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Journal Cover Ecosystem Services
  [SJR: 2.169]   [H-I: 21]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Twenty years of ecosystem services: How far have we come and how far do we
           still need to go'
    • Authors: Robert Costanza; Rudolf de Groot; Leon Braat; Ida Kubiszewski; Lorenzo Fioramonti; Paul Sutton; Steve Farber; Monica Grasso
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Robert Costanza, Rudolf de Groot, Leon Braat, Ida Kubiszewski, Lorenzo Fioramonti, Paul Sutton, Steve Farber, Monica Grasso
      It has been 20years since two seminal publications about ecosystem services came out: an edited book by Gretchen Daily and an article in Nature by a group of ecologists and economists on the value of the world’s ecosystem services. Both of these have been very highly cited and kicked off an explosion of research, policy, and applications of the idea, including the establishment of this journal. This article traces the history leading up to these publications and the subsequent debates, research, institutions, policies, on-the-ground actions, and controversies they triggered. It also explores what we have learned during this period about the key issues: from definitions to classification to valuation, from integrated modelling to public participation and communication, and the evolution of institutions and governance innovation. Finally, it provides recommendations for the future. In particular, it points to the weakness of the mainstream economic approaches to valuation, growth, and development. It concludes that the substantial contributions of ecosystem services to the sustainable wellbeing of humans and the rest of nature should be at the core of the fundamental change needed in economic theory and practice if we are to achieve a societal transformation to a sustainable and desirable future.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T01:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
       
  • Using ecosystem services to underpin cost–benefit analysis: Is it a way
           to protect finite soil resources'
    • Authors: S. Greenhalgh; O. Samarasinghe; F. Curran-Cournane; W. Wright; P. Brown
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): S. Greenhalgh, O. Samarasinghe, F. Curran-Cournane, W. Wright, P. Brown
      Urban encroachment onto versatile land is a global challenge, and as the pressure to develop this land mounts there are moves to assess the broader impacts of these decisions. One common decision support tool for policy decisions is cost–benefit analysis (CBA), and despite criticisms of the approach it enjoys widespread use. Using a case of urban development onto versatile rural land in New Zealand, two issues relating to the use of CBA are tackled – the monetisation of all values and what values to include – along with a discussion of irreversible decisions. To identify which costs and benefits to include in a CBA we provide a structured process using an ecosystem services framework early in a CBA to provide a comprehensive means to identify and justify the costs and benefits to include. Using members of the community to decide which ecosystem services are most important for a given context allows more robust deliberation of values and what to include in the CBA. To demonstrate the value of non-market values (e.g. regulatory services) we use soil characteristics. Our assessment demonstrates the challenges facing decision-makers and ongoing methodological shortfalls as CBA approaches are applied to non-substitutable resources and irreversible decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Do charismatic species groups generate more cultural ecosystem service
           benefits'
    • Authors: James McGinlay; David J. Parsons; Joe Morris; Marie Hubatova; Anil Graves; Richard B. Bradbury; James M. Bullock
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): James McGinlay, David J. Parsons, Joe Morris, Marie Hubatova, Anil Graves, Richard B. Bradbury, James M. Bullock
      The relationship between nature and cultural ecosystem service (CES) benefits is well accepted but poorly understood, as is the potential role of biodiversity in the relationship. By means of a public questionnaire survey in Wiltshire, UK, the relationship between the presence of a range of common species groups, species group ‘charisma’, group abundance in the landscape, and the benefit that people felt that they derived from the species groups was investigated for a lowland multifunctional landscape. Findings showed that species group charisma influenced the benefit reported by respondents for current abundance levels, and influenced their response to potential increases or decreases in abundance. Respondents reported high levels of benefit from species groups hypothesised to be charismatic (birds, flowering plants, butterflies) and there was high consistency in the pattern of response. Respondents reported less benefit from groups hypothesised to be less charismatic (beetles/bugs, brambles and nettles), the latter response patterns showing much greater variation. These results could be used to promote a more holistic understanding of the value of biodiversity by educating and informing the public so that they derive benefit not just from the charismatic, but also from the everyday, the commonplace and less obviously charismatic species.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Optimizing provision of ecosystem services using modern portfolio theory
    • Authors: Sergio Alvarez; Sherry L. Larkin; Andrew Ropicki
      Pages: 25 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Sergio Alvarez, Sherry L. Larkin, Andrew Ropicki
      Portfolio selection is a flexible tool that can be used to support natural resource decision-making to optimize provision of ecosystem services. The natural resource portfolio literature includes applications in fisheries, forestry, agriculture, spatial planning, invasive pest and disease surveillance, climate change adaptation, and biodiversity conservation, among others. We contribute to this growing literature by proposing a set of essential questions to guide the development and implementation of empirical portfolios for natural resource management that deal with (1) the nature and objectives of the portfolio manager, (2) the definition of assets to be included in the portfolio, (3) the way in which returns and risk are measured and distributed, and (4) the definition of constraints in the programming problem. The approach is illustrated using landings data from the Colombian Pacific, a data limited fishery, to set catch limits in fisheries at the ecosystem level. We also develop a set of constraints in the programming problem to simulate potential policy options regarding resource sustainability and social equity. The resulting efficient catch portfolios can be used to optimize the flow of provisioning ecosystem services from this fishery.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Policy-driven China’s Grain to Green Program: Implications for
           ecosystem services
    • Authors: Bing Wang; Peng Gao; Xiang Niu; Jianni Sun
      Pages: 38 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Bing Wang, Peng Gao, Xiang Niu, Jianni Sun
      The policy-driven China’s Grain to Green Program (GTGP) is one of the biggest programs in the world because of its massive scales, largest investment and enormous effects. One research concern surrounding the GTGP is how to evaluate its ecological implications for ecosystem services. Taking Yangtze and Yellow river basins as the study area, we provide an overview of the development status and demand for the GTGP, construct the evaluation index system and distributed measurement methods of ecosystem services, and analyze the implications for ecosystem services of the GTGP as rigorously as possible from various sources of combined data. Although there are time lags in ecological implications, but the GTGP also have global implications because it increase vegetative cover and water conservation, enhance soil fertility and carbon sequestration, and atmosphere environmental purification by controlling soil erosion. The future implications for ecosystem services of the GTGP may be even bigger. The main driving factors on the implications changes were the policy and socioeconomic factors, such as the policy governance, the adjustment of economic structure and increased income of peasant households. By contrast, natural environment factors, such as precipitation, terrain slope, and etc., were in a secondary role. The existing problems and challenges for the GTGP were analyzed, and put forward some recommendations to overcome their shortcomings and enhance their potential. The GTGP can provide important experiences for the implementation of similar ecosystem service programs in China and many other parts of the world.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Going green' Ex-post valuation of a multipurpose water infrastructure
           in Northern Italy
    • Authors: Arnaud Reynaud; Denis Lanzanova; Camino Liquete; Bruna Grizzetti
      Pages: 70 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Arnaud Reynaud, Denis Lanzanova, Camino Liquete, Bruna Grizzetti
      A contingent valuation approach is used to estimate how households value different multipurpose infrastructures (conventional or green) for managing flood risk and water pollution. As a case study we consider the Gorla Maggiore water park located in the Lombardy Region, in Northern Italy. The park is a neo-ecosystem including an infrastructure to treat waste water and store excess rain water, built in 2011 on the shore of the Olona River in an area previously used for poplar plantation. This park is the first one of this type built in Italy. A novel aspect of our research is that it not only considers the values people hold for different water ecosystem services (pollution removal, recreative use, wildlife support, flood risk reduction), but also their preferences for how those outcomes are achieved (through conventional or green infrastructures). The results indicate that the type of infrastructure delivering the ecosystem services does have an impact on individuals’ preferences for freshwater ecosystem services. Households are willing to pay from 6.3 to 7.1euros per year for a green infrastructure (compared to a conventional one), with a premium up to 16.5euros for a surrounding made of a park. By considering the type of infrastructure within the choice model, we gain a richer understanding of the relationship between social welfare and freshwater ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.015
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Governance services: Co-producing human well-being with ecosystem services
    • Authors: Simo Sarkki
      Pages: 82 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Simo Sarkki


      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Key Māori values strengthen the mapping of forest ecosystem services
    • Authors: Phil O'B. Lyver; Puke Timoti; Andrew M. Gormley; Christopher J. Jones; Sarah J. Richardson; Brenda L. Tahi; Suzie Greenhalgh
      Pages: 92 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Phil O'B. Lyver, Puke Timoti, Andrew M. Gormley, Christopher J. Jones, Sarah J. Richardson, Brenda L. Tahi, Suzie Greenhalgh
      Different value-belief systems influence the importance placed upon ecosystem services (ES) and their benefits, in particular cultural ecosystem services. We mapped forest values to interview narratives across four biocultural themes deemed relevant by Tuawhenua Māori in New Zealand: (1) importance of place; (2) capacity of forest to provide; (3) connection between forest and community; and (4) future aspirations. Mauri (life force), mahinga kai (food procurement), oranga (human well-being) and te ohanga whai rawa (economic development) were the values identified most frequently across the four community-based themes. Ahikāroa (connection with place) and mahinga kai were the most frequently assigned values to Themes 1 and 2 respectively, while mauri was the value expressed most frequently in relation to Themes 3 and 4. While provisioning services contribute to the immediate well-being of indigenous peoples, cultural services associated with these activities are also vitally significant as they constitute the embodiment and growth of the culture and cannot be substituted. The comprehensive articulation of indigenous peoples’ values within an ES framework can assist with developing a common language within environmental decision-making processes and tools across cultures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Investigating farmers’ preferences for alternative PES schemes for
           carbon sequestration in UK agroecosystems
    • Authors: Uzma Aslam; Mette Termansen; Luuk Fleskens
      Pages: 103 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Uzma Aslam, Mette Termansen, Luuk Fleskens
      Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) approaches can potentially be used to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services. However, there is a need to assess the costs and effectiveness of such voluntary schemes. In particular there is a need for PES schemes to enhance climate regulating services in agricultural systems. In this paper we combine a choice experiment with a marginal abatement cost approach to determine the heterogeneity in cost-effectiveness of sequestration policy schemes in the UK farming sector. The results in general suggest that farmers show an aversion to drastic changes in land management activities but they can be encouraged to adopt relatively less restrictive activities through appropriate compensations. The results indicate that agricultural schemes can deliver carbon abatement at costs comparable to the official UK carbon price. This suggests that carbon sequestration in soils through land use changes and alternative land use management should be considered in UK policy developments to achieve carbon mitigation targets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-09T17:13:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Intermediate ecosystem services: An empty concept'
    • Authors: Marion Potschin-Young; Balint Czúcz; Camino Liquete; Joachim Maes; Graciela M. Rusch; Roy Haines-Young
      Pages: 124 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Marion Potschin-Young, Balint Czúcz, Camino Liquete, Joachim Maes, Graciela M. Rusch, Roy Haines-Young


      PubDate: 2017-09-15T17:40:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem services trade-offs from high fuelwood use for traditional shea
           butter processing in semi-arid Ghana
    • Authors: Godfred Seidu Jasaw; Osamu Saito; Alexandros Gasparatos; Kikuko Shoyama; Yaw Agyeman Boafo; Kazuhiko Takeuchi
      Pages: 127 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Godfred Seidu Jasaw, Osamu Saito, Alexandros Gasparatos, Kikuko Shoyama, Yaw Agyeman Boafo, Kazuhiko Takeuchi
      Traditional production of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) butter uses large amounts of fuelwood. This study examines the effects of shea production on the environment by identifying the ecosystem service trade-offs due to the high fuelwood consumption. Fuelwood species inventories for different land use types and on-site plot-based standing biomass measured. We estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and changes in carbon stocks for different shea products in rural and urban settings. Results suggest that, processing of shea can cause a significant change of carbon stocks in the four study villages and result in the loss of carbon sequestration ecosystem services. For GHG emissions, rural shea butter processors emit 3.14–3.31kgCO2 eq/kg shea butter, while urban processors emit slightly less (2.29–2.54kg CO2 eq/kg shea butter). We identify trade-offs with several other provisioning (woodland products), regulating (erosion control) and cultural ecosystem services (religious and spiritual values). Such findings can initiate discussions about the hidden environmental and socioeconomic costs of current shea production practices. Potential strategies to enhance the sustainability of shea production include the adoption of improved stoves, sustainable fuelwood harvesting practices, parkland management, alternative fuels, and product pricing premiums to fund the adoption of cleaner shea processing technologies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Uncertainties in demonstrating environmental benefits of payments for
           ecosystem services
    • Authors: Letícia Santos de Lima; Tobias Krueger; Jaime García-Marquez
      Pages: 139 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Letícia Santos de Lima, Tobias Krueger, Jaime García-Marquez
      Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) have become the flagship of conservation organizations in recent years. However, PES schemes are as much criticized as they are acclaimed in the literature. Researchers have pointed that many PES schemes, particularly water-related ones, are based on unreliable assumptions and lack strong causal links between land use and ecosystem services. Evidence of outcomes is hardly demonstrated. This uncertainty in PES schemes arises not only from practical difficulties, but from the complexity of the human-environment systems (HES), and the limits of current knowledge about HES. Many scientists and practitioners have proposed that more research is needed to improve the scientific basis of PES. Here we argue that this research should be complemented with a deeper understanding of the uncertainties involved in PES, an explicit treatment of these in the whole process of PES negotiation, design and monitoring, and clear uncertainty communication among the actors involved. Neglecting uncertainties could lead to unfounded expectations and poor assessments of PES outcomes. If recognizing and accounting for uncertainties are to threaten the success of PES, then uncertainty can be seen as an opportunity to open up the dialogue to alternative ways of achieving the desired conservation goals.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Combining focus group discussions and choice experiments for economic
           valuation of peatland restoration: A case study in Central Kalimantan,
           Indonesia
    • Authors: M. Schaafsma; P.J.H. van Beukering; I. Oskolokaite
      Pages: 150 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): M. Schaafsma, P.J.H. van Beukering, I. Oskolokaite
      This study explores the benefits of combining results of qualitative focus group discussions (FGDs) with a quantitative choice experiment (CE) in a low-income country context. The assessment addresses the compensation needed by local communities in Central Kalimantan to cooperate in peatland restoration programs. The main policy message of the study is that such programs would have to provide arrangements that secure a stable income and food supply, as well as create awareness of the long-term benefits of peatland restoration. The results of this study demonstrate the value of combining qualitative and quantitative methods to improve the reliability and validity of studies assessing the value of ecological services. FGDs prove to be paramount to understanding the underlying attitudes and motives towards the proposed scenarios and its institutional context. FGDs provide the possibility to identify the specific terms and conditions on which respondents would accept land-use change scenarios and help to understand preferences regarding the distribution of costs and benefits over time. Yet the individual CE responses offer important quantitative information about the magnitude of welfare changes associated with restoration. Moreover, the privacy of the elicitation process avoids peer-pressure.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T01:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Understanding biodiversity-ecosystem service relationships in urban areas:
           A comprehensive literature review
    • Authors: Nina Schwarz; Marco Moretti; Miguel N. Bugalho; Zoe G. Davies; Dagmar Haase; Jochen Hack; Angela Hof; Yolanda Melero; Tristan J. Pett; Sonja Knapp
      Pages: 161 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 27, Part A
      Author(s): Nina Schwarz, Marco Moretti, Miguel N. Bugalho, Zoe G. Davies, Dagmar Haase, Jochen Hack, Angela Hof, Yolanda Melero, Tristan J. Pett, Sonja Knapp
      Positive relationships between biodiversity and urban ecosystem services (UES) are widely implied within both the scientific and policy literatures, along with the tacit suggestion that enhancing urban green infrastructure will automatically improve both biodiversity and UES. However, it is unclear how much published empirical evidence exists to support these assumptions. We conducted a review of studies published between 1990 and May 2017 that examined urban biodiversity ecosystem service (BES) relationships. In total, we reviewed 317 publications and found biodiversity and UES metrics mentioned 944 times. Only 228 (24%) of the 944 mentions were empirically tested. Among these, 119 (52%) demonstrated a positive BES relationship. Our review showed that taxonomic metrics were used most often as proxies for biodiversity, with very little attention given to functional biodiversity metrics. Similarly, the role of particular species, including non-natives, and specific functional traits are understudied. Finally, we found a paucity of empirical evidence underpinning urban BES relationships. As urban planners increasingly incorporate UES delivery consideration to their decision-making, researchers need to address these substantial knowledge gaps to allow potential trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity conservation and the promotion of UES to be adequately accounted for.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T01:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Recreational cultural ecosystem services: How do people describe the
           value?
    • Authors: Sanna Stålhammar; Eja Pedersen
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part A
      Author(s): Sanna Stålhammar, Eja Pedersen
      Different ways of viewing human-nature interactions affect the ways in which these are conceptualized and operationalized with regards to cultural ecosystem services (CES). To clarify if some conceptualizations provide more appropriate descriptions of benefits, these need to be discussed in relation to the lived experience. This paper addresses some aspects of the controversy around the use of the concept of CES and associated framing of ‘values’. Our aim is to understand potential distinctions between individuals’ expressions of values of their experiences and the language of value of ES. We use Swedish focus group material formed to understand how individuals perceive and express their values of the experiences of spending time in natural environments in their own words. We apply an interpretivist approach inspired by grounded theory and present our findings as the broader interpretative repertoire ‘axiomatic value’. The interpretative repertoire informed three discourses that participants describe as valuable in relation to experiences in nature: ‘indivisibility’, ‘incommensurability’, and ‘the goodness of perceived naturalness’. The latter comprised the underlying themes ‘nature as authentic’, ‘nature as healing’ and ‘nature as beauty, magic and movement’. We discuss implications for conceptualizations of value and question the appropriateness of the non-contextual and categorical language of ES.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T08:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Putting ecosystem services into practice: Trade-off assessment tools,
           indicators and decision support systems
    • Authors: Luis Inostroza; Hannes J. König; Brian Pickard; Lin Zhen
      Pages: 303 - 305
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 26, Part B
      Author(s): Luis Inostroza, Hannes J. König, Brian Pickard, Lin Zhen


      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Citizen science for assessing ecosystem services: Status, challenges and
           opportunities
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Matthias Schröter, Roland Kraemer, Martin Mantel, Nadja Kabisch, Susanne Hecker, Anett Richter, Veronika Neumeier, Aletta Bonn
      Citizen science approaches provide opportunities to support ecosystem service assessments. To evaluate the recent trends, challenges and opportunities of utilizing citizen science in ecosystem service studies we conducted a systematic literature and project review. We reviewed the range of ecosystem services and formats of participation in citizen science in 17 peer-reviewed scientific publications and 102 ongoing or finished citizen science projects, out of over 500 screened publications and over 1400 screened projects. We found that citizen science is predominantly applied in assessing regulating and cultural services. The assessments were often performed by using proxy indicators that only implicitly provide information on ecosystem services. Direct assessments of ecosystem services are still rare. Participation formats mostly comprise contributory citizen science projects that focus on volunteered data collection. However, there is potential to increase citizen involvement in comprehensive ecosystem service assessments, including the development of research questions, design, data analysis and dissemination of findings. Levels of involvement could be enhanced to strengthen strategic knowledge on the environment, scientific literacy and the empowerment of citizens in helping to inform and monitor policies and management efforts related to ecosystem services. We provide an outlook how to better operationalise citizen science approaches to assess ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:53:42Z
       
  • A theoretical framework for researching cultural ecosystem service flows
           in urban agglomerations
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Lan Xiao, Tang Haiping, Liang Haoguang
      Urban agglomerations are both a new combination of regional units in economic and social development and regions with a series of highly concentrated ecological, economic, and social problems. Studies with a single urban ecosystem as the research object cannot fundamentally solve regional ecological problems. Therefore, urban agglomerations have provided a new perspective for studying regional ecosystems and their services. The importance and usage of cultural ecosystem services increase with their supply and demand, which is the key to linking the ecosystem with human well-being. The recognition and evaluation of cultural ecosystem services in urban agglomerations have become an important element that affects coordinated protection and decision making in regional ecosystem management. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the study of the cultural ecosystem service flows and analyzes the impacts of the ecosystem structure, stakeholders, and management policies on the supply of and demand for cultural ecosystem services in urban agglomerations. Through a discussion of the framework, this paper proposes that using the urban agglomerations ecosystem as a research object is beneficial for multi-scale and cross-scale research on quantifying cultural ecosystem services. Service flows can better reveal the dynamic spatio-temporal characteristics of beneficiaries in urban agglomerations, and combined with the research concerning human well-being, the framework can enhance the application of research on cultural ecosystem services in decision making for regional coordinated development.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:53:42Z
       
  • Attached to or bound to a place' The impact of green space
           availability on residential duration: The environmental justice
           perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Edyta Łaszkiewicz, Jakub Kronenberg, Szymon Marcińczak
      Socioeconomic inequalities in residential duration may be a reflection of uneven opportunities to develop place attachment thanks to green space availability. This article evaluates the impact of urban green space availability on residential duration, and shows that this impact varies among socioeconomic groups. We used an econometric model to study relationships between geolocalized residential quality survey data and the objective measure of spatial availability of urban green spaces in Lodz, Poland. The results indicate that the length of residential duration of the wealthier residents is not affected by the availability of nearby green space, while the length of residential duration of the less socioeconomically privileged residents is affected negatively by the availability of nearby green space. The abovementioned findings may be a signal of unequal opportunities to develop a relationship with the residents’ place of living thanks to the availability of green spaces. Interestingly, inequalities related to residential duration, and their linkages with the strength of place attachment are less explored in the literature, compared to uneven access to other environmental benefits. This study supplements the traditional perspective of environmental justice with the context of residential duration and place attachment.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:53:42Z
       
  • Monetary value of urban green space as an ecosystem service provider: A
           case study of urban runoff management in Finland
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Sveta Silvennoinen, Maija Taka, Vesa Yli-Pelkonen, Harri Koivusalo, Markku Ollikainen, Heikki Setälä
      The predicted increase in the number of urban flood events can result in substantial monetary losses to society. These costs may be alleviated by preserving ecosystem services, such as urban runoff management. We studied the monetary value of this ecosystem service by applying the replacement cost method in six catchments with varying land-use intensities in two cities in Finland. The economic analysis was based on metric data of urban runoff generation, provided by automatic monitoring stations in the catchments. A hydrological model was applied to estimate evaporation from impervious surfaces, and to simulate runoff in the catchments. Our results suggest that leaving green space unconstructed results in significant monetary savings. The cost of managing runoff correlated with land-use intensity. The ecosystem service value (ESV) was generally higher in catchments with high land-use intensity, low proportion of green space, and high costs of runoff management. Depending on the degree of imperviousness, the ESV ranged from 90,000–270,000€ha−1. Further, our results suggest that estimates of runoff generation and evaporation are key hydrological factors for assessing ESV. Our study demonstrates how the combination of field data and hydrological and monetary analyses can support regional planning in cold climates.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:25:24Z
       
  • Modelling feedback processes underpinning management of ecosystem
           services: The role of participatory systems mapping
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Rita Lopes, Nuno Videira
      Ecosystem services are dynamically interdependent. When conducting studies on ecosystem services valuation and assessment, the interdependencies and feedback structures underpinning ecosystem functioning should be identified and explicitly considered in management processes, especially when the goal is to pursue a plural and integrative approach that accounts for multiple values. This paper explores the role of a participatory system dynamics modelling approach – participatory systems mapping – as a tool to articulate different value dimensions of ecosystem services. The application of the tool is illustrated with a case study conducted in a protected area in Portugal, wherein inter-organisational stakeholder groups collaborated in the conceptualization of feedback processes characterizing ecosystem services during a group modelling workshop. The outcomes of the participatory workshop were submitted to a post-production process and returned to participants though an individual online survey aiming to validate the changes. Food production, recreation and ecotourism, biodiversity conservation and climate regulation were the ecosystem services explored. Results show that by accommodating the co-creation of causal system maps with stakeholders, the proposed approach fosters sharing of insights on the underlying cause–effect mechanisms and leverage points, supporting the identification of interrelationships between different ecosystem services and the selection of key indicators for management processes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:25:24Z
       
  • Mechanisms mediating the contribution of ecosystem services to human
           well-being and resilience
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Giacomo Fedele, Bruno Locatelli, Houria Djoudi
      Human benefits from ecosystems result from complex interactions between ecological and social processes. People affect ecosystems’ capacity to deliver services that contribute to the well-being of humans and their resilience. The delivery of ecosystem services (ES) has often been considered asa linear and direct flow from nature to people without feedbacks or human inputs. We adjusted the widely used ES cascade to highlight how humans mediate each step in the ES delivery. We then applied the proposed framework to empirical field studies in Indonesia. We focused on the role of forested landscapes to increase rural people’s resilience to climate hazards such as drought and floods. We found that human actions determine benefits from ES through several mechanisms (ES management, mobilization, allocation-appropriation, and appreciation). These mechanisms are influenced by peoples’ decisions along the ES cascade, which depend on specific factors related to rules, assets, values, and spatial context. By facilitating or hindering ES flows, some stakeholders can determine who benefits from ES and influence the well-being of others. A better understanding of the mediating mechanisms, factors, and feedbacks in ES delivery can support the design of sound environmental assessments and sustainable land management practices.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:25:24Z
       
  • Challenges for developing Forest Stewardship Council certification for
           ecosystem services: How to enhance local adoption'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 28, Part A
      Author(s): Sini Savilaakso, Manuel R. Guariguata
      The rise of ecosystem services (ES) as a conservation and management tool has changed the way forests are conceived, but so far its translation into management actions has been limited. In this paper, we discuss the development of certification of forest ecosystem services (FES) from the perspective of those implementing it at the local level. We focus on the lessons that emerged from applying the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification framework at selected sites in Chile, Indonesia, Nepal and Vietnam. Our results indicate a clear relationship between local and global levels in the development of FSC FES certification. Although the FSC already had a broad vision of ES, it was only through local-level learning within a specific pilot experiment that the vision evolved and resulted in more formal FES certification becoming part of FSC forest management certification. We also found that those sites where participatory approaches to management and decision-making were applied could work with an undefined vision of the future system, and still successfully design and implement management activities. However, overall the lack of specific vision and detailed information about future FES certification was problematic in attracting market interest in FSC certified ES.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:25:24Z
       
  • Mapping air filtering in urban areas. A Land Use Regression model for
           Ecosystem Services assessment in planning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Stefano Salata, Silvia Ronchi, Andrea Arcidiacono
      The control of air quality in urban areas is drawing attention, as it generates significant benefits. Land use planning directly affects Ecosystem Services, particularly on air quality. Nonetheless, scientific knowledge of the effects derived by Land Use Changes on air quality is inadequate for planning proposals. This paper proposes an analytical application in the metropolitan area of Milan (North-west of Italy), one of the highly air-polluted areas of Europe. A spatial-based methodology to predict Particulate Matter concentration is tested using the regional emission inventory as a benchmark. The paper assumes that different dynamics cause of air pollution: (i) atmospheric emissions due to different kinds of land use sources; (ii) the rebound/resuspension of particles caused by the impervious degree of soil, and (iii) the absorption through green areas and trees. The methodological innovations introduced by this paper are related to (i) the small gridded distribution of values, and (ii) the emissions dynamics mix up with those on resuspension and absorption. This study experiments the upgrade of the existent Land Use Regression approach for Particulate Matters prediction and establishes a new methodology with a newer set of inputs. Compared to traditional approaches, the study can support the decision-making process for local planning.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:25:24Z
       
  • Developing an integrated land use planning system on reclaimed wetlands of
           the Hungarian Plain using economic valuation of ecosystem services
    • Authors: Zsolt Pinke; Márton Kiss; Gábor L. Lövei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Zsolt Pinke, Márton Kiss, Gábor L. Lövei
      The establishment of a sustainable land use system is crucial in Hungary (SE Europe) where 30% of croplands lie on former floodplains, and 40–45% of arable lands are drought-prone. We calculated and compared the monetary value of the main wetland ecosystem services, the profitability of land use and the additional costs of grain producer system on land at risk from groundwater inundation on the Hungarian Plain. We show that orchards and forestry generate a much higher profitability in former wetlands than cropland farming. Using the replacement cost method, we prove that the reservoir capacity of restored wetlands with an ecologically optimal 0.5m water depth could replace 2150€ha−1 flood protection investment cost. The calculated costs of protecting land under the two highest groundwater risk categories between 1999–2005 was 260.2€ha−1 y−1 and 104.1€ha−1 y−1, respectively. Although the flood protection benefits of former wetlands may provide an appropriate value base for restoration per se, combined with the potential advantages of land use change from cropland to forest in former wetlands and the carbon sequestration benefit provide ‘win-win’ solutions for land users and institutional actors interested in flood prevention, environmental protection and climate mitigation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T13:37:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.007
       
  • Tracing the cost/benefit pathway of protected areas: A case study of the
           Kruger National Park, South Africa
    • Authors: Louise Swemmer; Helen Mmethi; Wayne Twine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Louise Swemmer, Helen Mmethi, Wayne Twine
      The sustainability of protected areas is dependent on societal support. Protected area relevance (meaning and value) to society is based on vested interest grown through conservation related benefit accrual that outweighs costs. Protected areas generally don’t report on their total societal impact in part due to a lack of an appropriate framework that accounts simultaneously for positive and negative, tangible and intangible components. We develop a framework and pathway that (1) includes ecosystem dis-services provided by protected areas, and (2) provides a tool for protected area managers to report on benefit sharing as a whole towards managing cost-benefit trade-offs. Ecosystem services and products from Kruger National Park were classified into themes, followed by a quantitative inventory of cost/benefit processes for the KNP. We demonstrate the skewed nature of costs versus benefits, with most beneficiaries living far from the park. Most local residents receive few benefits and are often recipients of costs. The framework highlights the need to understand the impact of benefit sharing on human well-being; the lack of an understanding of the outputs and outcomes from direct ecosystem service flows from parks; and the need for an understanding of the links between benefit accrual and conservation-related outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T01:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.002
       
  • Using image recognition to automate assessment of cultural ecosystem
           services from social media photographs
    • Authors: Daniel R. Richards; Bige Tunçer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Daniel R. Richards, Bige Tunçer
      Quantifying and mapping cultural ecosystem services is complex because of their intangibility. Data from social media, such as geo-tagged photographs, have been proposed for mapping cultural use or appreciation of ecosystems. However, manual content analysis and classification of large numbers of photographs is time consuming. This study develops a novel method for automating content analysis of social media photographs for ecosystem services assessment. The approach applies an online machine learning algorithm – Google Cloud Vision – to analyse over 20,000 photographs from Singapore, and uses hierarchical clustering to group these photographs. The accuracy of the classification was assessed by comparison with manual classification. Over 20% of photographs were taken of nature, being of animals or plants. The distribution of nature photographs was concentrated around particular natural attractions, and nature photographs were more likely to occur in parks and areas of high vegetation cover. The approach developed for clustering photographs was accurate and saved approximately 170h of manual work. The method provides an indicator of cultural ecosystem services that can be applied rapidly over large areas. Automated assessment and mapping of cultural ecosystem services could be used to inform urban planning.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.004
       
  • A bird’s eye view over ecosystem services in Natura 2000 sites
           across Europe
    • Authors: Guy Ziv; Christopher Hassall; Bartosz Bartkowski; Anna F. Cord; Andrea Kaim; Michelle Kalamandeen; Patricia Landaverde-González; Joana L.B. Melo; Ralf Seppelt; Caitriona Shannon; Tomáš Václavík; Brenda Maria Zoderer; Michael Beckmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Guy Ziv, Christopher Hassall, Bartosz Bartkowski, Anna F. Cord, Andrea Kaim, Michelle Kalamandeen, Patricia Landaverde-González, Joana L.B. Melo, Ralf Seppelt, Caitriona Shannon, Tomáš Václavík, Brenda Maria Zoderer, Michael Beckmann
      Recent ‘New Conservation’ approaches called for more ecosystem services (ES) emphasis in conservation. We analysed data from 3757 Natura 2000 special protection areas (SPAs) and translated positive and negative impacts listed by conservation managers into indicators of the use of nine provisioning, regulating and cultural ES. Overall, the use of ES is considered by SPA managers to affect conservation goals more negatively than positively. ES associated with livestock keeping and fodder production are recorded as having the highest fraction of positive impacts on SPAs, ranging from 88% and 78% in the Boreal biogeographic region to 20% and 6% in the Mediterranean. The use of ES varied according to dominant habitat class, highlighting the dependence of specific ES on associated ecosystem functions. For instance, fibre production was the predominant ES throughout forest habitats while crop, fodder and livestock exhibit similar patterns of dominance across agricultural landscapes. In contrast, the use of wild food and recreation activities are seen as causing mainly negative effects across all habitats. Our analysis suggests that most uses of ES result in negative effects on conservation goals. These outcomes should be considered when implementing future conservation strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.011
       
  • Institutional challenges in putting ecosystem service knowledge in
           practice
    • Authors: Heli Saarikoski; Eeva Primmer; Sanna-Riikka Saarela; Paula Antunes; Réka Aszalós; Francesc Baró; Pam Berry; Gemma Garcia Blanko; Erik Goméz-Baggethun; Laurence Carvalho; Jan Dick; Robert Dunford; Mihail Hanzu; Paula A. Harrison; Zita Izakovicova; Miklós Kertész; Leena Kopperoinen; Berit Köhler; Johannes Langemeyer; David Lapola; Camino Liquete; Sandra Luque; Peter Mederly; Jari Niemelä; Ignacio Palomo; Guillermo Martinez Pastur; Pablo Luis Peri; Elena Preda; Jörg A. Priess; Rui Santos; Christian Schleyer; Francis Turkelboom; Angheluta Vadineanu; Wim Verheyden; Suvi Vikström; Juliette Young
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Heli Saarikoski, Eeva Primmer, Sanna-Riikka Saarela, Paula Antunes, Réka Aszalós, Francesc Baró, Pam Berry, Gemma Garcia Blanko, Erik Goméz-Baggethun, Laurence Carvalho, Jan Dick, Robert Dunford, Mihail Hanzu, Paula A. Harrison, Zita Izakovicova, Miklós Kertész, Leena Kopperoinen, Berit Köhler, Johannes Langemeyer, David Lapola, Camino Liquete, Sandra Luque, Peter Mederly, Jari Niemelä, Ignacio Palomo, Guillermo Martinez Pastur, Pablo Luis Peri, Elena Preda, Jörg A. Priess, Rui Santos, Christian Schleyer, Francis Turkelboom, Angheluta Vadineanu, Wim Verheyden, Suvi Vikström, Juliette Young
      The promise that ecosystem service assessments will contribute to better decision-making is not yet proven. We analyse how knowledge on ecosystem services is actually used to inform land and water management in 22 case studies covering different social-ecological systems in European and Latin American countries. None of the case studies reported instrumental use of knowledge in a sense that ecosystem service knowledge would have served asan impartial arbiter between policy options. Yet, in most cases, there was some evidence of conceptual learning as a result of close interaction between researchers, practitioners and stakeholders. We observed several factors that constrained knowledge uptake, including competing interests and political agendas, scientific disputes, professional norms and competencies, and lack of vertical and horizontal integration. Ecosystem knowledge played a small role particularly in those planning and policy-making situations where it challenged established interests and the current distribution of benefits from ecosystems. The factors that facilitated knowledge use included application of transparent participatory methods, social capital, policy champions and clear synergies between ecosystem services and human well-being. The results are aligned with previous studies which have emphasized the importance of building local capacity, ownership and trust for the long-term success of ecosystem service research.

      PubDate: 2017-09-15T17:40:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.019
       
  • Integrating ecosystem service bundles and socio-environmental conditions
           – A national scale analysis from Germany
    • Authors: Andreas Dittrich; Ralf Seppelt; Tomáš Václavík; Anna F. Cord
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Andreas Dittrich, Ralf Seppelt, Tomáš Václavík, Anna F. Cord
      Understanding the relationship and spatial distribution of multiple ecosystem services (ES) in the context of underlying socio-environmental conditions is an essential element of national ecosystem assessments. Here, we use Germany as an example to present a reproducible blueprint approach for mapping and analysing ecosystem service bundles (ESB) and associated socio-environmental gradients. We synthesized spatial indicators of eleven provisioning, regulating and cultural ES in Germany and used the method of self-organizing maps (SOM) to define and map ESBs. Likewise, we collated data from 18 covariates to delineate socio-environmental clusters (SEC). Finally, we used an overlap analysis to characterise the relationship between the spatial configuration of ESBs and co-occurring SECs. We identified and mapped eight types of ESBs that were characterized to varying degrees by provisioning, cultural and regulating/maintenance services. While ESBs dominated by provisioning ES were linked to regions with distinct environmental characteristics, cultural ESBs were associated with areas where environmental and socio-economic gradients had similar importance. Furthermore, spatial stratification of ESBs indicated hot spots where more detailed analysis is needed within national assessments. Our approach can serve as a blueprint for ESB analysis that can be reproduced in other geographical and environmental settings.

      PubDate: 2017-09-09T17:13:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.007
       
  • Expanding the protected area network in Namibia: An institutional analysis
    • Authors: Lelani M. Mannetti; Thomas Göttert; Ulrich Zeller; Karen J. Esler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Lelani M. Mannetti, Thomas Göttert, Ulrich Zeller, Karen J. Esler
      Protected areas remain vital to global conservation efforts. To simultaneously improve biodiversity conservation and promote human well-being, protected areas cannot be considered separate from their surrounding landscapes. As such, protected areas and adjacent landscapes are increasingly being viewed as integrated. Planning for such multifunctional landscapes requires an understanding of the institutional context, since institutions serve as an interface between the social and ecological components of a system. Here, we assessed the institutional aspects (i.e. norms or rules-in-use) of including various land use practices around Etosha National Park in Namibia into an integrated conservation landscape. The present landscape provides several ecological benefits, including provisioning ecosystem services (pasturage and water) and cultural ecosystem services (hunting and tourism). Data on stakeholder perspectives and resource governance were obtained from semi-structured interviews conducted with park management, landowners, farmers and communal residents. We identified six distinct resource governance systems, each variably focused on ecosystem services and each guided by different institutions that shape stakeholder behavior. A broad repertoire of norms and shared strategies were found to be practiced in isolation from each other and constrained by land tenure. Expanding the protected area network requires integration of the different governance approaches and a landscape approach to management.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.008
       
  • Ecosystem services mapping for detection of bundles, synergies and
           trade-offs: Examples from two Norwegian municipalities
    • Authors: Martina Fernandez-Campo; Beatriz Rodríguez-Morales; Wenche E. Dramstad; Wendy Fjellstad; Emilio R. Diaz-Varela
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Martina Fernandez-Campo, Beatriz Rodríguez-Morales, Wenche E. Dramstad, Wendy Fjellstad, Emilio R. Diaz-Varela
      The main objective of this work was to analyse how increased harvesting for bioenergy production might affect other Ecosystem Services (ES) in two Norwegian municipalities (Ringsaker and Voss). The aim was to identify locations where synergies or conflicts between ES could be expected. The spatial distribution of eight different ES (3 provision, 3 regulation and 2 cultural services) was modelled using information provided by land use spatial databases and additional data sources. Model parameters were set by integrating existing research and expert knowledge. Maps showing the level of provision of ES were analysed using a moving window to analyse scale dependence in the spatial distribution of ES provision. Map algebra was then used to identify areas providing multiple ES, thus defining the most important areas on which to focus the management of both synergies and trade-offs. Finally, specific ‘binary bundles’ maps, where bioenergy provision was compared with each of the other ES, were developed. The methodology proved its utility to assess the compatibility of bioenergy uses with other services. This straightforward approach is readily replicable in other regions and can be used as a decision support tool for planning and designing provision areas, and to ensure sustainable forest management approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.005
       
  • An assessment method of ecosystem services based on stakeholders
           
    • Authors: Hélène Rey-Valette; Syndhia Mathé; Jean Michel Salles
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Hélène Rey-Valette, Syndhia Mathé, Jean Michel Salles
      Using a classification of existing approaches in environment economics and ecological economics, this article presents a method of valuing ecosystem services based on perception surveys. It assesses, on one hand, the level of familiarity with services among a diverse array of stakeholders, citizens and/or service users- and, on the other hand, appraises the relative importance of all the services pertaining to a defined geographical area using two indicators, citation frequency and hierarchical ranking of services selected. In accordance with pragmatist principles, the relative nature of the approach is designed to improve the quality of the assessment. The incentive role of information is given priority to identify learning and communication measures that encourage pro-environmental behaviour and voluntary, individual and collective measures in favour of ecosystem service conservation. The protocol proposed also enables additional information to be collected, especially on the rationale behind choices or the level of familiarity with services. An illustration provided by a case study attests to the pertinence and efficiency of the method which can be used as a tool for decision-making support at regional levels and assisting governance and the enhancement of ecosystem heritage.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.002
       
  • New EU-scale environmental scenarios until 2050 – Scenario process and
           initial scenario applications
    • Authors: Joerg A. Priess; Jennifer Hauck; Roy Haines-Young; Rob Alkemade; Maryia Mandryk; Clara Veerkamp; Bela Gyorgyi; Rob Dunford; Pam Berry; Paula Harrison; Jan Dick; Hans Keune; Marcel Kok; Leena Kopperoinen; Tanya Lazarova; Joachim Maes; György Pataki; Elena Preda; Christian Schleyer; Christoph Görg; Angheluta Vadineanu; Grazia Zulian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Joerg A. Priess, Jennifer Hauck, Roy Haines-Young, Rob Alkemade, Maryia Mandryk, Clara Veerkamp, Bela Gyorgyi, Rob Dunford, Pam Berry, Paula Harrison, Jan Dick, Hans Keune, Marcel Kok, Leena Kopperoinen, Tanya Lazarova, Joachim Maes, György Pataki, Elena Preda, Christian Schleyer, Christoph Görg, Angheluta Vadineanu, Grazia Zulian
      Understanding uncertainties and risks can be considered to be the main motivation behind environmental scenario studies to assess potential economic, environmental, social or technical developments and their expected consequences for society and environment. The scenario study presented in this paper was designed to contribute to the question of how natural capital and ecosystem services may evolve in Europe under different socio-environmental conditions. The study was conducted as part of OpenNESS, an on-going EU FP7 research project. We present the iterative participatory scenario process, the storylines and drivers, examples for regional applications, as well as initial feedback from stakeholders. In a participatory iterative approach four scenarios were developed for the period to 2050, involving regional and EU-level users and stakeholders. Subsequently, scenarios were successfully contextualised and applied in regional place-based studies under widely differing socio-environmental conditions. Regional teams used different approaches to adapt storylines and drivers to the regional contexts. In an internal evaluation process among regional stakeholders some participants expressed concerns about the scenario method. Suggestions are made how to overcome these limitations. However, most participants approved the scenario method, especially in terms of provoking discussions, and confirmed the usefulness and applicability of the approach.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.08.006
       
  • Defining core areas of ecological infrastructure to secure rural
           livelihoods in South Africa
    • Authors: Ayanda Sigwela; Marine Elbakidze; Mike Powell; Per Angelstam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Ayanda Sigwela, Marine Elbakidze, Mike Powell, Per Angelstam
      Indigenous communities in South Africa are severely affected by land degradation and global climate change, which lead to decline in the provision of multiple ecosystem services (ES) important for rural livelihoods. Spatial planning towards functional ecological infrastructure (EI) for sustainable rural livelihoods requires evidence-based knowledge about what land covers are of most importance, why, and where they are located. This study identifies potential core areas of EI that deliver ES necessary for livelihoods of rural communities, as well as those land covers that provide disservices using the Tsitsa catchment in Eastern Cape, South Africa as a case study. Face-to-face structured interviews (n=308) were conducted to define rural and urban people's desired ES in the catchment's 23 land covers and the most unwanted land covers. Both urban and rural respondents from indigenous communities view rivers, grasslands and forest plantations as the most wanted land covers that provide multiple ES important for their livelihoods. The most unwanted are dongas, grasslands in poor condition, and barren rocks. We discuss the need for landscape restoration in order to sustain the provision of ES important for livelihoods of rural communities and develop strategies for EI management in communal lands.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.010
       
  • How do ecosystem services perform in enforceable law' Potentials and
           pitfalls within regional and national integration
    • Authors: V. Mauerhofer; I. Laza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): V. Mauerhofer, I. Laza
      Ecosystem services have constituted a highly discussed topic especially since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. This is in particular valid for the literature in environmental sciences and related economic sciences. The topic has gained less attention in other social sciences and up until now legal scholars have hardly taken up the issue for an in-depth analysis. Moreover in the legal practice the term has not played any substantial role apart from its inclusion in soft law documents that lack concrete and effective implementation including enforcement mechanisms. This paper addresses the issue of inclusion of the term ecosystem services in legislative documents with such mechanisms. Starting from a neutral position, it discusses the potentials and pitfalls of such an inclusion in the light of the ongoing contradictory discourse about the concept of ecosystem services. This is done by an in-depth review of existing academic literature as well as by empirical quantitative research on EU-law, and by a case study. This case study concerns the on-going assessment of the inclusion of the term ecosystem services into a binding legal act of regional integration on the example of the Regulation of the European Union (EU) on Invasive Alien species. The analysis also covers primary data derived from questionnaires and interviews completed by a wide range of stakeholders from two member states of the EU. The results provide an overview of opportunities and challenges of the inclusion of the term ecosystem services in this particular context of binding and enforceable regional integration law based also on a practical example. The ongoing implementation of this EU-Regulation can provide a blueprint for similar situations of coordinated legislative procedures between different levels of law-making and its implementation including enforcement. These situations can occur beyond a nation's borders or within. Similar research has not been implemented yet according to the knowledge of the authors. Therefore, the results of this contribution provide innovative insights into an ongoing legislative procedure with binding rules on ecosystem services and useful hinds for similar other prospective attempts worldwide.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.006
       
  • Strategic water source areas for urban water security: Making the
           connection between protecting ecosystems and benefiting from their
           services
    • Authors: Jeanne L. Nel; David C. Le Maitre; Dirk J. Roux; Christine Colvin; Janis S. Smith; Lindie B. Smith-Adao; Ashton Maherry; Nadia Sitas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Jeanne L. Nel, David C. Le Maitre, Dirk J. Roux, Christine Colvin, Janis S. Smith, Lindie B. Smith-Adao, Ashton Maherry, Nadia Sitas
      Strategic water source areas are those areas that have a relatively high natural runoff in the region of interest, which is made accessible for supporting the region’s population or economy. These areas contribute substantially to development needs, often far away from the source. This disconnect between ecosystem service supply and use means that the social-ecological impacts of development decisions in these areas may not be obvious to users and decision makers. We identified 22 strategic water source areas in southern Africa linked to major urban centers. We quantified the population size and economy they support, and their current levels of protection. We found that strategic water source areas form only 8% of the land area but contribute 50% of the runoff. When linked to downstream urban centers, these areas support at least 51% of South Africa’s population and 64% of its economy. Yet only 13% of their land area is formally protected. We recommend using multiple strategies for the legal protection of these areas. Identifying strategic water source areas and their links to downstream users offers an opportunity for achieving synergy in spatial planning across diverse policy sectors, and enables new patterns of collaboration between government, business and civil society.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.013
       
  • Legal framing for achieving ‘good ecological status’ for Malaysian
           rivers: Are there lessons to be learned from the EU Water Framework
           Directive'
    • Authors: Rasyikah Md Khalid; Mazlin Bin Mokhtar; Faridah Jalil; Suhaimi Ab Rahman; Christopher Spray
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Rasyikah Md Khalid, Mazlin Bin Mokhtar, Faridah Jalil, Suhaimi Ab Rahman, Christopher Spray
      River degradation and loss of ecosystem services due to pollution and deforestation poses a great challenge for a holistic and sustainable river basin management. In Malaysia, about two third of its rivers are categorized as slightly polluted or polluted and this has led to the loss of ecosystem services in many of its river basins, notably in the rapidly developed Langat River Basin. The general historic legal responses to pollution control like water quality standards and gazettal of protected areas seems to rectify the problem as it occurs but is unsustainable. In other parts of the world, there has been a rise in alternative framings of river basin management like the Ecosystem Services Approach (ESA), integrated river basin management (IRBM), catchment based and stakeholder led river management; and these are seen as one way forward for sustainable basin management. The aim of this paper is to explore whether such framings can be implemented in Malaysia based on the current legal and federalism framework. It identifies the major causes and drivers of the polluted and poor state of Langat River and its tributaries and how might an alternative approach improve the situation. Towards this end, a comparative analysis is made with the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its implementation in the Tweed UNESCO HELP basin. Particularly, it explores the application of the subsidiarity principle that allows decision making to be made by agencies closest to the problem within the basin. It concludes that redefining the role of levels of government in IRBM and stakeholder engagement can speed up the process of reframing the Langat IRBM to reduce river pollution and enhance the ecosystem services of the basin.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.015
       
  • The means determine the end – Pursuing integrated valuation in
           practice
    • Authors: Sander Jacobs; Berta Martín-López; David N. Barton; Robert Dunford; Paula A. Harrison; Eszter Kelemen; Heli Saarikoski; Mette Termansen; Marina García-Llorente; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Leena Kopperoinen; Sandra Luque; Ignacio Palomo; Joerg A. Priess; Graciela M. Rusch; Patrizia Tenerelli; Francis Turkelboom; Rolinde Demeyer; Jennifer Hauck; Hans Keune; Ron Smith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Sander Jacobs, Berta Martín-López, David N. Barton, Robert Dunford, Paula A. Harrison, Eszter Kelemen, Heli Saarikoski, Mette Termansen, Marina García-Llorente, Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Leena Kopperoinen, Sandra Luque, Ignacio Palomo, Joerg A. Priess, Graciela M. Rusch, Patrizia Tenerelli, Francis Turkelboom, Rolinde Demeyer, Jennifer Hauck, Hans Keune, Ron Smith
      In environmental valuation, although it is well recognised that the choice of method heavily affects the outcome, little is known on how existing valuation methods actually elicit the different values. Through the assessment of real-life applications of valuation of nature, this study tracks down the suitability of 21 valuation methods for 11 value types and assesses the methodological requirements for their operationalization. We found that different valuation methods have different suitabilities to elicit diverse value-types. Some methods are more specialized than others, but every method has blind spots, which implies risks of biased decision-making. We summarized different value-types according to three value dimensions: non-anthropocentric, relational and instrumental. No single valuation method is able to capture this full spectrum of values of nature. Covering all value dimensions requires careful selection of complementary valuation methods. This study also demonstrates that performing such an integrated valuation does not necessarily entail more resources, as for every value dimension, methods with low to medium operational requirements are available. With this study, we aim to provide guidance for selecting a complementary set of valuation methods in order to develop integrated valuation in practice that includes values of all stakeholders into environmental decision-making.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T10:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.011
       
  • Towards systematic analyses of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies:
           Main concepts, methods and the road ahead
    • Authors: Anna F. Cord; Bartosz Bartkowski; Michael Beckmann; Andreas Dittrich; Kathleen Hermans-Neumann; Andrea Kaim; Nele Lienhoop; Karla Locher-Krause; Jörg Priess; Christoph Schröter-Schlaack; Nina Schwarz; Ralf Seppelt; Michael Strauch; Tomáš Václavík; Martin Volk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Anna F. Cord, Bartosz Bartkowski, Michael Beckmann, Andreas Dittrich, Kathleen Hermans-Neumann, Andrea Kaim, Nele Lienhoop, Karla Locher-Krause, Jörg Priess, Christoph Schröter-Schlaack, Nina Schwarz, Ralf Seppelt, Michael Strauch, Tomáš Václavík, Martin Volk
      Ecosystem services (ES), the benefits that humans obtain from nature, are of great importance for human well-being. The challenge of meeting the growing human demands for natural resources while sustaining essential ecosystem functions and resilience requires an in-depth understanding of the complex relationships between ES. These conflicting (‘trade-offs’) or synergistic (‘synergies’) relationships mean that changes in one ES can cause changes in other ES. By synthesizing the growing body of literature on ES relationships, we identified the following four main study objectives: (i) the identification and characterization of co-occurrences of ES, (ii) the identification of drivers that shape ES relationships, (iii) the exploration of biophysical constraints of landscapes and limitations to their multifunctionality, and (iv) the support of environmental planning, management and policy decisions. For each of these objectives we here describe the key concepts, including viewpoints of different disciplines, and highlight the major challenges that need to be addressed. We identified three cross-cutting themes being relevant to all four main types of studies. To help guiding researchers towards more systematic analyses of ES trade-offs and synergies, we conclude with an outlook on suggested future research priorities.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T14:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.07.012
       
 
 
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