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Journal Cover Acta Radiologica Open
  [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2058-4601
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [850 journals]
  • Biparametric versus multiparametric MRI in the diagnosis of prostate

    • Authors: Thestrup, K. C. D; Logager, V, Baslev, I, Moller, J. M, Hansen, R. H, Thomsen, H. S.
      Pages: 2058460116 - 2058460116
      Abstract: Background Since multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) of the prostate exceeds 30 min, minimizing the evaluation time of significant (Gleason scores > 6) prostate cancer (PCa) would be beneficial. A reduced protocol might be sufficient for the diagnosis. Purpose To study whether a short unenhanced biparametric MRI (bp-MRI) matches mp-MRI in detecting significant PCa. Material and Methods A total of 204 men (median age, 65 years; mean ± SD, 64.1; range 45–75 years; median serum PSA level, 14 ng/mL; range, 2.2–120 ng/mL; median prostate volume, 60 mL; range, 23–263 mL) fulfilled the criteria for being enrolled. They underwent mp-MRI and prostate biopsy from January through June 2014. Of the included patients, 9.3% underwent prostatectomy, 90.7% had TRUS-bx, and 10.8 had MRI-targeted TRUS-bx. Two radiologists separately assessed the mp-MRI examination (T2-weighted [T2W] imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], apparent diffusion coefficient map [ADC-map] and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging [DCE]). Two months later, the bp-MRI version (T2W imaging, DWI, and ADC-map) was evaluated. Results Reader 1: Assessing mp-MRI: 0 false negatives, sensitivity of 1, and specificity 0.04. Assessing bp-MRI: four false negatives, sensitivity of 0.94, and specificity 0.15. Reader 2: Assessing mp-MRI: five false negatives, sensitivity of 0.93, and specificity 0.16. Assessing bp-MRI: three false negatives, sensitivity of 0.96, and specificity 0.15. Intra-reader agreement Cohen’s Kappa () was 0.87 for reader 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.92) and 0.84 for reader 2 (95% CI 0.78–0.89). Conclusion Bp-MRI is as good as mp-MRI at detecting PCa. A large prospective study seems to be strongly warranted.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17T03:33:00-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2058460116663046
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 8 (2016)
  • Can use of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction reduce radiation
           dose in unenhanced head CT' An analysis of qualitative and
           quantitative image quality

    • Authors: Osteras, B. H; Heggen, K. L, Pedersen, H. K, Andersen, H. K, Martinsen, A. C. T.
      Pages: 2058460116 - 2058460116
      Abstract: Background Iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and thereby facilitate dose reduction. Purpose To evaluate qualitative and quantitative image quality for full dose and dose reduced head computed tomography (CT) protocols reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Material and Methods Fourteen patients undergoing follow-up head CT were included. All patients underwent full dose (FD) exam and subsequent 15% dose reduced (DR) exam, reconstructed using FBP and 30% ASIR. Qualitative image quality was assessed using visual grading characteristics. Quantitative image quality was assessed using ROI measurements in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), white matter, peripheral and central gray matter. Additionally, quantitative image quality was measured in Catphan and vendor’s water phantom. Results There was no significant difference in qualitative image quality between FD FBP and DR ASIR. Comparing same scan FBP versus ASIR, a noise reduction of 28.6% in CSF and between –3.7 and 3.5% in brain parenchyma was observed. Comparing FD FBP versus DR ASIR, a noise reduction of 25.7% in CSF, and –7.5 and 6.3% in brain parenchyma was observed. Image contrast increased in ASIR reconstructions. Contrast-to-noise ratio was improved in DR ASIR compared to FD FBP. In phantoms, noise reduction was in the range of 3 to 28% with image content. Conclusion There was no significant difference in qualitative image quality between full dose FBP and dose reduced ASIR. CNR improved in DR ASIR compared to FD FBP mostly due to increased contrast, not reduced noise. Therefore, we recommend using caution if reducing dose and applying ASIR to maintain image quality.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17T03:33:00-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2058460116645831
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 8 (2016)
  • Relationship of amniotic fluid index (AFI) in third trimester with fetal
           weight and gender in a southeast Nigerian population

    • Authors: Agwu, E. J; Ugwu, A. C, Shem, S. L, Abba, M.
      Pages: 2058460116 - 2058460116
      Abstract: Background Amniotic fluid (AF) is one of the major determinants of fetal biophysical profile and can predict pregnancy outcome. Abnormal value of amniotic fluid index (AFI) may indicate fetal and maternal disorders. Purpose To establish reference standards for AFI for this population after 28 weeks of pregnancy and evaluate the relationship between AFI, the estimated fetal weight (EFWT), and fetal gender. Material and Methods A prospective cross-sectional estimation of AFI and FWT was done in 385 apparently healthy pregnant women in the gestational age range of 28–42 weeks. General scanning in longitudinal, transverse, and oblique directions of the abdomen was done to assess the fetal wellbeing and determine the fetal gender for each participant. AF was measured in each of the quadrants of the abdomen. The four values of the AF were summed to get the AFI. Measurement of the head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femoral length of the fetus were obtained. The EFWT was calculated using Hadlock’s formula. The data were divided into five groups: 28–30 weeks 6 days; 31–33 weeks 6 days; 34–36 weeks 6 days; 37–39 weeks 6 days; and 40–42 weeks. AFI for the different gestational age group studied and their percentiles were obtained. Results AFI normogram for the local population was established. Positive and significant correlations of AF and EFWT were seen in all the gestational age groups of the women. No significant correlations between AF and EFWT was seen in male fetuses. Regression equations of EFWT and AFI were obtained for female fetuses. Conclusion The normal range for AFI values for the third trimester was established and could be used to evaluate AFI in the studied population. Established fetal weight should be taken into account when interpreting AFI for female fetuses but this need not be applied for male fetuses.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T01:31:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2058460116652651
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 8 (2016)
  • Dilated Virchow-Robin spaces in primary open-angle glaucoma: a biomarker
           of glymphatic waste clearance dysfunction'

    • Authors: Wostyn, P; De Groot, V, Van Dam, D, Audenaert, K, Killer, H. E, De Deyn, P. P.
      Pages: 2058460116 - 2058460116
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T22:34:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2058460116653630
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 8 (2016)
  • Clinical results of renal artery embolization to control postoperative
           hemorrhage after partial nephrectomy

    • Authors: Jeon, C. H; Seong, N. J, Yoon, C. J, Byun, S.-S, Lee, S. E.
      Pages: 2058460116 - 2058460116
      Abstract: Background With the wider application of nephron-sparing surgery, there has been an increase in the occurrence of postoperative hemorrhage. However, despite such an increase, there are only a limited number of reports regarding renal artery embolization (RAE) for the management of postoperative bleeding after nephron-sparing surgery, especially after robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN). Purpose To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of transcatheter RAE for postoperative hemorrhage after open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and RALPN. Material and Methods A total of 29 patients (17 men, 12 women; age range, 31–70 years) who were referred to our hospital for postoperative hemorrhage after partial nephrectomy, between December 2003 and December 2014, were selected. We retrospectively reviewed patients’ clinical data, angiographic findings, embolization details, and clinical outcomes. Results Embolization was performed in patients who underwent OPN (25/29) and RALPN (4/29). The angiographic findings were as follows: renal artery pseudoaneurysm (n = 18), contrast extravasation (n = 8), and arteriovenous fistula (n = 3). Fiber-coated microcoil and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) was administered to the targeted bleeding renal arteries in 12 and 11 patients, respectively. In six patients, fiber-coated microcoil and NBCA were used concurrently. Technical and clinical successes were achieved in all patients (100%). Bleeding cessation was achieved in all patients, and no further relevant surgeries or interventions were required for hemorrhage control. There were no episodes of hemorrhagic recurrence during the follow-up period (median, 20 days; range, 7–108 days). Conclusion Angiography and RAE identified the origin of bleeding and could successfully preserve the residual renal function.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T22:34:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2058460116655833
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 8 (2016)
  • Accordion phenomenon of the hepatic artery: mimicker of vasospasm or
           intimal injury

    • Authors: Shibuya, K; Koyama, Y, Tsushima, Y.
      Pages: 2058460116 - 2058460116
      Abstract: The accordion phenomenon occurs because of mechanical distortion of a straightened vessel during coronary and vascular interventions. To date, however, this phenomenon has not been reported in vessels of the upper abdomen. We therefore describe the accordion phenomenon of the hepatic artery during transarterial chemoembolization seen while treating a liver tumor. As the accordion phenomenon is now known to involve hepatic arteries, it should be differentiated from vascular complications such as vasospasm or intimal injury.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T22:34:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2058460116651900
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 8 (2016)
  • Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen: a case
           report with FDG-PET findings and literature review

    • Authors: Imamura, Y; Nakajima, R, Hatta, K, Seshimo, A, Sawada, T, Abe, K, Sakai, S.
      Pages: 2058460116 - 2058460116
      Abstract: We report the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen. The patient was a 37-year-old woman with a splenic mass incidentally found on abdominal ultrasound. FDG-PET/CT showed weak FDG accumulation (maximum standardized uptake value = 3.65). An unenhanced CT scan showed a low density and well-circumscribed splenic tumor that demonstrated weak enhancement from the arterial to delayed phase. Although hemangioma or hamartoma of the spleen was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed SANT. Therefore, when a splenic tumor with weak contrast medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is observed, SANT should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Although CT and magnetic resonance imaging features of SANT have been reported, there are few reports on FDG-PET/CT findings. We report the radiological features of SANT, including FDG-PET/CT, and review the literature on SANT.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T22:34:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/2058460116649799
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 8 (2016)
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