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Journal Cover Ecosystem Services
  [SJR: 2.169]   [H-I: 21]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • A hybrid Coasean and Pigouvian approach to Payment for Ecosystem Services
           Program in West Lombok: Does it contribute to poverty alleviation?
    • Authors: Diswandi Diswandi
      Pages: 138 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Diswandi Diswandi
      The Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) concept is mainly based on Coasean economics theory that emphasizes the creation of a voluntary or market-based transaction for ecosystem services. Alternatively, many PES practiced in developing countries are based on Pigouvian economic theory allowing government intervention such as through regulation, tax or subsidy. A hybrid PES approach that compound Coasean and Pigouvian theory was developed in West Lombok Indonesia leading to a new policy paradigm that combines elements of both a voluntary market-based and mandatory policy-based system. This study aims to assess how the hybrid PES program contributes to poverty alleviation. By employing a participatory econometrics approach, this study found that the hybrid PES system does not contribute to poverty alleviation in short-term. It is possible that this PES program contributes to poverty alleviation in long-term.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Governance and implementation challenges for mangrove forest Payments for
           Ecosystem Services (PES): Empirical evidence from the Philippines
    • Authors: Benjamin S. Thompson; Jurgenne H. Primavera; Daniel A. Friess
      Pages: 146 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Benjamin S. Thompson, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Daniel A. Friess
      Mangrove forests have been considered as potentially suitable for PES, though few mangrove PES schemes exist worldwide, suggesting they - and the broader social-ecological and governance systems in which they sit - may not be as conducive to PES as first thought. This study assesses economic, social, and governance challenges to implementing PES in mangroves. It draws on empirical evidence from two prospective community-level mangrove carbon PES schemes in the Philippines, where fishing and aquaculture are major livelihoods. We conducted (1) policy reviews and interviews with local communities, government, and NGOs to investigate governability; (2) village income accounting to determine the extra income that participants could receive through PES; and (3) a choice ranking exercise to elicit preferences on how payments could best be spent to enhance participant wellbeing. The latter approach identifies key gender differences, and enables potential PES-induced social-ecological trade-offs to be pre-empted. Blue carbon PES can contribute an additional 2.3–5.8% of current village incomes, while villagers would prefer to spend the monies on more effective fishing equipment, which could perversely jeopardize fishery sustainability. To be most successful, coastal PES schemes in the Philippines need to be managed through a multi-level governance regime involving co-management and local participation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Substantiating the cross-fertilization among LCA and ecosystem services
           and biodiversity assessment
    • Authors: Benedetto Rugani; Thomas Schaubroeck; Enrico Benetto
      Pages: 156 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Benedetto Rugani, Thomas Schaubroeck, Enrico Benetto


      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Multi-site interactions: Understanding the offsite impacts of land use
           change on the use and supply of ecosystem services
    • Authors: Laura J. Sonter; Justin A. Johnson; Charles C. Nicholson; Leif L. Richardson; Keri B. Watson; Taylor H. Ricketts
      Pages: 158 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Laura J. Sonter, Justin A. Johnson, Charles C. Nicholson, Leif L. Richardson, Keri B. Watson, Taylor H. Ricketts
      Managing the impacts of land use change on ecosystem services is essential to secure human wellbeing; but is a task often complicated by landscape-scale spatial dynamics. In this study, we focus on one type of spatial dynamic: multi-site interactions (MSI), which we define to occur when a change in the supply or use of an ecosystem service at one site affects that service at a second site. In search of empirical evidence of MSI, we reviewed 150 papers on one ecosystem service—nature-based recreation. We found many studies assessed impacts of land use change on this ecosystem service, but only 2% of studies quantified changes in its supply or use across multiple sites. Given this limited evidence in the literature, we propose a novel framework to describe the pathways through which MSI emerge and their likely consequences for ecosystem services across multiple sites. We illustrate the utility of this framework for understanding impacts on three other services: crop pollination, fuel wood production and flood mitigation. Obtaining empirical evidence of MSI is an important next step in ecosystem service science, which will help identify when interactions among sites emerge and how they can be best managed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Trade-off analysis of ecosystem service provision in nature networks
    • Authors: Mathias Vogdrup-Schmidt; Niels Strange; Søren B. Olsen; Bo Jellesmark Thorsen
      Pages: 165 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Mathias Vogdrup-Schmidt, Niels Strange, Søren B. Olsen, Bo Jellesmark Thorsen
      We propose a spatial multi-criteria decision analysis approach as a value-focused decision support tool for evaluating land use change decisions affecting multiple ecosystem services. In an empirical case study concerned with creating a robust and interconnected network of natural areas in a Danish municipality, we first conduct a biophysical and economic baseline mapping of ecosystem services. We then construct a spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis model which is utilized to identify candidate areas for inclusion in the network. We define a base scenario for future land use in the area, where all criteria have equal weight, and assess the outcome in terms of welfare economic benefits of ecosystem services and opportunity cost of reducing forest and agricultural production. As weights in multi-criteria analysis is innately a subjective task, we conduct a sensitivity analysis using four corner solution scenarios. The analyses illustrate the possible range of impacts and highlight the specific trade-offs between different ecosystem services. We argue that a multi-criteria decision analysis approach will help inform decision makers in a structured and informative way when considering future land use changes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • The effect of forest owner decision-making, climatic change and societal
           demands on land-use change and ecosystem service provision in Sweden
    • Authors: Victor Blanco; Sascha Holzhauer; Calum Brown; Fredrik Lagergren; Gregor Vulturius; Mats Lindeskog; Mark D.A. Rounsevell
      Pages: 174 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Victor Blanco, Sascha Holzhauer, Calum Brown, Fredrik Lagergren, Gregor Vulturius, Mats Lindeskog, Mark D.A. Rounsevell
      The uncertain effects of climatic change and changing demands for ecosystem services on the distribution of forests and their levels of service provision require assessments of future land-use change, ecosystem service provision, and how ecosystem service demands may be met. We present CRAFTY-Sweden, an agent-based, land-use model that incorporates land owner behaviour and decision-making in modelling future ecosystem service provision in the Swedish forestry sector. Future changes were simulated under scenarios of socio-economic and climatic change between 2010 and 2100. The simulations indicate that the influence of climatic change (on land productivities) may be less important than that of socio-economic change or behavioural differences. Simulations further demonstrate that the variability in land owner and societal behaviour has a substantial role in determining the direction and impact of land-use change. The results indicate a sizeable increase in timber harvesting in coming decades, which together with a substantial decoupling between supply and demand for forest ecosystem services highlights the challenge of continuously meeting demands for ecosystem services over long periods of time. There is a clear need for model applications of this kind to better understand the variation in ecosystem service provision in the forestry sector, and other associated land-use changes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Longitudinal analysis of ecosystem services' socioeconomic benefits:
           Wastewater treatment projects in a desert city
    • Authors: Bjoern Hagen; David Pijawka; Mihir Prakash; Shreyash Sharma
      Pages: 209 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Bjoern Hagen, David Pijawka, Mihir Prakash, Shreyash Sharma
      This paper addresses the socioeconomic dimensions and public perceptions of ecosystem services offered by “green” wastewater infrastructure in a desert city over 20 years, taking an in-depth look at the valuation of these services. While there was significant controversy and public conflict over the location of the original wastewater treatment facility and an initial decrease in property values, the average assessed property values in the study area increased relatively quickly. Within five years, they met and exceeded the average property values in the Metropolitan Phoenix Area. Our longitudinal study found that anticipated nuisance effects did not materialize with the operation of the facility and that residents were satisfied or very satisfied with the area's quality of life as well as its environmental quality. The results also show that the co-benefits of artificial wastewater wetlands and green recreational space associated with the use of effluent and groundwater recharge enhanced developments around these facilities, making these places socially acceptable. Finally, we determined that proximity to views of water and parks, especially in desert cities, adds substantial value. Home prices showed remarkable resiliency in neighborhoods around constructed water projects that filter effluent, provide enhanced place-making aesthetics and recharge the groundwater aquifer, the most critical ecosystem service.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Theory and practice of water ecosystem services valuation: Where are we
           going?
    • Authors: Vivian C.S. Hackbart; Guilherme T.N.P. de Lima; Rozely F. dos Santos
      Pages: 218 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Vivian C.S. Hackbart, Guilherme T.N.P. de Lima, Rozely F. dos Santos
      Water resources have been widely cited as a prime example of ecosystem services (ES), especially when the issue is valuation. Because of the importance of water ecosystem services (ESw), they are being effectively evaluated in at least three aspects: clarity about the type of valuation employed; adoption of a strong theoretical basis guided by ecological knowledge; and the inclusion of analytical elements that ensure social control and direction in decision making. Our study sought to determine whether these prerogatives are actually relevant, by assessing the emphasis in the valuation of ESw among ES publications. From the literature, we define five types of valuation and five major theoretical principles that can be broken down into 14 indicators that we used in our analysis of ESw studies. Our results indicated that the current knowledge about ESw carry the false impression that the ecosystem services valuation is sufficiently consolidated to support decisions about payments for ESw.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Estimating the value of ecosystem services in a mixed-use watershed: A
           choice experiment approach
    • Authors: Pasicha Chaikaew; Alan W. Hodges; Sabine Grunwald
      Pages: 228 - 237
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Pasicha Chaikaew, Alan W. Hodges, Sabine Grunwald
      The protection of water, land, and air resources has profound implications for the sustainability of ecosystem services provided to societies that are embedded within economies, global systems, and socio-cultural and political contexts. This study assessed preferences for provisioning, regulating, and supporting ecosystem services, specifically, climate regulation (carbon sequestration), nutrient control (water quality), and agricultural and forest productivity, and the willingness to pay for protection of these ecosystem services by residents in the Suwannee River Basin of Florida, as assessed through a household mail survey and choice experiment. A conditional logit model was used to evaluate preferences and marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) under different scenarios. Survey respondents identified nutrient control (water quality) as the most important service, while agricultural and forestry production was somewhat important, and climate regulation/carbon sequestration was the least important. Respondents expressed the highest level of trust in local government agencies to implement ecosystem service protection programs, and welcomed the implementation of such programs anywhere in the basin, but not close to their home. The average MWTP was extremely low (<$2/household/year) when compared to other studies, and suggests that respondents have many competing interests for their discretionary spending in relation to environmental amenities.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Considering farmer land use decisions in efforts to ‘scale up’
           Payments for Watershed Services
    • Authors: Ryan C. Richards; Chris J. Kennedy; Thomas E. Lovejoy; Pedro H.S. Brancalion
      Pages: 238 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Ryan C. Richards, Chris J. Kennedy, Thomas E. Lovejoy, Pedro H.S. Brancalion
      Significant effort is being devoted to the expansion of payments for watershed services (PWS) programs at national, regional, and local scales. This expansion faces logistical challenges, in particular identifying appropriate incentives and enrollment processes to provide additional ecosystem services under budget constraints. In Brazil, PWS programs have mostly occurred at the local level, using formulaic contracts to ensure landowners are compensated for provision of specific types and quantities of ecosystem services. However, it is unclear how these financial incentives will function as programs expand to new areas, as pilot programs report high recruitment costs. Using as an example the Cantareira System, an important drinking water supply for the São Paulo metropolitan area, we review PWS incentives in the context of factors that affect farmer land use decisions. We base our research on a review of policies affecting PWS in Brazil, existing PWS in the Cantareira region, and drivers affecting land use and technology adoption by cattle ranchers, drawing from the literature and interviews with farmers and agronomists in the study region. While financial incentives (payments) account for both the value of ecosystem services and opportunity costs of shifting pasture production to forest, several economic, social, political, and biophysical factors will likely affect landowners’ decisions to enroll in PWS. This suggests that, while PWS programs may lead to the provision of additional ecosystem services, the complexity of contracts and diversity of local conditions create challenges to broad deployment in the absence of significant outreach efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Dynamics of ecosystem services provided by subtropical forests in
           
    • Authors: Hongfang Lu; Elliott T. Campbell; Daniel E. Campbell; Changwei Wang; Hai Ren
      Pages: 248 - 258
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Hongfang Lu, Elliott T. Campbell, Daniel E. Campbell, Changwei Wang, Hai Ren
      The trends in the provision of ecosystem services during restoration and succession of subtropical forests and plantations were quantified, in terms of both receiver and donor values, based on a case study of a 3-step secondary succession series that included a 400-year-old subtropical forest and a 23-year history of growth on 3 subtropical forest plantations in Southeastern China. The ‘People's Republic of China Forestry Standard: Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation Norms’ was revised and applied to quantify the receiver values of ecosystem services, which were then compared with the emergy-based, donor values of the services. The results revealed that the efficiencies of subtropical forests and plantations in providing ecosystem services were 2 orders of magnitude higher than similar services provided by the current China economic system, and these efficiencies kept increasing over the course of succession. As a result, we conclude that afforestation is an efficient way to accelerate both the ability and efficiency of subtropical forests to provide ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T18:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Contextualizing context in the analysis of payment for ecosystem services
    • Authors: Karla Juliana Rodríguez-Robayo; Leticia Merino-Perez
      Pages: 259 - 267
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Karla Juliana Rodríguez-Robayo, Leticia Merino-Perez
      For over a decade, payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs has been designed in several countries, the analysis of these programs in recent years highlights the importance and timeliness of the tool. Taking local context into account stands out among the most significant recommendations for the design and implementation of PES programs. However, no clarity or consensus has emerged about how to define and approach “context”. This article proposes to address this issue using the socio-ecological systems (SES) framework. We present conceptual interpretations of context and define and validate the primary set of variables for its characterization. Our analysis is based on a literature review and surveys of people who have implemented these programs in Mexico. We propose “focal”, “very significant”, and “significant” variables, which allow us to define local context within the framework of PES programs. The proposed focal variables are a) forest cover, b) opportunity cost, c) livelihood and productive diversification, d) pro-social and pro-environmental motivations and attitudes, e) confidence and cooperation, f) traditional management practices, g) internal organization on the local level, h) land tenure, and i) rules for the management and use of natural resources.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T18:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Application of the ecosystem service concept for climate protection in
           Germany
    • Authors: Sophie Schetke; Heera Lee; Wanda Graf; Sven Lautenbach
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Sophie Schetke, Heera Lee, Wanda Graf, Sven Lautenbach
      The implementation of the ecosystem services (ES) concept in planning and administration has gained momentum in Germany, so far the focus has been on landscape planning. We extend this research by exploring other legal domains such as urban planning and climate protection strategies and focus on climate protection and the use of renewable energies. This study analyzes all existing (n=13) climate protection laws and their drafts on federal state level in Germany, assessing their implicit and explicit use of the ES concept. 26 communal climate protection concepts on local level were also examined. Additionally, the sector of urban planning was considered through analysis of the climate protection amendment of the German Building Code (BauGB). Results show both biotic and abiotic ES to already be a significant part of other planning domains besides landscape planning. The sector of climate protection addresses mostly abiotic ES both implicitly and explicitly to implement and strengthen the use of renewable energies. Consequently, a specific category of ES related to renewable energies is introduced in this paper: REES (renewable energy ecosystem services). On the federal state level, REES are clearly highlighted with a strong strategic focus on mitigation and the promotion of renewable energies. In contrast, regulative ES in connection with adaptation measures were more frequently addressed on the local level. Still, REES were most frequently named when addressing measures, stakeholder and target groups. An enhanced incorporation of abiotic ES into classification systems seems necessary to enable a fair and balanced representation of biotic and abiotic services in evaluation studies or in the trade-off analysis of different land-use options.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T17:24:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.017
       
  • Progress made in managing and valuing ecosystem services: a horizon scan
           of gaps in research, management and governance
    • Authors: Ross T. Shackleton; Per Angelstam; Benjamin van der Waal; Marine Elbakidze
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Ross T. Shackleton, Per Angelstam, Benjamin van der Waal, Marine Elbakidze
      Sustaining functional ecosystems that provide services for human well-being is a global challenge. This makes valuing ecosystem services and managing them important to ensure benefits to the environment and livelihoods. Strides have been made in research and knowledge development, policy formulation and the implementation of natural resource management (NRM) programs and investment into ecological (green) infrastructure globally. However, further funding is needed for such programs to be scaled up and adapted to local contexts. Horizon scanning is a useful approach to identify future trajectories, and to guide research, policy formulation and management implementation, as well as to identify gaps. Past achievements, gaps and future needs in relation to “optimising and unlocking investment in ecological infrastructure and valuing ecosystem services” were identified through a free listing questionnaire and a group workshopping exercise by 44 participants involved in an international workshop. The 10 key needs raised were all closely interlinked and fall under the overarching themes of research and assessment, policy formation and implementation, strategic planning as well as management and governance of the policy/adaptive management cycle. We discuss the need to overcome these gaps in the context of South Africa and in relation to other countries globally.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T17:24:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.020
       
  • Ecosystem services in cities: Towards the international legal protection
           of ecosystem services in urban environments
    • Authors: Aysegül Sirakaya; An Cliquet; Jim Harris
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Aysegül Sirakaya, An Cliquet, Jim Harris
      Biodiversity provides many ecosystem services in cities that are beneficial to human well-being including adaptation to the effects of climate change and positive effects of nature on human health. Rapid urbanization however is causing an adverse impact on biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Protecting and restoring urban biodiversity and ecosystem services can increase human well-being of the rapidly increasing urban population. Today, however, the international biodiversity conservation practice mainly focuses on rural areas, and not on urban conservation and restoration. Within city scale, there are several opportunities to green urban living, such as green infrastructure and urban parks and nature reserves. This paper investigates the current scientific practices for promoting and protecting ecosystem services in urban areas. Secondly, the authors review and assess the legally binding instruments on biodiversity at the international and EU level in order to see if there are sufficient existing mechanisms for protection of ecosystem services in urban areas. Thirdly, the paper elaborates on the Aichi Targets in order to explore whether or not these targets are enough to facilitate the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services in urban areas as swiftly as they are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T18:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.01.001
       
  • The future Dutch Environment and Planning Act in light of the ecosystem
           approach
    • Authors: Kars Jan de Graaf; Froukje Maria Platjouw; Hanna Dürtge Tolsma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Kars Jan de Graaf, Froukje Maria Platjouw, Hanna Dürtge Tolsma
      This paper discusses whether the future Dutch Environment and Planning Act has embraced the ecosystem approach as a leading paradigm.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T18:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.018
       
  • The economics of landscape restoration: Benefits of controlling bush
           encroachment and invasive plant species in South Africa and Namibia
    • Authors: William Stafford; Catherine Birch; Hannes Etter; Ryan Blanchard; Shepherd Mudavanhu; Per Angelstam; James Blignaut; Louwrens Ferreira; Christo Marais
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): William Stafford, Catherine Birch, Hannes Etter, Ryan Blanchard, Shepherd Mudavanhu, Per Angelstam, James Blignaut, Louwrens Ferreira, Christo Marais
      Bush encroachment and alien plant invasions alter the composition and/or balance of species in natural ecosystems and impact biodiversity, land productivity and water availability. Therefore, the appropriate control and management of bush encroachment and alien plant invasions can restore ecosystems services and enhance the provision of timber and non-timber products to society. To understand the economics of land impacted by bush encroachment and alien plant invasions, we valued a selected number of ecosystem services from landscape restoration in South Africa and Namibia. In Namibia, the estimated value of ecosystem services from the restoration of bush encroachment was US$5.8 billion. In South Africa, the estimated value of ecosystem services from the restoration of bush encroachment was US$2.1 billion, and US$6.6 billion from the restoration of alien plant invasions. The most valued ecosystem service benefit assessed was water, followed by timber products and wood-fuels such as biomass to electricity, and then grazing. The value of these ecosystem services are considerable compared to the direct costs involved to clear invasive alien plants and control bush encroachment. This clearly illustrates that the management of invasive alien plants and bush encroachment can deliver significant ecosystem services benefits whose value outweighs the costs of restoration.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T18:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.021
       
  • Ecosystem service importance and use vary with socio-environmental
           factors: A study from household-surveys in local communities of South
           Africa
    • Authors: Sylvanus Mensah; Ruan Veldtman; Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo; Cori Ham; Romain Glèlè Kakaï; Thomas Seifert
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Sylvanus Mensah, Ruan Veldtman, Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo, Cori Ham, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Thomas Seifert
      Ecosystem services (ESs) underpin human livelihoods around the world. Understanding how socio-environmental aspects influence stakeholders’ perceptions and use of ESs, is important for decision-making processes that target the social expectations. In this study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with eighty-six householders in four villages of Limpopo province (South Africa), to assess the importance and use of ESs. Descriptive rank analysis, ordered logistic regression and Poisson generalised linear mixed-effects models were used. Supporting and provisioning ESs were rated the most important, followed by regulating and cultural ESs. Among the provisioning ESs, timber, firewood and edible plants were the most important, the most cited and used. Age, gender, income and prior recreational experiences played important roles in householders’ perceptions. The frequency of collection of provisioning ESs declined with increasing distance to the forest and presence of foothills in landscape, which formed natural barriers. The results further revealed that employed householders benefited more from these services than unemployed householders. However, there was no significant effect of income variable on the use of the provisioning ESs, suggesting that the collection is more likely oriented towards a domestic usage. The implications of the results were discussed in a context of local development planning.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Justifying social values of nature: Economic reasoning beyond
           self-interested preferences
    • Authors: Bernd Hansjürgens; Christoph Schröter-Schlaack; Augustin Berghöfer; Nele Lienhoop
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Bernd Hansjürgens, Christoph Schröter-Schlaack, Augustin Berghöfer, Nele Lienhoop
      Demonstrating that conservation is not only beneficial for nature but also for human well-being is as much desirable as it is challenging. Undoubtedly, using economic numbers hold some great promises, there is, however, a considerable number of critical reflections on using economic thinking to promote nature conservation. A recent aspect within these critics is that economic theory has failed on appreciating the multiple values (not only ‘individual’, but also ‘shared’ and ‘social’ values) of nature. Against this background, we will firstly show that the total economic value-concept covers a broad range of value dimension and that preferences of self-interested rational individuals may well cover also social or group values, although unclear to what degree. Secondly, we will highlight that economic theories on ‘merit goods’ developed by Richard A. Musgrave or the constitutional economics approach related to James M. Buchanan and others provide an as yet neglected but useful strand of arguments for the existence of values beyond individual preferences and that discourse ethics calls for deliberation to disclose those value dimensions. We will thirdly demonstrate how economic valuation methods could be improved by integrating deliberative elements in order to capture social value components in valuation exercises. As methods strongly shape valuation outcomes, it is a question of the practical purpose and of the ethical context of the valuation exercise that should determine which approach to choose.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Physical and monetary ecosystem service accounts for Europe: A case study
           for in-stream nitrogen retention
    • Authors: Alessandra La Notte; Joachim Maes; Silvana Dalmazzone; Neville D. Crossman; Bruna Grizzetti; Giovanni Bidoglio
      Pages: 18 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Alessandra La Notte, Joachim Maes, Silvana Dalmazzone, Neville D. Crossman, Bruna Grizzetti, Giovanni Bidoglio
      In this paper we present a case study of integrated ecosystem and economic accounting based on the System of Environmental Economic Accounting — Experimental Ecosystem Accounts (SEEA-EEA). We develop accounts, in physical and monetary terms, for the water purification ecosystem service in Europe over a 20-year time period (1985–2005). The estimation of nitrogen retention is based on the GREEN biophysical model, within which we impose a sustainability threshold to obtain the physical indicators of capacity – the ability of an ecosystem to sustainably supply ecosystem services. Key messages of our paper pertain the notion of capacity, operationalized in accounting terms with reference to individual ecosystem services rather than to the ecosystem as a whole, and intended as the stock that provides the sustainable flow of the service. The study clarifies the difference between sustainable flow and actual flow of the service, which should be calculated jointly so as to enable an assessment of the sustainability of current use of ecosystem services. Finally, by distinguishing the notion of ‘process’ (referred to the ecosystem) from that of ‘capacity’ (pertaining specific services) and proposing a methodology to calculate capacity and flow, we suggest an implementable way to operationalize the SEEA-EEA accounts.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Can payments for ecosystem services schemes mimic markets?
    • Authors: Gabriela Scheufele; Jeff Bennett
      Pages: 30 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Gabriela Scheufele, Jeff Bennett
      A Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme can be understood as a mechanism that performs the role of a ‘market’ for Ecosystem Services (ES) in circumstances where such a market would otherwise fail to develop. We investigate the potential for and limits of PES schemes to act in lieu of competitive markets and propose a PES scheme design that mimics markets. This is achieved by applying their underpinning concepts of demand and supply to the determination of ‘market clearing’ prices, while reducing transaction costs of buyer and supplier engagement through the involvement of agents. The proposed design combines economic valuation techniques to estimate ES demand with a novel tendering process that allows the estimation of individual marginal cost curves of potential ES suppliers. Supply actions and ES are linked through ‘conversion factors’ derived from bio-physical models that act as environmental production functions. Demand and supply so estimated enable the determination of a ‘market clearing’ price which, when offered to suppliers, provides static and dynamic incentives for cost-effective supply. Mutually beneficial exchange between buyers and suppliers, as is facilitated under the PES scheme design, improves resource use efficiency while allowing both the buyers and the suppliers to secure surpluses.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Effects of green space dynamics on urban heat islands: Mitigation and
           diversification
    • Authors: Ranhao Sun; Liding Chen
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Ranhao Sun, Liding Chen
      Understanding how green spaces affect urban temperature is crucial for assessing thermal benefits of landscape planning. This study investigated green space dynamics and land surface temperature (LST) in the Beijing metropolis. Landscape types were classified from QuickBird (2002) and IKONOS (2012) images and LST values were extracted from Landsat TM images. Five landscape types were obtained in this region including impervious land (IL), forest land (FL), grass land (GL), water body (WB), and bare land (BL). Green expansion indicated landscape change from IL and BL to FL and GL. Green loss indicated landscape change from FL and GL to IL. Green exchange indicated landscape change between FL and GL. Results show that (1) the area of green space dynamics accounted for 38.24% of the total research area, including green space losses (108.86km2), expansion (92.49km2), and exchange (53.83km2). (2) LST change was not significant in the unchanged (0–0.19°C) and exchanged green space (in the range of −0.02–0.25°C). However, there were minor decreases of LST in areas of green expansion (in the range of −1.11°C to −0.67°C) and major increases in LST in the areas of green losses (1.64–2.21°C). The results indicated that the number of green spaces is not the only criteria that should be assessed for temperature mitigation. Ecosystem services of temperature mitigation are not equal between the loss and expansion of green spaces even within same area. Greater focus on protecting natural forests in cities might provide greater benefits for climate mitigation.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • The impact of land use/land cover change on ecosystem services in the
           central highlands of Ethiopia
    • Authors: Terefe Tolessa; Feyera Senbeta; Moges Kidane
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Terefe Tolessa, Feyera Senbeta, Moges Kidane
      Ecosystems provide a wide range of services that are important for human-well being. Estimating the multiple services obtained from ecosystems is vital to support decision-making processes at different levels. This study analyzes land use/land cover (LU/LC) dynamics over four decades (i.e., 1973, 1986, 2001, 2015) to assess its impact on ecosystem services. Ecosystem Service Values (ESV) was determined using LU/LC analysis and established global data base. LU/LC analysis showed that forest cover reduced by 54.2% during study period; and settlement, bare land, shrub land and cultivated land increased considerably. The study indicates that due to forest cover change from 1973 to 2015, approximately US$ 3.69 million of ecosystem services values was lost. Among the ecosystem services reduced were: nutrient cycling, provision of raw material and erosion control. The use of LU/LC data along with established global ESV data sets reduce the costs of ground data collection, and help in tracking of past environmental changes and acquisition of quick and reliable results that can be used for decision making processes. We believe that the results obtained can be helpful in designing payment for environmental services and rural development policies.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Shades of grey challenge practical application of the cultural ecosystem
           services concept
    • Authors: Malgorzata Blicharska; Richard J. Smithers; Marcus Hedblom; Henrik Hedenås; Grzegorz Mikusiński; Eja Pedersen; Per Sandström; Johan Svensson
      Pages: 55 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Malgorzata Blicharska, Richard J. Smithers, Marcus Hedblom, Henrik Hedenås, Grzegorz Mikusiński, Eja Pedersen, Per Sandström, Johan Svensson
      Despite rapid advances in development of the ecosystem services (ES) concept, challenges remain for its use in decision making. Cultural ES (CES) have proven particularly difficult to pin down and resultant “shades of grey” impede their consideration by decision-makers. This study undertakes a literature review of CES to highlight the shades of grey, briefly illustrates findings by reference to the Swedish mountain landscape, then addresses potential implications for practical decision making. The concept of CES is complex and difficult to operationalize. The root of confusion appears to be a lack of rigour in identifying CES, hindering identification of proper methods for determining: the ecosystem elements that underpin CES; the beneficiaries of CES and how they value benefits delivered; and how CES may vary in space and time. We conclude by proposing a framework of questions, which we relate to the ES cascade model, that is intended to help researchers and decision-makers to reflect when considering CES. Answers to the questions should enable decision-makers to prioritise policy development or implementation in relation to the differing needs of potentially competing beneficiaries and what needs to be done or not done to the ecosystem, where, when and by whom.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Market-based instruments for the governance of coastal and marine
           ecosystem services: An analysis based on the Chinese case
    • Authors: Ruiqian Li; Margo van den Brink; Johan Woltjer
      Pages: 71 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Ruiqian Li, Margo van den Brink, Johan Woltjer
      Scholars and policy makers have increasingly emphasized the role of market-based instruments (MBIs) for the governance of ecosystem services (ESs). Limited focus however exists on a systematic understanding of how coastal and marine governance facilitates MBIs to sustain ESs. This paper develops a framework for analyzing the governance of MBIs on the basis of four distinctive aspects, including price, regulatory support, coordination, and spatial consideration. This framework can be used to analyze how MBIs are reflected in the governance of coastal and marine ESs and to understand to what extent a market environment is created for ESs. This study focuses on one in-depth case, namely Chinese national coastal and marine governance. The case suggests that existing MBIs are based on ES valuation and impacts and serve for understanding transactions. Moreover, the MBIs tend to show a clear focus on improving policy coordination. Finally, a further understanding of MBIs for coastal and marine governance is needed to also explore the role of voluntary choice.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Assessing mismatches in ecosystem services proficiency across the urban
           fabric of Porto (Portugal): The influence of structural and socioeconomic
           variables
    • Authors: Marisa S. Graça; João F. Gonçalves; Paulo J.M. Alves; David J. Nowak; Robert Hoehn; Alexis Ellis; Paulo Farinha-Marques; Mario Cunha
      Pages: 82 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Marisa S. Graça, João F. Gonçalves, Paulo J.M. Alves, David J. Nowak, Robert Hoehn, Alexis Ellis, Paulo Farinha-Marques, Mario Cunha


      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Integrating ecosystem services and disservices: insights from plant
           invasions
    • Authors: Ana S. Vaz; Christoph Kueffer; Christian A. Kull; David M. Richardson; Joana R. Vicente; Ingolf Kühn; Matthias Schröter; Jennifer Hauck; Aletta Bonn; João P. Honrado
      Pages: 94 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Ana S. Vaz, Christoph Kueffer, Christian A. Kull, David M. Richardson, Joana R. Vicente, Ingolf Kühn, Matthias Schröter, Jennifer Hauck, Aletta Bonn, João P. Honrado
      There is growing interest in ecosystem disservices, i.e. the negative effects of ecosystems on humans. The focus on disservices has been controversial because of the lack of clarity on how to disentangle ecosystem services and disservices related to human wellbeing. A perspective that considers both services and disservices is needed to inform objective decision-making. We propose a comprehensive typology of ecosystem disservices, and present a framework for integrating ecosystem services and disservices for human wellbeing linked to ecosystem functioning. Our treatment is underpinned by three key assumptions: (1) ecosystem attributes and functions are value-free; (2) the perception of benefits or nuisances are however dependent on societal context, and preferences and actions by societal actors may trigger, enhance or alleviate benefits or nuisances derived from ecosystems; and (3) the notion of disservices must account for the role of human management in assessments of ecosystem values, i.e. the social and technological measures that identify, protect, promote or restore desirable levels of services, and concurrently minimise, mitigate or adapt to disservices. We illustrate our ideas with examples from plant invasions as a complex social-ecological phenomenon.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Coupling stakeholder assessments of ecosystem services with biophysical
           ecosystem properties reveals importance of social contexts
    • Authors: M.A. Cebrián-Piqueras; L. Karrasch; M. Kleyer
      Pages: 108 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): M.A. Cebrián-Piqueras, L. Karrasch, M. Kleyer
      We asked whether different stakeholders perceive ecosystem services in similar ways and how these perceptions relate to measured ecosystem properties. Farmers and conservationists were asked to state (1) their preference for ecosystem services and (2) their perception about the value of several grassland vegetation units in providing these services. Additionally, biophysical parameters were collected on 46 plots. Structural equation models were applied to test which stakeholder perceptions corresponded to the data. For conservationists, the services regional belonging and soil fertility were related to conservation value, whereas farmers associated them with forage production. Conservationists’ perception of forage production was related to biomass removal, groundwater level and income from forage production, whereas farmers focused on the potential of ecosystems to produce forage, rather than the actual land use. The conservation perception of farmers was related to low land use intensity, whereas the conservationists associated it with endangered meadow birds. Conservationists associated carbon sequestration with below-ground peat formation, but farmers with above-ground plant productivity. We conclude that perceptions of ecosystem services are strongly influenced by social contexts, involving livelihoods, interests and traditions. Use of stakeholder assessments to establish sustainable land management should consider the fact that stakeholders interpret ecosystem services with different meanings.

      PubDate: 2016-12-17T21:29:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Valuing ecosystem services for improved national accounting: A pilot study
           from Madagascar
    • Authors: Laura Onofri; Glenn Marie Lange; Rosimeiry Portela; Paulo A.L.D. Nunes
      Pages: 116 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Laura Onofri, Glenn Marie Lange, Rosimeiry Portela, Paulo A.L.D. Nunes
      The present paper proposes a micro-econometric methodology for the economic valuation of the impact of ecosystem services in selected economic sectors. In the context of natural capital and ecosystem accounting, we built a four steps valuation protocol. The methodology is applied to the valuation of freshwater in the Ankeniheny-Zahamena Forestry Corridor (CAZ), Madagascar – a country partner with the Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES). Our results corroborate the intuition that understanding the value of water in its alternative uses is a key to fostering informed debate on water management and allocation in the CAZ area. More generally, this study provides a solid contribution towards a more effective way to elicit and record nature's ecosystem services contribution to the economy.

      PubDate: 2016-12-17T21:29:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Analysing scale, quality and diversity of green infrastructure and the
           provision of Urban Ecosystem Services: A case from Mexico City
    • Authors: Rafael Calderón-Contreras; Laura Elisa Quiroz-Rosas
      Pages: 127 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Rafael Calderón-Contreras, Laura Elisa Quiroz-Rosas
      Fostering urban resilience requires a social-ecological systems approach that considers the ecological and social feedbacks of cities. In this paper we argue that Urban Ecosystem Services (UES) could increase urban resilience; and that resilient UES depends directly on the quantity, quality and diversity of the green infrastructure that produces them. The case of the western boundaries of Mexico City is used to map and assess these issues. We classified the different settings of green infrastructure as Service Providing Units (SPUs) and identified their provision of UES through remote sensing techniques; the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) combined with fieldwork verification in two scales of analysis, the local and regional. The results reveal that the vast majority of green infrastructure has low quality, hindering the provision of the UES required for building Mexico City´s resilience. At the regional scale, the growing pressures of urban development and the consequent reduction of SPUs threatens the delivery of provisioning ecosystem services while at the local scale, the low quality of SPUs threatens the provision of regulating ecosystem services. We argue that addressing these challenges could improve the design and implementation of environmental decision-making and urban policy towards more resilient urban social-ecological systems.

      PubDate: 2016-12-26T08:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Insights and opportunities from mapping ecosystem services of urban green
           spaces and potentials in planning
    • Authors: Giuseppe Pulighe; Francesco Fava; Flavio Lupia
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part A
      Author(s): Giuseppe Pulighe, Francesco Fava, Flavio Lupia
      Urbanization and rapid population growth pose the cities in front of massive challenges in terms of environmental impacts. This paper explores recent progresses in mapping ecosystem services provided by urban green infrastructures (GI) and discuss how GI can contribute to promoting cohesion, resilience and livability toward sustainable and green cities. It also investigates the interlinkages between ecosystem services paradigm, mapping approaches at urban level and benefits provided for human well-being. A literature study focusing on recent research papers is conducted, highlighting new trends on methods and data, unexplored developments and opportunities on literature regarding mapping green infrastructures with respect to planning, management and ecosystem services’ provision. Additionally, an in-depth analysis of selected case studies synthesizes and discusses key insights of quantitative results related to key ecosystem services mapping approaches. The results indicate that mapping efforts integrates multiple disciplines, combining advanced technology and sophisticated models and methods. We argue that mapping ecosystem services would allow urban designers and planning practitioners to help and inform policymakers during the decision process and management of urban landscapes.

      PubDate: 2016-10-01T04:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Identifying driving forces of landscape changes: Historical relationships
           and the availability of ecosystem services in the Atlantic forest
    • Authors: Vivian Cristina dos Santos Hackbart; Guilherme Theodoro Nascimento Pereira de Lima; Lidia Sanches Bertolo; Rozely Ferreira dos Santos
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part A
      Author(s): Guilherme Theodoro Nascimento Pereira de Lima, Vivian Cristina dos Santos Hackbart, Lidia Sanches Bertolo, Rozely Ferreira dos Santos
      We argue that the history of a landscape and the driving forces acting in each of its sectors account for the recent condition of its structure and ecological functions, which, in turn, can be translated into the availability of ecosystem services. Therefore, the present study investigated the historical relationship between the forces that have induced changes in the use and settlement of the island of São Sebastião over five centuries, their resulting impacts and their influences on the availability of regulation, supply, recreation and cultural ecosystem services. We worked with a broad historical survey and maps of land use and natural vegetation from different time periods. Thus, although the historical data were not accurate about the exact areas used for agriculture or forest we could infer about losses and replacement of ecosystem services. Moreover, we observed the occurrence of three driving forces that alternated in intensity and importance over time, leading to forest gains and losses that especially led to the degradation of regulation services.

      PubDate: 2016-10-01T04:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Balancing demand and supply of multiple urban ecosystem services on
           different spatial scales
    • Authors: Neele Larondelle; Steffen Lauf
      Pages: 18 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part A
      Author(s): Neele Larondelle, Steffen Lauf
      The scientific community has been engaged for some time in valuing and measuring urban ecosystem services (UES). However, methods to value both demand and supply and to balance them on a fine scale are still lacking. The study presents a scheme to assess demand and supply of UES and derive respective budgets by using detailed environmental, urban structural and socio-economic data. We show heterogeneous demand and supply patterns for five highly relevant UES on the block, neighborhood and entire city scale in Berlin, Germany. We detect the most negative budgets along major city highways and in the most compact city structures, which calls for new and creative ways to introduce green and tackle high sealing rates especially in these areas. Due to the above-average green amount in Berlin the UES green space recreation and PM 10 removal showed to be unusually well balanced. The method is able to close a gap in methods for UES demand valuation and consequently develops a transferable methodology for informed planning processes. Furthermore we argue for the usability in planning processes due to its applicability on any relevant scale.

      PubDate: 2016-10-01T04:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Enhancing ecosystem services maps combining field and environmental data
    • Authors: María José Martínez-Harms; Sandra Quijas; Adina M. Merenlender; Patricia Balvanera
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part A
      Author(s): María José Martínez-Harms, Sandra Quijas, Adina M. Merenlender, Patricia Balvanera
      Ecosystem service maps are increasingly being used to prioritize management and conservation decisions. Most of these maps rely on estimates of ecosystem services estimated for individual land cover classes rather than incorporating field data. We developed combined field models (CFM) using regression analysis to estimate ecosystem services based on the observed relationship between environmental and land cover data and field measurements of ecosystem services. Local ecosystem service supply was estimated from vegetation data measured at fifty sites covering the widest range of environmental conditions across a watershed in Mexico. We compared the accuracy of the CFM approach for forage, timber, firewood and carbon storage over a more commonly “look up table” method relying on a uniform estimate of ecosystem service supply by land cover type. The CFM revealed higher accuracy when compared to the “look up table” approach. The resulting CFM models explained a large fraction of the variance (42–89%) using a combination of land cover, remote sensing data, hydrology and distance from developed areas. In addition, mapping residuals from Geographically Weighted Regressions provided an estimate of uncertainty across the CFM model results. This approach provides better estimates of ecosystem service delivery and uncertainty for land managers and decision-makers.

      PubDate: 2016-10-01T04:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Effective arguments for ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation
           – A case study on Finnish peatland conservation
    • Authors: Eerika Albrecht; Outi Ratamäki
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part A
      Author(s): Eerika Albrecht, Outi Ratamäki
      Political and socially constructed arguments about values and benefits originating from ecosystem services (ES) may improve the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation. In this article we show how effective biodiversity conservation is dependent on stakeholders’ rhetorical skills and their ability to introduce persuasive arguments for the target audience. We present a case study of a lengthy conflict to protect a mire area located in Eastern Finland. We follow locally constructed arguments and analyse their effectiveness with different audiences. Research data consist of interviews, newspaper articles and legal documents. Employing content analysis, we study the ES identified by different stakeholders and analyse the effectiveness and sources of arguments presented on behalf of those services. We differentiate between legal and political effectiveness as many ES arguments were effective in sustaining the prolonged conflict locally but ineffective in administrative courts. Legislation and scientific evidence are identified as the main sources for an effective argument in legal proceedings. This case is an example of how local residents require support from scientists in order to formulate effective arguments for legal audiences. Valid arguments for legal institutions are based on the protection of individual species or biotypes whereas political processes are more responsive to local ES valuations.

      PubDate: 2016-10-01T04:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Certification of forest watershed services: A Q methodology analysis of
           opportunities and challenges in Lombok, Indonesia
    • Authors: Wanggi Jaung; Louis Putzel; Gary Q. Bull; Robert Kozak; Markum
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part A
      Author(s): Wanggi Jaung, Louis Putzel, Gary Q. Bull, Robert Kozak, Markum
      This study examines opportunities and challenges of applying certification of forest watershed services to a payment for watershed services (PWS) scheme. The certification has potential to mitigate the problem of incomplete information in a PWS scheme, but necessary enabling conditions remain untested, including stakeholder support. To examine stakeholder perspectives, Q methodology was conducted with intermediaries, buyers, and sellers of a PWS scheme in West Lombok, Indonesia. Stakeholders revealed interest in using certification as a capacity-building tool, towards which they indicated a willingness to bear associated costs. However, their preferences indicated confusion about the meaning of certification and skepticism as to its transparency, as well as a need for as-of-yet unavailable simple but scientific standards. The study contributes to analyzing the feasibility of certification as a tool for disclosure of information.

      PubDate: 2016-10-01T04:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Transformative agenda, or lost in the translation? A review of top-cited
           articles in the first four years of Ecosystem Services
    • Authors: Marjan van den Belt; Sharon M. Stevens
      Pages: 60 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part A
      Author(s): Marjan van den Belt, Sharon M. Stevens
      “Ecosystem services” (ES) has been described both as a trans-disciplinary bridging concept and as a boundary object for sustainability, indicating ES sutures discourses in ways that are bound to be in tension. Given the international attention that has been accorded to ES, it is subject to considerable pressure from growth-oriented economic thinking and practices. Our concern for a co-opted agenda prompted a qualitative discourse analysis of those articles published during the first four years of Ecosystem Services that have had the most influence on the development of the journal’s discourse, which we operationalized as top-cited articles. We assessed the extent to which these have delivered on the journal’s inaugural, transformative agenda and/or the extent to which this agenda has been lost in translation. Our analysis indicates that the normative goals of strong sustainable development are indeed being served by many (though not all) publications within the journal. There are, however, important research gaps, for example, in the welfare of future generations and ecological thresholds. There is also evidence of a positive trend toward in-context research and outcomes assessment that warrants further development.

      PubDate: 2016-10-01T04:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Integrating similarity analysis and ecosystem service value transfer:
           Results from a tropical coastal wetland in India
    • Authors: Andrea Ghermandi; Albert Moses Sheela; Joseph Justus
      Pages: 73 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part A
      Author(s): Andrea Ghermandi, Albert Moses Sheela, Joseph Justus
      Policy demand for ecosystem service values in developing countries results in a growing use of value transfer techniques, even in the absence of primary valuations from highly comparable study sites. Current techniques provide limited guidance on how to quantitatively assess the similarity between study and policy sites and control for the effect thereof on transfer accuracy. This paper proposes a methodology for the estimation of a study-policy site similarity index and explores its application to the Akkulam-Veli wetland in Kerala, India. The use of empirical similarity weights in a meta-analytical transfer yields a narrower prediction interval for the policy site value estimate. Estimating the meta-regression model parameters on a subset of primary valuation studies with greater similarity to the policy site application is found to increase value transfer accuracy. The need for further systematic testing and potential implications of the proposed approach for value transfer practitioners are highlighted.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T04:25:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • What's law got to do with it? Why environmental justice is essential to
           ecosystem service valuation
    • Authors: Alexandra Aragão; Sander Jacobs; An Cliquet
      Pages: 221 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part B
      Author(s): Alexandra Aragão, Sander Jacobs, An Cliquet
      The purpose of this paper is to show that bringing together legal science and other sciences in integrated valuation of ecosystem services can contribute for environmental justice and ensure fair and acceptable answers to complex real life questions. Legal science provides the teleological framework necessary to prevent ethical deadlocks. To this end, different forms of environmental justice are addressed. Distributive justice, commutative justice, retributive justice, restorative justice and procedural justice are five types of environmental justice, the content of which is explained using illustrative examples of environmental “injustices”. Next, these justice forms are applied to fourteen wicked legal questions, covering both public and private law, both international and national law, is presented. The questions demonstrate how Integrated Ecosystem Services valuation can be used to address societal challenges related to humanitarian protection, State responsibility, ecological damage, access to natural resources, use of economic instruments for environmental protection, effective environmental sanctioning, access to information, etc. This paper confirms the potential uses of integrated valuation of ecosystem services in the pursuit of social and environmental goals when legal science and other natural and social sciences are brought together to operationalize ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2016-12-26T08:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Reprint:Justifying social values of nature: Economic reasoning beyond
           self-interested preferences
    • Authors: Bernd Hansjürgens; Christoph Schröter-Schlaack; Augustin Berghöfer; Nele Lienhoop
      Pages: 228 - 237
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part B
      Author(s): Bernd Hansjürgens, Christoph Schröter-Schlaack, Augustin Berghöfer, Nele Lienhoop
      Demonstrating that conservation is not only beneficial for nature but also for human well-being is as much desirable as it is challenging. Undoubtedly, using economic numbers hold some great promises, there is, however, a considerable number of critical reflections on using economic thinking to promote nature conservation. A recent aspect within these critics is that economic theory has failed on appreciating the multiple values (not only ‘individual’, but also ‘shared’ and ‘social’ values) of nature. Against this background, we will firstly show that the total economic value-concept covers a broad range of value dimension and that preferences of self-interested rational individuals may well cover also social or group values, although unclear to what degree. Secondly, we will highlight that economic theories on ‘merit goods’ developed by Richard A. Musgrave or the constitutional economics approach related to James M. Buchanan and others provide an as yet neglected but useful strand of arguments for the existence of values beyond individual preferences and that discourse ethics calls for deliberation to disclose those value dimensions. We will thirdly demonstrate how economic valuation methods could be improved by integrating deliberative elements in order to capture social value components in valuation exercises. As methods strongly shape valuation outcomes, it is a question of the practical purpose and of the ethical context of the valuation exercise that should determine which approach to choose.

      PubDate: 2016-12-26T08:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • A comparative analysis of ecosystem services valuation approaches for
           application at the local scale and in data scarce regions
    • Authors: B. Pandeya; W. Buytaert; Z. Zulkafli; T. Karpouzoglou; F. Mao; D.M. Hannah
      Pages: 250 - 259
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part B
      Author(s): B. Pandeya, W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, T. Karpouzoglou, F. Mao, D.M. Hannah
      Despite significant advances in the development of the ecosystem services concept across the science and policy arenas, the valuation of ecosystem services to guide sustainable development remains challenging, especially at a local scale and in data scarce regions. In this paper, we review and compare major past and current valuation approaches and discuss their key strengths and weaknesses for guiding policy decisions. To deal with the complexity of methods used in different valuation approaches, our review uses multiple entry points: data vs simulation, habitat vs system vs place-based, specific vs entire portfolio, local vs regional scale, and monetary vs non-monetary. We find that although most valuation approaches are useful to explain ecosystem services at a macro/system level, an application of locally relevant valuation approaches, which allows for a more integrated valuation relevant to decision making is still hindered by data-scarcity. The advent of spatially explicit policy support systems shows particular promise to make the best use of available data and simulations. Data collection remains crucial for the local scale and in data scarce regions. Leveraging citizen science-based data and knowledge co-generation may support the integrated valuation, while at the same time making the valuation process more inclusive, replicable and policy-oriented.

      PubDate: 2016-12-26T08:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • A proposed framework for assessing ecosystem goods and services from
           planted forests
    • Authors: Himlal Baral; Manuel R. Guariguata; Rodney J. Keenan
      Pages: 260 - 268
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part B
      Author(s): Himlal Baral, Manuel R. Guariguata, Rodney J. Keenan
      The planting of forests has been met with both scepticism and support in international forest policy and management fora. Discussions regarding the values of plantations for extrinsic purposes such as timber supply, carbon sequestration, water quality and biodiversity conservation, reveal widely varying opinions across and within different settings. Recent research highlights the role of planted forests in providing multiple ecosystem services to human society. However, there has been little assessment of ecosystems services, partly due to lack of suitable frameworks and evaluation tools. Planted forests generally have low ecosystem services values initially and are more vulnerable to erosion and other impacts of mismanagement than natural forests. Careful monitoring of change in ecosystem services values over time is therefore vital to investors and all stakeholders in plantations. Drawing on lessons derived from ecosystem services assessment for various land use types, here we propose an easy-to-apply framework to assess ecosystem services from planted forests that could be used in various planted forest types around the world. A necessary next step for researchers and practitioners is to test the proposed framework under various settings.

      PubDate: 2016-12-26T08:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Images of nature as a boundary object in social and integrated ecosystem
           services assessments. Reflections from a Belgian case study
    • Authors: R. De Vreese; M. Leys; N. Dendoncker; A. Van Herzele; C.M. Fontaine
      Pages: 269 - 279
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part B
      Author(s): R. De Vreese, M. Leys, N. Dendoncker, A. Van Herzele, C.M. Fontaine
      This paper contributes to the discussion on involving stakeholders in ecosystem services (ES) assessments and contributes to the practice of integrated ES assessments through introducing the “images of nature” concept. An inductive analysis of stakeholders’ notions of nature, their use of nature and the perceived importance of ES functioning in their municipality generated a two-dimensional images of nature valuation framework. The first dimension describes a Nature versus Culture continuum. The second dimension refers to the Nature-Humankind relationship, including three relations: Nature and Landscape for People, People for Nature and Landscape and an Imbalanced relation. We discuss the potential of the images of nature concept as a boundary object for participatory integrated ES assessment, planning and management. We situate the emerged images of nature within traditional approaches to human-nature relations. Based on our observations, we challenge the ES concept and ES typology, and plea for an integrated ES assessment framework incorporating social, economic and biophysical perspectives. We finish with outlining how images of nature can be a tool within participatory integrated ES assessments.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-12-26T08:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • Conflicting interests of ecosystem services: Multi-criteria modelling and
           indirect evaluation of trade-offs between monetary and non-monetary
           measures
    • Authors: Hilde Karine Wam; Nils Bunnefeld; Nicholas Clarke; Ole Hofstad
      Pages: 280 - 288
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 22, Part B
      Author(s): Hilde Karine Wam, Nils Bunnefeld, Nicholas Clarke, Ole Hofstad
      Ecosystems provide services for many stakeholder groups, often with a conflict of interests that hampers sustainability. Core to these conflicts is the challenge of trading-off monetary and non-monetary measures. Using the boreal forest as a case, we present a socio-ecologically integrated trade-off model for partly competing services (wood, game hunting, livestock grazing). Drawing on multi-criteria analyses (MCA), we found that wood production unequivocally yielded the highest net present value, but led to a substantial reduction in the performance of hunting and grazing. By imposing multiuse conditions set as minimum performance of the less profitable services, we evaluated the opportunity costs of multiuse without directly pricing non-commodities. We also quantified normalized indices of realized performance potential to evaluate the cost of multiuse with a single, joint metric. Both approaches consistently showed that accepting a rather small loss in one service may secure large gains in other services. By democratically providing a combined monetary and non-monetary evaluation, our approach should facilitate broader acceptance for the decisional metrics among stakeholders. It thereby has the potential to mitigate conflicts, feeding into the larger scheme of adaptive management.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-12-26T08:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2016)
       
  • A new valuation school: Integrating diverse values of nature in resource
           and land use decisions
    • Authors: Jacobs Sander; Dendoncker Nicolas; Martín-López Berta; Barton David Nicholas; Gomez-Baggethun Erik; Boeraeve Fanny; McGrath L. Francesca; Vierikko Kati; Geneletti Davide; Sevecke J. Katharina; Pipart Nathalie; Primmer Eeva; Mederly Peter; Schmidt Stefan; Aragão Alexandra; Baral Himlal; Bark H. Rosalind; Briceno Tania; Brogna Delphine; Cabral Pedro; De Vreese Rik; Liquete Camino; Mueller Hannah; S.-H. Peh Kelvin; Phelan Anna; Rincón Ruiz Alexander; Rogers H. Shannon; Turkelboom Francis; Wouter Van Reeth; Boris T. van Zanten; Wam Hilde Karine; Washbourne Carla-Leanne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Jacobs Sander, Dendoncker Nicolas, Martín-López Berta, Barton David Nicholas, Gomez-Baggethun Erik, Boeraeve Fanny, McGrath L. Francesca, Vierikko Kati, Geneletti Davide, Sevecke J. Katharina, Pipart Nathalie, Primmer Eeva, Mederly Peter, Schmidt Stefan, Aragão Alexandra, Baral Himlal, Bark H. Rosalind, Briceno Tania, Brogna Delphine, Cabral Pedro, De Vreese Rik, Liquete Camino, Mueller Hannah, S.-H. Peh Kelvin, Phelan Anna, Rincón Ruiz Alexander, Rogers H. Shannon, Turkelboom Francis, Wouter Van Reeth, Boris T. van Zanten, Wam Hilde Karine, Washbourne Carla-Leanne
      We are increasingly confronted with severe social and economic impacts of environmental degradation all over the world. From a valuation perspective, environmental problems and conflicts originate from trade-offs between values. The urgency and importance to integrate nature's diverse values in decisions and actions stand out more than ever. Valuation, in its broad sense of ‘assigning importance’, is inherently part of most decisions on natural resource and land use. Scholars from different traditions -while moving from heuristic interdisciplinary debate to applied transdisciplinary science- now acknowledge the need for combining multiple disciplines and methods to represent the diverse set of values of nature. This growing group of scientists and practitioners share the ambition to explore how combinations of ecological, socio-cultural and economic valuation tools can support real-life resource and land use decision-making. The current sustainability challenges and the ineffectiveness of single-value approaches to offer relief demonstrate that continuing along a single path is no option. We advocate for the adherence of a plural valuation culture and its establishment as a common practice, by contesting and complementing ineffective and discriminatory single-value approaches. In policy and decision contexts with a willingness to improve sustainability, integrated valuation approaches can be blended in existing processes, whereas in contexts of power asymmetries or environmental conflicts, integrated valuation can promote the inclusion of diverse values through action research and support the struggle for social and environmental justice. The special issue and this editorial synthesis paper bring together lessons from pioneer case studies and research papers, synthesizing main challenges and setting out priorities for the years to come for the field of integrated valuation.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.007
       
  • The legal aspects of Ecosystem Services in agricultural land pricing, some
           implications from a case study in Vietnam's Mekong Delta
    • Authors: Ho Huu Loc; Kim N. Irvine; Nguyen Thi Hong Diep; Nguyen Thi Kim Quyen; Nguyen Ngoc Tue; Yoshihisa Shimizu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Ho Huu Loc, Kim N. Irvine, Nguyen Thi Hong Diep, Nguyen Thi Kim Quyen, Nguyen Ngoc Tue, Yoshihisa Shimizu
      Ecosystem economic valuation has been proposed as an appropriate approach to account for natural resources. More specifically, the tangible and intangible values of ecosystem services (ES) associated with specific land uses/land covers have been appreciated by practitioners both in academia and policy arenas as useful accounting means for land use management. This paper explored how the outcomes from ecosystem valuation studies could be utilized to improve the current agricultural land pricing system in Vietnam's Mekong Delta. By reviewing the relevant legal documents, we highlighted some limitations of the current land pricing system and suggested reforms utilizing ES valuation results. By comparing the results of ES evaluation study for the prawn-rice rotational crops (PRRC) areas with their regulated agricultural land prices, one major limitation of the current pricing method was identified, that being its inability to capture the actual land profitability resulting from the classification system of lands which currently typifies PRRC areas as annual crops, similar to rice and vegetables. However, to register a dedicated classification for PRRC can be time consuming and costly due to the complexity of the relevant legal framework. As a response, an ES-based index to account for the differences between PRRC and other cultivation systems without having to thoroughly reform the legal system was recommended. Our recommendation is essentially in harmony with the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Decree, which allows for the application of correction factors according to local conditions. As a methodological contribution, this attempt to include ES information in legal systems could facilitate the better standardization of core terminologies and practical guidelines, two of the most important challenges to the mainstreaming of the ES concept in decision making and policy planning.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.019
       
  • Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis: Comparing
           alternative frameworks for integrated valuation of ecosystem services
    • Authors: Heli Saarikoski; Jyri Mustajoki; David N. Barton; Davide Geneletti; Johannes Langemeyer; Erik Gomez-Baggethun; Mika Marttunen; Paula Antunes; Hans Keune; Rui Santos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Heli Saarikoski, Jyri Mustajoki, David N. Barton, Davide Geneletti, Johannes Langemeyer, Erik Gomez-Baggethun, Mika Marttunen, Paula Antunes, Hans Keune, Rui Santos
      Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods has been promoted as an alternative approach to monetary economic valuation of ecosystem services in Cost-Benefit Analysis framework (CBA). We discuss the potential of MCDA in providing a framework for integrated valuation of ecosystem services. We conclude that MCDA does in general perform better than CBA and associated monetary valuation techniques in several aspects that are essential in ecosystem service valuation. These include the ability of a valuation method to account for multiple dimensions of well-being, including ecological and economic as well as cultural and moral aspects of a policy or management problem and to facilitate open and transparent public debate on the pros and cons of alternative courses of action, including the distribution of gains and losses across beneficiaries of ecosystem services. The capacity of MCDA to articulate values related to ecosystem services depends on individual methods used in the MCDA process. More importantly, it depends of the ways in which the process is organized and facilitated. However, MCDA cannot provide representative information of the values of wider population. Further empirical and theoretical research is needed on the potential of hybrid methodologies to combine monetary valuation and MCDA in fruitful ways.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T12:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.10.014
       
 
 
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