synergies between global PES (e.g. REDD+ for forest carbon) and landscape level ESs (e.g., water quantity, quality, regulation) and local ESs (e.g. forest products for food, energy, livelihoods). Realistic land use change scenarios and potential carbon credits were estimated based on historical land use changes and in-depth interviews with stakeholders. We applied a process-based hydrologic model to estimate changes in watershed services due to land use changes. Finally, local community’s forest uses were surveyed to understand locally realized ESs. The results show empirical evidence that, without careful consideration of local impacts, a PES mechanism to protect global ESs can have negative consequences for local ecosystem services. We present management alternatives designed to maximize positive synergies between different ESs at varying scales.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • Identification and assessment of ecosystem services for protected area
           planning: A case in rural communities of Wuyishan national park pilot
    • Authors: Siyuan He; Louise Gallagher; Yang Su; Lei Wang; Hongguang Cheng
      Pages: 169 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Siyuan He, Louise Gallagher, Yang Su, Lei Wang, Hongguang Cheng
      It is important to integrate local residents’ awareness and perception of ecosystem services (ES) into the ES assessment for the planning of protected areas (PAs). Using data collected from the newly designated Wuyishan national park pilot, we assessed communities’ identification and perceptions of a broad range of ESs. We examined the factors that affected the preference and assessment across communities and found a PA-enclave effect: preference towards the ES categories diverge between residents inside and outside of current protected areas resulted from previous PA management. While provisioning services were recognised and closely bonded with livelihood when communities acquired them as demanders, cultural services were also recognised when communities saw themselves as providers. The recognition and assessment of regulating services were generally low as local people were more sensitive to ecological outcomes than processes. The results underline the importance of the cultural landscape history in shaping communities’ mind and the security of livelihood as a baseline to facilitate regional conservation planning. Since communities are diverse in perceptions to ESs even in the relatively homogeneous national park pilot, the management must consider a strategic planning in regulation to address the diversity in demand to achieve the conservation goal in the whole region.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 31 (2018)
       
  • A global meta-analysis on the monetary valuation of dryland ecosystem
           services: The role of socio-economic, environmental and methodological
           indicators
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 32, Part A
      Author(s): Johanna E.M. Schild, Jan E. Vermaat, Rudolf S. de Groot, Simone Quatrini, Peter M. van Bodegom
      Monetary valuation of dryland ecosystem services may help to increase the salience of drylands in decision making. Yet, there is no comprehensive assessment of the indicators that determine the estimated monetary values for dryland ecosystem services (hereafter: dryland value). Having compiled a database consisting of 559 observations from 66 valuation studies in drylands worldwide, this study analyzes the relative importance of local socio-economic, environmental and methodological indicators in explaining the monetary value estimates for nine dryland ecosystem services by means of a multiple regression analysis. By explicitly quantifying the effect sizes of the indicators of dryland value, we shed new light on the driving forces behind monetary valuation of dryland ecosystem services. Our results show that local socio-economic and environmental conditions are marginal in explaining dryland value, indicating that local dryland conditions are not sufficiently captured with current valuation approaches. Simultaneously, we find that methodological factors, including valuation method and study extent, heavily influence dryland value, suggesting that monetary valuation outcomes are largely determined by the selected methodology. This emphasizes the need to improve monetary valuation methods so that they better capture local dryland conditions in order to be able to serve as a meaningful tool for decision making.

      PubDate: 2018-06-22T12:06:23Z
       
  • The interplay between fish farming and nature based recreation-tourism in
           Southern Chile: A perception approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 32, Part A
      Author(s): Luis Outeiro, Sebastian Villasante, Hugo Oyarzo
      Nature based tourism, ecotourism and other types of recreation are an intangible cultural marine ecosystem services. Due to its geographical conditions, Southern Chile has been worldwide-recognised site by its nature based tourism attraction. Fish farming has had since 1980’s a consistent development in the region with jumps and bumps, but still occupying a dominant role in the region’s economy. Previous reports about perceptions from entrepreneurs of the tourism sector claim that they are living a confrontational reality against aquaculture. The WTP modelling results suggest a general disposition of the tourists to pay some money to avoid further negative environmental impacts on the ecosystem services they enjoy and positively correlated with income. The wealthier is the tourist, the higher is the disposition to pay to avoid. Results from our survey indicate that the majority (67%) of tourists has a negative environmental perception of fish farming activities, while almost half (47%) of the tourists recognise the importance of aquaculture for the economy of coastal communities. Public policies and particularly spatial regional planning should consider the high level of negative interaction showed from this results in order to allow both activities to develop in equity of opportunities.

      PubDate: 2018-06-22T12:06:23Z
       
  • Non-monetary valuation using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Using a
           strength-of-evidence approach to inform choices among alternatives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): D.M. Martin, M. Mazzotta
      This article demonstrates an approach to Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis that compares non-monetary ecosystem service (ES) outcomes for environmental decision making. ES outcomes are often inadequately defined and characterized by imprecision and uncertainty. Outranking methods enrich our understanding of the imperfect knowledge of ES outcomes by allowing decision makers to closely examine and apply preference measures to relationships among the outcomes. We explain the methodological assumptions related to the PROMETHEE methods (Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation), and apply them to a wetland restoration planning study in Rhode Island, USA. In the study, we partnered with a watershed management organization to evaluate four wetland restoration alternatives for their abilities to supply five ES: flood water regulation, scenic landscapes, learning opportunities, recreation, and birds. Twenty-two benefit indicators were identified for the ES as well as one indicator for social equity and one indicator for reliability of ES provision. We developed preference functions to characterize the strength of evidence across estimated indicator values between pairs of alternatives. We ranked the alternatives based on these preferences and weights on ES relevant to different planning contexts. We discuss successes and challenges of implementing PROMETHEE, including feedback from our partners who utilized the methods.

      PubDate: 2018-06-22T12:06:23Z
       
  • Ecosystem service analysis in marginal agricultural lands: A case study in
           Belize
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 32, Part A
      Author(s): Geoff J. Wells, Neil Stuart, Peter A. Furley, Casey M. Ryan
      Globally, marginal lands, or less favored areas (LFAs), cover significant areas with large human populations, yet are relegated in policy making due to their perceived low agricultural value and a lack of information about other ecosystem services (ES) they may provide. Here we applied a simple, inclusive and qualitative ES inventory and Bayesian Belief Network modelling approach to a neo-tropical savanna LFA in Belize to assess its ES benefits, and potential trade-offs from future conversion to agriculture or a protected area. We found that consulting a broader selection of stakeholders elicited a more diverse range of ES, beyond the agricultural provisioning services considered in government planning. Further, the majority of the ES identified were accessed informally and so may be diminished under land use alternatives that formalize land tenure. We argue that, given the similar context of other LFAs, and the wider applicability of our technique, these findings have broader significance in the natural resource management and ES assessment field. Generally, we argue that simple qualitative ES analyses can efficiently provide useful planning information, and can assess how land use changes may impact local livelihoods. We argue that such methods can help improve natural resource management in LFAs and elsewhere.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:51Z
       
  • Interregional flows of ecosystem services: Concepts, typology and four
           cases
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part B
      Author(s): Matthias Schröter, Thomas Koellner, Rob Alkemade, Sebastian Arnhold, Kenneth J. Bagstad, Karl-Heinz Erb, Karin Frank, Thomas Kastner, Meidad Kissinger, Jianguo Liu, Laura López-Hoffman, Joachim Maes, Alexandra Marques, Berta Martín-López, Carsten Meyer, Catharina J.E. Schulp, Jule Thober, Sarah Wolff, Aletta Bonn
      Conserving and managing global natural capital requires an understanding of the complexity of flows of ecosystem services across geographic boundaries. Failing to understand and to incorporate these flows into national and international ecosystem assessments leads to incomplete and potentially skewed conclusions, impairing society’s ability to identify sustainable management and policy choices. In this paper, we synthesise existing knowledge and develop a conceptual framework for analysing interregional ecosystem service flows. We synthesise the types of such flows, the characteristics of sending and receiving socio-ecological systems, and the impacts of ecosystem service flows on interregional sustainability. Using four cases (trade of certified coffee, migration of northern pintails, flood protection in the Danube watershed, and information on giant pandas), we test the conceptual framework and show how an enhanced understanding of interregional telecouplings in socio-ecological systems can inform ecosystem service-based decision making and governance with respect to sustainability goals.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:51Z
       
  • An integrated biophysical and ecosystem approach as a base for ecosystem
           services analysis across regions
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part B
      Author(s): Dor Fridman, Meidad Kissinger
      In an interconnected world, the ‘food system’ sustainability of any given region is increasingly dependent on ecosystem services originated from supporting regions in different parts of the world. However, commonly used research approaches, such as place based ecosystem service assessments and interregional biophysical accounting, have limited capacity to capture the complex interactions across regions. This research addresses this gap by integrating a global biophysical accounting of food crops with its related local ecosystem dis-services. It combines agricultural and ecosystem indicators to describe different classes of biophysical pressures and potential dis-services from growing 4 key agricultural staples exported to Israel from different agricultural areas around the world. Each class stands as a ‘functional region’ in which either a trade-off or a synergy exists between agricultural efficiency and environmental impact. The research finds that over half of Israel’s crops supply was produced in areas with high soil loss potential, and almost 15% of it originates from areas with high water scarcity. It implies that changes to Israel’s supply sources have the potential to reduce consumption related impacts on ecosystem services. The functional regions typology may be used as a global road map mediating interregional flows assessments with place-based ecosystem service assessments.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:51Z
       
  • Quantifying ecosystem service flows at multiple scales across the range of
           a long-distance migratory species
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part B
      Author(s): Darius J. Semmens, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Kenneth J. Bagstad, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Leslie Ries, Brice X. Semmens, Joshua Goldstein, John Loomis, Wayne E. Thogmartin, Brady J. Mattsson, Laura López-Hoffman
      Migratory species provide ecosystem goods and services throughout their annual cycles, often over long distances. Designing effective conservation solutions for migratory species requires knowledge of both species ecology and the socioeconomic context of their migrations. We present a framework built around the concept that migratory species act as carriers, delivering benefit flows to people throughout their annual cycle that are supported by the network of ecosystems upon which the species depend. We apply this framework to the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration of eastern North America by calculating their spatial subsidies. Spatial subsidies are the net ecosystem service flows throughout a species’ range and a quantitative measure of the spatial mismatch between the locations where people receive most benefits and the locations of habitats that most support the species. Results indicate cultural benefits provided by monarchs in the U.S. and Canada are subsidized by migration and overwintering habitat in Mexico. At a finer scale, throughout the monarch range, habitat in rural landscapes subsidizes urban residents. Understanding the spatial distribution of benefits derived from and ecological support provided to monarchs and other migratory species offers a promising means of understanding the costs and benefits associated with conservation across jurisdictional borders.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:51Z
       
  • Barriers to PES programs in Indigenous communities: A lesson in land
           tenure insecurity from the Hopi Indian reservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 32, Part A
      Author(s): Michael Kotutwa Johnson, Aaron M. Lien, Natalya Robbins Sherman, Laura López-Hoffman
      There has been significant study of barriers to implementation of payment for ecosystem services in Indigenous communities in less developed countries. These barriers include land tenure insecurity and lack of access to capital. However, there is no similar research in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Our research fills this gap. We hypothesize that mismatches between the traditional land tenure regimes and institutional arrangements of Indigenous communities on one hand, and government sponsors of PES programs on the other hand, result in the lack of success of these programs. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a qualitative study of the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) on the Hopi reservation in the United States. We answer two questions: (1) What barriers prevent Hopi ranchers and farmers from participating in incentive-based programs' (2) What institutional changes are necessary to permit Hopi farmer and rancher participation in EQIP' We analyzed primary documents and conducted key informant interviews. We conclude that land tenure is at the forefront of problems associated with administering PES programs in Indigenous communities. Without new approaches addressing the land tenure regimes in Indigenous communities, PES will continue to struggle on American Indian reservations and around the world.

      PubDate: 2018-06-13T10:09:52Z
       
  • Ecosystem services and judge-made law: A review of legal cases in common
           law countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 32, Part A
      Author(s): Ori Sharon, Sydney N. Fishman, J.B. Ruhl, Lydia Olander, Stephen E. Roady
      This paper reviews the prevalence and usage of the concept of “ecosystem services” in American and other common law legal systems. Our review suggests that this concept is rarely relied upon by courts and other adjudicatory bodies. We have identified 113 cases in seven common law countries, including a handful in the United States, the majority of which discuss ecosystem services and related concepts in only a peripheral manner, indicating that adjudicating bodies are hearing cases that consider ecosystem services in broad strokes rather than as central issues. Where ecosystem services are considered substantively, the cases view those services through the lens of interpreting and applying existing environmental laws and regulations, including laws that require environmental valuations. We identify several recurring trends in cases discussing ecosystem services and recommend courses of action for environmental agencies and litigants interested in furthering ecosystem services protection through the court systems of common law countries.

      PubDate: 2018-06-07T09:40:01Z
       
  • Information content of global ecosystem service databases and their
           suitability for decision advice
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 32, Part A
      Author(s): Stefan Schmidt, Ralf Seppelt
      Databases have the potential to facilitate the integration of ecosystem service (ES) information into decision advice by collecting and condensing big data volumes in a standardized form. In this article we examined how ES databases support policy instruments to take nature’s benefits into account in decision-making. We analyzed 29 databases with global coverage containing information of 36,112 studies, projects and methods within more than 600,000 entries. We identified 93 indicators of information demand for six major policy instruments and matched database entries with these indicators. Findings showed databases contain information for most of the policy instruments. However, ES databases were limited regarding geographic representativeness, highlighting major information gaps in society’s poorest nations. We propose steps forward towards optimized knowledge exploitation and suggest five priority areas for mainstreaming ES information into decision-making: (i) quantitatively recognize nature’s value, (ii) develop prioritization schemes based on ES valuation, (iii) sensitive stakeholder engagement, (iv) support information access and capacity building to establish ES-based decision-making and (v) consider long-term returns of interventions in ES. These priority areas contribute to formalize standards for the documentation of knowledge on ES and provide a baseline for the establishment of ontologies that facilitate knowledge accessibility for decision-making.

      PubDate: 2018-06-07T09:40:01Z
       
  • The interactions between livelihood capitals and access of local
           communities to the forest provisioning services of the Sundarbans Mangrove
           Forest, Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 32, Part A
      Author(s): Abu S.M.G. Kibria, Robert Costanza, Colin Groves, Alison M. Behie
      This study aims to understand the influence of livelihood capitals on access to provisioning services (PS) of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest (SMF) including honey, crabs, mixed fish, shrimp, shrimp fry and fuelwood. The interactions among several livelihood capital components played significant roles in shaping the composite effect of respective livelihood capitals on the access to PS. The effect of human capital was significantly positive on people’s access to fuelwood, shrimp fry and crabs consecutively; and negative on the access to honey, shrimp and mixed fish respectively. Physical capital was likely to increase access to shrimp, shrimp fry and crabs; and decrease access to fuelwood and honey. Natural capital (i.e., land area) significantly increased the access to shrimp fry and shrimp; and reduced access to honey. Financial capital played significant positive roles in access to crabs, fuelwood and honey; and negative role in accessing mixed fish respectively. Social capital was likely to enhance access to honey and fuelwood; obstructed access to crabs, shrimp fry and shrimp. Protection of any ecosystem from over exploitation and improved wellbeing of the dependent communities can be achieved by addressing the influence of the livelihood capitals through the integrated development approach.

      PubDate: 2018-06-07T09:40:01Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Attached to or bound to a place' The impact of green
           space availability on residential duration: The environmental justice
           perspective” [Ecosyst. Serv. 30(part B) (2018) 309–317]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Edyta Łaszkiewicz, Jakub Kronenberg, Szymon Marcińczak


      PubDate: 2018-06-07T09:40:01Z
       
  • Effects of land use change on ecosystem services value in West Jilin since
           the reform and opening of China
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Li Fei, Zhang Shuwen, Yang Jiuchun, Chang Liping, Yang Haijuan, Bu Kun
      Land resources were the foundation of human survival and development. The change of land use altered the pattern of vegetation and landscape, caused the change of ecosystem structure and function and changed the value of regional ecosystem services. This study spatially and quantitatively explored the impact of land use change on the ecosystem service value in West Jilin since the reform and opening of China. The results showed that the main characteristic of land use change in West Jilin was area reduction in grassland and marsh and area increase in arable land and alkali-land. However, land use change in Period I (1976–2000) got a faster rate than in Period II (2000–2013). Land use change resulted in the ESV in West Jilin decreased by 1334 million yuan since the reform and opening up of China, with an annual loss of 39.2 million yuan in Period I and 30.2 million yuan in Period II. The conversion of marsh to other types land use was the primary land use reason for the decrease in ESV. Alkali-land expanded quickly in Period I, however, the trend of salinization turned to be curbed and the area of alkali-land began to decrease after 2000, which increased the ESV by about 234 million yuan. Due to the concern of local government and relevant scientific research departments, the ecological and environmental deterioration were meliorated and the decrease rate of ecosystem services value also slowed down. Excitingly, ESV even increased in some areas on account of land use was becoming more rational.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:36:23Z
       
  • Zoning does not improve the availability of ecosystem services in urban
           watersheds. A case study from Upstate South Carolina, USA
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Melanie G. Brown, John E. Quinn
      When making governance decisions, such as land-use plans, policymakers must decide if and how to balance economic growth with environmental conservation. Often, and frequently not by choice, these decisions are made with limited or poor-quality data, which is often either too theoretical or too fine-scale, leading to poor land use planning within urban watersheds. As a case study of a governance technique, we analyzed the function of zoning on the relationship between development and ecosystem services across 65 watersheds in South Carolina, USA. Our research question was whether zoning regulations have helped preserve natural capital. Habitat, carbon storage, nutrient and sediment export were measured using Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST), which maps distributions of services based on ecological production functions. Over a ten-year window, increased development resulted in the loss of services. Zoning reduced the impact of development on phosphorus export, but not on other services, revealing the need for more explicit consideration of services in creation of zoning ordinances. If residents of urban watersheds want to benefit from development, improved and more accessible data and rigorous evaluation are important first steps towards improved governance decisions about zoning and regional planning in both public and private sectors.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:36:23Z
       
  • Global flows of ecosystem services
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Thomas Koellner, Matthias Schröter, Catharina J.E. Schulp, Peter H. Verburg


      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:36:23Z
       
  • Most finance to halt desertification also benefits multiple ecosystem
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Simone Quatrini, Neville D. Crossman
      Quantifying the demand for multiple ecosystem services is difficult because it is subjective and heterogeneous. Using land degradation as a case study, this paper explores land restoration finance as a proxy for global ecosystem service demand. Land degradation has been high on the UN agenda since the 1992 Rio Summit, together with climate change and biodiversity. The supply of many ecosystem services is declining due to land degradation and desertification, particularly in drylands. The inclusion of a Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) target in the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development reaffirmed the commitment by the international community to tackle this global environmental challenge. If this vision adequately reflects society’s values, as expressed through demand for ecosystem services, we should see land restoration finance targeting areas where potential ecosystem service supply could be enhanced the most. To test this hypothesis, we used spatial analysis of key ecosystem services, as well as comparative analysis of synergistic values and other indicators of financial resources committed between 2008 and 2013 to address land degradation. These activities can generate multiple benefits for many ecosystem functions and services. Official activity-level environmental ratings – called Rio Markers – were used to identify those activities that were intended to produce multiple ecosystem services benefits in terms of land restoration, biodiversity protection and climate change mitigation. Our analysis concludes that many land restoration activities are synergistic and reveals other important aspects: (i) developing countries report, on average, higher synergistic values than developed countries and development finance organizations; (ii) donor countries report more conservatively than recipient countries; (iii) multi-purpose synergistic projects attract more funders than single-purpose ones. In some cases countries with high ecosystem service supply receive higher investment, but this finding is not strong, indicating that investment could be more strategically targeted. These findings suggest, in particular, that the synergistic features of multi-purpose land restoration activities could be harnessed to enhance investment effectiveness and impact. This, in turn, would make LDN finance more prominent in development aid portfolios and in public/private sustainable investment strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T09:36:23Z
       
  • Using incentives to coordinate responses to a system of payments for
           watershed services: The middle route of South–North Water Transfer
           Project, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 32, Part A
      Author(s): Jichuan Sheng, Michael Webber
      In any scheme of payments for watershed services, the incentive size can directly affect the watershed services which are provided by water-source areas. It is necessary to understand the payments for watershed services in the Middle Route of China’s South–North Water Transfer (SNWT) from the perspective of the relations among the central and local governments. The distributions of interests among governments need to be coordinated under the Chinese authoritarian system, which is characterised by a combination of political centralisation and economic decentralisation. This paper analyses the interactions between the central and local governments in water-source areas to determine the watershed service efforts of local governments, using Stackelberg game models. In particular, the potential effects of incentives on payments for watershed services on the middle route are analysed. Numerical simulation is adopted to examine watershed service strategies, both with and without central government coordination of incentives. The results demonstrate the following: First, by designing and coordinating extra incentives, the central government could achieve its maximum interests without causing losses to the local governments. Second, extra incentives could increase the watershed service efforts of some local governments, thereby efficiently improving the water source quality of the Middle Route. Third, local governments with better watershed service capabilities are likely to improve their watershed services under coordination, thereby obtaining extra incentives.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T09:18:12Z
       
  • Improving ecological conservation and restoration through payment for
           ecosystem services in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Lin Huang, Quanqin Shao, Jiyuan Liu, Qingshui Lu
      To protect biodiversity, restore ecosystems and improve the livelihoods of indigenous herders, a payment for ecosystem services program has been implemented in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We monitored and assessed its effectiveness and analysed the factors that may contribute to the success or failure of the program. By comparing ecosystem changes between project and non-project regions, we found that the increased area of grassland and wetland, the proportion of restored grassland, and the enhanced net primary production and forage yields were higher in project regions, which indicated that the majority of restoration measures are effective at the local scale. However, the soil erosion modulus and ecosystem soil conservation service were ineffective owing to unrecovered root systems and increased precipitation. The results of interviews with herdsmen demonstrated a slight increase in annual net income for herder households, especially for eco-immigrants compensated by the program. However, it was difficult to reduce overgrazing dramatically because eco-immigrants mainly included elderly herders and herders with less livestock. Therefore, the eco-immigrants and their livelihoods need to be reconsidered in targeting for subsequent programs. Furthermore, this study reinforced the need to apply multiple sources of funds and measurements to benefit ecological conservation in alpine regions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T09:18:12Z
       
  • Scenario planning including ecosystem services for a coastal region in
           South Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 31, Part A
      Author(s): Harpinder Sandhu, Beverley Clarke, Ryan Baring, Sharolyn Anderson, Claire Fisk, Sabine Dittmann, Stewart Walker, Paul Sutton, Ida Kubiszewski, Robert Costanza
      Coastal regions provide vital ecosystem services for the human well-being. Rapid economic growth and increasing population in coastal regions is exerting more pressure on coastal environments. Here we develop four plausible scenarios to the year 2050 that address above issues in the northern Adelaide coastline, South Australia. Four scenarios were named after their characteristics, Lacuna, Gold Coast SA, Down to Earth, and Green & Gold. Lacuna and Gold Coast SA. Economy declined significantly in Lacuna, whereas, there is highest annual GDP growth (3.5%) in Gold Coast SA, which was closely followed by Green & Gold scenario (3%), GDP under Down to Earth grows at moderate 1.5%. There is highest population growth in Gold Coast SA followed by Green & Gold, Down to Earth and Lacuna. Gold Coast SA scenario led to high inequality as estimated by the Gini co-efficient of 0.45 compared to the current value of 0.33. Ecosystem services declined rapidly under Green & Gold and Lacuna as compared to the other two scenarios. The combination of scenario planning and ecosystem services valuation provides the capacity to guide coastal planning by illustrating enhanced social, environmental and economic benefits.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T09:18:12Z
       
  • Diet composition uncertainty determines impacts on fisheries following an
           oil spill
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna, Cameron H. Ainsworthc, Joseph H. Tarnecki, Arnaud Grüss
      Oil spills can disrupt marine and coastal ecosystem services leading to reduced employment opportunities and income. Ecosystem models can be used to estimate the effects of oil pollution; however, uncertainty in model predictions may influence damage assessment. We performed an uncertainty analysis for the Atlantis ecosystem model of the Gulf of Mexico (Atlantis-GOM), under a scenario simulating the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Atlantis-GOM simulates major biophysical processes, including the effects of oil hydrocarbons on fish growth and mortality. We used all available fish stomach content data to inform parameter distribution for the Atlantis-GOM availability matrix, which represents predator total consumption potential and diet preference. We sampled the fish diet composition distribution and analyzed the variability of functional group biomass and catch predicted by Atlantis-GOM simulations to changes in the availability matrix. Resulting biomass and catch were then used to fit statistical emulators of the ecosystem model and predict biomass and catch given the complete diet parameter space. We used simulated and emulated data to assess changes in recovery time to oil spill effects. Uncertainty in diet composition had large effects on model outputs and may, therefore, influence damage assessment of oil exposure on economically important species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T09:18:12Z
       
  • Mapping the global distribution of locally-generated marine ecosystem
           services: The case of the West and Central Pacific Ocean tuna fisheries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Evangelia G. Drakou, John Virdin, Linwood Pendleton
      Ecosystem service (ES) maps are instrumental for the assessment and communication of the costs and benefits of human-nature interactions. Yet, despite the increased understanding that we live a globalized tele-coupled world where such interactions extend globally, ES maps are usually place-based and fail to depict the global flows of locally produced ES. We aim to shift the way ES maps are developed by bringing global value chains into ES assessments. We propose and apply a conceptual framework that integrates ES provision principles, with value chain analysis and human well-being assessment methods, while considering the spatial dimension of these components in ES mapping. We apply this framework to the case of seafood provision from purse seine tuna fishery in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. The ES maps produced demonstrate the flow of a marine ES to a series of global beneficiaries via different trade and mobility pathways. We identify three types of flows – one to one, closed loop and open loop. We emphasize the need to consider a series of intermediate beneficiaries in ES mapping despite the lack of data. We highlight the need for a shift in ES mapping, to better include global commodity flows, across spatial scales.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T09:18:12Z
       
  • Implications of future climatic uncertainty on payments for forest
           ecosystem services: The case of the East Coast of New Zealand
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Juan J. Monge, Adam J. Daigneault, Leslie J. Dowling, Duncan R. Harrison, Shaun Awatere, Anne-Gaelle Ausseil
      Forestry’s long-term nature and associated uncertainties play against its consideration in land-use decisions. This study’s objective was assessing the implications of uncertainty on the feasibility of afforesting erodible land with natives. The New Zealand example has global relevance enabling: innovative statistical representation of climatic uncertainty, economic uncertainty analysis due to existing payments for services, and the profitability of long-rotation species due to Māori’s socio-cultural aspirations. We complemented a deterministic optimisation approach with Monte-Carlo methods to identify optimal afforestation areas representing uncertainty probabilistically. With stochastic dominance/efficiency tests, relevant to landowners, we identified that the uncertainty and profitability of long-rotation species increase at low discount rates, plausible due to low opportunity costs and inter-generational aspirations (not possible in competitive circumstances). At low discount rates, the high profitability odds of the long-rotation alternative compensate its high uncertainty and make it the preferred one even for highly risk-averse owners. With a probabilistic cost-benefit analysis, relevant to policymakers, we identified that the benefits necessary to cover erosion-reduction investments would need to be higher than expected to hedge against climatic uncertainty. These results were obtained through the uncertainty analysis. The methods/results covered in this study are relevant to land-use studies/models seeking to measure uncertainty impacts simply.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T09:18:12Z
       
  • Assessment and valuation of recreational ecosystem services of landscapes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Johannes Hermes, Derek Van Berkel, Benjamin Burkhard, Tobias Plieninger, Nora Fagerholm, Christina von Haaren, Christian Albert
      Recreational ecosystem services (RES), understood as the numerous benefits people obtain from landscapes and the natural environment, are a topical area of policy, research and society. This Editorial introduces the current state of RES research, provides an overview of the 21 contributions comprising this Special Issue of Ecosystem Services, and outlines opportunities for further research. This issue’s publications employ diverse methods for assessing and valuing RES at different scales in Europe and beyond. The papers present advancements in mapping and valuation, provide evidence for the contributions of biodiversity and landscapes to the generation of RES and human well-being, and shed light on distributional effects across different beneficiaries. Taken together, contributions emphasize that RES may be a prime vehicle for reconnecting people with nature with positive effects on societal well-being. The diversity of approaches currently applied in RES research reflects much creativity and new insights, for example by harnessing georeferenced social media data. Future research should aim towards harmonizing datasets and methods to enhance comparability without compromising the need for context-specific adaptations. Finally, more research is needed on options for integrating RES information in decision making, planning and management in order to enhance actual uptake in public and private decisions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T09:18:12Z
       
  • Machine learning for ecosystem services
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Simon Willcock, Javier Martínez-López, Danny A.P. Hooftman, Kenneth J. Bagstad, Stefano Balbi, Alessia Marzo, Carlo Prato, Saverio Sciandrello, Giovanni Signorello, Brian Voigt, Ferdinando Villa, James M. Bullock, Ioannis N. Athanasiadis
      Recent developments in machine learning have expanded data-driven modelling (DDM) capabilities, allowing artificial intelligence to infer the behaviour of a system by computing and exploiting correlations between observed variables within it. Machine learning algorithms may enable the use of increasingly available ‘big data’ and assist applying ecosystem service models across scales, analysing and predicting the flows of these services to disaggregated beneficiaries. We use the Weka and ARIES software to produce two examples of DDM: firewood use in South Africa and biodiversity value in Sicily, respectively. Our South African example demonstrates that DDM (64–91% accuracy) can identify the areas where firewood use is within the top quartile with comparable accuracy as conventional modelling techniques (54–77% accuracy). The Sicilian example highlights how DDM can be made more accessible to decision makers, who show both capacity and willingness to engage with uncertainty information. Uncertainty estimates, produced as part of the DDM process, allow decision makers to determine what level of uncertainty is acceptable to them and to use their own expertise for potentially contentious decisions. We conclude that DDM has a clear role to play when modelling ecosystem services, helping produce interdisciplinary models and holistic solutions to complex socio-ecological issues.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T09:18:12Z
       
  • Probabilistic modeling of the relationship between socioeconomy and
           ecosystem services in cultural landscapes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): A.D. Maldonado, P.A. Aguilera, A. Salmerón, A.E. Nicholson
      There is a strong relationship among cultural landscapes, socio-economy and the provision of ecosystem services. The goal of this paper is to study the relationships between socioeconomic changes and the generation of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes in Andalusia (Spain). In order to do that, a causal Object-Oriented Bayesian network (OOBN) approach was carried out. We proposed 3 socioeconomic scenarios: (i) no intervention (rural abandonment); (ii) rural intensification; and (iii) rural development (sustainability). We computed the relative change between the prior and posterior distribution of each variable considered in the model. We also computed the entropy of the ecosystem service variables (ESVs), as a measure of their uncertainty, before and after the introduction of socioeconomic changes. Afterwards, a statistical test was performed in order to find significant differences among the 3 scenarios, regarding the relative change of the state high of the ESVs. Moreover, a t-test was carried out to compare the uncertainty of the prior and posterior distributions of the ESVs. The results showed significant differences among the scenarios. OOBNs are a powerful tool to deal with complex socio-ecological systems. Moreover, the use of Bayesian networks provides a sound way of quantifying uncertainty in a transparent way.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T09:18:12Z
       
  • Playing before paying' A PES simulation game for assessing power
           inequalities and motivations in the governance of Ecosystem Services
    • Authors: Pierre Merlet; Gert Van Hecken; René Rodriguez-Fabilena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Pierre Merlet, Gert Van Hecken, René Rodriguez-Fabilena
      Market-based conservation instruments, such as Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES), have become a dominant paradigm for environmental policies. Despite their broad endorsement, the implementation of PES schemes often rests on deep-seated power asymmetries and, therefore, risks reproducing existing inequalities. Thus, examination of PES should include how these schemes are constructed and negotiated between different actors, explicitly recognising their varying social positions, value frameworks and conflicting or collaborative relations. In this article we present a ‘PES simulation game’ as an alternative methodology to enhance understanding of complex negotiations between diverse actors involved in Ecosystem Services (ES) governance. The game mimics historical processes of agrarian change and social differentiation, simulates a range of ES governance interventions, and creates space for participants to collectively reflect on the motivational and socio-political dynamics triggered by the interventions. We discuss some of the main game dynamics as well as reflections generated by the game while examining a PES intervention in the Nicaraguan agricultural frontier. We illustrate the game’s potential for improving understanding of farmers’ constraints in decision-making processes and of the ways in which patron-client relationships within divergent value systems interact with specific ES governance interventions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.024
       
  • Quantifying the visual-sensory landscape qualities that contribute to
           cultural ecosystem services using social media and LiDAR
    • Authors: Derek B. Van Berkel; Payam Tabrizian; Monica A. Dorning; Lindsey Smart; Doug Newcomb; Megan Mehaffey; Anne Neale; Ross K. Meentemeyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Derek B. Van Berkel, Payam Tabrizian, Monica A. Dorning, Lindsey Smart, Doug Newcomb, Megan Mehaffey, Anne Neale, Ross K. Meentemeyer
      Landscapes are increasingly recognized for providing valuable cultural ecosystem services with numerous non-material benefits by serving as places of rest, relaxation, and inspiration that ultimately improve overall mental health and physical well-being. Maintaining and enhancing these valuable benefits through targeted management and conservation measures requires understanding the spatial and temporal determinants of perceived landscape values. Content contributed through mobile technologies and the web are emerging globally, providing a promising data source for localizing and assessing these landscape benefits. These georeferenced data offer rich in situ qualitative information through photos and comments that capture valued and special locations across large geographic areas. We present a novel method for mapping and modeling landscape values and perceptions that leverages viewshed analysis of georeferenced social media data. Using a high resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) derived digital surface model, we are able to evaluate landscape characteristics associated with the visual-sensory qualities of outdoor recreationalists. Our results show the importance of historical monuments and attractions in addition to specific environmental features which are appreciated by the public. Evaluation of photo-image content highlights the opportunity of including temporally and spatially variable visual-sensory qualities in cultural ecosystem services (CES) evaluation like the sights, sounds and smells of wildlife and weather phenomena.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.022
       
  • Spatial dimensions of recreational ecosystem service values: A review of
           meta-analyses and a combination of meta-analytic value-transfer and GIS
    • Authors: Jan Philipp Schägner; Luke Brander; Maria Luisa Paracchini; Joachim Maes; Florian Gollnow; Bastian Bertzky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Jan Philipp Schägner, Luke Brander, Maria Luisa Paracchini, Joachim Maes, Florian Gollnow, Bastian Bertzky
      This paper investigates spatial determinants of recreational ecosystem service values by combining Geographic Information System (GIS) and meta-analysis, and by presenting the first review on meta-analysis studies in this field. Using meta-analytic value transfer, we map the spatial distribution of recreational values across Europe. By combining meta-analysis and GIS we identify spatial biophysical and socio-economic determinants of recreational ecosystem service values. Nevertheless, comparing the results of past meta-analyses reveals difficulties in establishing robust relationships between spatial variables and recreational values per visit, as existing meta-analyses show contradicting results and methodological variables show stronger effects. Based on our findings we give guidance on how to improve geostatistical analysis within future meta-analyses on ecosystem service valuation studies. Furthermore, we find that spatial variations of recreational visitor numbers are by far greater than variations of the value per visit. Therefore, we conclude that accurate estimates of visitor numbers are of greater relevance than accurate estimates of the value per visit.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T02:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.03.003
       
 
 
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