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Journal Cover UBC Medical Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1920-7425 - ISSN (Online) 1920-7417
   Published by UBC Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Pediatric Medulloblastomas: Classification, Pathophysiology and
           Therapeutics

    • Authors: James Cairns
      Pages: 8 - 11
      Abstract: Medulloblastomas are a type of primary malignant brain tumour arising within the cerebellum and posterior cranial fossa adjacent to the fourth ventricle. Medulloblastomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumours in the pediatric population and an increasing body of basic and clinical research is providing important insights into the etiology, pathogenesis and development of novel therapeutics to treat these highly invasive tumours. Recent advances in genomics and transcriptomics have allowed researchers to classify and diagnose medulloblastomas based on differences in genetic and transcriptome factors. Based on these findings medulloblastomas have been classified into four main subgroups including the: 1) Wnt subgroup, 2) Shh subgroup, 3) Group 3 tumours and 4) Group 4 tumours. These advancements in classifying and diagnosing medulloblastomas are important as different tumour subgroups have different pathophysiology, differing prognoses and variable responses to treatment. This article will briefly highlight the latest classification criteria of pediatric medulloblastoma, review molecular and genetic features believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of each of the 4 subgroups of medulloblastoma and provide an overview of treatments and therapies that are currently available and in development for medulloblastoma.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • COMMUNITY PERCEPTIONS AND KNOWLEDGE OF MENTAL ILLNESS IN THE RURAL KISUMU
           REGION OF KENYA

    • Authors: Naima Kotadia
      Pages: 12 - 15
      Abstract: Objective: The Global Health Initiative (GHI) at the University of British Columbia collaborated with the NGO, Kenya Partners in Community Transformation (PCT), to explore community knowledge, beliefs and practices surrounding mental health and illness in the rural Kisumu region.Methods: Five focus group discussions (FGDs) were held in three rural communities within the Kisumu region. Demographic groups surveyed included: women (n=54), men (n=14), and Community Health Workers (CHWs; n=36). Focus groups probed community mental health knowledge and included case–based vignettes describing presentations of mental illnesses as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition.Results: Participant responses on mental health and mental illness definitions were generally well understood; however, stigmatizing perceptions were present among community members an CHWs. Medical–based etiologies and treatment were rarely suggested for psychiatric illness, and CHWs did not identify themselves as a resource for mental illness cases. Significant barriers to accessing mental healthcare exist in the area, including stigma, financial strain, and long distances to care centers.Conclusion: Overall, FGDs with community members and CHWs indicated education on mental health was limited. Qualitative data gathered will be used to tailor WHO mental health modules to meet the unique needs of CHWs living in the rural Kisumu region of Kenya.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Running: How is it Taught and Evaluated in British Columbia Schools'

    • Authors: Clare L Protheroe, Astrid M De Souza, Kevin C Harris, Victoria Elizabeth Claydon, Shubhayan Sanatani
      Pages: 16 - 19
      Abstract: Objective Running is a simple and inexpensive exercise to maintain cardiovascular health. We aimed to evaluate the incorporation of running within the curriculum in British Columbian schools to determine whether students are effectively taught how to run to maintain an active lifestyle.Methods All 60 superintendents representing the school districts in British Columbia were contacted. They gave written approval for our research team to send a survey to schools within their districts. Teacher and student perspectives on running in middle and high schools were collected.Results Teachers (n=63) and students (n=597) would like more information on proper running form and the cardiovascular benefits associated with this exercise. There is inconsistency in reporting medical conditions, and it is not clear how grading is distributed fairly among all students (p<0.05).Conclusion There is a lack of education in schools on running. Improvements to the incorporation of running within the physical and health education curriculum may enhance student enjoyment and in turn help reduce sedentary behaviours and associated comorbidities in the general population.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Web of Culture: Critically assessing and building culturally relevant
           online mental health resources for Indigenous youth in Northern BC.

    • Authors: Valerie Ward
      Pages: 20 - 22
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Traditional sources of health information are no longer meeting needs of younger generations, including Indigenous youth, who are increasingly turning to the Internet with health-related questions. Research has shown culturally tailored health education and information resources are best received by Indigenous people. Using a research approach privileging the voices and experiences of young (ages 19-25) Indigenous peoples in northern British Columbia, this project discovered online mental health resources need to be conceptualized and implemented differently to have their intended impact. METHODS: This research used a social determinants of health framework and purposefully sought out and privileged young Indigenous peoples’ stories through arts-based methods. RESULTS: Four relevant themes emerged: 1) definitions of mental health in online resources do not resonate with Indigenous youth in northern B.C., 2) existing online resources do not reflect voices of youth, particularly Indigenous and northern youth, 3) understandings of recovery among Indigenous youth in Northern BC are not the same as those reflected in existing online resources, and 4) Indigenous youth in Northern BC support technology as a means of reaching and giving voice to youth populations. CONCLUSION: Existing online mental health resources do not adequately address needs of Indigenous youth living in Northern BC. Digital storytelling, an arts-based method, is an effective and engaging research tool to work with youth populations.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Medical Student Second Language Abilities and Confidence in Clinical Use:
           Mandarin Pilot

    • Authors: Meiying Zhuang, Wynn Tran, Kendall Ho
      Pages: 23 - 26
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE:Language barriers are a common obstacle for medical students in multicultural centers. Students may have conversational skills in non-English languages, but find it cumbersome to use these languages in a clinical setting. We investigated the demand for resources to enhance medical communication across language barriers and the role for workshops in achieving this purpose.METHODS:Mandarin workshops and a phrasebook with medical terms were created and delivered to medical students, along with the opportunity to practice at a blood pressure clinic in the community. Surveys of medical students before and after the workshops, and three months following, were collected to determine the impact of different resources. Community members attending the blood pressure clinic were surveyed to gauge their preferences.RESULTS:Among medical student respondents, 86% spoke a non-English language, but only 24% were at least "quite a bit" confident in communicating with patients in a non-English language. After the Mandarin workshops, 82% of participants reported perceived benefits to their confidence in communicating with patients in Mandarin, and the phrasebook and peer coaching in Mandarin were rated as the most useful resources. Mandarin-speaking community members reported they would be more comfortable seeing providers who had learned basic Mandarin (7.5/10) compared to none at all (4.4/10).CONCLUSION:Medical students’ confidence communicating in Mandarin can be bolstered with resources including workshops and phrasebooks. This approach could be used for other languages to improve communication and contribute to more satisfying, effective and comfortable care for patients with limited English.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Rapid Resolution of a Gastric Lymphoma with Helicobacter Eradication
           Therapy

    • Authors: Leah Belle Kosyakovsky, Muhammad Laghari, Yazeed Alwelaie, Kerry Savage, Eric Yoshida
      Pages: 27 - 29
      Abstract: As one of the most prevalent chronic bacterial infections, Helicobacter pylori  has had a uniquely significant impact on human pathology. Infection with H. pylori has been shown to be involved in a wide array of gastrointestinal diseases, from peptic ulcer disease to gastric malignancy. Here, we present an 82 year-old patient who was found to have a large ulcerated gastric mass, along with a concomitant H. pylori infection.  Gastric biopsies later revealed a gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma, suspicious of transformation to a high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Primary treatment with Helicobacter eradication therapy resulted, remarkably, in complete endoscopic and histologic resolution of the lymphoma only three weeks after the completion of triple therapy. Through this illustrative case, we review the controversies in the management of high-grade gastric lymphoma, as well as the clinical practice surrounding endoscopic surveillance for malignancy follow-up.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Diagnosing pediatric mild traumatic brain injury: current techniques in a
           vulnerable demographic

    • Authors: Jacob L. Stubbs
      Pages: 30 - 31
      Abstract: The CDC considers mild traumatic brain injury, commonly known as concussion, a genuine public health issue. New research is revealing serious long-term sequelae from repeated concussive blows, yet no single test can definitively diagnose a mild traumatic brain injury. Pediatric brains are more sensitive to injury, lending a heightened need for accurate and reliable tools. Diagnostics research in the pediatric population presents unique challenges, and is ultimately lacking.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Perspectives in Pediatric Oncology: Experiences of a Syrian Refugee Family

    • Authors: Alexandra Rice, Caron Strahlendorf
      Pages: 32 - 33
      Abstract: Submitting as Research Letter- no abstract required
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • YOUTH AND THE OPIOID CRISIS: STRATEGIES FOR INTERVENTION AND THE BRITISH
           COLUMBIAN EXPERIENCE

    • Authors: Christina Schweitzer, Stephanie J Gill, Alex Kennedy, Kate Eppler
      Pages: 34 - 35
      Abstract: The opioid crisis is a growing public health concern in Canada, and especially in British Columbia, which has declared it a public health emergency. In response to the rising number of youth overdose deaths, BC has implemented a number of harm reduction and prevention strategies. Areas for continued improvement include naloxone kit training, encouraging users to not use alone and for bystanders to call 911 in the event of an overdose, and minimizing risk factors for addiction while maximizing protective factors. As the opioid crisis continues it spread east, other jurisdictions have much to learn from the BC experience. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Confronting the disparity in non-medical prescription opioid use among
           rural and urban youth: a call for broader recognition in the era of
           clandestine Fentanyl – Commentary –

    • Authors: Perry Tompkins
      Pages: 36 - 37
      Abstract: : Non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) among Canada’s rural youth is a public health problem largely overshadowed by the opioid crisis in metropolitan centres. In this commentary, the author explores the unique socioeconomic factors that underpin rural NMPOU, drawing attention to its potential to drive youth morbidity and mortality from increasingly prevalent clandestine fentanyl. The author argues for mitigating strategies to curb NMPOU, informed by greater awareness of the unique vulnerabilities of rural youth. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Houston, We have a Doctor

    • Authors: Ciarán Patrick Collins Galts
      Pages: 38 - 39
      Abstract: n/a
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Cannabis in Canada: What the Upcoming Legalization of One of Canada’s
           Most Popular Drugs Means for Young People

    • Authors: Braedon Ronald Paul
      Pages: 40 - 41
      Abstract: N/A (News & Letters)
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • MIND Speaks Up: an online platform for youth mental health

    • Authors: Meghan Joy Smith, Eric Zhao, Connor Hawkins, Megan Lucey, Jordan Yeo, Kelly Zerr
      Pages: 42 - 43
      Abstract: Mental health disorders are common and stigmatized health issues that often present during youth. Although effective prevention and treatment strategies exist, an estimated two-thirds of individuals with a mental illness do not seek help, and stigma has been identified as a significant barrier. We developed MINDSpeaksUp.com, a website aimed to be a local resource for mental health and to lower the barrier to seeking help by reducing stigma. The website hosts videos featuring members of the UBC community sharing stories of their personal struggles with mental health. It also includes a portrait project, written submissions, and a resources tab.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • The SCOPE Initiative and LIVE 5-2-1-0 Message – Implementation and
           Impact of a Community Based Participatory Project on Childhood Obesity

    • Authors: Clark Joseph Fruhstorfer
      Pages: 44 - 45
      Abstract: Childhood obesity is a wide-spread, complex problem often accompanied by an array of co-morbidities that have substantial influence on the quality of life of children.  In an effort to circumvent this problem, the Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention through Community Engagement (SCOPE) was established as a community-based participatory project to disseminate an interdisciplinary, multi-sided prevention initiative – referred to as the LIVE 5-2-1-0 Message. Since its inception, LIVE 5-2-1-0 has formed numerous partnerships with local community organizations that have since implemented diverse actions and activities that have reached children across British Columbia. Moreover, the impact of SCOPE has also been felt on a personal level in the form of ‘Champions’, or local stakeholders/coordinators who maintain LIVE 5-2-1-0 momentum. Taken together, the SCOPE initiative represents a movement that has reached multitudes of people and demonstrated an outstanding ability to engage communities to work together to improve child health. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Can Mobile Applications Improve Non-Adherence in Diabetes Management'

    • Authors: Sewon Bann
      Pages: 46 - 47
      Abstract: N/A
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A future beyond insulin injections' Regenerative medicine for type 1
           diabetes REVISIONS#1

    • Authors: Sepehr Kamal
      Pages: 48 - 49
      Abstract: N/A
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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