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Journal Cover Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0158-1570
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [400 journals]
  • Volume 23 In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral mucosa
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Dental and crevical vertebrae maturation of isolated unilateral
           clift lip and palate in Australian children: A controlled, longitudinal
           study
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Contributor's index and sponsors
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Pyscho-social effects of malocclusion: Do we measure it and are
           we interested'
    • Abstract: O'Brien, Kevin
      One of the most common reasons for a person to have orthodontic treatment is to improve their appearance and perhaps increase the way that they feel about themselves. As a result, if we are to study the effects of orthodontic treatment it could be suggested that we should measure the effect of the change of dental appearance. However, when we evaluate the orthodontic research literature, it has been suggested that reported outcomes may be mostly relevant to clinicians and not patients.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 The relationship between facial convexity in young children and
           perceived intelligence
    • Abstract: Vasudavan, Sivabalan; Sonis, Andrew L
      Objective: The principle objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between a pre-adolescent child's perceived intelligence and their sagittal facial relationship as determined by second and third grade elementary school educators. Materials and Methods: A digitized lateral cephalogram and photograph of an eight-year old child with Class I occlusion and normal overbite and overjet were entered into the Dolphin software program. The lateral cephalogram and photograph were linked to allow computerized manipulation to generate five profiles with a Steiner ANB value ranging from two to ten degrees by retruding the mandible in four profiles at two degree intervals and one profile by proclining the maxillary incisors to create an overjet relationship of 10 mm. Each profile simulation was then converted to a simple silhouette and printed out to create a series of "flashcards". Results: Fifty Elementary School teachers force ranked the profile silhouette flashcards for perceived intelligence. Profile images corresponding to Steiner ANB angles of two and four degrees consistently filled the position of highest in intelligence perception. Conversely, the position of lowest intelligence was exclusively filled by profile images with ANB angles of eight and ten degrees. Images with ANB angles equal to two and four degrees had a 48% and 52% chance respectively to be ranked as having the highest intelligence, while figures with ANB angles of eight and ten degrees had 16% and 84% chance respectively to be ranked as having the lowest intelligence. Conclusion: According to our data, elementary school teachers almost uniformly associate a retrognathic profile of a pre-adolescent child with decreased intelligence. The findings of our study re-affirm the need for considering psychological indications for initiating interceptive orthodontics treatment in class II child patients.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Paradigm shifts in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 In the land of no evidence is the salesman king'
    • Abstract: O'Brien, Kevin
      This abstract is closely based on a previous publication that was published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthodontics 2010: 138: 3, and on Kevin O'Brien's Orthodontic Blog. This is reproduced by permission of the editor of the American Journal of Orthodontics.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Managing caries risk: The role of probiotic bacteria in oral and
           general health
    • Abstract: Twetman, Svante
      Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The background thinking is that a harmless effector strain is implanted in the host's microflora to maintain or restore the natural microbiome by interference and/or inhibition of other microorganisms. Typically, probiotic bacteria are natural species belonging to the Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium genera but host effects are strain specific. In addition to locally-induced oral events, systemic effects through immunomodulation have been demonstrated although a permanent colonization of probiotic bacteria seems unlikely. Recent clinical trials have gathered evidence of probiotic effectiveness in caries prevention, gingival and periodontal health. Studies in early childhood have suggested a metabolic domino effect with long-term improvements of oral and general health according to the common risk factor approach. The use probiotics may be a valuable adjunct to the established methods in preventing and combating caries and other oral diseases.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Caries experience in Victorian children with orofacial clefts
    • Abstract: Raj, Jyotsna
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Restorations under stress - can they survive'
    • Abstract: Wylie, Simon
      Restoration of teeth is undergoing a revolution in preparation concepts, materials, and production. CAD technologies are opening opportunities for indirect restorations that were the domain of large direct amalgams or composite resins. But are we meeting the specifications required for long term results' Are the lesson learned in the previous decades in the area of 'resistance and retention form' relevant to the adhesive age' This paper aims to review he specifications required to successfully restore the posterior tooth and to evaluate our progress with the advancement of novel ceramic options.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Brushing up on antarctic dentistry
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Oral biofilms: Implications in the medically compromised
    • Abstract: Newnham, Melinda
      Medically compromised patients in Australia are generally affected by chronic disease. Chronic disease accounts for the majority of hospitalisations in Australia and results in a heavy burden of debilitation, disability and mortality. Chronic disease is currently Australia's biggest health challenge. The dental management of oral biofilm-related disease in medically compromised patients is often complex, requiring consultation with the patient's physician. Eliminating dental foci of infection is of vital importance to prevent infective sequelae during invasive medical treatment. The objective of this paper is to review the health status of Australians, specifically those who are hospitalized and to consider the significance of oral biofilm-related disease within this susceptible population.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Management of biofilm disease around implants: A contrast to
           disease management around teeth
    • Abstract: Ngo, Luan
      Dental implants are becoming an increasingly common part of dental treatment offered to our patients for the replacement of teeth in partial and fully edentulous situations. In many cases, dental implant retained single crowns, bridges or dentures are the gold standard for tooth replacement. Infections can occur around implants as they do around teeth. The different physical characteristics of implants, as well as the differing peri-implant tissues, create a challenge to the practitioner for effective management.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Living and dying with dignity - pallative care in 2016
    • Abstract: Lee, Philip G
      Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification, assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial and spiritual. Palliative care is not just about end of life care. What it does is provide relief of these symptoms while a patient continues to receive disease-controlling treatment. In this sense palliative care is about living better with life limiting illnesses, not just focussing on the terminal phase.

      There are problems with how Australians are dying, but access to good-quality palliative care can change that. As a society we need to invest more in giving people more time to live as well as they can for as long as they can. However we all require honesty in communication to have sufficient time to prepare for death.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Cancer and pallative care: Oral and dental manifestations,
           considerations and complications
    • Abstract: Schifter, Mark
      Cancer and its treatment has been revolutionised by our improved understanding of genetics and is now increasingly managed as a chronic disease. When cure is not possible, durable remission is achievable. Notwithstanding, many cancers are, or become, incurable and their treatments are still acutely and chronically painful, distressing and unpleasant. A management approach that emphases comfort, relief of pain and suffering, as well as symptom control, is the remit of palliative care. The oral and dental manifestations and complications seen in patients receiving palliative care has to date, been under-recognised, is poorly researched and so the care provided often fails to address or improve such patients comfort and/or quality of life. This paper (presented at the 23rd Convocation of the RACDS) aims to provide a classification of the oral and dental problems seen in patients receiving palliative care, provide a practical treatment approach and give examples of the management of such problems.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Contemporary surgical management of oral cancer
    • Abstract: Wong, Timothy
      Every patient with oral cancer presents the Oral and Maxillofacial surgeon with a unique set of challenging, complex and multidisciplinary clinical problems, the solutions to which impact both their quantity and quality of life. In the vast majority of cases, surgery remains the mainstay of their overall treatment. Dental professionals play a critical role in the early detection of oral cancers. A majority of referrals for new and recurrent oral cancers are from dental professionals.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Why do some people feel bad about their appearance':
           Understanding risk and protective factors for poor body image
    • Abstract: Paxton, Susan J
      Body dissatisfaction and appearance concerns predict the development of serious psychological problems including depressive symptoms, health risk behaviours such as smoking and clinical eating disorders. In addition to cosmetic dental procedures, body dissatisfaction is of particular relevance to dental care as a predictor of disordered eating behaviours which frequently have a negative impact on dental health. This paper reviews the negative impact of body dissatisfaction and risk and protective factors for body image problems. Research into biological, psychological and social risk factors will be discussed including the recent findings of a relationship between social media use and body image concerns. Our understanding of risk factors for body dissatisfaction has guided the development of prevention and therapy interventions. As dentists may observe the dental results of an eating disorder, their role in secondary prevention is discussed.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Preventing early childhood caries: Motivating families
    • Abstract: Twetman, Svante
      In spite of intensive research, early childhood caries (ECC) remains a public health problem. Unfortunately, recent systematic reviews have failed to establish evidence for the best way to prevent and manage the disease. Apart from the biological risk factors, behavioral and family factors, socio-economy and oral health literacy are significant determinants of ECC. Several attempts to bridge the caries inequalities have been implemented for vulnerable risk groups and ethnic minorities. Although there is no "one-size-fits-all", the chronic disease management concept, focusing on self-care through identifying facilitators and barriers for a healthy behavior, is most promising. Another key factor is to integrate oral health into the overall health care through establishing a professional skill-mix around the child. Motivational interviewing is associated with significant improvements in tooth brushing, diet and physical activity but the effects on ECC are yet inconclusive. Video games and digital platforms may be used to enhance compliance.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Managing the root canal biofilm: Strategy and possibility
    • Abstract: Cheung, Gary
      The infected canal is the root cause of apical periodontitis. Bacteria that colonize the root canal system are not free floating, but exist as a biofilm attaching on the canal wall. Management of the infected root canal has customarily been achieved via chemomechanical preparation, with numerous studies in the 21st century focusing on mechanical debridement or instrumentation techniques. In the new millennium, there is a shift in research emphasis to removal of the endodontic biofilm by various physical and chemical means. This presentation examines various clinical strategies, and explores newer and potentially more effective approach to combat the root canal biofilm.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Healthy tooth, healthy mouth, healthy body: Endodontics in the
           systemic universe
    • Abstract: Moloney, Luke G; Soma, Artika
      For the most of the last century 'dead' teeth were considered by many to be potential sources of infection that could contribute to or cause disease elsewhere in the body. Even healthy endodontically treated teeth were considered by many doctors and dentists to harbour bacteria that could leach toxins into the surrounding tissues or again cause disease in other organs. Many believed that extraction was the only option for non-vital teeth. Despite the great volume of research that has shown no association between non-vital teeth and systemic disease, many health practitioners still advocate removal of teeth to remedy any number of non-dental ailments. This presentation revisits the focal infection theory and asks the question 'Are your root filled teeth causing you harm''

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Oral and general health interface
    • Abstract: Brunton, Paul
      Over recent years dental education has made a paradigm shift from training "tooth fixers" to educating oral physicians who can also fix teeth as and when required. Consequently, the importance of oral health to general health and vice versa has gained increasing importance and is now more than ever relevant to how we both effectively and safely manage our patients. The management of non-carious tooth tissue loss specifically intrinsic dental erosion, sleep bruxism and myalgia make excellent examples of how an increased understanding of the impact of general health on oral health and vice versa can only serve to improve patient outcomes.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Diagnosis and 'non dental' treatments of sleep related breathing
           disorders
    • Abstract: Naughton, Matthew T
      The diagnosis and management of sleep related breathing disorders requires an understanding of basic upper airway anatomy and sleep physiology. Snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea are the commonest SRBD in adults, estimated to occur in up to 25% of women and 50% of men. They are associated with a doubling of the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and post-operative complications. A detailed history and examination should be undertaken prior to management decisions which include conservative, dental, surgical and positive airway pressure devices. Identification and management of SRBD can be both professionally rewarding and challenging. Outcomes of treatment vary depending upon patient selection, severity of disease and the underlying lifestyle choices and associated medical disorders. A multidisciplinary team approach, involving dental, surgical and medical colleagues is the norm rather than the exception, and accordingly should be discussed with all patients seeking an opinion for underlying SRBD.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Opening address govenor of Tasmania
    • Abstract: Warner, Kate
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 New fellows and members
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Admission as an honorary fellow
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Fellow by election without examination
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Meritorious service award
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Young lecturer award
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Seventeenth Robert Harris oration vice chancellor of the
           university of Tasmania
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Oral biofilms in health and disease
    • Abstract: Twetman, Svante
      Analytical epidemiology can be a powerful tool to determine risk factors for diseases, and potentially uncover causality of chronic diseases. However, it is governed by strict research methodology to ensure rigour of the results of studies. In the attempts to identify and quantify risk factors for periodontitis, many of the studies fall short of the scientific rigour, particularly with regard to the measurement and classification of individuals with and without disease, or progression of periodontal disease. The lack of consensus over how to measure and classify periodontitis cases has led to reporting of a plethora of "significant" associations, either identifying periodontitis as a risk factor for systemic diseases, or in identifying risk factors for the development of periodontitis. Many of these results are later not validated by replicate studies, or by studies using a different method of classifying a person with periodontitis. This paper looks as some of these methodological issues and the influence of classification on analytical epidemiological results.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Can we practice evidence based orthodontics'
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Dementia: Issues in contemporary research and management
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Autumn leaves: A journey with dementia
    • Abstract: Ting, Graeme
      This paper presents the current trends in population demographics for older people and how these impact on oral health care provision. In particular it focuses on the relationship between ageing, medical problems in the older population and their potential impact on oral health and oral health care. The main item discussed is dementia and its impact on oral health from the patient, caregiver (including oral health professional care provider) perspective.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Presidential address
    • Abstract: Sykes, David
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Council 2014-2016
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Founders and honorary fellows of the college
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Elected members of council
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Office bearers
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Scientific arrangements committee; convocation arrangements
           committee
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Convocations of the college
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Editorial
    • Abstract: Abuzar, Menaka
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Editorial
    • Abstract: Tyas, Martin
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Convocations of the college
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Convocation committee
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Office bearers
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Elected members of council
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Honorary fellows
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Founders of the college
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Royal Australasian College of dental surgeons Volume 22 - April
           2014
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Address by the president of the Royal Australasian College of
           Dental Surgeons
    • Abstract: Chau, Francis
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Contributors' index
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Abstracts of presented papers
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Presidential commendation
    • Abstract: Kilpatrick, Nicky
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Meritorious service award
    • Abstract: Cameron, Angus
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Fellowship by election
    • Abstract: Samaranayake, Lakshman
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Admission as a fellow without examination
    • Abstract: Boucher, John S
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 New members and fellows
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Opening address
    • Abstract: Forde, Leneen
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Root caries - the emerging challenge in dental caries management
    • Abstract: Walsh, Laurence J
      The prevalence and severity of root surface caries is increasing as the risk factors for root exposure and cariogenic attack become stronger at the population level. Prevention for root caries can be thought of as a multifaceted approach involving (1) methods to protect roots from exposure, (2) protection of roots once they become exposed to the oral environment by using various coating materials, (3) and the application of fluorides, CPP-ACP and other materials to roots to make them more resistant to dental caries. With an increase in the number of vulnerable elderly in the population, specific efforts should be made to pro-actively screen older adults for root surface lesions, so that the least invasive methods of care are needed and teeth are not lost because of pulpal involvement. When restorations are indicated, glass ionomer cements are preferred over other materials. Root surface caries presents a significant challenge for the dental profession in the 21st century. The lesions can be difficult to identify in clinical and radiographic examinations, both of which when used alone underscore the true number of root surface caries lesions by approximately 50%.1 Taking this into account, the severity of root surface caries lesions may well be much higher than has been reported in large surveys which did not use dental radiographs.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Application of swept-source optical coherent tomography to
           caries diagnosis
    • Abstract: Tagami, Junji
      Swept-source optical coherence tomography(SS-OCT) is a new imaging technology using optical light with the wavelengths around 1300nm. The SS-OCT provides us the 3 dimensional image with much higher resolution than dental X-ray. The extent of caries lesion is very clearly observed in the obtained image. The purposes of this article is to introduce the recent research on the SS-OCT imaging of tooth and to discuss the possibility of clinical application of the SS-OCT for diagnosing occlusal caries, inter-proximal caries, recurrent caries, root caries, cracks, and monitoring the early caries lesion.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Genetic anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton
    • Abstract: Heggie, Andrew AC
      With the evolution of sophisticated genetic testing, many disorders that were previously deemed to be "idiopathic" or of "unknown aetiology" have been shown to have a genetic mutation or inheritance pattern that accounts for the phenotypical features. There is a growing transition from grouping disorders by their clinical features to that of a classification based on genetics. Cleft lip and palate remains the most common disorder managed in the paediatric setting followed by craniofacial microsomia, yet the cause of these anomalies remains unclear and is likely to be polygenic. The syndromic craniosynostoses, where premature fusion of calvarial and cranial base sutures results in retardation of mid-facial growth, are a particular challenge to the clinician. Micrognathia, with associated upper airway obstruction, such as can occur in Pierre Robin sequence, can be managed with newer techniques of mandibular lengthening that has largely eliminated the need for tracheostomy. There is also a vast array of craniofacial syndromes such as Gorlin syndrome and Beckwith Wiedemann Syndromes that have genetic markers in a proportion of affected individuals that may inform the diagnosis, help to more accurately predict the biological behaviour of the condition and may influence treatment decisions. The management of typical patients with specific conditions are presented to demonstrate the need for a protocol for treatment through growth until skeletal maturity.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Hypodontia - the challenges of restoration in the young patients
    • Abstract: Harley, Kathryn
      Severe Hypodontia is present when six or more permanent teeth (excluding third permanent molars) are absent. This presents a significant challenge for the Paediatric Dentist who will be required to restore function and aesthetics whilst the child is growing and the dentition developing. A range of treatment options may be considered including removable and fixed prostheses as well as direct restorations. Much of what can be achieved will depend on whether or not the child is able to comply with treatment. Microdont teeth, a lack of clinical crown height and restricted alveolar growth all contribute to the complexity of management in young patients. It is important to ensure that children can access appropriate care as much can be done to improve their dentitions.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Minimally invasive aesthetic restoration with innovative
           adhesive materials
    • Abstract: Tagami, Junji
      Among the adhesive resin materials, the 2-step self etching adhesive is now recognized as the gold standard of adhesive. By the self etching adhesive, the so called "Super Dentin" is created at the dentin adjacent to bonding resin, which is more resistant to the acid and basic attack than normal dentin. Even with excellent adhesive materials, the shrinkage stress of the composite resin is still a concern in clinical situation. The purposes of this article is to provide the latest information on the adhesive resin materials and the clinical procedure to obtain perfect adaptation of filling material to cavity floor and walls. The minimally invasive approach in caries treatment which is effective to reduce the post operative sensitivity is also introduced.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Implant success, complications and failure - individual patient
           risk
    • Abstract: Bischof, Werner
      Dental implant supported prostheses provide a valuable solution for tooth replacement in dental reconstruction and rehabilitation. The high level of success and predictability of initial osseointegration and long term function of dental implants have been well documented. It is recognised that the factors contributing to this success are multi-factorial in nature, with documented local and systemic risk indicators that may contribute to complications. Of importance to the clinician and the patient is how relevant is the risk of complications or failure. This paper aims to explore the literature regarding the implant survival, success and complications and what may be the limitations in the discussion of outcomes and risks with the individual patient.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Determining risk factors for periodontal diseases: A risky
           business'
    • Abstract: Brown, Louise F
      Analytical epidemiology can be a powerful tool to determine risk factors for diseases, and potentially uncover causality of chronic diseases. However, it is governed by strict research methodology to ensure rigour of the results of studies. In the attempts to identify and quantify risk factors for periodontitis, many of the studies fall short of the scientific rigour, particularly with regard to the measurement and classification of individuals with and without disease, or progression of periodontal disease. The lack of consensus over how to measure and classify periodontitis cases has led to reporting of a pletora of "significant" associations, either identifying periodontitis as a risk factor for systemic diseases, or in identifying risk factors for the development of periodontitis. Many of these results are later not validated by replicate studies, or by studies using a different method of classifying a person with periodontitis. This paper looks as some of these methodological issues and the influence of classification on analytical epidemiological results.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Young lecturers award
    • Abstract: Russo, Patrick
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 In memoriam: Associate Professor Braham Pearlman RFD
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 The sixteenth Robert Harris oration
    • Abstract: Sewell, Jill
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Replacement of lost anterior teeth in young individuals:
           Autotransplantation of premolars: The joint role of the paediatric
           dentist, oral surgeon and orthodontist
    • Abstract: Andreasen, Frances M
      Autotransplantation of premolars for lost anterior incisor teeth in young patients is a safe and predictable procedure. Teeth which have been avulsed and replanted and with signs of ankylosis (replacement resorption) or late diagnosis of inflammatory/infection-related root resorption with large defects on the root surface, intrusions, or with crown-root fracture, as well as teeth with dubious endodontic success may be suitable for autotransplantation with premolar teeth. Autotransplantation of premolars with incomplete root formation is an excellent tool for meeting this need, with a 10-year survival rate of 90% in the hands of experienced clinicians. The joint roles required of the paediatric/restorative dentist, oral surgeon and orthodontist is discussed.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Construction of fluoride-containing PLLA nanofibre scaffold for
           bone regeneration
    • Abstract: Ye, Qingsong; Xu, Jia; He, Yan; Sandham, Andrew
      In this study, a novel material, fluoride-containing Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibre scaffold was successfully constructed through electrospinning process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that the morphology of the fibres was uniform and smooth, and the average diameter of the fibres was about 300 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved that a lot of calcium fluoride (CaF2) nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 50 nm were well dispersed in the PLLA fibre matrix. Fluoride is one of the few inorganic ions which are able to stimulate osteoblasts (OB). This novel material seems to be a promising scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Electronic health records and eHealth - the Personally
           Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR)
    • Abstract: Shane, Frederic
      eHealth provides an important opportunity to improve the quality and safety of healthcare. Every year Australians have an average of 22 interactions with the health system. Most of the information from these visits is currently held in paper based records in separate locations. The PCEHR is designed to assist in information sharing with multiple sources of health information being summarised and accessed through a central point. There are many misconceptions regarding eHealth both from a health practitioner and patient perspective. It is important to realise what the eHealth system is and is not. Dental Practitioners should also be aware of secure messaging, e prescriptions and e pathology. Dental Practitioners to be ready for eHealth should consider among other things having broadband internet access, have computer terminals in the clinical rooms, have appropriate dental software and utilise electronic dental records.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 The restorative management of developmental enamel defects
    • Abstract: Harley, Kathryn
      Previously children with enamel defects tended to fall into two groups, those who had received extensive treatment or those who had received none at all. With an increase in the types of restorative interventions available, advances in dental materials and a greater understanding of the nature of enamel defects, treatment of young patients to improve aesthetics and function is not only extremely successful but also conservative. Ideally any technique used should be minimally invasive, not destructive of healthy enamel and should not leave the tooth structurally weaker as a consequence. Children with either hypomineralised or hypoplastic enamel often complain of sensitivity or the poor appearance of their teeth. Early diagnosis and prompt management of this age group to reduce symptoms and improve the aesthetics will greatly improve their quality of life.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Oral health in the first half of life: An update on the dunedin
           study
    • Abstract: Broadbent, Jonathan M; Thomson, WMurray; Poulton, Richie
      The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study is a lifecourse study of health and development in a cohort of children born in Dunedin between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973. The Study members were assessed at birth and ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, 26, 32, and most recently at age 38, when 95.4% of the surviving Study members participated. The Dunedin Study dataset contains a broad range of health data, including oral health information. The oral health-related research publications of the Dunedin study over the past 40 years have included discussion of the social determinants of health, dental neglect, use of dental services, aetiology of developmental defects of dental enamel, epidemiology of dry mouth, and risk factors for periodontal disease, dental caries, and poor oral health-related quality of life.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Adult orthodontic treatment - a viewpoint
    • Abstract: Kerr, Brett
      Orthodontic treatment in the non-growing patient presents its own challenges, rewards, and advantages. All orthodontic treatment relies heavily on patient understanding and co-operation, and commonly lasts one to three years, requiring multiple appointments.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Genes and environmental interactions in oral and oropharyngeal
           cancer
    • Abstract: Johnson, Newell
      The dental profession has responsibility for the prevention and early diagnosis of cancer of the mouth and of the oropharynx, and is a major contributor to management of these devastating diseases. In Australia, cancer of the oral cavity itself is largely due to tobacco use and alcohol abuse, predisposed to by poor diets, and affects predominantly those in the lower socio-economic classes: the incidence is declining. On the other hand, cancer of the oropharynx is a completely different disease: the major risk factor is sustained infection by "high-risk" types of human papillomavirus; it tends to affect younger adults, and is associated with sexual activity. The approach to primary prevention is obvious in both situations. Secondary prevention by population screening is only viable in high risk populations. Cancer is a genetic disease. To a minor degree, the genes we inherit affect susceptibility. However it is the many types of genetic damage produced by our environment which is driving the growing epidemic of cancer worldwide. In all cancers, acquired defects in the structure and/or the expression of many genes drive uncontrolled cell proliferation, so that a malignant neoplasm spreads locally and throughout the body. The genes involved are those controlling cell division, cell death, cell nutrition, DNA repair, the supply of blood vessels to the neoplasm, and the immune response. Very many biochemical pathways are involved: it is rather like a map of the London Underground, but many times more complex. Defects in one or other of these pathways increase in number and complexity as the neoplasm "progresses". Some of these aberrations are common to many/most patients with a cancer of the mouth or oropharynx: others specific to a subset of patients, or unique to an individual. The mainstay in managing head and neck cancer remains surgery, with adjunctive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. These are highly toxic and disfiguring. We are thus moving towards biotherapies which seek to correct or block the key abnormal pathways of the individual patient. There is no such thing as a single magic bullet which will cure all patients, but drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and interfering ribonucleic acids targeted on the genetic damage for a particular patient are increasingly coming to clinical trial. Successes with some cancers of the breast and colon, for example, encourage the drive to better individualised treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Many will continue to suffer, and our role in prevention, early diagnosis and rehabilitation remains essential - and challenging.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Planning early orthodontic treatment
    • Abstract: Fricker, John
      This presentation introduces concepts of planning orthodontoc treatment during the mixed dentition phase of growth and development. Planning commences with an understanding of the nomal presentation of the dentition and follows of the possibilities of deviation from the normal. In this lecture, I will discuss occlusal abnormalities requiring early intervention as a preventive or interceptive approach to orthodontic treatment.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Preparing malaysian dental graduates to provide care for
           patients with special health care needs - how do we compare with
           Australia' Education special needs dentistry in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Ahmad, Mas S; Razak, Ishak A; Borromeo, Gelsomina L
      Changing trends in population health suggests a rise in the number of people living with special health care needs (SHCN) indicating increasing needs and demands for oral health care amongst this patient cohort. This paper focused on the role of undergraduate education in preparing graduates to become competent in managing patients with SHCN, thus bridging the gap in access to oral health care. It will discuss the findings of a study on teaching and learning in Special Needs Dentistry (SND) in Malaysia, a developing country with increasing awareness in health and welfare for people living with SHCN. The level of undergraduate education in SND in Malaysian dental schools was compared with Australian counterparts. The study compared the educational experience between the two countries, leading to identification of areas that can be developed in the dental undergraduate curriculum in Malaysia. The study also obtained information pertaining to how Malaysian undergraduate dental students' perceive those with SHCN. Baseline information obtained can direct global development of dental education in an effort to reduce oral health inequalities and improve oral health status of those with SHCN.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Major surgery in the elderly. Dotting the is and crossing the ts
    • Abstract: Batstone, Martin D
      The theme of this conference is "From the genome to the nursing home: Everything under the sun". Whilst population predictions are difficult and the rate of fertility and overseas migration can only be estimated, one prediction holds true across all models of projection - ageing of the population. Improvements in nutrition, sanitation and health care have led to a marked increase in the median life expectancy of the Australian population to 74.4 years for boys and 80.3 years for girls (at birth).

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Third molars: Indications for intervention
    • Abstract: Hyam, Dylan M
      The management of third molars remains a skill and art. Evidence is still developing to help guide clinicians in their decision making. This article provides clinicians with a decision matrix which allows them to tailor a solution to the individual patient's needs. The matrix articulates the need to identify the indication for surgery, then modify the surgical plan to account for; surgical risk, the patients current medical status, their future medical needs, and their social and financial circumstances. An examination is made of the evidence for different indications for intervention, an assessment protocol for surgical planning, and a review of the common medical issues which might impact upon the surgical decision matrix.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Distraction osteogenesis - a panacea for infant micrognathia
           with upper airway obstruction'
    • Abstract: Adhikari, Ashim N; Bordbar, Patrishia; Heggie, Andrew AC; Shand, Jocelyn M; Kilpatrick, Nicky
      Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) has been described as an effective method of treating upper airway obstruction (UAO) in micrognathic infants with a low morbidity and few short-term complications. This technique has almost eliminated the need for tracheostomy in non-syndromic patients at The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne. However, there are few studies describing the longer-term effects on feeding, growth and the developing mandible. This study describes the experience at the RCH in managing infants with micrognathia over the past twelve years, with particular emphasis on airway, feeding and growth. By international standards, this study comprises one of the larger cohorts of children under five years who have had MDO (n=73). This retrospective review shows that the procedure is effective in alleviating the need for airway assistance and supplemental feeding without adversely affecting the growth of these children. This study makes a significant contribution to the evidence base underpinning MDO as the preferred surgical intervention for infants with micrognathia and UAO.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 How eHealth strategies may enhance dental research
    • Abstract: Lam, Raymond
      Although evidence based dentistry has been the accepted protocol in guiding clinical decisions, there are challenges with establishing an adequate research base. This is no more obvious in modern dentistry where the gap between established research and new products and procedures is widening. Whilst traditional research methods have served the profession well, it may be an opportune time to take advantages of computer technology to enhance research. With this in mind, this paper introduces novel strategies in eHealth with a focus on item codes in electronic data collation and dental informatics. By considering the recent Chronic Disease Dental Scheme and the Australian Schedule of Services and Glossary, this paper will illustrate how e-health strategies may provide a cost effective solution to enhancing research that is applicable to the individual clinician and the entire profession.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 Dentofacial deformities and orthognathic surgery in Hong Kong
           and Glasgow
    • Abstract: Lee, Crystal TY; Cheung, Lim K; Khambay, Balvinder S; Ayoub, Ashraf F; Benington, Philip
      To compare the cross-ethnic difference in dentofacial deformity profile and the associated surgical management in Chinese and Caucasian patients who required orthognathic surgery in Hong Kong and Glasgow, respectively. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of consecutive hospital patients' records from the Prince Philip Dental Hospital in Hong Kong and the Glasgow Dental Hospital and School in Glasgow from 2003 - 2012. Data pertaining to patient demographics, diagnosis, surgical treatment received and complications were recorded. Results: 581 and 217 cases were retrieved in Hong Kong and Glasgow, respectively. Both centres shared a similar patient demographic profile. Class III skeletal pattern was the most prevalent for both centres. A significantly higher prevalence for bimaxillary dentoalveolar hyperplasia, total vertical maxillary excess and mandibular asymmetry was seen in Hong Kong, while a higher prevalence for bimaxillary retrusion and zygomatic hypoplasia was found in Glasgow. To address these, segmental Le Fort I osteotomies, vertical subsigmoid osteotomies, and lower anterior subapical osteotomies were preferred in Hong Kong, while non-segmentalized Le Fort I osteotomies and sagittal split osteotomies were more preferred in Glasgow. Further facial aesthetics surgeries were performed, with septo-rhinoplasty common in Hong Kong and zygomatic augmentation common in Glasgow. Both centres shared a similar complication profile.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 An investigation into performance of three types of implants in
           a novel ovine mandible canine model
    • Abstract: Barker, C; Vaquette, C; Ivanovski, S
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 22 The oral health of Cambodian preschool aged children
    • Abstract: Bach, K; Manton, DJ
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Royal Australasian college of dental surgeons council 2010-2012
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Founders of the college; Honorary fellows; Elected members of
           council; Office bearers; Convocation committee; Convocations of the
           college
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Oral health and integrated care - the generation challenge
    • Abstract: Harcourt, John K
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Presidential address
    • Abstract: Bischof, Werner H
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Opening address
    • Abstract: Healty, Carole
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 New members and fellows admitted at the convocation
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Admission as a fellow without examination
    • Abstract: Burrow, Michael Francis
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Admission as a fellow without examination
    • Abstract: Robertson, James Alastair McLean
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Meritorious service award
    • Abstract: Borlase, Geoffrey William
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Meritorious service award
    • Abstract: Cockerill, Philip Anthony
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Meritorious service award
    • Abstract: Trengove, Hugh Gourlay
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Honorary fellowship
    • Abstract: Drummond, Bernadette Kathleen
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 The fifteenth Robert Harris oration
    • Abstract: Naish, Timothy Raymond
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Stanley George Kings AM 27 October 1923 - 11 August 2011
    • Abstract: Hession, Reginald
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Henry Gordon "Harry" Lamplough 10 August 1925 - 20 April 2011
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 21 Young lecturers awards
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:20 GMT
       
 
 
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