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Journal Cover Ecosystem Services
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Uncertainty assessment in ecosystem services analyses: Seven challenges
           and practical responses
    • Authors: Perrine Hamel; Benjamin P. Bryant
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Perrine Hamel, Benjamin P. Bryant
      Ecosystem services (ES) analyses are increasingly used to address societal challenges, but too often are not accompanied by uncertainty assessment. This omission limits the validity of their findings and may undermine the ‘science-based’ decisions they inform. We summarize and analyze seven commonly perceived challenges to conducting uncertainty assessment that help explain why it often receives superficial treatment in ES studies. We connect these challenges to solutions in relevant scientific literature and guidance documents. Since ES science is based on a multiplicity of disciplines (e.g. ecology, hydrology, economics, environmental modeling, policy sciences), substantial knowledge already exists to identify, quantify, and communicate uncertainties. The integration of these disciplines for solution-oriented modeling has been the focus of the integrated assessment community for many years, and we argue that many insights and best practices from this field can be directly used to improve ES assessments. We also recognize a number of issues that hinder the adoption of uncertainty assessment as part of standard practice. Our synthesis provides a starting point for ES analysts and other applied modelers looking for further guidance on uncertainty assessment and helps scientists and decision-makers to set reasonable expectations for characterizing the level of confidence associated with an ES assessment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-22T19:35:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem service tradeoff between grazing intensity and other services -
           A case study in Karei-Deshe experimental cattle range in northern Israel
    • Authors: Itai Divinsky; Nir Becker; Pua Bar (Kutiel)
      Pages: 16 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Itai Divinsky, Nir Becker, Pua Bar (Kutiel)
      Grasslands cover around 25% of the earth's land surface and provide many essential Ecosystem Services (ES) to human well-being. Changes in grazing intensity have led to changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, resulting in loss of some of these ES. This emphasizes the need for grassland management schemes that aim to maximize economic returns from grasslands while maintaining ecosystem functioning, but tools to assess the tradeoffs between economic benefits and Ecosystem Services are, for the most part, lacking. This study is aimed at economically valuing multiple ecosystem services, and the tradeoffs between them and species richness, across different management alternatives (control, light, moderate and heavy grazing) in the Karei-Deshe experimental farm and Long Term Ecosystem Research (LTER) site. Ecological data from previous research in Karei-Deshe was valuated using the Replacement Cost Method and a Contingent Valuation survey, which valued the farm's landscape. Grazing intensity was inversely related to the delivery of ES studied and positively related to species richness, except for heavy grazing, which resulted in lower species richness. Only heavy grazing was found to be an inefficient management alternative. This research demonstrates a fairly simple path for providing land managers an ecological-data-based tool for comparing management alternatives.

      PubDate: 2017-02-22T19:35:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Quantification of ecosystem services: Beyond all the “guesstimates”,
           how do we get real data?
    • Authors: Philippe C. Baveye
      Pages: 47 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Philippe C. Baveye


      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Are diverse ecosystems more valuable? Economic value of biodiversity as
           result of uncertainty and spatial interactions in ecosystem service
           provision
    • Authors: Bartosz Bartkowski
      Pages: 50 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Bartosz Bartkowski
      Economic valuation mostly focuses on specific ecosystems, species or the services they provide. The diversity within ecosystems is viewed as a valuation object less frequently. In this paper, it is argued that the economic value of biodiversity highlights the relevance of the temporal and spatial dimensions in ecosystem service provision. A framework is presented in which the economic value of biodiversity is the result of uncertainty about the future, regarding both supply of and demand for ecosystem services, and of spatial interactions between ecosystems. Three sources of biodiversity’s economic value are distinguished in this context: insurance value, option value and spill-over value. Furthermore, the paper introduces biodiversity-specific methodological challenges (importance of non-market ecosystem goods; uncertainty and subjectivity; complexity and abstractness) which can be used to identify suitable methods for the economic valuation of biodiversity.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • New methods for valuing, and for identifying spatial variations, in
           cultural services: A case study of the Great Barrier Reef
    • Authors: Diane Jarvis; Natalie Stoeckl; Hong-Bo Liu
      Pages: 58 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Diane Jarvis, Natalie Stoeckl, Hong-Bo Liu
      Estimating values for ecosystem services (ES) can contribute to the decision making process, reducing the risk that ES benefits are overlooked. For ES with no (direct or indirect) links to markets, valuation is a non-trivial exercise. Traditional methods require the use of hypothetical markets; the life satisfaction (LS) approach does not. LS has previously been used to estimate the value of regulating ES, but to the best of our knowledge has never been used to estimate the value of cultural services (CS). We examine the relationship between LS and a subset of CS provided by the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), (the non-use CS), using geographically weighted regression to investigate spatial variations in value. After controlling for other factors, we find income is more important to LS in the south than the north; the opposite is true for non-use CS. The coefficients are used to estimate the amount of income required to keep overall LS constant, should the non-use CS of the GBR not be preserved, estimated at $8.7bn annually. We acknowledge the imperfections of our work, noting the need for research on better CS measures, but feel that the general approach may add another useful tool to the valuation toolbox.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Demand and supply of cultural ecosystem services: Use of geotagged photos
           to map the aesthetic value of landscapes in Hokkaido
    • Authors: Nobuhiko Yoshimura; Tsutom Hiura
      Pages: 68 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Nobuhiko Yoshimura, Tsutom Hiura
      We proposed a mapping method for landscape aesthetic demand and potential supply area based on viewsheds, which is a direct method that provides robust results. Moreover, we mapped the aesthetic value of Hokkaido as a case study in Asia. The Aichi Biodiversity Target refers to the importance of ecosystem service (ES) mapping methodologies. However, ES mapping in policy and practice has rarely been reported. Robust, reliable indicators are required. Recently, studies estimating aesthetic value have used geotagged photos on social networking services instead of survey results of user preferences. The methods used in these studies were cost effective and provided spatially explicit results. However, these methods used the photography positions. Using the photographed sites is a more direct method to estimate the aesthetic demand. Therefore, we used geotagged photos on Flickr and viewsheds from each photography position to identify the photographed sites. The demand area was estimated using the viewshed. The potential supply area was estimated using MaxEnt. The demand and potential supply areas were concentrated in natural parks. Comparing the demand and potential supply areas indicates areas with potential supply despite their low demand in forest, farmland, and natural parks. This method will contribute to CES research and decision-making.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Assessing the importance of cultural ecosystem services in urban areas of
           Beijing municipality
    • Authors: Yuehan Dou; Lin Zhen; Rudolf De Groot; Bingzhen Du; Xiubo Yu
      Pages: 79 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Yuehan Dou, Lin Zhen, Rudolf De Groot, Bingzhen Du, Xiubo Yu
      The world is rapidly urbanising, with both positive and negative consequences. One major challenge is how to secure the long-term quality of life for urban residents. Many studies on quality of life are based on ‘material’ ecosystem services (i.e., provisioning and regulating services), with less attention paid to the non-material benefits gained from nature (e.g., green and blue spaces), which have been called cultural ecosystem services (CES). However, these non-material services are often most important to urban residents. Understanding perceptions and awareness of CES provided by urban blue space (i.e., water and wetlands) and green space (i.e., urban forest and grassland) are therefore important to support planning, creation, and protection of these spaces. To tackle these problems, we assessed and quantified the CES provided by urban green and blue space in six metropolitan areas of Beijing. By combining ecosystem services valuation with surveys (466 questionnaires and 16 expert interviews), we gained insights into residents’ perceptions of CES. Surprisingly, blue areas in metropolitan Beijing were valued at least 4.3 times higher than the value of green areas. More than 80% of the residents were willing to pay for maintenance of urban blue and green areas (an average of almost 64RMB/year). The contributions of cultural services are likely to increase if stakeholders value natural ecosystems more in urban areas than in rural or mountainous areas because of the additional value of these rare resources in densely populated areas.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Water assessment in a peri-urban watershed in Mexico City: A focus on an
           ecosystem services approach
    • Authors: Julieta Jujnovsky; Alya Ramos; Ángela Caro-Borrero; Marisa Mazari-Hiriart; Manuel Maass; Lucía Almeida-Leñero
      Pages: 91 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Julieta Jujnovsky, Alya Ramos, Ángela Caro-Borrero, Marisa Mazari-Hiriart, Manuel Maass, Lucía Almeida-Leñero
      Among hydrological ecosystem services, water supply is one of the most relevant to society because of its role in human wellbeing; accordingly, it has been significantly modified worldwide. There has been a recent increase in the necessity of combining methods and tools to create interdisciplinary evaluations of water ecosystem services, especially in developing countries where there is a lack of systematized and updated socioenvironmental information. We propose a framework for the assessment of water supply ecosystem services that includes environmental, social and economic dimensions. We describe and develop each of these dimensions with a particular focus on identifying the key variables that are needed to answer them. First, we performed research of the literature regarding the evaluation methods that are sufficiently flexible to apply them to local scales in countries where information is limited. Then, we chose the Magdalena River Watershed to apply this perspective because it is an illustrative area of vital importance to Mexico City’s ecosystem services. We believe that this proposal has outlined basic guidelines to help decision makers improve water management and may provide an opportunity to change public policies on peri-urban ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Valuation of fish production services in river basins: A case study of the
           Columbia River
    • Authors: Cedar Morton; Duncan Knowler; Cecile Brugere; David Lymer; Devin Bartley
      Pages: 101 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Cedar Morton, Duncan Knowler, Cecile Brugere, David Lymer, Devin Bartley
      This study uses a bio-economic model to assess the capacity of the Columbia River to provide a selection of four ecosystem services and estimates the actual use of those services in terms of net economic welfare. Our findings reinforce the observation that Columbia River habitat supports production of valuable fish species that provide: (i) food production from commercial fishing, (ii) recreational fishing, (iii) tribal subsistence fishing, and (iv) nutrient cycling services. Relative to the status quo, a 10% greater prioritization of salmon conservation via shifts in the flow regime would generate an increase of $4.8million/yr in the net economic benefit from these services. A return to pristine flow conditions would raise this value to $19.5million/yr. Re-prioritizing hydropower production to average 1976–1980 flow levels would result in a $3.5million/yr loss of net economic benefits. Recreational fishing is the most important ecosystem service we assessed. Under some scenarios, this sector generates twice the value of the next largest sector (commercial fishing). Although managers have placed greater emphasis on fish conservation in recent decades, opportunities for gains in economic welfare from fish production in the Columbia River may not be fully exploited, particularly considering that our conservation scenario only minimally alters the flow regime relative to the hydropower priority scenario.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Economic analysis of mangrove and marine fishery linkages in India
    • Authors: Lavanya Ravikanth Anneboina; K.S. Kavi Kumar
      Pages: 114 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Lavanya Ravikanth Anneboina, K.S. Kavi Kumar
      Mangroves support and enhance fisheries by serving as a breeding ground and nursery habitat for marine life. The mangrove-fishery link has been well established in the ecological literature. This paper, however, employs an economic analysis to examine the role of mangroves in increasing marine fish output in India. Using secondary data on marine fish production and fishery resources, two distinct but related issues are analysed: i) the effectiveness of mangroves in increasing marine fish production, and ii) the marginal effect of mangroves on fish production or the contribution of a hectare of mangrove area to fish output in India. The results based on econometric analysis indicate that i) mangroves contribute significantly to the enhancement of fish production in the coastal states of India, and ii) the marginal effect of mangroves on total marine fish output is 1.86tonnes per hectare per year, which translates into a percentage contribution of mangroves to commercial marine fisheries output of 23 percent in India in 2011.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Quantification of the potential impact of nature conservation on ecosystem
           services supply in the Flemish Region: A cascade modelling approach
    • Authors: Jan Staes; Steven Broekx; Katrien Van Der Biest; Dirk Vrebos; Beauchard Olivier; Leo De Nocker; Inge Liekens; Lien Poelmans; Kris Verheyen; Panis Jeroen; Patrick Meire
      Pages: 124 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Jan Staes, Steven Broekx, Katrien Van Der Biest, Dirk Vrebos, Beauchard Olivier, Leo De Nocker, Inge Liekens, Lien Poelmans, Kris Verheyen, Panis Jeroen, Patrick Meire
      Ecological networks of protected areas are critical elements to protect biodiversity. To achieve a minimal performance of such networks, measures and investments are necessary for nature restoration and management. The concept of ecosystem service (ES) can provide additional arguments for investments in ecological networks. However, ES delivery processes are embedded in a complex array of ecological processes and there is a need to cope with this complexity in a pragmatic manner. As many assessment studies have already been criticized for using oversimplified indicators, too much pragmatism may foreclose credibility and acceptance of ES assessments. Therefore, a cascade ES modelling approach was developed that incorporated ecological processes, multiple off-site effects, feedbacks and trade-off mechanisms through shared variables. The assessment focused on which services the existing network delivers and how these services are influenced after realization of site specific conservation objectives.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Awareness of greater numbers of ecosystem services affects preferences for
           floodplain management
    • Authors: Daniel R. Richards; Philip H. Warren; Lorraine Maltby; Helen L. Moggridge
      Pages: 138 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Daniel R. Richards, Philip H. Warren, Lorraine Maltby, Helen L. Moggridge
      People’s preferences for different habitat management scenarios determine the way that floodplain habitats are managed, and the ecosystem services that they provide. Making people aware of a greater number of ecosystem services may encourage them to design habitat management that better balances the provision of conflicting services. To investigate the impacts of ecosystem service information on people’s preferences for floodplain habitat management options, we manipulated the number of ecosystem services that participants knew about, and the level of detail of the information they were provided with. The preferences of participants differed depending on the number of services that were described. Providing people with ecosystem service information had a quantifiable effect on their preferences among different habitat management options, and increased the variability in preferences between people. These findings are consistent with the theory that ecosystem service information should encourage people to consider a wider range of benefits that nature provides, and this in turn may enable habitat management that better balances trade-offs between different services. Simply describing more ecosystem services to people had no effect on their preferences for management options, suggesting that detailed, empirical data on ecosystem services are required to affect decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem service bundles along the urban-rural gradient: Insights for
           landscape planning and management
    • Authors: Francesc Baró; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Dagmar Haase
      Pages: 147 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Francesc Baró, Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Dagmar Haase
      A key challenge of landscape planning and management is coping with multiple ecosystem service (ES) potentials and needs in complex social-ecological systems such as urban regions. However, few studies have analyzed both the supply and demand sides of ES bundles, i.e., sets of associated ES that repeatedly appear together across time or space. This paper advances a framework to identify, map and assess ES bundles from a supply-demand approach to inform landscape planning and management. The framework is applied to the Barcelona metropolitan region, Spain, covering five ES and using eleven spatial indicators. Each indicator was quantified and mapped at the municipal level (n =164) combining different proxy- and process-based models. Our results show significant associations among ES, both at the supply and demand sides. Further, we identified five distinct ES supply-demand bundle types and characterized them based on their specific ES relationships and their main underlying social-ecological conditions. From our findings, we contend that land sharing strategies should be prioritized in urban and agricultural areas to increase landscape multifunctionality while assuring the conservation of large periurban forest areas that are critical for delivering a wide range of local ES highly demanded by the urban population.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Assessing the sensitivity of ecosystem services to changing pressures
    • Authors: Tara Hooper; Nicola Beaumont; Charly Griffiths; Olivia Langmead; Paul J. Somerfield
      Pages: 160 - 169
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Tara Hooper, Nicola Beaumont, Charly Griffiths, Olivia Langmead, Paul J. Somerfield
      The ecosystem services approach is widely recognised as a concept, but more attention must be given to the development of tools to facilitate practical implementation if the approach is to become more widely used to support decision-making. A key component of natural resource management is understanding the implications of changing levels of pressures on ecosystem components, which is achieved through sensitivity assessment. This paper examines how sensitivity assessment could be applied to ecosystem services, as opposed to the underlying habitats and species, by considering the relationship between the sensitivity of a service to the sensitivity of the habitat responsible for its supply. The method is illustrated using a UK case study of supporting and regulating services provided by subtidal sedimentary habitats within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in North Devon.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Heterogeneity in resident perceptions of a bio-cultural heritage in Hong
           Kong: A latent class factor analysis
    • Authors: Wendy Y. Chen; Junyi Hua
      Pages: 170 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Wendy Y. Chen, Junyi Hua
      There is an increasing recognition of ecosystem services provided by urban trees and their importance to urban resilience and sustainability through the preservation and enhancement of biological diversity so as to withstand disturbances and retain ecosystem functions as well as guarantee the well-being of current and future urban dwellers. However, the heterogeneous perceptions that urban residents may hold towards various ecosystem services have seldom been investigated. This study made a unique contribution to the growing body of literature on urban ecosystem services by examining the unobserved heterogeneity in resident perceptions of ecosystem services provided by a distinctive bio-cultural asset, urban heritage trees, in Hong Kong, via a novel application of latent class factor analysis which allows for considering the multidimensionality of latent factors and increases model parsimony. A total of 1075 face-to-face interviews were conducted with a stratified sample of residents about their perceived importance of two categories of distinctive ecosystem services provided by urban heritage trees: biological benefits and cultural benefits. The results indicated that, on average, both biological and cultural benefits of urban heritage trees were perceived to be important. Nevertheless, six classes were identified on the basis of different levels of two latent class factors, which differed markedly with respect to individual’s perceived importance of ecosystem services provided by urban heritage trees, from fairly balanced to very divergent perceptions of biological services and cultural services. This heterogeneity was explained with covariates describing respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics and activities at heritage tree sites. The results have implications for optimally tailoring promoting and participatory approaches, fostering improved communications with the general public, and nurturing overall support for urban heritage tree conservation from heterogeneous resident groups in order to achieve urban resilience and sustainability.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T12:50:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Synergies and trade-offs between nature conservation and climate policy:
           Insights from the “Natural Capital Germany – TEEB DE” study
    • Authors: Henry Wüstemann; Aletta Bonn; Christian Albert; Christine Bertram; Lisa Biber-Freudenberger; Alexandra Dehnhardt; Ralf Döring; Peter Elsasser; Volkmar Hartje; Dietmar Mehl; Jochen Kantelhardt; Katrin Rehdanz; Lena Schaller; Mathias Scholz; Daniela Thrän; Felix Witing; Bernd Hansjürgens
      Pages: 187 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Henry Wüstemann, Aletta Bonn, Christian Albert, Christine Bertram, Lisa Biber-Freudenberger, Alexandra Dehnhardt, Ralf Döring, Peter Elsasser, Volkmar Hartje, Dietmar Mehl, Jochen Kantelhardt, Katrin Rehdanz, Lena Schaller, Mathias Scholz, Daniela Thrän, Felix Witing, Bernd Hansjürgens
      Ecosystem-based approaches provide opportunities for climate policy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to expand the adaptive capacities and resilience of land systems to a changing climate, and to simultaneously protect biodiversity and ecosystems services (ESS). However, knowledge about the economic benefits and cost-efficiency of ecosystem-based approaches is still limited. The objective of this paper is to enhance understanding of synergies and trade-offs between climate policy related measures and nature conservation and how ecosystem-based approaches can contribute to both climate as well as biodiversity and ESS conservation goals, through overall economic analyses to inform balanced decision making. The paper builds upon the current state of knowledge as brought together by contributors to the German national TEEB-study “Natural Capital and Climate Policy – Synergies and Conflicts”. We present options and lessons learned from major land-use sectors of high relevance for ecosystem-based approaches to climate change, namely agriculture, peatlands, forests, wetlands and coastal and marine ecosystems. Based on these assessments, we argue that successful implementation of an ecosystem-based climate policy requires effective coordination and coherence between sectors and their respective policies, for example agriculture, forestry and energy. We identify specific targets for an ecosystem-based climate policy and options for achieving this coherent implementation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:30:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Forest cover loss in Paraguay and perception of ecosystem services: A case
           study of the Upper Parana Forest
    • Authors: Emmanuel Da Ponte; Claudia Kuenzer; Amanda Parker; Oscar Rodas; Natascha Oppelt; Martina Fleckenstein
      Pages: 200 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Emmanuel Da Ponte, Claudia Kuenzer, Amanda Parker, Oscar Rodas, Natascha Oppelt, Martina Fleckenstein
      The Upper Parana Atlantic Forest (BAAPA) in Paraguay is one of the most threatened tropical forests in the world. Relentless agricultural encroachment has left less than 10% of its original cover intact. Many strategies and programs have been initiated, such as Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes, to halt forest cover loss. While the approach of ecosystem services (ES) has been continuously applied by policy makers, it has not been perceived strongly by the direct users of the forest. This study provides a comprehensive understanding on how landowners in the BAAPA perceive and benefits from ES derived from the forest and examines the influence of farmers on forest conservation. The results were obtained from an extensive household survey performed in the BAAPA region. An understanding of the high ecological value of the forest is common to all farmers. A strong dependency on forest-related products was observed for small and medium landowners whereas large-scale farmers considered the forest’s main value to be mostly recreational and cultural. PES appears to be well accepted by forest owners, but it must receive stronger promotion. Understanding the importance of ecosystem services is a valuable contribution toward to conserving natural resources.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T15:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • Ecosystem service enhancement for the alleviation of wildlife-human
           conflicts in the Aravalli Hills, Rajasthan, India
    • Authors: Mark Everard; Dharmendra Khandal; Y.K. Sahu
      Pages: 213 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Mark Everard, Dharmendra Khandal, Y.K. Sahu
      Conflict between people and ecosystem capacity is a global problem, and achievement of wildlife-human co-existence a strategic global need. Apex predators suffer disproportionately, including conflicts with human activities. Recovery of formerly declining predator populations, particularly India’s Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), increases potential human conflict. Habitat conversion for arable production and proliferation of non-native tree species increases likelihood of conflict between wildlife, people and stock in villages in the Amlidha buffer zone between core areas of the Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve. Arresting and reversing landscape conversion in targeted zones can reduce potential wildlife-human conflict by regenerating ecosystem capacity, enabling coexistence of a ‘green corridor’ for terrestrial wildlife migration, a ‘blue corridor’ for movement of riverine wildlife, and sustainable human livelihoods. This can be achieved through informed and consensual community-based zoning of land uses, management of non-native species and regeneration of local water resources. Conversely, continuing habitat simplification will decrease ecosystem vitality and services, increasing wildlife-human conflict and insecurities. Transition to multifunctional ecosystem management doesn’t require wholesale change; elective, consensual adjustments can enhance socio-ecological security. Initiatives by the NGO Tiger Watch involving village people, whose willing engagement is essential for sustainable management, support potential achievement of simultaneous wildlife conservation and human benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T15:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
       
  • A hybrid Coasean and Pigouvian approach to Payment for Ecosystem Services
           Program in West Lombok: Does it contribute to poverty alleviation?
    • Authors: Diswandi Diswandi
      Pages: 138 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Diswandi Diswandi
      The Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) concept is mainly based on Coasean economics theory that emphasizes the creation of a voluntary or market-based transaction for ecosystem services. Alternatively, many PES practiced in developing countries are based on Pigouvian economic theory allowing government intervention such as through regulation, tax or subsidy. A hybrid PES approach that compound Coasean and Pigouvian theory was developed in West Lombok Indonesia leading to a new policy paradigm that combines elements of both a voluntary market-based and mandatory policy-based system. This study aims to assess how the hybrid PES program contributes to poverty alleviation. By employing a participatory econometrics approach, this study found that the hybrid PES system does not contribute to poverty alleviation in short-term. It is possible that this PES program contributes to poverty alleviation in long-term.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Governance and implementation challenges for mangrove forest Payments for
           Ecosystem Services (PES): Empirical evidence from the Philippines
    • Authors: Benjamin S. Thompson; Jurgenne H. Primavera; Daniel A. Friess
      Pages: 146 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Benjamin S. Thompson, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Daniel A. Friess
      Mangrove forests have been considered as potentially suitable for PES, though few mangrove PES schemes exist worldwide, suggesting they - and the broader social-ecological and governance systems in which they sit - may not be as conducive to PES as first thought. This study assesses economic, social, and governance challenges to implementing PES in mangroves. It draws on empirical evidence from two prospective community-level mangrove carbon PES schemes in the Philippines, where fishing and aquaculture are major livelihoods. We conducted (1) policy reviews and interviews with local communities, government, and NGOs to investigate governability; (2) village income accounting to determine the extra income that participants could receive through PES; and (3) a choice ranking exercise to elicit preferences on how payments could best be spent to enhance participant wellbeing. The latter approach identifies key gender differences, and enables potential PES-induced social-ecological trade-offs to be pre-empted. Blue carbon PES can contribute an additional 2.3–5.8% of current village incomes, while villagers would prefer to spend the monies on more effective fishing equipment, which could perversely jeopardize fishery sustainability. To be most successful, coastal PES schemes in the Philippines need to be managed through a multi-level governance regime involving co-management and local participation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Substantiating the cross-fertilization among LCA and ecosystem services
           and biodiversity assessment
    • Authors: Benedetto Rugani; Thomas Schaubroeck; Enrico Benetto
      Pages: 156 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Benedetto Rugani, Thomas Schaubroeck, Enrico Benetto


      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Multi-site interactions: Understanding the offsite impacts of land use
           change on the use and supply of ecosystem services
    • Authors: Laura J. Sonter; Justin A. Johnson; Charles C. Nicholson; Leif L. Richardson; Keri B. Watson; Taylor H. Ricketts
      Pages: 158 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Laura J. Sonter, Justin A. Johnson, Charles C. Nicholson, Leif L. Richardson, Keri B. Watson, Taylor H. Ricketts
      Managing the impacts of land use change on ecosystem services is essential to secure human wellbeing; but is a task often complicated by landscape-scale spatial dynamics. In this study, we focus on one type of spatial dynamic: multi-site interactions (MSI), which we define to occur when a change in the supply or use of an ecosystem service at one site affects that service at a second site. In search of empirical evidence of MSI, we reviewed 150 papers on one ecosystem service—nature-based recreation. We found many studies assessed impacts of land use change on this ecosystem service, but only 2% of studies quantified changes in its supply or use across multiple sites. Given this limited evidence in the literature, we propose a novel framework to describe the pathways through which MSI emerge and their likely consequences for ecosystem services across multiple sites. We illustrate the utility of this framework for understanding impacts on three other services: crop pollination, fuel wood production and flood mitigation. Obtaining empirical evidence of MSI is an important next step in ecosystem service science, which will help identify when interactions among sites emerge and how they can be best managed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T21:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of the ecosystem services provided by China's Poyang Lake
           wetland and Bangladesh's Tanguar Haor wetland
    • Authors: Chuanzhun Sun; Lin Zhen; Md Giashuddin Miah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Chuanzhun Sun, Lin Zhen, Md Giashuddin Miah
      Wetlands are the most productive ecosystem on Earth. China's Poyang Lake wetland and Bangladesh's Tanguar Haor wetland are important natural Asian wetlands. In the past 10–15 years, the ecosystem services provided have been greatly affected by human activities and the resulting significant changes in the wetlands. In this paper, we chose food supply and biodiversity as typical ecosystem services provided by these wetlands, and combined field research with surveys to analyze the changes in the characteristics of these ecosystem services in the two wetlands and their driving forces. From 2000 to 2012, we found that: (1) per capita rice production has decreased greatly in both wetlands, while the rice consumption and the level of food security have decreased in the Poyang Lake wetland and increased in the Tanguar Haor wetland. (2) The fish supply has decreased in both wetlands, with a greater decrease in the Tanguar Haor wetland. (3) The biodiversity services have improved in the Poyang Lake wetland but decreased greatly in the Tanguar Haor wetland. These changes have been caused by differences in the combination of land use policies, land use planning, population growth patterns, and economic development.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T15:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.010
       
  • Beyond benefit sharing: Place attachment and the importance of access to
           protected areas for surrounding communities
    • Authors: Georgina Cundill; Joana Carlos Bezerra; Alta De Vos; Nokuthula Ntingana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Georgina Cundill, Joana Carlos Bezerra, Alta De Vos, Nokuthula Ntingana
      The concept of place attachment can assist to integrate relational values into ecosystem service research, and assist us to rethink the notion of benefits in contemporary protected area thinking. We present a case study from South Africa, where the concept of two-dimensional place attachment was used to understand the relationship between a protected area and a land claimant community that now owns part of this protected area but does not have physical access to the land. A place attachment lens helps refocus access to protected areas as cornerstone to long term sustainability of such areas. Such access must be considered in the context of spatially and economically differentiated users, including a focus on trade-offs between such users. Our findings highlight that when communities previously displaced from protected areas respond to offers of ‘benefit sharing’ with demands for access and recognition as land owners, they are asking for a recognition of relational values, and identity, based on close interaction with nature. A place attachment and relational values perspective raises questions about the extent to which traditional conservation practice can accommodate such values, and therefore meet local people’s expectations and remain viable in the long term.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T15:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.011
       
  • Cross-scale governance and ecosystem service delivery: A case narrative
           from the Olifants River in north-eastern South Africa
    • Authors: H.C. Biggs; J.K. Clifford-Holmes; S. Freitag; F.J. Venter; J. Venter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): H.C. Biggs, J.K. Clifford-Holmes, S. Freitag, F.J. Venter, J. Venter
      In late 2005 the lower stretches of the Olifants river in South Africa, flowing through the Kruger National Park before entering Mocambique, dried up for 78days, curtailing critical ecosystem services. Our retrospective case study attributes this to failure of effective cross-scale collaboration and co-constructed action. We detail how a more effective response was mounted after the governance crisis had first deepened, which, along with more recent broader but related societal responses, has maintained these water-related ecosystem services. The narrative describes part crisis response, part chance emergence, and along the way building of trust. Persistent staff capacity across agencies, whose members developed a sufficiently overlapping vision, was deemed crucial. The widening of linkages across scales and levels was a key feature, though attention is drawn to other important factors such as power dynamics. The difficulties encountered gave birth to new hope, with full recognition that such messy and dynamic social-ecological systems need to be navigated as best possible using complexity-friendly adaptive approaches, containing elements (including important cross-scale ones) that came together in this case. This case narrative is believed to contain generic lessons for ecosystem service governance.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T15:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.008
       
  • Manager strategies and user demands: Determinants of cultural ecosystem
           service bundles on private protected areas
    • Authors: Hayley S. Clements; Graeme S. Cumming
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Hayley S. Clements, Graeme S. Cumming
      There has been limited consideration of the dynamic interactions between ecosystem service supply and demand. For self-funded private protected areas (PPAs), managers’ abilities to provide cultural ecosystem services (CESs) for which tourists are willing to pay may be critical to their sustainability. We predicted that a PPA’s management strategy would reflect the CES preferences of its visitors. Four CES bundles were identified across 21 South African PPAs: “safari experience”, “sense of place”, “natural history”, and “recreation”. Patterns in visitor preference for these bundles were strongly aligned with patterns in PPA management attributes. Preference for safari experience was documented on large PPAs with many game species and expensive, guided activities. Sense of place PPAs were small with few game species and cheap, self-guided activities. Natural history PPAs provided guided ecotourism to high quantities of day and overnight visitors, while recreation PPAs offered consumptive activities like hunting and fishing to small numbers of overnight visitors. Through their demand for specific CESs, PPA visitors both influence and respond to the management of PPAs’ ecological and socioeconomic attributes. Dynamic interactions between the demands of users and the strategies managers adopt to meet these demands can be important drivers of ecosystem service provision.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T15:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.026
       
  • Adoption of the ecosystem services concept in EU policies
    • Authors: Irene Bouwma; Christian Schleyer; Eeva Primmer; Klara Johanna Winkler; Pam Berry; Juliette Young; Esther Carmen; Jana Špulerová; Peter Bezák; Elena Preda; Angheluta Vadineanu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Irene Bouwma, Christian Schleyer, Eeva Primmer, Klara Johanna Winkler, Pam Berry, Juliette Young, Esther Carmen, Jana Špulerová, Peter Bezák, Elena Preda, Angheluta Vadineanu
      The concept of ecosystem services has gained a strong political profile during the last 15 years. However, there is no specific EU policy devoted to governing ecosystem services. This article shows that the ecosystem services concept is already embedded in recent EU (environmentally-related) policies, such as the Biodiversity Strategy 2020 and the Invasive Alien Species Regulation. Our review of 12 policies shows that, overall, the coherence between existing policies and the ecosystem services concept is moderate. Policies showing very high coherence are confined to the policy arenas that address natural ecosystems, forestry, or agriculture. Given the sectoral nature of most EU policies and the limited options for revision in the near future, opportunities for improving coherence are most apparent in furthering the integration of the ecosystem services concept in the implementation of existing EU policies at national and regional levels.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:30:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.014
       
  • Capability of the Polish legal system to introduce the ecosystem services
           approach into environmental management
    • Authors: Małgorzata Stępniewska; Iwona Zwierzchowska; Andrzej Mizgajski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Małgorzata Stępniewska, Iwona Zwierzchowska, Andrzej Mizgajski
      Following the scientific progress and the European Union activity, Polish strategic papers have started to postulate the implementation of the ecosystem services (ES) approach (National Urban Policy, 2015; Program for biodiversity protection and sustainable use, 2015). The aim of this paper is to show the implementation of the ES concept into the Polish legal system and the challenges related to its implementation. The paper attempts to review the legal acts concerning the protection of ecosystems, their functions and benefits for people. Until now, the term “ecosystem services” has not been presented in Polish legal acts. However, the results of study show that current regulations allow for this approach (although not in a direct way) to be taken into consideration to a significant extent. Perceiving the ecosystems as beneficial for human beings is, in Polish regulations, clearly visible in the spatial management, nature conservation, forestry, and water management. The existing provisions incorporate both the services, which are already captured by the market mechanisms, and non-market services. The character of these regulations is preventive, maintaining, restoring and ES enhancing. We conclude that a further effort should be aimed at: harmonization of existing provisions; introducing the ES notion directly into legal acts; and implementation of ES approach in executive regulations.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:30:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.025
       
  • Ecosystem service valuation framework applied to a legal case in the
           Anchicaya region of Colombia
    • Authors: David Toledo; Tania Briceño; German Ospina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): David Toledo, Tania Briceño, German Ospina
      Lack of explicit value for ecosystem services has resulted in great damage being imposed on the poor when engineering projects of wealthy corporations impose externalities on local communities. Such communities are rarely in a position to extract payment for damages from the well-healed corporations. The case study reported in this manuscript is a classic example of such social injustice. The Anchicaya region in the Colombian Pacific coast is characterized by its rich cultural and biological diversity. The primary inhabitants of this region are Afro-descendant communities who are directly dependent on the surrounding natural environment. On July 21st, 2001 there was an illegal discharge of approximately 500,000m3 of accumulated sediment from a hydroelectric dam on the Anchicaya River, which gravely affected those inhabiting the region downstream of the dam. In 2002, the communities of the Lower Anchicaya region began a class action suit against the energy company in charge of the dam. After years of deliberations favoring the downstream communities, on April of 2012 the Constitutional Court of Colombia ruled in favor of the energy company in charge of the dam, overruling 10 years of deliberations. Through Judgment T-274, the Constitutional Court of Colombia declared that direct valuation studies that had been made in 2002, shortly after the spill, were inadmissible due to lack of objectivity and rigor and ordered that the studies be repeated. In order to value damage that had happened more than 10 years before, we determined that a land cover based ecosystem service valuation would provide the best science-based approach to conduct the valuation. For this we used historical data from geographic information systems, data collected in the affected areas, surveys, and the Ecosystem Valuation Toolkit created by Earth Economics. Several valuation methodologies were used including direct valuation, replacement costs, and benefit transfer. We used the ecosystem service valuation framework to quantify the material and non-material damages recognized under the Colombian legal framework. The total value for the valuation of material damages was of COP $356,688,589,331 (approximately $100 million USD). For the non-material damages, which we classified as cultural ecosystem services, we noted that the loss was high as the victims lost something invaluable and critical for their identity and their well-being. According to the Colombian judicial system, the judge who presides over the case will determine the amount to be paid for these non-material damages. In 2015, the Constitutional Court of Colombia ruled in favor of the Anchicaya community and ordered that the communities be indemnified; however a final value has not been decided to date. We provide a broad classification of valuation methodologies of ecosystem services that can, and has been, aptly used within a legal framework. It is also important to note that this study provides a valuation of services for a subsistence economy, with communities operating outside monetary markets, much like many other remote communities rich in supporting and regulating ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:30:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.022
       
  • Economic value of ecosystem services, minerals and oil in a melting
           Arctic: A preliminary assessment
    • Authors: Tanya
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 24
      Author(s): Tanya O’Garra
      The Arctic region is composed of unique marine and terrestrial ecosystems that provide a range of services to local and global populations. However, Arctic sea-ice is melting at an unprecedented rate, threatening many of these ecosystems and the services they provide. This short communication provides a preliminary assessment of the quantity, distribution and economic value of key ecosystem services as well as geological resources such as oil and minerals provided by Arctic ecosystems to beneficiaries in the Arctic region and globally. Using biophysical and economic data from existing studies, preliminary estimates indicate that the Arctic currently provides about $281 billion per year (in 2016 US$) in terms of food, mineral extraction, oil production, tourism, hunting, existence values and climate regulation. However, given predictions of ice-free summers by 2037, many of the ecosystem services may be lost. We hope that this communication stimulates discussion among policy-makers regarding the value of ecosystem services and such geological resources as minerals and oil provided by the Arctic region, and the potential ecosystem losses resulting from Arctic melt, so as to motivate decisions vis a vis climate change mitigation before Arctic ice disappears completely.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T12:50:12Z
       
  • Reconciling community ecology and ecosystem services: Cultural services
           and benefits from birds in South African National Parks
    • Authors: Graeme S. Cumming; Kristine Maciejewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Graeme S. Cumming, Kristine Maciejewski
      The ecosystem services paradigm has been used to bridge disciplinary boundaries and to justify conservation action. Protected areas are now expected to both meet species-level conservation objectives and provide ecosystem services. The relationships between species composition and cultural benefits to people are, however, poorly understood. We quantified benefit-biodiversity relationships between birders and bird communities in South African National Parks to test four hypotheses: ‘more is better’, the threshold hypothesis, the rarity hypothesis, and the contextual hypothesis. Data were collected along 293 routes in a paired sampling design. Expert birders, collecting classical point count data, followed (24h later) the GPS-tracked routes of amateur birders. Amateurs completed satisfaction surveys after each route. Bird-related variables, such as diversity and activity, explained c. 27% of variance in birder benefits; other variables, such as the weather and landscape beauty, increased this to 57%. Linear models partially supported ‘more is better’, but indicated that birders adjust expectations and resulting benefits with location. Cultural benefits are delivered at scales ranging from organisms to landscapes. Conserving cultural ecosystem services is not equivalent to conserving species composition. Rigorous measurement of cultural ecosystem services and benefits demands a multi-scale, multi-level perspective that links people to species, ecological communities, and landscapes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T12:50:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.018
       
  • Analyzing land-use change scenarios for trade-offs among cultural
           ecosystem services in the Southern Rocky Mountains
    • Authors: Benson C. Sherrouse; Darius J. Semmens; Zachary H. Ancona; Nicole M. Brunner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Benson C. Sherrouse, Darius J. Semmens, Zachary H. Ancona, Nicole M. Brunner
      Significant increases in outdoor recreation participants are projected over the next 50 years for national forests across the United States, with even larger increases possible for forests located in the Southern Rocky Mountains. Forest managers will be challenged to balance increasing demand for outdoor recreation with other ecosystem services. Future management needs could be better anticipated with information describing how and where stakeholders value these forests’ cultural ecosystem services, as well as how management might impact these values. We analyzed land-use change scenarios to quantify changes in aesthetic and recreational ecosystem service values and assessed trade-offs between these values relative to forest stakeholder groups defined by their attitudes regarding motorized recreation. We adapted the GIS tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES), for scenario analysis and applied it to two national forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains to examine impacts of road-network expansion on stakeholder values. Our approach allowed us to quantify changes in the spatial distribution and intensity of aesthetic and recreation values. Trade-off assessments between the two values indicated that areas of conflicting value changes were limited, even when accounting for different user groups. However, this approach could be an important means of conflict resolution for multi-use management.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.003
       
  • Barriers for the ecosystem services concept in European water and nature
           conservation law
    • Authors: Frederik H. Kistenkas; Irene M. Bouwma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Frederik H. Kistenkas, Irene M. Bouwma
      In the 2015 River Weser case the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) appears to demand a rather strict one-dimensional protection of water quality under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Article 4 WFD, the very essence of this EU directive, should then be read as a strict water quality assessment on good ecological potential and other ecological WFD criteria. This jurisprudence could surely be welcomed as it secures blue environmental interests, but it may at the same time easily be encountered and criticized as a contradiction of modern EU policy documents on sustainable development and green or blue growth, as it may de iure subordinate socio-economic interests. It also may exclude clusters of ecosystem services; not only provisioning and cultural services, but also other not legally protected regulating services. Here, a CJEU-induced limited testing on only a few limited ecological criteria of Article 4 WFD might tend to resemble the one-criterion testing of the Natura 2000 habitats assessment and its possible shortcomings in terms of sustainable multi-functionality. In the derogation regimes of both WFD and Habitats Directive only overriding public interests may outweigh environmental objectives. In a recent 2016 case on hydropower the CJEU makes it clear renewable energy production can be such an overriding public interest, but still not all interests or ecosystem services do qualify to be part of a weighing process in the derogation stage. We should be aware this may contrast with current EU environmental policy documents like Green Infrastructure and Blue Growth. It would help if EU policy documents could be more explicit that sustainable development might be the default throughout Europe, but not necessarily in WFD waters and Natura 2000 sites.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T15:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.013
       
  • Towards a national strategy to optimise the management of a widespread
           invasive tree (Prosopis species; mesquite) in South Africa
    • Authors: Ross T. Shackleton; David C. Le Maitre; Brian W. van Wilgen; David M. Richardson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Ross T. Shackleton, David C. Le Maitre, Brian W. van Wilgen, David M. Richardson
      Invasive stands of Prosopis (mesquite) cover over 6 million ha of South Africa and could invade over 56 million ha. These invasive stands have major impacts on biodiversity, local livelihoods and ecosystem services. We applied several methods to develop an objective basis for a national strategy to prioritise and guide the management of Prosopis. Decision trees were used for assigning different control objectives (prevention of spread to unoccupied areas, local eradication, containment and asset protection) to each of the 234 local municipalities in the country. Priority assets that require protection in densely invaded areas were identified, ranked and mapped (in order of importance: water source areas, biodiversity hotspots, and areas with high agricultural and rangeland potential). Available control methods were compared in terms of costs, effectiveness, and potential to create employment. Biological control and more mechanised approaches were identified as important and the role of control-through-utilisation requires urgent research. Scenario development suggests that integrated control would be most effective. Strategic guidelines for improving the management of Prosopis were produced. These guidelines discuss key needs and objectives for management, targets, time frames, indicators and monitoring programs, research needs and spatially prioritized management areas. Although the strategy proposed in this paper is specific to Prosopis in South Africa, the principles will be useful in other regions where Prosopis species are invasive, and more generally for other widespread invasive tree taxa.

      PubDate: 2017-02-22T19:35:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.022
       
  • Developed-developing world partnerships for sustainable development (1):
           An ecosystem services perspective
    • Authors: Mark Everard; James Longhurst; John Pontin; Wendy Stephenson; Joss Brooks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Mark Everard, James Longhurst, John Pontin, Wendy Stephenson, Joss Brooks
      Developing-developed world partnerships potentially present win-win opportunities for addressing climate-active gas emissions at lower cost whilst propelling developing nations on a lower-carbon trajectory, as carbon emissions, capture and storage are geographically independent. Expanded PES (payment for ecosystem service) principles provides a framework for assessing the transparency and efficacy of partnerships, tested on the model developed by The Converging World (TCW). The TCW partnership model currently links south-west England and Tamil Nadu, raising funds for wind turbines in India to avert emissions from conventional sources and reinvesting operating surpluses into restoration of tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF). Over assumed 100-year progression to climax community, 123ha of restored TDEF sequesters a conservatively calculated 270,545,880 tCO2. This forest area is restored using operating surpluses from a 2.1MW turbine, which generates renewable energy over 20-year operating life conservatively calculated as averting 80,000 tCO2e compared to a conventional energy mix. Forest restoration funded from turbine generation surpluses represents a substantial ‘multiplier effect’, providing around 3000 times greater overall carbon reductions. Climate regulation is one of a linked set of ecosystem services, albeit a driving ‘anchor service’, that may be optimised to increase overall benefits to stakeholders and contribute to UN Sustainable Development Goals.

      PubDate: 2017-02-22T19:35:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.09.020
       
  • Application of the ecosystem service concept for climate protection in
           Germany
    • Authors: Sophie Schetke; Heera Lee; Wanda Graf; Sven Lautenbach
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Sophie Schetke, Heera Lee, Wanda Graf, Sven Lautenbach
      The implementation of the ecosystem services (ES) concept in planning and administration has gained momentum in Germany, so far the focus has been on landscape planning. We extend this research by exploring other legal domains such as urban planning and climate protection strategies and focus on climate protection and the use of renewable energies. This study analyzes all existing (n=13) climate protection laws and their drafts on federal state level in Germany, assessing their implicit and explicit use of the ES concept. 26 communal climate protection concepts on local level were also examined. Additionally, the sector of urban planning was considered through analysis of the climate protection amendment of the German Building Code (BauGB). Results show both biotic and abiotic ES to already be a significant part of other planning domains besides landscape planning. The sector of climate protection addresses mostly abiotic ES both implicitly and explicitly to implement and strengthen the use of renewable energies. Consequently, a specific category of ES related to renewable energies is introduced in this paper: REES (renewable energy ecosystem services). On the federal state level, REES are clearly highlighted with a strong strategic focus on mitigation and the promotion of renewable energies. In contrast, regulative ES in connection with adaptation measures were more frequently addressed on the local level. Still, REES were most frequently named when addressing measures, stakeholder and target groups. An enhanced incorporation of abiotic ES into classification systems seems necessary to enable a fair and balanced representation of biotic and abiotic services in evaluation studies or in the trade-off analysis of different land-use options.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T17:24:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.017
       
  • Ecosystem service importance and use vary with socio-environmental
           factors: A study from household-surveys in local communities of South
           Africa
    • Authors: Sylvanus Mensah; Ruan Veldtman; Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo; Cori Ham; Romain Glèlè Kakaï; Thomas Seifert
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Sylvanus Mensah, Ruan Veldtman, Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo, Cori Ham, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Thomas Seifert
      Ecosystem services (ESs) underpin human livelihoods around the world. Understanding how socio-environmental aspects influence stakeholders’ perceptions and use of ESs, is important for decision-making processes that target the social expectations. In this study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with eighty-six householders in four villages of Limpopo province (South Africa), to assess the importance and use of ESs. Descriptive rank analysis, ordered logistic regression and Poisson generalised linear mixed-effects models were used. Supporting and provisioning ESs were rated the most important, followed by regulating and cultural ESs. Among the provisioning ESs, timber, firewood and edible plants were the most important, the most cited and used. Age, gender, income and prior recreational experiences played important roles in householders’ perceptions. The frequency of collection of provisioning ESs declined with increasing distance to the forest and presence of foothills in landscape, which formed natural barriers. The results further revealed that employed householders benefited more from these services than unemployed householders. However, there was no significant effect of income variable on the use of the provisioning ESs, suggesting that the collection is more likely oriented towards a domestic usage. The implications of the results were discussed in a context of local development planning.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Justifying social values of nature: Economic reasoning beyond
           self-interested preferences
    • Authors: Bernd Hansjürgens; Christoph Schröter-Schlaack; Augustin Berghöfer; Nele Lienhoop
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Bernd Hansjürgens, Christoph Schröter-Schlaack, Augustin Berghöfer, Nele Lienhoop
      Demonstrating that conservation is not only beneficial for nature but also for human well-being is as much desirable as it is challenging. Undoubtedly, using economic numbers hold some great promises, there is, however, a considerable number of critical reflections on using economic thinking to promote nature conservation. A recent aspect within these critics is that economic theory has failed on appreciating the multiple values (not only ‘individual’, but also ‘shared’ and ‘social’ values) of nature. Against this background, we will firstly show that the total economic value-concept covers a broad range of value dimension and that preferences of self-interested rational individuals may well cover also social or group values, although unclear to what degree. Secondly, we will highlight that economic theories on ‘merit goods’ developed by Richard A. Musgrave or the constitutional economics approach related to James M. Buchanan and others provide an as yet neglected but useful strand of arguments for the existence of values beyond individual preferences and that discourse ethics calls for deliberation to disclose those value dimensions. We will thirdly demonstrate how economic valuation methods could be improved by integrating deliberative elements in order to capture social value components in valuation exercises. As methods strongly shape valuation outcomes, it is a question of the practical purpose and of the ethical context of the valuation exercise that should determine which approach to choose.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Physical and monetary ecosystem service accounts for Europe: A case study
           for in-stream nitrogen retention
    • Authors: Alessandra La Notte; Joachim Maes; Silvana Dalmazzone; Neville D. Crossman; Bruna Grizzetti; Giovanni Bidoglio
      Pages: 18 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Alessandra La Notte, Joachim Maes, Silvana Dalmazzone, Neville D. Crossman, Bruna Grizzetti, Giovanni Bidoglio
      In this paper we present a case study of integrated ecosystem and economic accounting based on the System of Environmental Economic Accounting — Experimental Ecosystem Accounts (SEEA-EEA). We develop accounts, in physical and monetary terms, for the water purification ecosystem service in Europe over a 20-year time period (1985–2005). The estimation of nitrogen retention is based on the GREEN biophysical model, within which we impose a sustainability threshold to obtain the physical indicators of capacity – the ability of an ecosystem to sustainably supply ecosystem services. Key messages of our paper pertain the notion of capacity, operationalized in accounting terms with reference to individual ecosystem services rather than to the ecosystem as a whole, and intended as the stock that provides the sustainable flow of the service. The study clarifies the difference between sustainable flow and actual flow of the service, which should be calculated jointly so as to enable an assessment of the sustainability of current use of ecosystem services. Finally, by distinguishing the notion of ‘process’ (referred to the ecosystem) from that of ‘capacity’ (pertaining specific services) and proposing a methodology to calculate capacity and flow, we suggest an implementable way to operationalize the SEEA-EEA accounts.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Can payments for ecosystem services schemes mimic markets?
    • Authors: Gabriela Scheufele; Jeff Bennett
      Pages: 30 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Gabriela Scheufele, Jeff Bennett
      A Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme can be understood as a mechanism that performs the role of a ‘market’ for Ecosystem Services (ES) in circumstances where such a market would otherwise fail to develop. We investigate the potential for and limits of PES schemes to act in lieu of competitive markets and propose a PES scheme design that mimics markets. This is achieved by applying their underpinning concepts of demand and supply to the determination of ‘market clearing’ prices, while reducing transaction costs of buyer and supplier engagement through the involvement of agents. The proposed design combines economic valuation techniques to estimate ES demand with a novel tendering process that allows the estimation of individual marginal cost curves of potential ES suppliers. Supply actions and ES are linked through ‘conversion factors’ derived from bio-physical models that act as environmental production functions. Demand and supply so estimated enable the determination of a ‘market clearing’ price which, when offered to suppliers, provides static and dynamic incentives for cost-effective supply. Mutually beneficial exchange between buyers and suppliers, as is facilitated under the PES scheme design, improves resource use efficiency while allowing both the buyers and the suppliers to secure surpluses.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Effects of green space dynamics on urban heat islands: Mitigation and
           diversification
    • Authors: Ranhao Sun; Liding Chen
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Ranhao Sun, Liding Chen
      Understanding how green spaces affect urban temperature is crucial for assessing thermal benefits of landscape planning. This study investigated green space dynamics and land surface temperature (LST) in the Beijing metropolis. Landscape types were classified from QuickBird (2002) and IKONOS (2012) images and LST values were extracted from Landsat TM images. Five landscape types were obtained in this region including impervious land (IL), forest land (FL), grass land (GL), water body (WB), and bare land (BL). Green expansion indicated landscape change from IL and BL to FL and GL. Green loss indicated landscape change from FL and GL to IL. Green exchange indicated landscape change between FL and GL. Results show that (1) the area of green space dynamics accounted for 38.24% of the total research area, including green space losses (108.86km2), expansion (92.49km2), and exchange (53.83km2). (2) LST change was not significant in the unchanged (0–0.19°C) and exchanged green space (in the range of −0.02–0.25°C). However, there were minor decreases of LST in areas of green expansion (in the range of −1.11°C to −0.67°C) and major increases in LST in the areas of green losses (1.64–2.21°C). The results indicated that the number of green spaces is not the only criteria that should be assessed for temperature mitigation. Ecosystem services of temperature mitigation are not equal between the loss and expansion of green spaces even within same area. Greater focus on protecting natural forests in cities might provide greater benefits for climate mitigation.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • The impact of land use/land cover change on ecosystem services in the
           central highlands of Ethiopia
    • Authors: Terefe Tolessa; Feyera Senbeta; Moges Kidane
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Terefe Tolessa, Feyera Senbeta, Moges Kidane
      Ecosystems provide a wide range of services that are important for human-well being. Estimating the multiple services obtained from ecosystems is vital to support decision-making processes at different levels. This study analyzes land use/land cover (LU/LC) dynamics over four decades (i.e., 1973, 1986, 2001, 2015) to assess its impact on ecosystem services. Ecosystem Service Values (ESV) was determined using LU/LC analysis and established global data base. LU/LC analysis showed that forest cover reduced by 54.2% during study period; and settlement, bare land, shrub land and cultivated land increased considerably. The study indicates that due to forest cover change from 1973 to 2015, approximately US$ 3.69 million of ecosystem services values was lost. Among the ecosystem services reduced were: nutrient cycling, provision of raw material and erosion control. The use of LU/LC data along with established global ESV data sets reduce the costs of ground data collection, and help in tracking of past environmental changes and acquisition of quick and reliable results that can be used for decision making processes. We believe that the results obtained can be helpful in designing payment for environmental services and rural development policies.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T21:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Shades of grey challenge practical application of the cultural ecosystem
           services concept
    • Authors: Malgorzata Blicharska; Richard J. Smithers; Marcus Hedblom; Henrik Hedenås; Grzegorz Mikusiński; Eja Pedersen; Per Sandström; Johan Svensson
      Pages: 55 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Malgorzata Blicharska, Richard J. Smithers, Marcus Hedblom, Henrik Hedenås, Grzegorz Mikusiński, Eja Pedersen, Per Sandström, Johan Svensson
      Despite rapid advances in development of the ecosystem services (ES) concept, challenges remain for its use in decision making. Cultural ES (CES) have proven particularly difficult to pin down and resultant “shades of grey” impede their consideration by decision-makers. This study undertakes a literature review of CES to highlight the shades of grey, briefly illustrates findings by reference to the Swedish mountain landscape, then addresses potential implications for practical decision making. The concept of CES is complex and difficult to operationalize. The root of confusion appears to be a lack of rigour in identifying CES, hindering identification of proper methods for determining: the ecosystem elements that underpin CES; the beneficiaries of CES and how they value benefits delivered; and how CES may vary in space and time. We conclude by proposing a framework of questions, which we relate to the ES cascade model, that is intended to help researchers and decision-makers to reflect when considering CES. Answers to the questions should enable decision-makers to prioritise policy development or implementation in relation to the differing needs of potentially competing beneficiaries and what needs to be done or not done to the ecosystem, where, when and by whom.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Market-based instruments for the governance of coastal and marine
           ecosystem services: An analysis based on the Chinese case
    • Authors: Ruiqian Li; Margo van den Brink; Johan Woltjer
      Pages: 71 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Ruiqian Li, Margo van den Brink, Johan Woltjer
      Scholars and policy makers have increasingly emphasized the role of market-based instruments (MBIs) for the governance of ecosystem services (ESs). Limited focus however exists on a systematic understanding of how coastal and marine governance facilitates MBIs to sustain ESs. This paper develops a framework for analyzing the governance of MBIs on the basis of four distinctive aspects, including price, regulatory support, coordination, and spatial consideration. This framework can be used to analyze how MBIs are reflected in the governance of coastal and marine ESs and to understand to what extent a market environment is created for ESs. This study focuses on one in-depth case, namely Chinese national coastal and marine governance. The case suggests that existing MBIs are based on ES valuation and impacts and serve for understanding transactions. Moreover, the MBIs tend to show a clear focus on improving policy coordination. Finally, a further understanding of MBIs for coastal and marine governance is needed to also explore the role of voluntary choice.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Assessing mismatches in ecosystem services proficiency across the urban
           fabric of Porto (Portugal): The influence of structural and socioeconomic
           variables
    • Authors: Marisa S. Graça; João F. Gonçalves; Paulo J.M. Alves; David J. Nowak; Robert Hoehn; Alexis Ellis; Paulo Farinha-Marques; Mario Cunha
      Pages: 82 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Marisa S. Graça, João F. Gonçalves, Paulo J.M. Alves, David J. Nowak, Robert Hoehn, Alexis Ellis, Paulo Farinha-Marques, Mario Cunha


      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Integrating ecosystem services and disservices: insights from plant
           invasions
    • Authors: Ana S. Vaz; Christoph Kueffer; Christian A. Kull; David M. Richardson; Joana R. Vicente; Ingolf Kühn; Matthias Schröter; Jennifer Hauck; Aletta Bonn; João P. Honrado
      Pages: 94 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Ana S. Vaz, Christoph Kueffer, Christian A. Kull, David M. Richardson, Joana R. Vicente, Ingolf Kühn, Matthias Schröter, Jennifer Hauck, Aletta Bonn, João P. Honrado
      There is growing interest in ecosystem disservices, i.e. the negative effects of ecosystems on humans. The focus on disservices has been controversial because of the lack of clarity on how to disentangle ecosystem services and disservices related to human wellbeing. A perspective that considers both services and disservices is needed to inform objective decision-making. We propose a comprehensive typology of ecosystem disservices, and present a framework for integrating ecosystem services and disservices for human wellbeing linked to ecosystem functioning. Our treatment is underpinned by three key assumptions: (1) ecosystem attributes and functions are value-free; (2) the perception of benefits or nuisances are however dependent on societal context, and preferences and actions by societal actors may trigger, enhance or alleviate benefits or nuisances derived from ecosystems; and (3) the notion of disservices must account for the role of human management in assessments of ecosystem values, i.e. the social and technological measures that identify, protect, promote or restore desirable levels of services, and concurrently minimise, mitigate or adapt to disservices. We illustrate our ideas with examples from plant invasions as a complex social-ecological phenomenon.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T21:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Coupling stakeholder assessments of ecosystem services with biophysical
           ecosystem properties reveals importance of social contexts
    • Authors: M.A. Cebrián-Piqueras; L. Karrasch; M. Kleyer
      Pages: 108 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): M.A. Cebrián-Piqueras, L. Karrasch, M. Kleyer
      We asked whether different stakeholders perceive ecosystem services in similar ways and how these perceptions relate to measured ecosystem properties. Farmers and conservationists were asked to state (1) their preference for ecosystem services and (2) their perception about the value of several grassland vegetation units in providing these services. Additionally, biophysical parameters were collected on 46 plots. Structural equation models were applied to test which stakeholder perceptions corresponded to the data. For conservationists, the services regional belonging and soil fertility were related to conservation value, whereas farmers associated them with forage production. Conservationists’ perception of forage production was related to biomass removal, groundwater level and income from forage production, whereas farmers focused on the potential of ecosystems to produce forage, rather than the actual land use. The conservation perception of farmers was related to low land use intensity, whereas the conservationists associated it with endangered meadow birds. Conservationists associated carbon sequestration with below-ground peat formation, but farmers with above-ground plant productivity. We conclude that perceptions of ecosystem services are strongly influenced by social contexts, involving livelihoods, interests and traditions. Use of stakeholder assessments to establish sustainable land management should consider the fact that stakeholders interpret ecosystem services with different meanings.

      PubDate: 2016-12-17T21:29:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Valuing ecosystem services for improved national accounting: A pilot study
           from Madagascar
    • Authors: Laura Onofri; Glenn Marie Lange; Rosimeiry Portela; Paulo A.L.D. Nunes
      Pages: 116 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Laura Onofri, Glenn Marie Lange, Rosimeiry Portela, Paulo A.L.D. Nunes
      The present paper proposes a micro-econometric methodology for the economic valuation of the impact of ecosystem services in selected economic sectors. In the context of natural capital and ecosystem accounting, we built a four steps valuation protocol. The methodology is applied to the valuation of freshwater in the Ankeniheny-Zahamena Forestry Corridor (CAZ), Madagascar – a country partner with the Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES). Our results corroborate the intuition that understanding the value of water in its alternative uses is a key to fostering informed debate on water management and allocation in the CAZ area. More generally, this study provides a solid contribution towards a more effective way to elicit and record nature's ecosystem services contribution to the economy.

      PubDate: 2016-12-17T21:29:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
  • Analysing scale, quality and diversity of green infrastructure and the
           provision of Urban Ecosystem Services: A case from Mexico City
    • Authors: Rafael Calderón-Contreras; Laura Elisa Quiroz-Rosas
      Pages: 127 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 23
      Author(s): Rafael Calderón-Contreras, Laura Elisa Quiroz-Rosas
      Fostering urban resilience requires a social-ecological systems approach that considers the ecological and social feedbacks of cities. In this paper we argue that Urban Ecosystem Services (UES) could increase urban resilience; and that resilient UES depends directly on the quantity, quality and diversity of the green infrastructure that produces them. The case of the western boundaries of Mexico City is used to map and assess these issues. We classified the different settings of green infrastructure as Service Providing Units (SPUs) and identified their provision of UES through remote sensing techniques; the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) combined with fieldwork verification in two scales of analysis, the local and regional. The results reveal that the vast majority of green infrastructure has low quality, hindering the provision of the UES required for building Mexico City´s resilience. At the regional scale, the growing pressures of urban development and the consequent reduction of SPUs threatens the delivery of provisioning ecosystem services while at the local scale, the low quality of SPUs threatens the provision of regulating ecosystem services. We argue that addressing these challenges could improve the design and implementation of environmental decision-making and urban policy towards more resilient urban social-ecological systems.

      PubDate: 2016-12-26T08:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2016)
       
 
 
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