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Journal Cover Ecosystem Services     [H-I: 1]
   [7 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2212-0416
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2585 journals]
  • Preferences for cultural urban ecosystem services: Comparing attitudes,
           perception, and use
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Christine Bertram , Katrin Rehdanz
      Urban green spaces, including parks, provide numerous ecosystem services (ES) for city inhabitants. Besides provisioning and regulating services, they also provide cultural services by giving people opportunities to recreate and experience nature in the city. The focus of this paper is on cultural ES provided by urban parks in four European cities (Berlin, Stockholm, Rotterdam, and Salzburg). We compare attitudes towards ES provision, perception, and use of urban parks. In particular, we compare the perception of several park characteristics to their stated importance for park visitors. Results indicate that there are similarities between cities regarding attitudes towards ES provision and the importance of different park characteristics for visitors. Park use patterns such as the share of regular park visitors or the activities carried out, however, vary significantly between cities. The city-specific context, including park availability, quality, and perception but also the inhabitants’ preferences for cultural ES and existing substitutes, is thus crucial for urban planning.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T07:09:27Z
       
  • A multilevel analysis on pollination-related policies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Outi Ratamäki , Pekka Jokinen , Peter Borgen Sørensen , Tom Breeze , Simon Potts
      The paper explores pollination from a multilevel policy perspective and analyses the institutional fit and interplay of multi-faceted pollination-related policies. First, it asks what the major policies are that frame pollination at the EU level. Second, it explores the relationship between the EU policies and localised ways of understanding pollination. Addressed third is how the concept of ecosystem services can aid in understanding the various ways of framing and governing the situation. The results show that the policy systems affecting pollination are abundant and that these systems create different kinds of pressure on stakeholders, at several levels of society. The local-level concerns are more about the loss of pollination services than about loss of pollinators. This points to the problem of fit between local activity driven by economic reasoning and biodiversity-driven EU policies. Here we see the concept of ecosystem services having some potential, since its operationalisation can combine economic and environmental considerations. Furthermore, the analysis shows how, instead of formal institutions, it seems that social norms, habits, and motivation are the key to understanding and developing effective and attractive governance measures.


      PubDate: 2015-01-27T07:09:27Z
       
  • Global values of coastal ecosystem services: A spatial economic analysis
           of shoreline protection values
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Nalini S. Rao , Andrea Ghermandi , Rosimeiry Portela , Xuanwen Wang
      A global study to estimate the ecosystem service value of specific coastal ecosystems is developed. Specific variables are identified and used to develop a global multivariate regression function that supports the identification of important drivers of the value of ecosystem service of coastal protection around the world, and the Caribbean is examined in detail. Variables hypothesized to affect the ecosystem service value fall into three categories, and were informed by a meta-analysis of existing economic literature. Site characteristics include ecosystem type and size. Study characteristics include valuation method. Context variables include measures of development, anthropogenic pressures, biodiversity, and population density. Results of the meta-analytic regression show that variables significantly affecting the ecosystem service value included size, level of development, storm frequency, valuation method and gross domestic product per capita. A benefit transfer function is then generated to extrapolate values to other sites around the world where coastal wetlands, mangrove and coral reefs exist. This function is used to derive a global map of the value of a set of coastal ecosystem services worldwide. The Caribbean region is discussed as a case study in this global analysis.


      PubDate: 2015-01-22T07:08:37Z
       
  • Measuring indicators of ocean health for an island nation: The ocean
           health index for Fiji
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Elizabeth R. Selig , Melanie Frazier , Jennifer K. O׳Leary , Stacy D. Jupiter , Benjamin S. Halpern , Catherine Longo , Kristin L. Kleisner , Loraini Sivo , Marla Ranelletti
      People depend on the ocean to provide a range of ecosystem services, including sustaining economies and providing nutrition. We demonstrate how a global ocean health index framework can be applied to a data-limited scenario and modified to incorporate the objectives and context of a developing island nation like Fiji. Although these changes did not have a major effect on the total index value, two goals had substantial changes. The artisanal opportunities goal increased from 46 to 92 as a result of changes to the model for Fiji, which looks at the stock status of artisanally-caught species. The lasting special places sub-goal decreased from 96 to 48, due to the use of Fiji-specific data and reference points that allow policymakers to track progress towards national goals. Fiji scored high for the tourism and recreation goal, but low for the production-oriented natural products goal and mariculture sub-goal, which may reflect national values and development priorities. By measuring ocean health across a portfolio of goals and re-calculating scores over time, we can better understand potential trade-offs between goals. Our approach for measuring ocean health in Fiji highlights pathways for improvements and approaches that may help guide other data-limited countries in assessing ocean health.


      PubDate: 2015-01-16T17:34:45Z
       
  • Citizens’ voice: A case study about perceived ecosystem services by
           urban park users in Rotterdam, the Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Sophie Buchel , Niki Frantzeskaki
      To create a city in which green space is designed to address not only ecological priorities but also user perception, it is essential for planners and policy makers to explore the experiences of urban green space users. This study developed a method to a guide the translation of the concept of ecosystem services to citizens. Through a three-step process urban ecosystem services were re-categorized into a subset of directly perceivable services, fine-grained and formed into understandable statements. These statements were presented to urban park users in Rotterdam using Q methodology. Three main user profiles emerged around ‘love of nature’, ‘recreation and connection’ and ‘social setting and relaxation’. Overall the most valued ecosystem subservice was aesthetic appreciation. Other ecosystem subservices that scored highly were recreation, air quality control and social setting. Awareness of types of users in terms of park perception could aid urban planners in designing user-focused urban green spaces.


      PubDate: 2015-01-16T17:34:45Z
       
  • Biodiversity and ecosystem services: Not all positive
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 12
      Author(s): Chris G. Sandbrook , Neil D. Burgess



      PubDate: 2015-01-16T17:34:45Z
       
  • The biodiversity offsets as market-based instruments in global governance:
           Origins, success and controversies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Marie Hrabanski
      The recent surge in the popularity of biodiversity offsets is particularly interesting since the idea of compensation with respect to biodiversity can be traced as far back as the 1970s in Europe and the United States, as part of the Ramsar Convention (1972), which recommended compensation for damage to biodiversity. The view of compensation has nevertheless evolved since the turn of the century, and new programs of biodiversity compensation have developed through a mechanism called “biodiversity offsets”. Compensation mechanisms have thus undergone a ‘renovation’ on both the international and national environmental policy scenes. In this article, we use the term ‘renovation’ to represent the active modification and adaptation of existing mechanisms as market-based instruments to facilitate their implementation in different contexts. What is the origin of this renovation? How has it been disseminated? And what actors have precipitated it? We put forward the hypothesis that this renovation could be explained by the convergence between old national dynamics focused on the original definition of compensation mechanisms and more recent transnational dynamics that follow the 1990s appearance of dialog centered on the “market-based instrument” concept.


      PubDate: 2015-01-16T17:34:45Z
       
  • A visualization and data-sharing tool for ecosystem service maps: Lessons
           learnt, challenges and the way forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): E.G. Drakou , N.D. Crossman , L. Willemen , B. Burkhard , I. Palomo , J. Maes , S. Peedell
      A plurality in methods, models, terminologies is used to assess, quantify, map and communicate ecosystem services (ES). The Thematic Working Groups on Mapping (TWG4) and Modeling ES (TWG5) of the Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP), recent literature and expert workshops, have highlighted the need for developing a platform that systematically organizes, visualizes and shares ES maps and related information. This led to the development of the Ecosystem Services Partnership Visualization Tool (ESP-VT), an open-access interactive platform that hosts a catalogue of ES maps with information on indicators, models and used data. Users can upload or download ES maps and associated information. ESP-VT aims at increasing transparency in ES mapping approaches to facilitate the flow of information within the ES community from academics to policy-makers and practitioners. Populating the ESP-VT with ES maps from different geographic locations, across different spatial scales, using different models and with various purposes, leads to a diverse and heterogeneous ES map library. The scientific community has not yet agreed on standards for ES terminology, methodologies and maps. However we do believe that populating and using the ESP-VT can set a basis for developing such standards and serve towards achieving interoperability among the varying ES related tools.


      PubDate: 2015-01-16T17:34:45Z
       
  • Exploring connections among nature, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and
           human health and well-being: Opportunities to enhance health and
           biodiversity conservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 12
      Author(s): Paul A. Sandifer , Ariana E. Sutton-Grier , Bethney P. Ward
      We are at a key juncture in history where biodiversity loss is occurring daily and accelerating in the face of population growth, climate change, and rampant development. Simultaneously, we are just beginning to appreciate the wealth of human health benefits that stem from experiencing nature and biodiversity. Here we assessed the state of knowledge on relationships between human health and nature and biodiversity, and prepared a comprehensive listing of reported health effects. We found strong evidence linking biodiversity with production of ecosystem services and between nature exposure and human health, but many of these studies were limited in rigor and often only correlative. Much less information is available to link biodiversity and health. However, some robust studies indicate that exposure to microbial biodiversity can improve health, specifically in reducing certain allergic and respiratory diseases. Overall, much more research is needed on mechanisms of causation. Also needed are a re-envisioning of land-use planning that places human well-being at the center and a new coalition of ecologists, health and social scientists and planners to conduct research and develop policies that promote human interaction with nature and biodiversity. Improvements in these areas should enhance human health and ecosystem, community, as well as human resilience.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T11:34:31Z
       
  • The uptake of the ecosystem services concept in planning discourses of
           European and American cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Rieke Hansen , Niki Frantzeskaki , Timon McPhearson , Emily Rall , Nadja Kabisch , Anna Kaczorowska , Jaan-Henrik Kain , Martina Artmann , Stephan Pauleit
      Ecosystem services (ES) are gaining increasing attention as a promising concept to more actively consider and plan for the varied benefits of the urban environment. Yet, to have an impact on decision-making, the concept must spread from academia to practice. To understand how ES have been taken up in planning discourses we conducted a cross-case comparison of planning documents in Berlin, New York, Salzburg, Seattle and Stockholm. We found: (1) explicit references to the ES concept were primarily in documents from Stockholm and New York, two cities in countries that entered into ES discourses early. (2) Implicit references and thus potential linkages between the ES concept and planning discourses were found frequently among all cities, especially in Seattle. (3) The thematic scope, represented by 21 different ES, is comparably broad among the cases, while cultural services and habitat provision are most frequently emphasized. (4) High-level policies were shown to promote the adoption of the ES concept in planning. We find that the ES concept holds potential to strengthen a holistic consideration of urban nature and its benefits in planning. We also revealed potential for further development of ES approaches with regard to mitigation of environmental impacts and improving urban resilience.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T11:34:31Z
       
  • Finding solutions to water scarcity: Incorporating ecosystem service
           values into business planning at The Dow Chemical Company’s
           Freeport, TX facility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Sheila M.W. Reddy , Robert I. McDonald , Alexander S. Maas , Anthony Rogers , Evan H. Girvetz , Jeffrey North , Jennifer Molnar , Tim Finley , Gená Leathers , Johnathan L. DiMuro
      Water scarcity presents a major risk to businesses, but it can be hard to quantify. Ecosystem service valuation methods may help businesses better understand the financial impacts of water shortages and identify solutions. At The Dow Chemical Company’s facility in Freeport, TX, we used natural capital asset valuation to assess the risk from future changes in industrial water supplies. We found that the value of industrial water rights may increase in the future with increased demand but that potential decreases in reliability of water rights due to demand growth and climate change could reduce their value. Using this information, experts identified 16 potential nature-based and collaborative (involving other water users) solutions to future water scarcity. We used multi-criteria analysis to select five of the 16 solutions for further analysis. Two solutions (marsh wastewater treatment, land management) were not cost-competitive and three solutions (reservoir flood pool reallocation/floodplain restoration, irrigation efficiency, municipal rebate program) were cost-competitive with the business-as-usual solution (expanding reservoir storage). However, these solutions have significant technical, legal, and political hurdles. We also found that these solutions provide substantial collective benefits to the public and biodiversity, suggesting that such solutions may be appropriate for implementation via multi-stakeholder collaboration.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T11:34:31Z
       
  • Analysis of ecosystem services provision in the Colombian Amazon using
           participatory research and mapping techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Sara O.I. Ramirez-Gomez , Carlos A. Torres-Vitolas , Kate Schreckenberg , Miroslav Honzák , Gisella S. Cruz-Garcia , Simon Willcock , Erwin Palacios , Elena Pérez-Miñana , Pita A. Verweij , Guy M. Poppy
      Over the last two decades indigenous peoples in the lower Caquetá River basin in Colombia have experienced detrimental changes in the provision of important ecosystem services in ways that have significant implications for the maintenance of their traditional livelihoods. To assess these changes we conducted eight participatory mapping activities and convened 22 focus group discussions. We focused the analysis on two types of change: (1) changes in the location of ecosystem services provisioning areas and (2) changes in the stock of ecosystem services. The focal ecosystem services include services such as provision of food, raw materials and medicinal resources. Results from the study show that in the past two decades the demand for food and raw materials has intensified and, as a result, locations of provisioning areas and the stocks of ecosystem services have changed. We found anecdotal evidence that these changes correlate well with socio-economic factors such as greater need for income generation, change in livelihood practices and consumption patterns. We discuss the use of participatory mapping techniques in the context of marginalized and data-poor regions. We also show how this kind of information can strengthen existing ecosystem-based management strategies used by indigenous peoples in the Colombian Amazon.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T11:34:31Z
       
  • Biodiversity and ecosystem services: The Nature Index for Norway
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Iulie Aslaksen , Signe Nybø , Erik Framstad , Per Arild Garnåsjordet , Olav Skarpaas
      Valuation of ecosystem services has been advocated as a tool for communicating the importance of nature and biodiversity to policy makers. The complexity of the relationships between ecosystem functions and the biodiversity that supports them challenges conceptualization of ecosystem services and calls for comprehensive ecological frameworks as basis for valuation and policy. In this article, we discuss relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem services in the context of the Nature Index for Norway, recently developed as a biodiversity measurement framework. We suggest supplementing the Nature Index by complementary indicators for ecosystem services, in order to consider how the ecosystem services approach as a policy tool can be enhanced by taking into account an ecological framework for biodiversity measurement.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T11:34:31Z
       
  • Tourism in Zanzibar: Incentives for sustainable management of the coastal
           environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Glenn-Marie Lange
      Tourism was identified in the late 1980s as a sector with major potential for driving economic development in Zanzibar and has since grown enormously from roughly 19,000 annual visitors in 1985 to well over 200,000 by 2007. Although tourism is now one of the most important sectors of the economy, contributing roughly 25% to GDP, the impact of tourism on poverty reduction and the environment has been decidedly mixed. The rapid expansion of tourist infrastructure on the coast, combined with a population growth rate of over 3%, has put great pressure on coastal areas. In some areas local villages have seen their access to the beach and sea greatly restricted with resulting loss of livelihoods, while relatively little of the economic benefit from tourism has gone to local communities. The coastal and marine environment is seriously degraded due to both human and natural causes. The paper explores the reasons for this, focusing on the role played by the distribution of benefits from tourism and the (dis)incentives this creates for sustainable management, especially among local communities that steward the marine ecosystem. It does this by estimating the incomes (wages, profits and taxes to local government) generated from five major categories of tourism found in Zanzibar, and quantifying the distribution of incomes among five different stakeholder groups. The resulting recommendations are relevant not only for Zanzibar, but for all developing countries that rely on international tourism.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T11:34:31Z
       
  • Fairly efficient, efficiently fair: Lessons from designing and testing
           payment schemes for ecosystem services in Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 12
      Author(s): Beria Leimona , Meine van Noordwijk , Rudolf de Groot , Rik Leemans
      Payment for ecosystem services (PES) is commonly defined as a market-based environmental policy instrument to efficiently achieve ecosystem services provision. However, an increasing body of literature shows that this prescriptive conceptualization of PES cannot be easily generalized and implemented in practice, and that the commodification of ecosystem services (ES) is problematic and may lead to unfair situations for relevant PES actors. This paper synthesizes case studies in Indonesia, the Philippines and Nepal to provide empirical observations on emerging PES mechanisms in Asia. Lessons learned show that fairness and efficiency objectives must be achieved simultaneously in designing and implementing a sustainable PES scheme, especially in developing country contexts. Neither fairness nor efficiency is a primary aim but an intermediate ‘fairly efficient and efficiently fair’ PES may bridge the gap between PES theory and practice to increase sustainable ES provision and improve livelihoods.


      PubDate: 2015-01-10T11:34:31Z
       
  • Jellyfish outbreak impacts on recreation in the Mediterranean Sea: welfare
           estimates from a socioeconomic pilot survey in Israel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Andrea Ghermandi , Bella Galil , John Gowdy , Paulo A.L.D. Nunes
      Jellyfish outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea are part of an anthropogenic alteration of the marine ecosystem and have been documented as health hazards and threats to tourism. Their impacts on human welfare have, however, been poorly quantified. A socioeconomic survey, carried out in summer 2013, captures the impacts of an outbreak of Rhopilema nomadica on seaside recreation in Israel. Welfare losses are estimated based on per-visit value and expected change in visits patterns. We estimate that an outbreak reduces the number of seaside visits by 3–10.5%, with an annual monetary loss of €1.8–6.2 million. An additional 41% of the respondents state that their recreational activities on the beach are affected by the outbreak. Through a contingent valuation, we find that 56% of the respondents state a willingness to contribute to a national environmental protection program with an estimated annual benefit of €14.8 million. These figures signal an opportunity to invest in public information systems. A pilot study for adaptation was conducted in Barcelona, whose results confirm the importance of the welfare benefits of real-time public information systems. This study provides a benchmark against which the economic impacts of jellyfish outbreaks on coastal recreation and potential adaptation policies can be evaluated.


      PubDate: 2015-01-05T22:16:21Z
       
  • Fisheries, tourism, and marine protected areas: Conflicting or synergistic
           interactions?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): P.F.M. Lopes , S. Pacheco , M. Clauzet , R.A.M. Silvano , A. Begossi
      Most coastal degradation has been caused by anthropogenic actions, threatening the ecosystem services (ESs) humans depend on. Marine protected areas are a solution to protect ESs, such as fish stocks, although this could potentially lead to conflicts with fisheries and tourism. We investigated how fisheries and tourism in the SE Brazil interact with conservation, evaluating their potential for synergistic interactions. We sampled fish landings (n=823) in two villages and performed interviews with fishers and middlemen regarding fisheries and tourism, besides using secondary information regarding the MPA effectiveness. Fish production was high outside the MPA (9.25t/day), and could be profitable, resulting in reduced fishing pressure, but a faulty market chain prevents this. Fishers involved with coastal tourism had better incomes than those who engaged in only fisheries. Tourism in permitted areas outside the MPA could benefit both fisheries and biodiversity conservation by reducing the time fishers allocate to fishing and by attracting visitors for wildlife viewing. Nonconflicting uses of ESs can be achieved by assuring that the local poor population benefits from more than one ES in a sustainable way, but that requires alternatives such as adding value to ESs and paying for environmental services.


      PubDate: 2015-01-05T22:16:21Z
       
  • Mapping recreation supply and demand using an ecological and a social
           evaluation approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Lorena Peña , Izaskun Casado-Arzuaga , Miren Onaindia
      This paper provides a framework for addressing recreation as an example of Cultural Ecosystem Services and a methodology to support landscape management based on recreation activities at a regional scale. A GIS-based approach was used to estimate and map ecological and social factors illustrating recreation supply and demand in the Basque Country (northern Spain). The proposed methodology for recreation supply was based on recreation potential and accessibility, and the social demand was determined using a convenience sample of 629 persons that reported preferences for recreation activities using photo-questionnaires. Results showed that 23% of the viewsheds showed a high demand and higher recreation potential than accessibility, whereas only 3% showed a high demand and higher accessibility than potential. Approximately 74% of the territory showed a medium-low demand. We concluded that people׳s assessments on the basis of their aesthetic preferences may serve as a reasonable proxy for mapping recreation demand. The proposed visual method is fast, efficient and may be easily replicable in other regions. The proposed framework can be used as an input to support landscape management, to identify areas most demanded by society and to quantify spatially recreation supply and demand for supporting political strategies.


      PubDate: 2015-01-05T22:16:21Z
       
  • Valuing climate change mitigation: A choice experiment on a coastal and
           marine ecosystem
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Kyriaki Remoundou , Pedro Diaz-Simal , Phoebe Koundouri , Bénédicte Rulleau
      This paper adds to a limited literature eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) for mitigation measures against natural hazards caused by climate change, on coastal and marine environments. Our case study is Santander, a coastal region in Northern Spain. The case-study specific natural hazards concern (a) sea-level rise, high tides and extreme wave events that lead to floods and beach erosion, (b) rise in sea temperature that leads to invasive jellyfish blooms and changes in native biodiversity. In particular, we employ a choice experiment (CE) to elicit the value locals place on improvements, through the implementation of appropriate mitigation measures, in biodiversity, recreational opportunities and on decreases in health risks associated with jellyfish blooms. Results suggest that people value positively benefits in terms of increased biodiversity and recreation opportunities, as well as health risk reductions, and point to interesting policy implications.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T22:12:43Z
       
  • Does diversity matter? The experience of urban nature’s
           diversity: Case study and cultural concept
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Annette Voigt , Daniel Wurster
      In everyday life, urban green spaces are the places for nature experience and recreation for urban residents. A diverse urban nature is generally seen to be able to promote both biodiversity conservation as well as the enhancement of the quality of urban life. But how important is nature’s diversity really for residents? There are various studies about the services of urban green, but still gaps in the knowledge of the user’s experience and valuation of nature’s diversity. This paper discusses, first, the results of interviews on the perception and valuation of species and structural diversity of an urban green space. Most respondents assessed the diversity as (very) high and consider biodiversity in general as (very) valuable, yet few specific structures and species were named. Second, we explain this mismatch referring to the cultural ideal of landscape diversity in the German-speaking region, which we believe to influence the experience of nature. People use ‘diversity’ to express their feeling of well-being during their stay at a given site rather than an objective assessment of number of species or elements. In this way, we place the topic of individual perception, experience and valuation of urban nature’s diversity in a philosophical and historical-cultural context.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T22:12:43Z
       
  • Assessing community values to support mapping of ecosystem services in the
           Koshi river basin, Nepal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Bob van Oort , Laxmi Dutt Bhatta , Himlal Baral , Rajesh Kumar Rai , Madhav Dhakal , Ieva Rucevska , Ramesh Adhikari
      Human activities and climate change are key factors impacting ecosystem functions and its goods and services, which are important to the livelihoods of mountain communities. In Nepal, community based ecosystem management has been widely adopted as a way to secure local management and empowerment, but local knowledge, perceptions and values of ecosystem change and services are often ignored, and perhaps inadequately understood, in decision-making processes at district or national level. Our objective therefore was to develop a multi-method approach to support mapping of ecosystem services and assessing their local values. Local perceptions of ecosystem use, change and values were identified using participatory mapping, key informant and focus group discussions, and an extensive household survey carried out in the upstream Koshi River basin. Results were cross-validated with scientific literature, statistics and remote sensing data. Key ecosystem services identified are water, agricultural produce, and various forest products, most of which show a declining trend. We demonstrate that the use of different methods and levels of input results in different and complementary types of insights and detail needed for balanced and informed decision-making regarding sustainable management of ESs to secure current and future livelihoods and ecosystem functioning.


      PubDate: 2014-12-22T22:05:20Z
       
  • Mapping cultural ecosystem services with rainforest aboriginal peoples:
           Integrating biocultural diversity, governance and social variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Petina L. Pert , Rosemary Hill , Kirsten Maclean , Allan Dale , Phil Rist , Joann Schmider , Leah Talbot , Lavenie Tawake
      Cultural ecosystem services (CES) include the aesthetic, artistic, educational, spiritual and/or scientific values of ecosystems and have been described as ‘intangible’ and complex, reflecting diverse people-nature interactions that are embedded in dynamic linked social-ecological systems. CES have proved difficult to value, therefore mapping CES has largely concentrated on more tangible aspects, such as tourism and recreation—presenting the risk that highly significant cultural relationships, such as those between Indigenous peoples and their traditional land, will be rendered invisible in ecosystem assessments. We present our results from co-research with a group of ‘Rainforest Aboriginal peoples׳ from the Wet Tropics, Australia that illustrates a method to address this gap through mapping their perceptions of the health of Indigenous CES. We found that categories associated with biocultural diversity and governance matched their perceptions better than the usual framework that recognizes aesthetic, spiritual and other categories. Co-produced maps presented demonstrate spatial patterns of CES that are related primarily to variations in social attributes (such as adherence to cultural protocols), rather than the ecological attributes (such as biodiversity patterns). Further application of these concepts of biocultural diversity governance, and variation in social attributes when mapping CES, particularly in partnerships with Indigenous peoples is recommended.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-12-22T22:05:20Z
       
  • Ecosystem services and community based coral reef management institutions
           in post blast-fishing Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Kelly Heber Dunning
      Depending upon the institutional framework, coral reef ecosystems and local economic development can be synergistic. When managed properly through local institutions, coral reef systems can deliver ecosystem services that create livelihoods and increase local prosperity in dependent communities. This study compares two community-based reef management institutions. One is located in a community with a reef struggling to recover from destructive fishing, the other in a community that has experienced a remarkable recovery. Using mixed methods, long-form interviews, and surveys of reef tourism stakeholders, this uses institutional characteristics to predict reef quality. Certain institutional components hypothesized to predict reef quality did not; these include universal membership requirements for reef stakeholders, stakeholder familiarity with leadership and hierarchies, and transparent decision-making and implementation of management policy. This means that one size fits all prescriptions for local reef management institutions should be viewed with caution. Instead, the success of management institutions may depend upon both the path toward economic development, access to technology that facilitates coral recovery, and communication of conservation strategies to tourist visitors.


      PubDate: 2014-12-22T22:05:20Z
       
  • Towards a comparative and critical analysis of biodiversity banks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Géraldine Froger , Sophie Ménard , Philippe Méral
      The emergence of the concept of ecosystem services has triggered considerable discussion about the appropriate tools and institutional arrangements to provide ecosystem services. These tools include among others biodiversity “banks” that have been developed to provide biodiversity units or credits to offset environmental damage caused by economic development. So far, little attention has been focused on the design of offset schemes and on the variety of their institutional forms. The purpose of this article is to analyse the development of biodiversity banking, to evaluate its implementation to date in the light of various institutional arrangements and to summarise the outstanding theoretical and practical problems. This article distinguishes and maps different biodiversity banking mechanisms based on different characteristics, in particular statement content, ecosystem services assessment and the nature of biodiversity banking. Our mapping exercise differentiates several main categories of biodiversity banks: private non-commercial, private commercial, hybrid commercial, public commercial and public non-commercial. This article presents concrete illustrations from existing biodiversity banking systems (US, Australia, France and Germany) and then analyses advantages and limits of each mechanism (and its concrete example).


      PubDate: 2014-12-17T03:24:03Z
       
  • Landscape׳s capacities to supply ecosystem services in Bangladesh: A
           mapping assessment for Lawachara National Park
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Md Shawkat Islam Sohel , Sharif Ahmed Mukul , Benjamin Burkhard
      Land uses/land covers (LULC) are closely related to the integrity of ecosystems and associated provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services (ES). Anthropogenic activities continuously influence ecological integrity and ES through changes in LULC. An integrative approach is essential to understand and measure the relations between ecosystem functioning, associated ES and the relative contributions of the different system components. Here, using a locally justified ES scoring matrix, we linked different LULC types to ecological integrity and ES supply in the Lawachara National Park of Bangladesh. The results were used to compile spatially explicit ES maps. Our analysis revealed relatively high capacities of mixed tropical evergreen forests to supply a broad range of ES and to support ecological integrity, followed by tea (Camellia chinesis) gardens and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. Other LULC types located on the edge or on the periphery of the park showed comparably lower ES supply capacities. Our study is the first of its type carried out in Bangladesh and can be seen as a first screening study of available ES and their supply capacities. The results can be used to form the base for ES based landscape management and future conservation priorities in the area.


      PubDate: 2014-12-17T03:24:03Z
       
  • Contrasting values of cultural ecosystem services in urban areas: The case
           of park Montjuïc in Barcelona
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Johannes Langemeyer , Francesc Baró , Peter Roebeling , Erik Gómez-Baggethun
      Urban green infrastructure attracts growing attention for its potential as a nature-based strategy to improve quality of life through the provision of ecosystem services. In this paper, we value cultural ecosystem services in relation to land-uses and management regimes of urban green infrastructure. Through a survey among 198 beneficiaries of the largest urban park in Barcelona, Spain, we assessed cultural ecosystem services in monetary and non-monetary terms in relation to land-uses and management regimes. Results from our research suggest that monetary and non-monetary valuations capture complementary information, and show that values of cultural ecosystem services change across different green infrastructure assets and management regimes. For example, ‘environmental learning’ generates low monetary values but high non-monetary values. Stronger place values were related with low management intensity, while values for tourism increase with land-uses embedding cultural facilities. We discuss monetary and non-monetary values in the light of urban green infrastructure strategies and indicate potentials for urban planning and management to proactively alter the provision of cultural ecosystem services through specific configurations of land-uses and management intensity.


      PubDate: 2014-12-17T03:24:03Z
       
  • Ecosystem disservices: Embrace the catchword
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Jari Lyytimäki



      PubDate: 2014-12-17T03:24:03Z
       
  • Linking forest ecosystem services to corporate sustainability disclosure:
           A conceptual analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): D. D’Amato , N. Li , M. Rekola , A. Toppinen , F-F. Lu
      Despite the increasing awareness of corporate dependencies and impacts on ecosystems, and related business risks and opportunities, scientific and corporate-based information on these issues is lacking. In our paper we (1) summarise results of a literature review of the impacts and dependencies of plantation-based forestry on ecosystem services; (2) identify the existing and missing links between the corporate sustainability indicators and the ecosystem services framework; and (3) propose a set of possible ecosystem services indicators for corporate sustainability reporting. We particularly focus on the catalytic role of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators framework for integrating the ecosystem services approach into corporate sustainability reporting. Finally, we discuss how an ecosystem services approach could benefit future sustainability reporting practices in the context of the forest sector, especially in relation to existing gaps and challenges.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • The relevant scales of ecosystem services demand
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): I.R. Geijzendorffer , P.K. Roche



      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • The misconception of ecosystem disservices: How a catchy term may yield
           the wrong messages for science and society
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Ferdinando Villa , Kenneth J. Bagstad , Brian Voigt , Gary W. Johnson , Ioannis N. Athanasiadis , Stefano Balbi



      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Ecosystem services assessment at Steart Peninsula, Somerset, UK
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Lia Vieira da Silva , Mark Everard , Robert G. Shore
      A systemic valuation was undertaken of marginal changes in ecosystem services assessed as likely to result from the Steart Coastal Management project, some in monetary terms and others semi-quantified. The Steart Coastal Management project entails allowing seawater once again to inundate formerly defended farmland, including modifications to the landform of to assist the re-creation of a range of wetland habitats on the Steart Peninsula. Primary drivers for this project include habitat creation and management of coastal flooding, although implications for a range of other connected services need also to be taken into account. Ecosystem services for which a market exists (typically traded goods with associated use values) were valued using market prices. For non-traded services, this study relied substantially on the economic valuation technique of ‘value transfer’. Despite having to rely on some wide but transparently stated assumptions and uncertainties, a conservative, yet considerable, net annual benefit range of £491,155 to £913,752 was deduced. Research gaps that limited our ability to quantify and/or value several ecosystem services were identified.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Developing spatial biophysical accounting for multiple ecosystem services
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Roy P. Remme , Matthias Schröter , Lars Hein
      Ecosystem accounting is receiving increasing interest as a way to systematically monitor the conditions of ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide. A critical element of ecosystem accounting is understanding spatially explicit flows of ecosystem services. We developed spatial biophysical models of seven ecosystem services in a cultural landscape (Limburg province, the Netherlands) in a way that is consistent with ecosystem accounting. We included hunting, drinking water extraction, crop production, fodder production, air quality regulation, carbon sequestration and recreational cycling. In addition, we examined how human inputs can be distinguished from ecosystem services, a critical element in ecosystem accounting. Model outcomes were used to develop an ecosystem accounting table in line with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting - Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EEA) guidelines, in which contributions of land cover types to ecosystem service flows were recorded. Furthermore we developed spatial accounts for single statistical units. This study shows that for the case of Limburg spatial modelling for ecosystem accounting in line with SEEA EEA is feasible. The paper also analyses and discusses key challenges that need to be addressed to develop a well-functioning system for ecosystem accounting.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Simulation games that integrate research, entertainment, and learning
           around ecosystem services
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Robert Costanza , Karim Chichakly , Virginia Dale , Steve Farber , David Finnigan , Kat Grigg , Scott Heckbert , Ida Kubiszewski , Harry Lee , Shuang Liu , Piotr Magnuszewski , Simone Maynard , Neal McDonald , Richard Mills , Sue Ogilvy , Petina L. Pert , Jochen Renz , Lisa Wainger , Mike Young , C. Richard Ziegler
      Humans currently spend over 3 billion person-hours per week playing computer games. Most of these games are purely for entertainment, but use of computer games for education has also expanded dramatically. At the same time, experimental games have become a staple of social science research but have depended on relatively small sample sizes and simple, abstract situations, limiting their range and applicability. If only a fraction of the time spent playing computer games could be harnessed for research, it would open up a huge range of new opportunities. We review the use of games in research, education, and entertainment and develop ideas for integrating these three functions around the idea of ecosystem services valuation. This approach to valuation can be seen as a version of choice modeling that allows players to generate their own scenarios taking account of the trade-offs embedded in the game, rather than simply ranking pre-formed scenarios. We outline a prototype game called “Lagom Island” to test the proposition that gaming can be used to reveal the value of ecosystem services. Our prototype provides a potential pathway and functional building blocks for approaching the relatively untapped potential of games in the context of ecosystem services research.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Beyond the concrete: Accounting for ecosystem services from free-flowing
           rivers
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Daniel A. Auerbach , Daniel B. Deisenroth , Ryan R. McShane , Kevin E. McCluney , N. LeRoy Poff
      People derive benefits from river networks under free-flowing conditions, through ecosystem services such as fishery yield, floodplain agriculture, desirable geomorphic form, and the cultural significance of native riverine biodiversity. However, water management decisions have historically emphasized the production of ecosystem services such as hydropower and irrigation that depend on the construction of extensive infrastructure. Such decisions typically impose tradeoffs that reduce benefits from free-flowing services, yet neither these losses nor the costs of future ecosystem rehabilitation have been well represented in decision support analyses. Ecosystem service assessments can and should account for benefits in the absence of water infrastructure to inform balanced water policy and watershed management.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Networked governance and the management of ecosystem services: The case of
           urban environmental stewardship in New York City
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): James J.T. Connolly , Erika S. Svendsen , Dana R. Fisher , Lindsay K. Campbell
      Urban environmental stewardship groups have become an essential component of the governance structure that regulates ecosystem services in cities. New York City is one example where these groups have grown rapidly in number, size, and visibility since the 1970s. In this article, we combine quantitative survey data with qualitative interview data to examine the structure and development of the governance network that has grown around the management of urban ecosystem services in New York City. We find that the network is organized according to ecological function and geography. We find as well, that certain historical conditions led to the development of a hybrid institutional form with regard to management of ecosystem services in the city. We discuss the implications of this hybrid networked governance structure in New York City and what it might mean for further cross-disciplinary research around ecosystem service governance.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • De rationibus est disputandum: Psychological dimensions of choice and
           public policy design
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Laura Onofri , Paulo A.L.D. Nunes
      Taking into account the complex motivations that spurs individuals’ choices contributes to a better understanding of consumer׳s profile. This information, in turn, can be used by policy makers in cost-benefit analysis and influence the institutional decision-making design. In this line, the paper uses econometric results that focus on shedding light on a consumer׳s warm glow motivational profile, where warm glow is defined as the good feeling that economic agents experience when contributing privately to the provision of public goods. In this context, we study relationship between a motivational variable “warm glow” and selected socio-economic characteristics of individual consumers and this way further understand this psychological dimension of choice. The interpretation of our estimates allows to categorize and profile two types of “warm-glowers”: the “ego-driven” and the “social-oriented” ones. A critical discussion on whether embodying (or not) the latent estimated motivational structures (and underlying determination factors), when performing cost-benefit analysis for the provision of environmental goods is central to the interpretation of estimation results and profiling exercise and contributes to the economic debate dating back to Stiegler and Becker (1977).


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Perception, acquisition and use of ecosystem services: Human behavior, and
           ecosystem management and policy implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Stanley T. Asah , Anne D. Guerry , Dale J. Blahna , Joshua J. Lawler
      Ecosystem services, fundamental to livelihoods and well-being, are reshaping environmental management and policy. However, the behavioral dimensions of ecosystem services and the responses of ordinary people to the management of those services, is less well understood. The ecosystem services framework lends itself to understanding the relationship between ecosystems and human behavior. Ecosystem services, according to the psychological theory of motivational functionalism, are motivations—the personal and social processes that initiate, direct and sustain human action. Thus, how people perceive, acquire and use ecosystem services influences the initiation, direction, and intensity of their behaviors. Profound understanding of how people perceive, acquire and use ecosystem services can help influence behavioral compliance with management and policy prescriptions. We use focus group interviewing to illustrate how ecosystem services relate to human behavior. Results show that people perceive, acquire and use indirect benefits while acquiring direct ecosystem services. Understanding indirect benefits has implications for the constitution and regulation of human behavior through ecosystem management and policy. Perceived ecosystem benefits, expressed in people׳s own words and from their own frames of reference, can facilitate better valuation of ecosystem services and setting of prices, compliance with ecosystem management and policy directives, recruitment and retention of ecosystem stewards, development of use policies, enhancement of user experiences, and encouragement of pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Cultural ecosystem services and economic development: World Heritage and
           early efforts at tourism in Albania
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Andrew Seidl
      Albania actively promotes its World Heritage sites and other attributes of its cultural heritage, including local food and beverages, dance, tapestries and even its communist era, in its marketing efforts. Better information about the emergent tourism sector, particularly with regard to Albania׳s abundant potential in nurturing and capturing the value of its cultural ecosystem services, could help the country to better manage toward its economic development objectives. In this paper, results of a survey of international visitors to Mother Theresa International Airport, highlighting their expenditure patterns, activities, their assessment of their visit with a particular focus on natural and cultural tourism are reported. For example, the average additional willingness to pay to travel to Albania under current experiential conditions is €410. On average, respondents were willing to pay an additional €95 to the Albanian government to invest in Albanian natural and cultural ecosystem services. This potentially translates into an estimated €95 million per year to invest in Albania׳s cultural and natural heritage, or €42 million for culture and €53 million for nature. The results point to the very young stage of tourism development and may illuminate strategies to introduce international audiences to Albania through conferences or other business oriented travel.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Ecosystem governance in a highland village in Peru: Facing the challenges
           of globalization and climate change
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Erin Lennox , John Gowdy
      The agricultural systems of the Peruvian Andes have been created and maintained over many generations using locally adapted management practices that help to maintain agrobiodiversity while providing for local populations. Despite their longstanding history, many of these ecosystems and the services they provide are currently threatened by a number of economic and environmental factors. We use findings from behavioral science to examine the opportunities and conflicts at different governance levels—individual, community, and global. Market pressures to produce for distant markets have resulted in reduced diversity of crops in the Andes region. Another major threat to ecosystem services in the region is climate change, which is already being observed in the form of rising temperatures, extreme temperature fluctuation, changing rainfall patterns, and increasing glacial melt. To explore the effects of, and the responses to, these pressures we used semi-structured interviews to gain insight into agricultural practices and challenges and the various levels of governance present in the agriculture of Langui, Peru. We find that low staple crop prices combined with increasing climate variability has led to a reduced production of traditional crops such as pseudocereals and tubers in favor of production of improved grasses for livestock. The growth of the livestock economy is being driven by the presence of a transnational dairy corporation in the region, plus increased migration leading to a reduced local labor force. We conclude that loss of traditional crops and community based agricultural management techniques will make it difficult for smallholders to maintain food self-sufficiency and agrobiodiversity in the face of a changing climate and global economy.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Recasting payments for ecosystem services (PES) in water resource
           management: A novel institutional approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Vijay Kolinjivadi , Jan Adamowski , Nicolás Kosoy
      Understanding linkages between human well-being and ecological stewardship at the land-water nexus is needed in order to develop effective, equitable, and resilient institutions to govern watershed resources. In this paper, we argue that payments for ecosystem services (PES) plays a useful role for achieving integrated and adaptive water resource management, but only if attention is drawn to: (a) nested governance arrangements which reflect horizontal coordination across space according to the economic characteristics of watershed goods and services as well as hierarchical legitimacy between higher and lower levels of governance; (b) ‘payments’ that are socially negotiated rather than designed according to oversimplified efficiency claims for watershed services and (c) ‘payments’ that are well placed to overcome the individual, social and physical constraints associated with watershed goods and services so that capabilities or the freedom to do and be can be enhanced. This paper illustrates the impossibility of effectuating sheer market-based trades for regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services due to their inherent non-rival characteristics. Furthermore, a heuristic approach to characterising watershed goods and services clearly demarcates the extent to which PES can serve as an implementation tool for integrated and adaptive water resources management.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Behavioural underpinnings of response policies for ecosystem management
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Pushpam Kumar , Manasi Kumar



      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Behavioural foundation of response policies for ecosystem management: What
           can we learn from Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Pushpam Kumar , Manasi Kumar , Lucy Garrett
      The paper evaluates response policies for the management of ecosystem services. It specifically focuses on the implementation of economic response policies and the growing popularity of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES). Critical aspects of PES are reviewed, such as the measurement of ecosystem services, the valuation of additional services, accountability and trust. This emphasised the importance to include social and cultural contexts of transaction and economic valuation in the design and implementation of PES initiatives. We discuss some of the factors that constrain the use of PES where mediating institutions are not readily available. Finally, the paper highlights elements of the design and implementation of PES schemes that can improve its practical application.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Value, institutional complementarity and variety in coupled
           socio-ecological systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Franz W. Gatzweiler
      Taking an interdisciplinary and complex systems approach, theoretical ground is prepared for bridging the divide between economic value assessments and adequate policy responses – the deviation problem. A conceptual framework is developed which explains how plural values emerge in a variety of interaction domains and how deviation problems in value assessments are created and can be overcome by means of institutional complementarities. Conceptualizing value as an emergent property of diverse behavioral patterns resolves the deviation problem, turns attention to behavioral assessments rather than value assessments and opens up the valuation toolbox for methods from the behavioral sciences. Conventional economic valuation approaches, especially benefit transfer methods are analyzed with respect to their ability to overcome the value deviation problem and the development of a comprehensive societal valuation system is proposed which builds on knowledge of behavioral instead of value assessments.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Mapping ecosystem service flows with land cover scoring maps for
           data-scarce regions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Dirk Vrebos , Jan Staes , Tom Vandenbroucke , Tom D׳Haeyer , Robyn Johnston , Moses Muhumuza , Clovis Kasabeke , Patrick Meire
      Natural resource management requires spatially explicit tools to assess the current state of landscapes, to analyse trends and to develop suitable management strategies and interventions. The concept of ecosystem services can help in understanding the importance of natural resources for different stakeholders and at different spatial and temporal scales. Simple methods to map ecosystem services using scoring of land cover types are particularly useful in data scarce regions, but do not reflect the dynamics of supply and demand. Within this study, GIS scripts were developed to represent and assess several different modes of ecosystem service flows between supply and demand, using ecosystem services scoring tables. By integrating the flows, the ecosystem services can be better evaluated. The outcomes do not give quantitative information on whether supply meets demand, but indicate the spatial distributions of both supply and delivery and where ecosystem services are under threat because of changes in ecosystem or flow mechanisms. The scripts allow us to identify sites that are vulnerable to ecosystem service loss and to evaluate possible management scenarios.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10




      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Biodiversity offsets as market-based instruments for ecosystem
           services? From discourses to practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Renaud Lapeyre , Géraldine Froger , Marie Hrabanski
      Building on the analytical frameworks of policy arrangements and new institutional economics, this article introduces the special issue on biodiversity offsets as market-based instruments (MBIs) for ecosystem services, deconstructing discourses and exploring practices on the ground. The idea of compensating environmental damages from development emerged in the 1970s in the USA and Europe. From the beginning of the century, as the international community became increasingly interested in MBIs as allegedly efficient mechanisms for environmental management, MBIs have rapidly gained traction within the biodiversity compensation policy arena. Terms of compensatory mitigation, biodiversity offsets, mitigation banking, habitat banking, species banking, wetlands mitigation, etc., have therefore widely spread as policy tools around the globe. In this context, academics, practitioners and decision-makers have most often characterized those schemes theoretically as an MBI and frequently grouped them all under the umbrella term of ‘biodiversity offsets’. Building on contributions from the special issue, this article contends that biodiversity offset programs are on the contrary mainly characterized as a variety of different heterogeneous policy and institutional arrangements with limited features of market governance. Furthermore, hybrid structures, through long-term bilateral agreements with specific assets and between parties whose identity is crucial, are the rule rather than the exception.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Collaborative mapping of ecosystem services: The role of
           stakeholders׳ profiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Ana P. García-Nieto , Cristina Quintas-Soriano , Marina García-Llorente , Ignacio Palomo , Carlos Montes , Berta Martín-López
      Assuming the huge progress achieved in public participatory geographic information system (PPGIS) techniques and its current research gaps, this study aims to explore differences in the perception of spatial distribution of ecosystem services supply and demand between different stakeholders through collaborative mapping. The stakeholders selected included high influence stakeholder (with a high degree of interest on the ecosystem services׳ state and with an important influence into the environmental decision making process) and low influence stakeholders (with a high degree of interest on the ecosystem services׳ state and with a low influence in environmental management). Workshops took place in June 2013 in two regions of Andalusia; overall 29 participants were involved. Water provision, food from agriculture, livestock, erosion control, climate regulation, water purification, nature tourism, recreational hunting and tranquility were collaboratively mapped. Agriculture land-use and the protected area surface were also assessed in order to find patterns in ecosystem services supply, meanwhile the role of urban areas was assessed for ecosystem services demand. The results show that low and high influence stakeholders have different perceptions of the spatial distribution of ecosystem services and the scale of their demand. We call for the recognition of these knowledge differences (experiential and technical) and their inclusion in decision making processes regarding landscape planning.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • Whales vs. gulls: Assessing trade-offs in wildlife and waste management in
           Patagonia, Argentina
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Stephanie F. Stefanski , Sebastian Villasante
      In Península Valdés, (Patagonia) Argentina, the consequences of poor waste management and an overpopulation of kelp gulls has led to gulls feeding on living southern right whales, potentially causing losses to the tourism industry through loss in coastal quality and suboptimal right whale viewing experiences. Despite local progress in closing waste disposal sites and culling gulls, both waste and pest problems persist. While this problem could impact the long-term viability of the site as a whale watching destination and present conservation concerns, little research has been done concerning the socio-economic aspects of the problem. The present study interviewed 650 tourists about their willingness to pay to manage the gulls versus the waste in order to reduce the gull population and remove the risk to the whales. This research finds that tourists favor addressing the human-driven component of the problem, the waste, over culling the natural component of the problem, the kelp gulls. These findings present a remarkable insight to assessing trade-offs between two management strategies to a local problem associated with coastal development and tourism. The results could further be broadened to other destinations facing waste and pest management challenges in the face of growing tourism and urbanization.


      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • A pathway to identifying and valuing cultural ecosystem services: An
           application to marine food webs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services
      Author(s): Corinne Baulcomb , Ruth Fletcher , Amy Lewis , Ekin Akoglu , Leonie Robinson , Amanda von Almen , Salman Hussain , Klaus Glenk
      Beyond recreation, little attention has been paid thus far to economically value Cultural Ecosystem Services (CESs), especially in the context of coastal or marine environment. This paper develops and tests a pathway to the identification and economic valuation of CESs. The pathway enables researchers to make more explicit, and to economically value, cultural dimensions of environmental change. We suggest that the valuation process includes a simultaneous development of the scenarios of environmental change including related biophysical impacts, and a documentation of culture–environment linkages. A well-defined ecosystem service typology is also needed to classify cultural–ecological linkages as specific CESs. The pathway then involves the development of detailed, multidimensional depictions of the culture–environment linkages for use in a stated preference survey. The anticipated CES interpretations should be confirmed through debriefing questions in the survey questionnaire. The proposed approach is demonstrated with a choice experiment-based case study in Turkey that focuses improvements to the food web of the Black Sea. The results of this study indicate that economic preferences for CESs other than recreation can be estimated in a way that is economically consistent using the proposed approach.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-12-12T12:43:08Z
       
  • The place of agricultural sciences in the literature on ecosystem services
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Ecosystem Services, Volume 10
      Author(s): Elise Tancoigne , Marc Barbier , Jean-Philippe Cointet , Guy Richard
      We performed a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the scientific literature on ecosystem services in order to help tracing a research agenda for agricultural sciences. The ecosystem services concept now lies at the heart of current developments to address global environmental change. Do agricultural sciences generate knowledge that covers this emerging theme? An analysis of scientific production allowed us to return to the ecological origins of this concept and see how little it has been appropriated by agricultural sciences until now, despite major focus on the issue of agro-ecosystems in the literature. Agricultural sciences tend to be more active in the field of environmental services, defined as services rendered by humans to ecosystems. The main studied services are those which have already been clearly identified and which act in synergy. Less attention is paid to the antagonisms between different services. These findings call for the implementation of agricultural research programmes that will consider the socio-agro-ecosystem as a whole and broaden the traditional issues addressed by agricultural sciences. We insist on three main management and operational issues that needs to be overcome if this is to be done: working at the landscape scale, increasing inter-disciplinary collaborations and take uncertainties into account.


      PubDate: 2014-09-17T12:15:10Z
       
 
 
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