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Journal Cover Ecosystem Services
   [5 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [H-I: 1]
  • Assessing and valuing peatland ecosystem services for sustainable
           management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): M.S. Reed , A. Bonn , C. Evans , K. Glenk , B. Hansjürgens



      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Conservation and livelihood outcomes of payment for ecosystem services in
           the Ecuadorian Andes: What is the potential for
           ‘win–win’?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Leah L. Bremer , Kathleen A. Farley , David Lopez-Carr , José Romero
      Payment for ecosystem services programs are being implemented in a wide variety of settings, but whether and in what contexts such programs present ‘win–win’ scenarios that simultaneously improve human well-being and achieve conservation goals remains poorly understood. Based on semi-structured interviews with early program participants enrolling either collectively- or individually-held land, we evaluated whether and how SocioPáramo, a national-scale PES program targeting Ecuadorian Andean grasslands (páramos), has the potential to contribute to local livelihoods (financial, natural, social, human, and physical capital) and sustainable resource management. Low conservation opportunity costs associated with pre-existing constraints on land use and the existence of alternative livelihood options appeared to facilitate largely positive financial capital outcomes, although we found reduced financial capital among some smaller and medium-sized landholders who were required to eliminate burning and grazing. We found the greatest potential for improved social, financial, and natural capital among well-organized community participants enrolling collective land, while greater attention to building capacity of individual smaller landholders could improve outcomes for those participants. These results help fill a gap in knowledge by drawing on empirical data to demonstrate how divergent outcomes have begun to emerge among different groups of SocioPáramo participants, providing lessons for PES program design.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Ecosystem protection and poverty alleviation in the tropics: Perspective
           from a historical evolution of policy-making in the Brazilian Amazon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Patricia Fernanda Pinho , Genevieve Patenaude , Jean P Ometto , Patrick Meir , Peter M Toledo , Andrea Coelho , Carlos Eduardo Frickman Young
      Despite increased intellectual and conceptual consideration of the linkages between ecosystem service (ES) provisions and poverty alleviation (PA) globally, there has been limited analysis of how these paradigms are used and framed in the regional context of policy-making. In this paper, we address this question by eliciting perspectives on the historical evolution of policies addressing the environment and poverty nexus in the Brazilian Amazon. Our analysis is twofold. First, through an analysis of policy context, we explore how multilateral and international programs have influenced and helped shape national and regional policy-making in the Amazon. Second, through our analysis of policy content, we provide an in-depth discussion of key ES and/or PA policies implemented in the Amazon. Furthermore, we analyze the operationalization of the policy, describe management options, and highlight their impacts on ES and PA. Our results show dichotomies between environmental programs and their social effectiveness, and between environmental and developmental agendas. More recently, however, some attempts have been made at delivering ES protection and PA jointly in policy-making. In conclusion, we provide a framework for policy analysis that can be applied to other tropical countries in the world. If Brazil is to keep its leading role in addressing the challenges of maintaining ecosystem service provision, while alleviating poverty in the Amazon, it must learn from its own experiences.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • What benefits do community forests provide, and to whom? A rapid
           assessment of ecosystem services from a Himalayan forest, Nepal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Jennifer C. Birch , Ishana Thapa , Andrew Balmford , Richard B. Bradbury , Claire Brown , Stuart H.M. Butchart , Hum Gurung , Francine M.R. Hughes , Mark Mulligan , Bhopal Pandeya , Kelvin S.-H. Peh , Alison J. Stattersfield , Matt Walpole , David H.L. Thomas
      In Nepal, community forestry is part of a national strategy for livelihoods improvement and environmental protection. However, analysis of the social, economic and environmental impacts of community forestry is often limited, restricted to a narrow set of benefits (e.g. non-timber forest products) and rarely makes comparisons with alternative land-use options (e.g. agriculture). This study, conducted at Phulchoki Mountain Forest Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) in the Kathmandu Valley, used methods from the Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessment (TESSA) to compare multiple ecosystem service values (including carbon storage, greenhouse gas sequestration, water provision, water quality, harvested wild goods, cultivated goods and nature-based recreation) provided by the site in its current state and a plausible alternative state in which community forestry had not been implemented. We found that outcomes from community forestry have been favourable for most stakeholders, at most scales, for most services and for important biodiversity at the site. However, not all ecosystem services can be maximised simultaneously, and impacts of land-use decisions on service beneficiaries appear to differ according to socio-economic factors. The policy implications of our findings are discussed in the context of proposals to designate Phulchoki Mountain Forest IBA as part of a Conservation Area.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Locally assessing the economic viability of blue carbon: A case study from
           Panay Island, the Philippines
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Benjamin S. Thompson , Colin P. Clubbe , Jurgenne H. Primavera , David Curnick , Heather J. Koldewey
      Previous blue carbon studies have focused on discrete carbon stock assessments and overarching systematic reviews which broadly speculate that it may be economically viable to incorporate mangroves into existing carbon finance platforms. There is a discernible need to test this hypothesis through case-specific investigations that determine this presumed viability in a local or regional context – at scales meaningful for policy development. The current study investigates whether the carbon values of mangrove forests on Panay Island, the Philippines, are sufficient to offset the opportunity costs of milkfish (Chanos chanos) aquaculture – the primary cause of mangrove deforestation in the Philippines. Profit margins associated with milkfish aquaculture are calculated through a municipality-wide survey (779±140US$ha−1 yr−1). Concurrently, the carbon stocks of two heterogeneous mangrove forests are quantified and compared. Creditable CO2 emissions reductions are modelled under a broad range of assumptions. These emissions are valorised, and a sensitivity analysis is performed to establish the minimum price at which opportunity costs are offset across a range of methodological and accounting preferences. It is determined that carbon prices of around 5–12US$tCO2e−1 would be required to compensate landowners for their lost aquaculture profits. The implications of our findings are discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Managing cultural ecosystem services
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Mary M. Pleasant , Steven A. Gray , Christopher Lepczyk , Anthea Fernandes , Nathan Hunter , Derek Ford
      Cultural ecosystem services (CES) substantially contribute to human wellbeing as the nonmaterial benefits of ecosystems. However, they remain poorly understood due to their often nonmarket and intangible nature. We analyzed management characteristics of coastal and watershed – based CES in contrast to provisioning and regulatory services from surveys of environmental managers in Hawaii. CES were the most frequently managed type of ecosystem service, a top management priority among local-scale decision-makers and nongovernmental organizations, and managed for security. However, only 10% of managers could articulate specific policies they used to manage CES. Follow-up interviews with a subset of managers further revealed that half of all CES managed were considered to benefit people beyond the spatial scale in which management decisions were made. Identifying management characteristics of CES will inform the development of indicators to monitor changes in CES, and develop policies that maintain the relationship between ecosystem function, CES and human wellbeing.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Integrated assessment of ecosystem services in the Czech Republic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Jana Frélichová , David Vačkář , Adam Pártl , Blanka Loučková , Zuzana V. Harmáčková , Lorencová Eliška
      Mainstreaming the concept of ecosystem services has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Initially, most studies on ecosystem services assessments addressed global, sub-global or local levels. More recently, development of ecosystem services assessments at national level has been emphasized. Following this trend, integrated assessment of ecosystem services has been performed in the Czech Republic. Our study aimed to identify and value ecosystem services delivered in the Czech Republic. To estimate the total value of Czech ecosystems, we developed a geographically-specific database of ecosystem service values. The structure of the assessment is given by six ecosystem types (agricultural ecosystems, grasslands, forests, aquatic ecosystems, wetlands and urban areas) and 17 ecosystem services delivered from these ecosystems. Ecosystem types are further classified into 41 ecosystem categories based on a habitat approach. Specific literature review strategy was conducted to fill the database with biophysical and economic values of ecosystem services. Developed database consists of more than 190 values of ecosystem services, approximately half of them has been used for a benefit transfer to calculate total ecosystem values in the Czech Republic. The resulting average value of ecosystem services in the Czech Republic represents 1.5 the current national GNP (gross national product).


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • A guiding framework for ecosystem services monetization in
           ecological–economic modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Mateo Cordier , José A. Pérez Agúndez , Walter Hecq , Bertrand Hamaide
      Monetary valuation techniques are often used for evaluating the effect of a change in ecosystem services on components of human wellbeing, even though they face several drawbacks. This paper seeks to reconcile monetary valuation techniques with methods that address ecosystem–economy interactions by developing a guiding framework that limits the use of monetary valuation to various market simulations. Simulations of scenarios of environmental measures are carried out with a semi-dynamic hybrid input–output model. The guiding framework ensures that monetary valuation techniques contribute to the understanding of the impact of economic activities on changes in ecosystems services and the feedback impact of these changes on economic activities. The framework operates according to three criteria: (i) the category of ecosystem components (intermediate products, ecosystem services, benefits obtained from the ecosystem), (ii) existence of a market, intention to exchange or possibility for restoration or preservation, and (iii) direct/indirect monetary valuation techniques. The methodology is then tested with a case-study.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • A framework for valuing spatially targeted peatland restoration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Klaus Glenk , Marije Schaafsma , Andrew Moxey , Julia Martin-Ortega , Nick Hanley
      Recent evidence suggests that the degree of degradation of peatlands is substantial, and that there is a significant potential to enhance the delivery of a wide range of ecosystem services by investing in peatland restoration. However, little is known about the social welfare impacts of peatland restoration and in particular how to spatially target restoration activities to maximise net benefits from investments in restoration. This paper investigates the steps required to conduct a spatially explicit economic impact assessment of peatland restoration, and highlights and discusses key requirements and issues associated with such an assessment. We find that spatially explicit modelling of the biophysical impacts of restoration over time is challenging due to non-linear effects and interaction effects. This has repercussions for the spatially explicit assessment of costs and benefits, which in itself is a demanding task. We conclude that the gains of investing in the research needed to conduct such an assessment can be high, both in terms of advancing science and in terms of providing useful information for decision makers.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • The Justices and Injustices of Ecosystem Services. Thomas Sikor (Ed.),
           Routledge, London (2013). 210 pp., 24,99 GBP, ISBN: 978-0-415-82540-5
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Frederik H. Kistenkas



      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • The current and future value of nature-based tourism in the Eastern Arc
           Mountains of Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Julian Bayliss , Marije Schaafsma , Andrew Balmford , Neil D. Burgess , Jonathan M.H. Green , Seif S. Madoffe , Sana Okayasu , Kelvin S.-H. Peh , Philip J. Platts , Douglas W. Yu
      The financial benefit derived from nature-based tourism in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAMs) of Tanzania has never been assessed. Here, we calculate the producer surplus (PS) related to expenditure on accommodation in the EAMs. This estimate is based on the number of visitor bed-nights collected from a representative sample of hotels, coupled with spatially explicit regression models to extrapolate visitor numbers to unsampled locations, and adjusted to account for how far visits were motivated by nature. The estimated annual PS of nature-based tourism is ~US$195,000. In order to evaluate the future impact of different forest management regimes on PS over a 25 year period, we compare two alternative scenarios of land use. Under a ‘hopeful expectations’ scenario of no forest loss from protected areas, the present value of PS from nature-based tourism is ~US$1.9 million, compared with US$1.6 million under a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario. Although the value of nature-based tourism to the EAMs is lower than that generated by Tanzania׳s large game reserves, these revenues, together with other ecosystem services provided by the area, such as carbon storage and water regulation, may enhance the case for sustainable forest management.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • A methodology for the assessment of local-scale changes in marine
           environmental benefits and its application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Tara Hooper , Philip Cooper , Alistair Hunt , Melanie Austen
      Local-scale planning decisions are required by the existing Environmental Impact Assessment process to take account of the implications of a development on a range of environmental and social factors, and could therefore be supported by an ecosystem services approach. However, empirical assessments at a local scale within the marine environment have focused on only a single or limited set of services. This paper tests the applicability of the ecosystem services approach to environmental impact appraisal by considering how the identification and quantification of a comprehensive suite of benefits provided at a local scale might proceed in practice. A methodology for conducting an Environmental Benefits Assessment (EBA) is proposed, the underlying framework for which follows the recent literature by placing the emphasis on ecosystem benefits, as opposed to services. The EBA methodology also proposes metrics that can be quantified at local scale, and is tested using a case study of a hypothetical tidal barrage development in the Taw Torridge estuary in North Devon, UK. By suggesting some practical steps for assessing environmental benefits, this study aims to stimulate discussion and so advance the development of methods for implementing ecosystem service approaches at a local scale.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 7




      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Editorial of Volume 7
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 7
      Author(s): Leon Braat



      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Ecosystem services management tool development guidelines and framework
           revision for industries, industry policy makers and industry groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 7
      Author(s): Jarkko Havas , Takanori Matsui , Robert N. Shaw , Takashi Machimura
      The role of industries is important in a holistic ecosystem services management framework that includes government, consumers and private sector. To this end, the need to include more industries into ecosystem services management and conservation is being constantly mentioned by the international community. Here, the purpose of this paper is to find ways to consider industries needs in ecosystem services management better. This was done through identifying aspects that need revising in the current ecosystem services management framework and proposing new guidelines for ecosystem services management tool development. To achieve this, first an ecosystem services dependency management platform for the sectors of the Japanese economy was developed. Second, utilizing this platform and the current ecosystem services management framework, expert evaluation interviews were conducted in order to find potential development aspects. Third, using the results of these interviews, tool development guidelines were proposed and a revision for the framework was conducted. The importance of regularly revising tool requirements and the framework according to new information was underlined.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Accurate accounting: How to balance ecosystem services and disservices
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 7
      Author(s): Julie Shapiro , András Báldi



      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Spatial variation in the willingness to accept payments for conservation
           of a migratory wildlife corridor in the Athi-Kaputiei Plains, Kenya
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Joyce M. de Leeuw , Mohammed Y. Said , Shem Kifugo , Joseph O. Ogutu , Philip Osano , Jan de Leeuw
      To be effective in promoting the conservation of migratory wildlife, recipients of payment for ecosystem services (PES) must be willing to accept payment along the entire migratory corridor. This paper investigates spatial variation in willingness to accept (WTA) payments made by the Wildlife Conservation Lease Program in the Athi-Kaputiei plains of Kenya. The program, designed as an incentive to keep land open for wildlife and livestock, offers land owners 10 US$ per ha per year, irrespective of location. We model the relation between WTA and distances to roads, towns and rivers, annual precipitation and slope and display the predicted spatial variation in WTA. The results reveal significant spatial variation in willingness to accept payments for availing land for conservation, with higher WTA concentrated away from roads and also in the Southeast of the plains. The results further suggest that wildlife movement will be blocked due to low WTA in the proximity of towns and tarmacked roads. We conclude that an effective strategy to keep the land open for migratory wildlife should consider spatial variation in WTA payment for land lease. It is suggested to consider stratifying the lease rates geographically to reflect the underlying spatial variation in WTA.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Assessment of environmental payments on indigenous territories: The case
           of Cabecar-Talamanca, Costa Rica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Sergio A. Molina Murillo , Juan Pablo Pérez Castillo , María Elena Herrera Ugalde
      The Costa Rican Program of Payments for Environmental Services (PPES) is a global pioneering financing policy mechanism for the promotion of forest protection and expansion. This program currently transfers a significant amount of money to indigenous territories; however, its performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. In this study we assessed for the first time in a comprehensive manner the performance of this national program in an indigenous territory. We created and validated, with the aid of a panel of experts, an evaluation instrument that contains social, economic, and environmental criteria and indicators. After applying the instrument in the Talamanca-Cabecar indigenous territory (TCIT), the PPES obtained 48.7 percent, accomplishing significant results in aspects framed within the goals of sustainable development. We found that the TCIT allocates most of the payment money into capacity building, which has resulted in substantive improvements in their negotiation, management, and leadership skills; this in turn helps to attract investments from other public and private entities, protecting and promoting its natural capital. As similar programs are adopted in multiple countries based on the Costa Rican example, this study provides an important methodological contribution to enlighten future environmental and socioeconomic financing policies aiming to support indigenous territories.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Utility engagement with payments for watershed services in the United
           States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Drew E. Bennett , Hannah Gosnell , Susan Lurie , Sally Duncan
      This research demonstrates the growing use of payments for watershed services (PWS) by drinking water, wastewater, and electric utilities in the USA to meet a variety of objectives and considers the potential these widespread and long established institutions hold in driving PWS implementation and mainstreaming ecosystem services approaches. We developed a working typology highlighting similarities and differences among 37 identified programs covering source water protection, fire risk mitigation, point source pollution offsets, voluntary customer offsets, and hydropower mitigation. We identified six distinct mechanisms for funding the identified programs. Sales taxes and bond measures generated the most annual funding per capita while voluntary ratepayer contributions and donated water conservation savings generated the least. A variety of actors were involved in the implementation of these different programs. Notably, nonprofit organizations were critical to each program type and often acted as important intermediaries, facilitating transactions among utilities and landowners. We found these initiatives face multiple challenges including the difficulty of demonstrating the business case for investments in ecosystem services and changes in the regulatory environment that can decrease ecosystem service demand and limit flexibility in pursuing PWS approaches.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Overcoming the challenges of data scarcity in mapping marine ecosystem
           service potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Michael Townsend , Simon F. Thrush , Andrew M. Lohrer , Judi E. Hewitt , Carolyn J. Lundquist , Megan Carbines , Malene Felsing
      Ecosystem services (ES) are a valuable way of defining the benefits derived from natural resources and are essential for balancing human exploitive uses with the preservation of natural capital. In marine ecosystems real world application of ES theory is hindered by inadequate knowledge of the distribution of communities and habitats and the ecosystem functions that they provide. Here, we present a new approach for mapping ecosystem service potential for multiple services when the details necessary for full quantification are unobtainable. By defining services from a series of principles based on current ecological understanding and linking these to marine biophysical parameters, we developed ecosystem service maps for the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. These maps were verified by statistical comparisons to available ecological information in well studied areas in the region. Such maps allow planners, managers and stakeholders to explicitly consider ES in ecosystem-based management (EBM) including marine spatial planning (MSP). Our approach provides a systems perspective, by emphasising connectivity between processes and locations and highlighting the potential range of trade-offs available for multi-objective management of marine systems.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Predicting land-use change for biodiversity conservation and
           climate-change mitigation and its effect on ecosystem services in a
           watershed in Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Kikuko Shoyama , Yoshiki Yamagata
      Potential conflicts between biodiversity conservation and climate-change mitigation can result in trade-offs in multiple-use land management. This study aimed to detect possible changes in land-use patterns in response to biodiversity conservation and climate-change mitigation measures and the effects on ecosystem services across a watershed. We analyzed land-cover change based on past and future scenarios in the rural Kushiro watershed in northern Japan. The analysis showed that if no conservation measures were implemented and the timber and agricultural industry remained small until 2060, supporting and provisioning services would decline due to less land management. Although biodiversity conservation measures are predicted to improve three of the ecosystem services that we studied, carbon sequestration and timber production would be improved to a greater degree by climate-change mitigation measures. The greatest land-cover changes are likely to occur in the unprotected area around the middle reaches of the Kushiro River, and such changes could affect the provision of ecosystem services throughout the entire watershed. Thus, our findings indicate that landuse decisions for the middle reaches of the watershed are particularly important for managing the integrated ecosystem services of the entire watershed for the future.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • Comparison of methods for quantifying reef ecosystem services: A case
           study mapping services for St. Croix, USVI
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Susan H. Yee , John A. Dittmar , Leah M. Oliver
      A key challenge in evaluating coastal and watershed management decisions is that monitoring efforts are largely focused on reef condition, yet stakeholder concerns may be more appropriately quantified by social and economic metrics. There is an urgent need for predictive models to quantitatively link ecological condition of coral reefs to provisioning of reef ecosystem goods and services. We investigated and compared a number of existing methods for quantifying ecological integrity, shoreline protection, recreational opportunities, fisheries production, and the potential for natural products discovery from reefs. Methods were applied to mapping potential ecosystem services production around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Overall, we found that a number of different methods produced similar predictions. Furthermore, areas predicted to be high in ecological integrity also tended to be high in other ecosystem services, including the potential for recreation, natural products discovery, and fisheries production, but this result depended on the method by which ecosystem services supply was calculated. Quantitative methods linking reef condition to ecosystem goods and services can aid in highlighting the social and economic relevance of reefs, and provide essential information to more completely characterize, model, and map the trade-offs inherent in decision options.


      PubDate: 2014-05-04T07:44:43Z
       
  • What scope for certifying forest ecosystem services?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Erik Meijaard , Sven Wunder , Manuel R. Guariguata , Douglas Sheil
      Ecosystem services have rapidly moved to the mainstream of environmental policies. Certification has for decades been a market-based tool for sustainability. Here, we assess whether certification of ecosystem services supports forest management and conservation. We look at forest ecosystem services, such as water regulation, carbon sequestration, and pollination provision, and evaluate the opportunities and constraints for developing systems to certify them. We discuss a series of challenges, and suggest that caution is needed: insufficient demand for multiple services, high biophysical service complexity, and elevated monitoring costs all indicate that opportunities for large-scale commercial viability of certified forest ecosystem services are limited. While some certification already exists for forest carbon services, we expect the certification of other services to remain a minor niche that seldom justifies major subsidies.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T19:32:57Z
       
  • Farmer participation in the equitable payments for watershed services in
           Morogoro, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Emmanuel J. Kwayu , Susannah M. Sallu , Jouni Paavola
      This article contributes to the limited empirical evidence on the determinants of farmers' participation decision in agricultural land (land use-modifying) payments for ecosystem services (PES) in developing countries. It examines how farmer and farm characteristics, programme factors, and the institutional context of its implementation determine farmers' decisions to participate in the Equitable Payments for Watershed Services (EPWS) programme in Morogoro, Tanzania, to shed light on participation in land use-modifying PES programmes more widely. The EPWS programme in the Kibungo Juu ward of Morogoro promotes the adoption of sustainable land management practices such as agro-forestry, reforestation and terracing to improve quality and quantity of water for downstream users. We used a multi-method approach to make use of both qualitative and quantitative data. We found that farm size, information, participation of farmers in the programme design and the needed degree of change in land management determined the adoption of sustainable land management practices. To foster the participation of small farmers, attention needs to be paid to the availability and access to information, participation of farmers in the design of programmes, local compatibility of practices, and support for initial costs of adoption.


      PubDate: 2014-01-24T19:32:57Z
       
  • Valuing cultural ecosystem services: Agricultural heritage in Chiloé
           island, southern Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): José Barrena , Laura Nahuelhual , Andrea Báez , Ignacio Schiappacasse , Claudia Cerda
      Valuation of cultural ecosystem services (CES) remains one of the most difficult and least accomplished tasks in ecosystem services research. In this study the Contingent Valuation Method with the double bounded dichotomous choice format was used to elicit WTP for agricultural heritage (AH) conservation, which was modeled using a Bivariate Probit specification. The hypothesis tested was that WTP decreased with distance from the site of provision of AH. Results show no significant differences in WTP across locations with equivalent means of US$50.8, US$36.2 and US$52.5 for Chiloé (site of AH provision), Valdivia (at 379km from Chiloé), and Santiago (at 1198km from Chiloé), respectively, suggesting that non-use values can be equally important for local as well as distant populations, particularly when the CES can be ascribed to emblematic cultural landscapes such as Chiloé. Aggregation of individual WTP demonstrates the importance of AH as a highly valued CES and sustains the recent designation of Chiloé as a Global Importance Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) pilot site. The study might prompt authorities to generate the proper incentives to move from just a GIAHS label to a real conservation initiative in Chiloé Island.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T22:53:28Z
       
  • The eco-pri How environmental emergy equates to currency
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Elliott T. Campbell , David R. Tilley
      Energy flows through economies in a hierarchical pattern with vast amounts supporting the base while each step has less and less flowing through it. Money is inextricably connected to many of these energy flows in a countercurrent. At the most aggregated scale of an economy, where its gross domestic product is measured, the mean ratio between the flows of solar emergy and money is known as the emergy-to-dollar ratio (EDR). However, the relationship between solar emergy and money is not constant along the energy hierarchy of an economy. While estimates of this dynamic relationship exist for marketed goods and services, there has been less work to estimate the relationship for nonmarketed services. We develop the “eco-price” to meet the goal of better predicting correlation between environmentally derived services and currency. It is defined as the flow of emergy of an ecosystem service relative to the money estimated to flow as a countercurrent. Twenty-nine eco-prices were estimated from cases of known exchange for water, soil, air pollution and natural resource commodities. The eco-price reconciles the biophysical value of the environment with economic value and extends the capability of emergy analysis to suggest “marketable” monetary values for the work of the environment.


      PubDate: 2014-01-08T19:30:13Z
       
  • Evidence of Payments for Ecosystem Services as a mechanism for supporting
           biodiversity conservation and rural livelihoods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 January 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Jane Carter Ingram , David Wilkie , Tom Clements , Roan Balas McNab , Fred Nelson , Erick Hogan Baur , Hassanali T. Sachedina , David Dean Peterson , Charles Andrew Harold Foley
      Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) represent a mechanism for promoting sustainable management of ecosystem services, and can also be useful for supporting rural development. However, few studies have demonstrated quantitatively the benefits for biodiversity and rural communities resulting from PES. In this paper we review four initiatives in Guatemala, Cambodia, and Tanzania that were designed to support the conservation of biodiversity through the use of community-based PES. Each case study documents the utility of PES for conserving biodiversity and enhancing rural livelihoods and, from these examples, we distill general lessons learned about the use of PES for conserving biodiversity and supporting poverty reduction in rural areas of tropical, developing countries.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T19:13:20Z
       
  • A synoptic survey of ecosystem services from headwater catchments in the
           United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Brian H. Hill , Randall K. Kolka , Frank H. McCormick , Matthew A. Starry
      Ecosystem production functions for water supply, climate regulation, and water purification were estimated for 568 headwater streams and their catchments. Results are reported for nine USA ecoregions. Headwater streams represented 74–80% of total catchment stream length. Water supply per unit catchment area was highest in the Northern Appalachian Mountains ecoregion and lowest in the Northern Plains. C, N, and P sequestered in trees were highest in Northern and Southern Appalachian and Western Mountain catchments, but C, N, and P sequestered in soils were highest in the Upper Midwest ecoregion. Catchment denitrification was highest in the Western Mountains. In-stream denitrification was highest in the Temperate Plains. Ecological production functions paired with published economic values for theses services revealed the importance of mountain catchments for water supply, climate regulation, and water purification per unit catchment area. The larger catchment sizes of the plains ecoregions resulted in their higher economic value compared to the other ecoregions. The combined potential economic value across headwater catchments was INT $14,000ha−1 yr−1, or INT $30 millionyr−1 per catchment. The economic importance of headwater catchments is even greater considering that our study catchments statistically represent more than 2 million headwater catchments in the continental United States.


      PubDate: 2013-12-31T20:58:39Z
       
  • Farm households' preferences for collective and individual actions to
           improve water-related ecosystem services: The Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Dawit W. Mulatu , Anne van der Veen , Pieter R. van Oel
      Interventions in payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs can involve both collective and individual actions. This study explores the potential for the development of payment for water related ecosystem services (PWES) program in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. Using a choice experiment approach, the willingness to accept compensation is estimated for three water-related ecosystem services (WES) attributes: one collective attribute (reforestation) and two individual attributes (environment-friendly agricultural practices and restoration of riparian land). Moreover, the preferences of upstream farm households are analysed with regard to sub-basins where a PWES program has already been implemented and sub-basins where it has not been implemented so far. For sub-basins where PWES has already been implemented, environment-friendly agricultural practices is the only significant attribute for local farmers' choice to improve WES. Reforestation and environment friendly agricultural practices are significant attributes for sub-basins where PWES has not been implemented so far. Farm households are willing to accept compensation but there appears to be heterogeneity in preferences for WES attributes. We find differences in farm households' preferences and values for collective and individual actions. Therefore, contrary to the current norm in PES interventions with a uniform compensation scheme, we recommend conservation payments to vary among ecosystem service providers.


      PubDate: 2013-12-22T18:03:43Z
       
  • Payments for ecosystem services and rural development: Landowners'
           preferences and potential participation in western Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 6
      Author(s): Arturo Balderas Torres , Douglas C. MacMillan , Margaret Skutsch , Jon C. Lovett
      Incentive-based mechanisms can contribute to rural development and deliver environmental services, but need to be attractive to landowners and communities to ensure their participation. Here we study the views of landowners and agrarian communities (ejidos) from central Jalisco in Mexico to identify characteristics that payment for environmental services (PES) programs conserving/enhancing forest cover could include in their design. A choice experiment was applied to 161 landowners and ejido-landowners. Results show that importance and dependency on cash payments can decrease if interventions to promote local development through improved health and education services and generation of employment and productive projects are included. Responses indicate that communal forested areas in ejidos would be most likely to enroll into PES. In some cases grasslands could be afforested. Agroforestry practices providing other environmental services could also be implemented (e.g. windbreaks). Potential enrollment is lower in agricultural and peri-urban areas due to higher opportunity costs. Higher payments favor enrollment but may compromise the program's efficiency since aggregated cash-flow over long periods can exceed the present value of the land itself in some areas. Offering a mix of cash and non-cash benefits based on local developmental needs might be the best way to promote participation in PES.


      PubDate: 2013-12-14T00:00:27Z
       
  • Institutional durability of payments for watershed ecosystem services:
           Lessons from two case studies from Colombia and Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 6
      Author(s): Marcela Muñoz Escobar , Robert Hollaender , Camilo Pineda Weffer
      Payment for Watershed Ecosystem Services (PWES) have been widely implemented in both, developing and developed countries as an instrument to resolve upstream – downstream conflicts with effective results. Despite the growing interest in PWES only a few attempts have been made to assess the necessary conditions for designing and operating enduring schemes. This paper addresses the issue of PWES durability from an institutional perspective, drawing on research on the sustainability of common pool resource institutions. This framework is applicable for PWES analysis because of the difficulty of exclusion and rivalness characteristics of watershed ecosystems. Based on this framework, this paper presents an institutional analysis of two different PWES cases: the Bolo River water user association, Colombia; and the organic farming in the catchment area of Mangfalltal, Germany. The results from the analysis showed that despite the context differences, the cases presented more similarities than differences in all the set of conditions analysed, shedding light on relevant conditions for the design and operation of enduring PWES. In addition, the results suggest that lessons learned from common pool resources can be extended to the analysis of resource regimes other than common property, and emphasize the potential applicability of the framework used for assessing lessons about institutional durability from ongoing PWES.


      PubDate: 2013-12-14T00:00:27Z
       
  • Payments for ecosystem services: A review and comparison of developing and
           industrialized countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 6
      Author(s): Sarah Schomers , Bettina Matzdorf
      Payments for ecosystem services (PES) received a lot of academic attention in the past years. However, the concept remains loose and many different conservation approaches are published under the ‘PES label’. We reviewed 457 articles obtained in a structured literature search in order to present an overview of the PES literature. This paper (1) illustrates the different analytical perspectives on PES concepts and types, (2) shows the geographic focus of PES research and (3) identifies the major foci of the overall PES research. The paper finally (4) identifies differences and similarities in conservation programs and main research topics between developing and industrialized countries to (5) disclose potentials for research synergies, should research experiences in the two types of countries be exchanged more deliberately. We demonstrate that only few publications describe Coasean PES approaches. The majority of research refers to national governmental payment programs. The overall design of national PES programs in Latin America resembles the design of those in the US and EU considerably. Programs in the US and EU have been in place longer than most of the frequently published Latin American schemes. However the former are hardly considered in the international PES literature as research is usually published under different terminologies.
      Highlights ► Review on conservation efforts published under Payments for Ecosystem Services. ► Summarizes and compares Coasean, Pigouvian and other PES approaches. ► Shows differences and similarities of PES in developing and industrialized countries. ► Identifies research overlap between developing and industrialized countries.

      PubDate: 2013-12-14T00:00:27Z
       
  • What are PES? A review of definitions and an extension
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 6
      Author(s): Sandra Derissen , Uwe Latacz-Lohmann
      The term PES is often used to denote market incentives for the provision of public goods within the field of environmental and resource issues. In this context, PES translates into either ‘payments for environmental services’ or ‘payments for ecosystem services’—the terms that are not consistently defined in the literature and sometimes used as synonyms. Given the lack of coherent definitions, this note reviews current definitions of payments for ecosystem services and payments for environmental services entertained in the literature, discusses alternative meanings of environmental and ecosystem services in the PES context, and finally proposes a consistent definition. We argue that current definitions of PES found in the literature are insufficient to adequately describe the man-made nature of many environmental goods and services: that nature is ’produced’ through human intervention. Building upon the FAO's definition of environmental services, we propose a definition that regards environmental services as services provided through countryside management in a broader sense whilst produced either unintentionally or intentionally.
      Highlights ► The terms ecosystem services and environmental services are used interchangeably. ► Recent definitions do not distinguish between natural and man-made services. ► We define ecosystem services as services provided by nature. ► We define environmental services as services provided by humans. ► We thus propose that PES be understood as ‘payments for environmental services’.

      PubDate: 2013-12-14T00:00:27Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 6




      PubDate: 2013-12-14T00:00:27Z
       
  • Spatially explicit perceptions of ecosystem services and land cover change
           in forested regions of Borneo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Nicola K. Abram , Erik Meijaard , Marc Ancrenaz , Rebecca K. Runting , Jessie A. Wells , David Gaveau , Anne-Sophie Pellier , Kerrie Mengersen
      Spatially explicit information on local perceptions of ecosystem services is needed to inform land use planning within rapidly changing landscapes. In this paper we spatially modelled local people's use and perceptions of benefits from forest ecosystem services in Borneo, from interviews of 1837 people in 185 villages. Questions related to provisioning, cultural/spiritual, regulating and supporting ecosystem services derived from forest, and attitudes towards forest conversion. We used boosted regression trees (BRTs) to combine interview data with social and environmental predictors to understand spatial variation of perceptions across Borneo. Our results show that people use a variety of products from intact and highly degraded forests. Perceptions of benefits from forests were strongest: in human-altered forest landscapes for cultural and spiritual benefits; in human-altered and intact forests landscapes for health benefits; intact forest for direct health benefits, such as medicinal plants; and in regions with little forest and extensive plantations, for environmental benefits, such as climatic impacts from deforestation. Forest clearing for small scale agriculture was predicted to be widely supported yet less so for large-scale agriculture. Understanding perceptions of rural communities in dynamic, multi-use landscapes is important where people are often directly affected by the decline in ecosystem services.


      PubDate: 2013-12-14T00:00:27Z
       
  • Valuing ecosystem services from Maryland forests using environmental
           accounting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Elliott T. Campbell , David R. Tilley
      Forests provide a multitude of benefits vital to the ecosystems, economies and people of Maryland. While markets exist to set the price for an economic good like timber, ecosystem services are viewed as free externalities. This research enumerates the biophysical value of forest ecosystem services in Maryland and provides a connection between biophysical and economic methods for valuing the environment. The hydrology, soil, carbon, air pollution, pollination and biodiversity of a forest are measured from a biophysical standpoint with emergy and converted to dollars using new emergy-to-dollar ratios, termed eco-prices. The functioning of the forest is compared to the most likely alternative land-use in Maryland (suburbia) and biophysical value is assigned based on this difference. The research seeks to value ecosystem services provided by forests in Maryland and proposes that society should invest commensurate value in the production and perpetuation of ecosystem services. To help ensure that Maryland forests continue to produce ecosystem services at the current rate, investment should total between $273 and $744 million per year in the State of Maryland, $270–$736 per year for a typical hectare of forest.


      PubDate: 2013-12-09T04:38:02Z
       
  • Emergy and ecosystem services: A national biogeographical assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Luca Coscieme , Federico M. Pulselli , Nadia Marchettini , Paul C. Sutton , Sharolyn Anderson , Sharlynn Sweeney
      Ecosystem services are those resources and processes provided by ecosystems that improve human well-being. Emergy is the amount of solar energy embedded in the resources consumed by a system. In this paper we produced a ranking among nations, based on emergy (expressed in seJ/yr) and ecosystem service values (in $/yr). We document a significant correlation between the renewable emergy and ecosystem service values aggregated at the national scale. This suggests that ecosystem services are somehow dependent on energy and natural resource concentration in ecosystems. We also compare the ability of each ecosystem mosaic and economy, within national boundaries, to translate energy and matter inputs into economically valuable goods and services. For ecosystems this is calculated using the ratio between renewable emergy and ecosystem service value. In the case of national economies, it can be estimated using a ratio of the emergy use by the national economy and the GDP of the nation (called Emergy to Money Ratio). In almost all cases the ecosystems in a national territory provide a unit of monetary output using less emergy inputs than the national economy. Further comparison was performed for tropical and equatorial nations, continents, biodiversity hotspots, and biogeographical regions.


      PubDate: 2013-12-09T04:38:02Z
       
  • Civic ecology practices: Participatory approaches to generating and
           measuring ecosystem services in cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Marianne E. Krasny , Alex Russ , Keith G. Tidball , Thomas Elmqvist
      Civic ecology practices are community-based, environmental stewardship actions taken to enhance green infrastructure, ecosystem services, and human well-being in cities and other human-dominated landscapes. Examples include tree planting in post-Katrina New Orleans, oyster restoration in New York City, community gardening in Detroit, friends of parks groups in Seattle, and natural area restoration in Cape Flats, South Africa. Whereas civic ecology practices are growing in number and represent a participatory approach to management and knowledge production as called for by global sustainability initiatives, only rarely are their contributions to ecosystem services measured. In this paper, we draw on literature sources and our prior research in urban social-ecological systems to explore protocols for monitoring biodiversity, functional measures of ecosystem services, and ecosystem services valuation that can be adapted for use by practitioner-scientist partnerships in civic ecology settings. Engaging civic ecology stewards in collecting such measurements presents opportunities to gather data that can be used as feedback in an adaptive co-management process. Further, we suggest that civic ecology practices not only create green infrastructure that produces ecosystem services, but also constitute social-ecological processes that directly generate ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, education) and associated benefits to human well-being.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T23:42:18Z
       
  • A comparison of Markov model-based methods for predicting the ecosystem
           service value of land use in Wuhan, central China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Dong Luo , Wenting Zhang
      Aggressive human activity and limited natural resources cause complex land use changes that significantly affect the ecosystem service of land types. In this paper, we used the Markov model to predict future changes in the ecosystem service of each land type. We used remote sensing to evaluate the changes in five land use categories, and previously published value coefficients to calculate the ecosystem service value of each land type. Two methods were applied to acquire useful results. The first was called the A-E method. It involved predicting the future changes of areas in land use using the Markov model and multiplying the value coefficients of the ecosystem service. The second was called the B-E method. It involved calculating the initial ecosystem service value of the land type, and then directly predicting these values. From comparison the actual values in 2011 and the stationarity of the values, we determined that the predicted ecosystem service values of the five land types by the A-E method was better than those by the B-E method. Despite considering the annual changes in the coefficients of ecosystem services, our results can reflect the changes in ecosystem services with land use transformation.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T23:42:18Z
       
  • PES in a nutshell: From definitions and origins to PES in
           practice—Approaches, design process and innovative aspects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Claudia Sattler , Bettina Matzdorf
      In this paper, introducing the special issue on “Payments for Ecosystem Services and Their Institutional Dimensions: Analyzing the Diversity of Existing PES Approaches in Developing and Industrialized Countries”, we highlight the following PES aspects. First we set out with a discussion on different definitions of PES, both in a narrow and a wider sense. We continue with a short historical outline on how the PES approach evolved in developing and industrialized countries against the backdrop of Ecological Economics theory and the Ecosystem Service concept. Then we discuss how broad the spectrum of existing PES in reality is and what kind of classification approaches are presented in the literature. We then move on to actual PES development and discuss what the different phases in PES design are and what kind of activities take place in each phase. This is followed by a discussion in how far PES can be seen as innovations in the toolbox of conservation approaches. In the last part, we conclude with a short outlook on the different individual papers in the special issue.


      PubDate: 2013-11-25T22:33:24Z
       
  • Payments for ecosystem services in Vietnam: market-based incentives or
           state control of resources?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Diana Suhardiman , Dennis Wichelns , Guillaume Lestrelin , Chu Thai Hoanh
      Payments for ecosystem services often are viewed as an innovative approach toward improving natural resource management, while also providing opportunities for enhancing incomes and livelihoods. Yet not all PES programs are designed and implemented in ways that reflect voluntary transactions between buyers and providers of well-defined, measurable ecosystem services. When third-party interests, such as donors or governments, design PES programs to achieve goals that lie outside the conceptual scope of payments for ecosystem services, the improvements in resource management and enhancements in livelihoods can fall short of expectations. We examine this potential dissonance in PES program implementation, taking the case of PES in the forestry sector in Vietnam. We question whether PES in Vietnam has the potential to enhance forest protection and watershed management. We highlight the importance of institutions and governance (i.e., the policies, rules, and regulations) in determining program significance and we illustrate how PES programs are implemented as part of the government's subsidy scheme. We conclude that in the absence of a competitive market structure and appropriate regulations, governments can reshape PES programs to function primarily as tools for strengthening state control over natural resources.


      PubDate: 2013-11-25T22:33:24Z
       
  • Multi-classification of payments for ecosystem services: How do
           classification characteristics relate to overall PES success?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Claudia Sattler , Susanne Trampnau , Sarah Schomers , Claas Meyer , Bettina Matzdorf
      Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) are defined in different ways and a variety of approaches is currently summarized under the PES label. This paper introduces a system for the multi-classification of PES schemes. The classification is based on different PES characteristics and their specifications. Analyzed characteristics include, amongst others: PES type, ecosystem service paid for (e.g. types of services, if the PES tries to improve the quality of the service vs. the quantity); payments specifics (e.g. funding sources, input- vs. output-based payments, etc.); involved actors (e.g. actors from the market, government or civil society sector); duration (short or long-term), and spatial scale (local to global). The classification system is then applied to 22 PES cases from Germany and the United States (US) that were assessed as successful by expert judgment. A comparative analysis (CA) is used to investigate how certain PES characteristics relate to PES success. Results of the CA indicate that characteristics such as intermediary involvement, involvement of governmental actors, contract length, co-benefits, voluntariness in entering the PES agreement, and design of PES as output-based schemes are of particular importance for the success of PES schemes.


      PubDate: 2013-11-17T20:34:00Z
       
  • Ecosystem services economic valuation, decision-support system or
           advocacy?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Yann Laurans , Laurent Mermet
      There appears to be a discrepancy between the massive presence of Ecosystem Services (economic) Valuations (ESV) in biodiversity discourse and literature and the small number of examples where it is documented and demonstrated that they have been instrumental in changing policies. Part of this discrepancy may reflect an insufficient fit of ESV to the organizational and political dimensions of decision-making. This paper thus explores the relation between decision-making as it is viewed in the theoretical roots of ESV and also as it is depicted in disciplines that take decision as their central topic. Three alternative and complementary types of decision models (rational decision-maker, organization and political process) each shed a different light on what ESV can be useful for, and what qualities are then required of it. In general, the contribution of ESV to decision-making relies both on its ability to bring rationality to decision-making, and on its procedural qualities as resource of influence that is needed for advocacy and justification. Thus, the usefulness of ESV cannot be enhanced by either the strengthening of their rigor or the enhancement of their procedural qualities alone: to successfully address the challenge, both of these measures are required in combination. This produces a tension between the rational and substantial abilities that ESV must sustain on the one hand, and the rhetorical and procedural qualities it should develop on the other hand. To overcome this tension, it may prove useful to draw lessons from the field of policy evaluation. In this field, rationalization-based and process-based methodologies once fiercely contested each other. However, process-based and content-based methodologies are now deliberately combined in diverse designs.


      PubDate: 2013-11-09T22:39:43Z
       
  • Understanding the relationships between ecosystem services and poverty
           alleviation: A conceptual framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Janet A. Fisher , Genevieve Patenaude , Kalpana Giri , Kristina Lewis , Patrick Meir , Patricia Pinho , Mark D.A. Rounsevell , Mathew Williams
      As interest grows in the contribution of ecosystem services to poverty alleviation, we present a new conceptual framework, synthesizing insights from existing frameworks in social–ecological systems science and international development. People have differentiated abilities to benefit from ecosystem services, and the framework places emphasis on access to services, which may constrain the poorest more than aggregate availability. Distinctions are also made between categories of ecosystem service in their contribution to wellbeing, provisioning services and cash being comparatively easy to control. The framework gives analytical space for understanding the contribution of payments for ecosystem services to wellbeing, as distinct from direct ecosystem services. It also highlights the consumption of ecosystem services by external actors, through land appropriation or agricultural commodities. Important conceptual distinctions are made between poverty reduction and prevention, and between human response options of adaptation and mitigation in response to environmental change. The framework has applications as a thinking tool, laying out important relationships such that an analyst could identify and understand these in a particular situation. Most immediately, this has research applications, as a basis for multidisciplinary, policy-relevant research, but there are also applications to support practitioners in pursuing joint policy objectives of environmental sustainability and poverty alleviation.


      PubDate: 2013-11-05T22:32:20Z
       
  • Evaluating opportunities to enhance ecosystem services in public use areas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Amy M. Villamagna , Paul L. Angermeier , Nicholas Niazi
      Public use and conservation areas (PUAs) offer opportunities to protect and enhance the delivery of ecosystem services (ES), however ES are rarely evaluated on such lands. We developed a spatially-explicit method for estimating regulating and cultural service capacity and evaluating intent to conserve ES in PUAs. We use management priority information to infer conservation intent and demonstrate the application of a social capacity metric for assessing cultural service capacity. We present a decision framework to guide efforts to enhance the delivery of benefits to public land users and downstream residents. We test this approach by pairing analyses of two ecosystem services—water purification and recreational bird watching-in PUAs throughout the Albemarle–Pamlico basin (Virginia and North Carolina). Our results reveal that management of the majority of sites does not currently give priority to either service, despite a wide range of service capacities. The decision framework suggests that managers of PUAs with moderate to high service capacity could protect ES flow by increasing awareness and other social capacity factors within PUAs. In contrast, managers of PUAs with low service capacity but high potential to influence local and regional environmental condition might focus on enhancing the biophysical capacity to provide selected services.


      PubDate: 2013-10-28T00:06:27Z
       
  • ECOSER 6th Volume: Special Issue on Payments for Ecosystem Services
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Leon C. Braat



      PubDate: 2013-10-28T00:06:27Z
       
  • Valuing ecosystem services across water bodies: Results from a discrete
           choice experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Edel Doherty , Geraldine Murphy , Stephen Hynes , Cathal Buckley
      As demands on the environment and associated ecosystem services increase, the need for a more integrated approach to managing the exploitation of these natural resources also increases. This is particularly true for the alternative types of water bodies such as a sea, river and/or a lake. The purpose of this paper is to explore the preferences of residents in the Republic of Ireland for a number of ecosystem services provided by Irish water bodies. In particular the paper examines whether, and how, preferences for the same ecosystem services differ when the public is asked to consider the alternative water body types (sea, river and lake). This is relevant as the ecosystem services' economic benefits are not necessarily uniform across water bodies, a factor that has not been explored in detail previously.


      PubDate: 2013-10-19T20:04:46Z
       
  • A review and application of the evidence for nitrogen impacts on ecosystem
           services
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): L. Jones , A. Provins , M. Holland , G. Mills , F. Hayes , B. Emmett , J. Hall , L. Sheppard , R. Smith , M. Sutton , K. Hicks , M. Ashmore , R. Haines-Young , L. Harper-Simmonds
      Levels of reactive nitrogen (N) in the atmosphere have declined by around 25% in Europe since 1990. Ecosystem services provide a framework for valuing N impacts on the environment, and this study provides a synthesis of evidence for atmospheric N deposition effects on ecosystem services. We estimate the marginal economic value of the decline in N deposition on six ecosystem services in the UK. This decline resulted in a net benefit (Equivalent Annual Value) of £65m (£5m to £123m, 95% CI). There was a cost (loss of value) for provisioning services: timber and livestock production of −£6.2m (−£3.5m to −£9.2m, 95% CI). There was a cost for CO2 sequestration and a benefit for N2O emissions which combined amounted to a cost for greenhouse gas regulation of −£15.7m (−£4.5m to −£30.6m). However, there were benefits for the cultural services of recreational fishing and appreciation of biodiversity, which amounted to £87.7m (£13.1m to £163.0m), outweighing costs to provisioning and regulating services. Knowledge gaps in both the under-pinning science and in the value-transfer evidence prevent economic valuation of many services, particularly for cultural services, providing only a partial picture of N impacts which may underestimate the benefits of reducing N deposition.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-10-10T18:37:43Z
       
  • Economic valuation of ecosystem services, a case study for aquatic
           vegetation removal in the Nete catchment (Belgium)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Annelies Boerema , Jonas Schoelynck , Kris Bal , Dirk Vrebos , Sander Jacobs , Jan Staes , Patrick Meire
      In the last decades, lowland rivers were forced to drain larger water quantities during ever shorter time periods. This is mainly caused by current and historic land-use changes (e.g. increase of built area) and increased intensification of agriculture practices (e.g. drainage). River flow, however, is hampered by human artefacts such as weirs and dams as well as by naturally occurring aquatic vegetation. To avoid flooding and water related problems, river managers opt to remove aquatic vegetation. According to the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), all costs of water management should be charged for (full cost recovery requirement). This study aims to assess whether or not this is achieved in case of aquatic vegetation removal. This method is illustrated through a case study of the Nete Catchment, Belgium. Results show that flood control benefits exceed costs by only a small amount in wet years, but costs exceed benefits in dry years. If decision makers account for even a few ecosystem services, the costs of vegetation removal exceed the benefits in both scenarios. Only local stakeholders in flood risk areas can benefit from aquatic vegetation removal during wet summer seasons.


      PubDate: 2013-09-14T22:06:27Z
       
  • The complexity of the institution of payment for environmental services: A
           case study of two Indonesian PES schemes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2013
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Akhmad Fauzi , Zuzy Anna
      PES has been adopted in Indonesia for conservation. Nevertheless, the development of PES programs is deterred by the complexity of institutions.


      PubDate: 2013-08-08T15:37:07Z
       
 
 
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