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Journal Cover Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons
  [SJR: 0.114]   [H-I: 10]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0158-1570
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [408 journals]
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Adult orthodontic treatment - a viewpoint
    • Abstract: Kerr, Brett
      Orthodontic treatment in the non-growing patient presents its own challenges, rewards, and advantages. All orthodontic treatment relies heavily on patient understanding and co-operation, and commonly lasts one to three years, requiring multiple appointments.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Genes and environmental interactions in oral and
           oropharyngeal cancer
    • Abstract: Johnson, Newell
      The dental profession has responsibility for the prevention and early diagnosis of cancer of the mouth and of the oropharynx, and is a major contributor to management of these devastating diseases. In Australia, cancer of the oral cavity itself is largely due to tobacco use and alcohol abuse, predisposed to by poor diets, and affects predominantly those in the lower socio-economic classes: the incidence is declining. On the other hand, cancer of the oropharynx is a completely different disease: the major risk factor is sustained infection by "high-risk" types of human papillomavirus; it tends to affect younger adults, and is associated with sexual activity. The approach to primary prevention is obvious in both situations. Secondary prevention by population screening is only viable in high risk populations. Cancer is a genetic disease. To a minor degree, the genes we inherit affect susceptibility. However it is the many types of genetic damage produced by our environment which is driving the growing epidemic of cancer worldwide. In all cancers, acquired defects in the structure and/or the expression of many genes drive uncontrolled cell proliferation, so that a malignant neoplasm spreads locally and throughout the body. The genes involved are those controlling cell division, cell death, cell nutrition, DNA repair, the supply of blood vessels to the neoplasm, and the immune response. Very many biochemical pathways are involved: it is rather like a map of the London Underground, but many times more complex. Defects in one or other of these pathways increase in number and complexity as the neoplasm "progresses". Some of these aberrations are common to many/most patients with a cancer of the mouth or oropharynx: others specific to a subset of patients, or unique to an individual. The mainstay in managing head and neck cancer remains surgery, with adjunctive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. These are highly toxic and disfiguring. We are thus moving towards biotherapies which seek to correct or block the key abnormal pathways of the individual patient. There is no such thing as a single magic bullet which will cure all patients, but drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and interfering ribonucleic acids targeted on the genetic damage for a particular patient are increasingly coming to clinical trial. Successes with some cancers of the breast and colon, for example, encourage the drive to better individualised treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Many will continue to suffer, and our role in prevention, early diagnosis and rehabilitation remains essential - and challenging.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Ddistraction osteogenesis - a panacea for infant
           micrognathia with upper airway obstruction'
    • Abstract: Adhikari, Ashim N; Bordbar, Patrishia; Heggie, Andrew AC; Shand, Jocelyn M; Kilpatrick, Nicky
      Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) has been described as an effective method of treating upper airway obstruction (UAO) in micrognathic infants with a low morbidity and few short-term complications. This technique has almost eliminated the need for tracheostomy in non-syndromic patients at The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne. However, there are few studies describing the longer-term effects on feeding, growth and the developing mandible. This study describes the experience at the RCH in managing infants with micrognathia over the past twelve years, with particular emphasis on airway, feeding and growth. By international standards, this study comprises one of the larger cohorts of children under five years who have had MDO (n=73). This retrospective review shows that the procedure is effective in alleviating the need for airway assistance and supplemental feeding without adversely affecting the growth of these children. This study makes a significant contribution to the evidence base underpinning MDO as the preferred surgical intervention for infants with micrognathia and UAO.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - How eHealth strategies may enhance dental research
    • Abstract: Lam, Raymond
      Although evidence based dentistry has been the accepted protocol in guiding clinical decisions, there are challenges with establishing an adequate research base. This is no more obvious in modern dentistry where the gap between established research and new products and procedures is widening. Whilst traditional research methods have served the profession well, it may be an opportune time to take advantages of computer technology to enhance research. With this in mind, this paper introduces novel strategies in eHealth with a focus on item codes in electronic data collation and dental informatics. By considering the recent Chronic Disease Dental Scheme and the Australian Schedule of Services and Glossary, this paper will illustrate how e-health strategies may provide a cost effective solution to enhancing research that is applicable to the individual clinician and the entire profession.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Dentofacial deformities and orthognathic surgery in
           Hong Hong and Glasgow
    • Abstract: Lee, Crystal TY; Cheung, Lim K; Khambay, Balvinder S; Ayoub, Ashraf F; Benington, Philip
      To compare the cross-ethnic difference in dentofacial deformity profile and the associated surgical management in Chinese and Caucasian patients who required orthognathic surgery in Hong Kong and Glasgow, respectively. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of consecutive hospital patients' records from the Prince Philip Dental Hospital in Hong Kong and the Glasgow Dental Hospital and School in Glasgow from 2003 - 2012. Data pertaining to patient demographics, diagnosis, surgical treatment received and complications were recorded. Results: 581 and 217 cases were retrieved in Hong Kong and Glasgow, respectively. Both centres shared a similar patient demographic profile. Class III skeletal pattern was the most prevalent for both centres. A significantly higher prevalence for bimaxillary dentoalveolar hyperplasia, total vertical maxillary excess and mandibular asymmetry was seen in Hong Kong, while a higher prevalence for bimaxillary retrusion and zygomatic hypoplasia was found in Glasgow. To address these, segmental Le Fort I osteotomies, vertical subsigmoid osteotomies, and lower anterior subapical osteotomies were preferred in Hong Kong, while non-segmentalized Le Fort I osteotomies and sagittal split osteotomies were more preferred in Glasgow. Further facial aesthetics surgeries were performed, with septo-rhinoplasty common in Hong Kong and zygomatic augmentation common in Glasgow. Both centres shared a similar complication profile.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - An investigation into performance of three types of
           implants in a novel ovine mandible canine model
    • Abstract: Barker, C; Vaquette, C; Ivanovski, S
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - The oral health of Cambodian preschool aged children
    • Abstract: Bach, K; Manton, DJ
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Planning early orthodontic treatment
    • Abstract: Fricker, John
      This presentation introduces concepts of planning orthodontoc treatment during the mixed dentition phase of growth and development. Planning commences with an understanding of the nomal presentation of the dentition and follows of the possibilities of deviation from the normal. In this lecture, I will discuss occlusal abnormalities requiring early intervention as a preventive or interceptive approach to orthodontic treatment.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Preparing malaysian dental graduates to provide care
           for patients with special health care needs - how do we compare with
           Australia' Education special needs dentistry in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Ahmad, Mas S; Razak, Ishak A; Borromeo, Gelsomina L
      Changing trends in population health suggests a rise in the number of people living with special health care needs (SHCN) indicating increasing needs and demands for oral health care amongst this patient cohort. This paper focused on the role of undergraduate education in preparing graduates to become competent in managing patients with SHCN, thus bridging the gap in access to oral health care. It will discuss the findings of a study on teaching and learning in Special Needs Dentistry (SND) in Malaysia, a developing country with increasing awareness in health and welfare for people living with SHCN. The level of undergraduate education in SND in Malaysian dental schools was compared with Australian counterparts. The study compared the educational experience between the two countries, leading to identification of areas that can be developed in the dental undergraduate curriculum in Malaysia. The study also obtained information pertaining to how Malaysian undergraduate dental students' perceive those with SHCN. Baseline information obtained can direct global development of dental education in an effort to reduce oral health inequalities and improve oral health status of those with SHCN.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Major surgery in the elderly. Dotting the is and
           crossing the ts
    • Abstract: Batstone, Martin D
      The theme of this conference is "From the genome to the nursing home: Everything under the sun". Whilst population predictions are difficult and the rate of fertility and overseas migration can only be estimated, one prediction holds true across all models of projection - ageing of the population. Improvements in nutrition, sanitation and health care have led to a marked increase in the median life expectancy of the Australian population to 74.4 years for boys and 80.3 years for girls (at birth).

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Third molars: Indications for intervention
    • Abstract: Hyam, Dylan M
      The management of third molars remains a skill and art. Evidence is still developing to help guide clinicians in their decision making. This article provides clinicians with a decision matrix which allows them to tailor a solution to the individual patient's needs. The matrix articulates the need to identify the indication for surgery, then modify the surgical plan to account for; surgical risk, the patients current medical status, their future medical needs, and their social and financial circumstances. An examination is made of the evidence for different indications for intervention, an assessment protocol for surgical planning, and a review of the common medical issues which might impact upon the surgical decision matrix.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Editorial
    • Abstract: Tyas, Martin
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Convocations of the college
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Office bearers
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Convocation committee
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Elected members of council
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Founders of the college
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Opening address
    • Abstract: Forde, Leneen
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Royal Australasian College of dental surgeons Volume
           22 - April 2014
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Honorary fellows
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Address by the president of the Royal Australasian
           College of Dental Surgeons
    • Abstract: Chau, Francis
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Presidential commendation
    • Abstract: Kilpatrick, Nicky
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Abstracts of presented papers
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Admission as a fellow without examination
    • Abstract: Boucher, John S
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Contributors' index
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Fellowship by election
    • Abstract: Samaranayake, Lakshman
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Meritorious service award
    • Abstract: Cameron, Angus
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Root caries - the emerging challenge in dental
           caries management
    • Abstract: Walsh, Laurence J
      The prevalence and severity of root surface caries is increasing as the risk factors for root exposure and cariogenic attack become stronger at the population level. Prevention for root caries can be thought of as a multifaceted approach involving (1) methods to protect roots from exposure, (2) protection of roots once they become exposed to the oral environment by using various coating materials, (3) and the application of fluorides, CPP-ACP and other materials to roots to make them more resistant to dental caries. With an increase in the number of vulnerable elderly in the population, specific efforts should be made to pro-actively screen older adults for root surface lesions, so that the least invasive methods of care are needed and teeth are not lost because of pulpal involvement. When restorations are indicated, glass ionomer cements are preferred over other materials. Root surface caries presents a significant challenge for the dental profession in the 21st century. The lesions can be difficult to identify in clinical and radiographic examinations, both of which when used alone underscore the true number of root surface caries lesions by approximately 50%.1 Taking this into account, the severity of root surface caries lesions may well be much higher than has been reported in large surveys which did not use dental radiographs.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - New members and fellows
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Application of swept-source optical coherent
           tomography to caries diagnosis
    • Abstract: Tagami, Junji
      Swept-source optical coherence tomography(SS-OCT) is a new imaging technology using optical light with the wavelengths around 1300nm. The SS-OCT provides us the 3 dimensional image with much higher resolution than dental X-ray. The extent of caries lesion is very clearly observed in the obtained image. The purposes of this article is to introduce the recent research on the SS-OCT imaging of tooth and to discuss the possibility of clinical application of the SS-OCT for diagnosing occlusal caries, inter-proximal caries, recurrent caries, root caries, cracks, and monitoring the early caries lesion.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Genetic anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton
    • Abstract: Heggie, Andrew AC
      With the evolution of sophisticated genetic testing, many disorders that were previously deemed to be "idiopathic" or of "unknown aetiology" have been shown to have a genetic mutation or inheritance pattern that accounts for the phenotypical features. There is a growing transition from grouping disorders by their clinical features to that of a classification based on genetics. Cleft lip and palate remains the most common disorder managed in the paediatric setting followed by craniofacial microsomia, yet the cause of these anomalies remains unclear and is likely to be polygenic. The syndromic craniosynostoses, where premature fusion of calvarial and cranial base sutures results in retardation of mid-facial growth, are a particular challenge to the clinician. Micrognathia, with associated upper airway obstruction, such as can occur in Pierre Robin sequence, can be managed with newer techniques of mandibular lengthening that has largely eliminated the need for tracheostomy. There is also a vast array of craniofacial syndromes such as Gorlin syndrome and Beckwith Wiedemann Syndromes that have genetic markers in a proportion of affected individuals that may inform the diagnosis, help to more accurately predict the biological behaviour of the condition and may influence treatment decisions. The management of typical patients with specific conditions are presented to demonstrate the need for a protocol for treatment through growth until skeletal maturity.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Hypodontia - the challenges of restoration in the
           young patients
    • Abstract: Harley, Kathryn
      Severe Hypodontia is present when six or more permanent teeth (excluding third permanent molars) are absent. This presents a significant challenge for the Paediatric Dentist who will be required to restore function and aesthetics whilst the child is growing and the dentition developing. A range of treatment options may be considered including removable and fixed prostheses as well as direct restorations. Much of what can be achieved will depend on whether or not the child is able to comply with treatment. Microdont teeth, a lack of clinical crown height and restricted alveolar growth all contribute to the complexity of management in young patients. It is important to ensure that children can access appropriate care as much can be done to improve their dentitions.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Minimally invasive aesthetic restoration with
           innovative adhesive materials
    • Abstract: Tagami, Junji
      Among the adhesive resin materials, the 2-step self etching adhesive is now recognized as the gold standard of adhesive. By the self etching adhesive, the so called "Super Dentin" is created at the dentin adjacent to bonding resin, which is more resistant to the acid and basic attack than normal dentin. Even with excellent adhesive materials, the shrinkage stress of the composite resin is still a concern in clinical situation. The purposes of this article is to provide the latest information on the adhesive resin materials and the clinical procedure to obtain perfect adaptation of filling material to cavity floor and walls. The minimally invasive approach in caries treatment which is effective to reduce the post operative sensitivity is also introduced.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Implant success, complications and failure -
           individual patient risk
    • Abstract: Bischof, Werner
      Dental implant supported prostheses provide a valuable solution for tooth replacement in dental reconstruction and rehabilitation. The high level of success and predictability of initial osseointegration and long term function of dental implants have been well documented. It is recognised that the factors contributing to this success are multi-factorial in nature, with documented local and systemic risk indicators that may contribute to complications. Of importance to the clinician and the patient is how relevant is the risk of complications or failure. This paper aims to explore the literature regarding the implant survival, success and complications and what may be the limitations in the discussion of outcomes and risks with the individual patient.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Determining risk factors for periodontal diseases: A
           risky business'
    • Abstract: Brown, Louise F
      Analytical epidemiology can be a powerful tool to determine risk factors for diseases, and potentially uncover causality of chronic diseases. However, it is governed by strict research methodology to ensure rigour of the results of studies. In the attempts to identify and quantify risk factors for periodontitis, many of the studies fall short of the scientific rigour, particularly with regard to the measurement and classification of individuals with and without disease, or progression of periodontal disease. The lack of consensus over how to measure and classify periodontitis cases has led to reporting of a pletora of "significant" associations, either identifying periodontitis as a risk factor for systemic diseases, or in identifying risk factors for the development of periodontitis. Many of these results are later not validated by replicate studies, or by studies using a different method of classifying a person with periodontitis. This paper looks as some of these methodological issues and the influence of classification on analytical epidemiological results.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Young lecturers award
    • Abstract: Russo, Patrick
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - In memoriam: Associate Professor Braham Pearlman RFD
    • PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - The sixteenth Robert Harris oration
    • Abstract: Sewell, Jill
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Replacement of lost anterior teeth in young
           individuals: Autotransplantation of premolars: The joint role of the
           paediatric dentist, oral surgeon and orthodontist
    • Abstract: Andreasen, Frances M
      Autotransplantation of premolars for lost anterior incisor teeth in young patients is a safe and predictable procedure. Teeth which have been avulsed and replanted and with signs of ankylosis (replacement resorption) or late diagnosis of inflammatory/infection-related root resorption with large defects on the root surface, intrusions, or with crown-root fracture, as well as teeth with dubious endodontic success may be suitable for autotransplantation with premolar teeth. Autotransplantation of premolars with incomplete root formation is an excellent tool for meeting this need, with a 10-year survival rate of 90% in the hands of experienced clinicians. The joint roles required of the paediatric/restorative dentist, oral surgeon and orthodontist is discussed.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Construction of fluoride-containing PLLA nanofibre
           scaffold for bone regeneration
    • Abstract: Ye, Qingsong; Xu, Jia; He, Yan; Sandham, Andrew
      In this study, a novel material, fluoride-containing Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibre scaffold was successfully constructed through electrospinning process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that the morphology of the fibres was uniform and smooth, and the average diameter of the fibres was about 300 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved that a lot of calcium fluoride (CaF2) nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 50 nm were well dispersed in the PLLA fibre matrix. Fluoride is one of the few inorganic ions which are able to stimulate osteoblasts (OB). This novel material seems to be a promising scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Electronic health records and eHealth - the
           Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR)
    • Abstract: Shane, Frederic
      eHealth provides an important opportunity to improve the quality and safety of healthcare. Every year Australians have an average of 22 interactions with the health system. Most of the information from these visits is currently held in paper based records in separate locations. The PCEHR is designed to assist in information sharing with multiple sources of health information being summarised and accessed through a central point. There are many misconceptions regarding eHealth both from a health practitioner and patient perspective. It is important to realise what the eHealth system is and is not. Dental Practitioners should also be aware of secure messaging, e prescriptions and e pathology. Dental Practitioners to be ready for eHealth should consider among other things having broadband internet access, have computer terminals in the clinical rooms, have appropriate dental software and utilise electronic dental records.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - The restorative management of developmental enamel
    • Abstract: Harley, Kathryn
      Previously children with enamel defects tended to fall into two groups, those who had received extensive treatment or those who had received none at all. With an increase in the types of restorative interventions available, advances in dental materials and a greater understanding of the nature of enamel defects, treatment of young patients to improve aesthetics and function is not only extremely successful but also conservative. Ideally any technique used should be minimally invasive, not destructive of healthy enamel and should not leave the tooth structurally weaker as a consequence. Children with either hypomineralised or hypoplastic enamel often complain of sensitivity or the poor appearance of their teeth. Early diagnosis and prompt management of this age group to reduce symptoms and improve the aesthetics will greatly improve their quality of life.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
  • Volume 22 Issue No. - Oral health in the first half of life: An update on
           the dunedin study
    • Abstract: Broadbent, Jonathan M; Thomson, WMurray; Poulton, Richie
      The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study is a lifecourse study of health and development in a cohort of children born in Dunedin between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973. The Study members were assessed at birth and ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, 26, 32, and most recently at age 38, when 95.4% of the surviving Study members participated. The Dunedin Study dataset contains a broad range of health data, including oral health information. The oral health-related research publications of the Dunedin study over the past 40 years have included discussion of the social determinants of health, dental neglect, use of dental services, aetiology of developmental defects of dental enamel, epidemiology of dry mouth, and risk factors for periodontal disease, dental caries, and poor oral health-related quality of life.

      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jan 2015 23:22:34 GMT
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