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Comparative Political Studies
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.772
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 258  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0010-4140 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3829
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1089 journals]
  • Gender and Dynastic Political Selection
    • Authors: Olle Folke, Johanna Rickne, Daniel M. Smith
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Throughout history and across countries, women appear more likely than men to enter politics on the heels of a close family relative or spouse. To explain this dynastic bias in women’s representation, we introduce a theory that integrates political selection decisions with informational inequalities across social groups. Candidates with dynastic ties benefit from the established reputations of their predecessors, but these signals of quality are more important to political newcomers such as women. Legislator-level data from twelve democracies and candidate-level data from Ireland and Sweden support the idea that dynastic ties are differentially more helpful to women, and that the quality of predecessors may be more relevant for the entry and evaluation of female successors than their male counterparts. The role of informational inequalities is also reflected in the declining dynastic bias over time (as more women enter politics), and in the differential effect of a gender quota across Swedish municipalities.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T09:13:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020938089
  • The Legislative Effects of Campaign Personalization An Analysis on the
           Legislative Behavior of Successful German Constituency Candidates
    • Authors: Thomas Zittel, Dominic Nyhuis
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Personalized campaign styles are of increasing importance in contemporary election campaigns at all levels of politics. Surprisingly, we know little about their implications for the behavior of successful candidates once they take public office. This paper aims to fill this gap in empirical and theoretical ways. It shows that campaign personalization results in legislative personalization. Legislators that ran personalized campaigns are found to be more likely to deviate in roll call votes and to take independent positions on the floor. These findings result from a novel dataset that matches survey evidence on candidates’ campaign styles in the 2009 German Federal Elections with the legislative behavior of successful candidates in the 17th German Bundestag (2009–2013). Combining data from the campaign and legislative arenas allows us to explore the wider consequences of campaign personalization.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T03:56:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020938103
  • Electoral Preferences Among Multiethnic Voters in Africa
    • Authors: Boniface Dulani, Adam S. Harris, Jeremy Horowitz, Happy Kayuni
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Intermarriage is transforming Africa’s ethnic landscape. In several countries on the continent more than a fifth of all marriages now cut across ethnic lines. As a result, there is a growing population of multiethnic citizens who descend from diverse family lineages. The growth of Africa’s mixed population has the potential to affect politics in a variety of potentially far-reaching ways. In this article, we focus on one possible implication by examining the electoral preferences of multiethnic voters in contexts where ethnic bloc voting is commonplace. Drawing on survey data from Malawi and Kenya, we find that mixed individuals are less likely to support the party associated with their stated ethnic group, relative to mono-ethnics. We outline several possible explanations related to identity measurement, the link between identities and preferences, and social networks.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-06-23T11:29:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020926196
  • Partisanship and Autocratization: Polarization, Power Asymmetry, and
           Partisan Social Identities in Turkey
    • Authors: Melis G. Laebens, Aykut Öztürk
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Although theories of partisanship were developed for the democratic context, partisanship can be important in electoral autocracies as well. We use survey data to analyze partisanship in an electoral autocracy, Turkey, and find that partisanship is pervasive, strong, and consequential. Using the Partisan Identity Scale to measure partisanship, we show that, like in democracies, partisanship strength is associated with political attitudes and action. Unlike in democracies, however, the ruling party’s superior ability to mobilize supporters through clientelistic linkages makes the association between partisanship and political action weaker for ruling party partisans. We find that partisan identities are tightly connected to the perception that other parties may threaten one’s well-being, and that such fears are widespread on both sides of the political divide. We interpret our findings in light of the autocratization process Turkey went through. Our contribution highlights the potential of integrating regime dynamics in studies of partisanship.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-06-15T03:54:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020926199
  • Dictators and Their Subjects: Authoritarian Attitudinal Effects and
    • Authors: Anja Neundorf, Grigore Pop-Eleches
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This introductory essay outlines the key themes of the special issue on the long-term impact of autocracies on the political attitudes and behavior of their subjects. Here, we highlight several important areas of theoretical and empirical refinements, which can provide a more nuanced picture of the process through which authoritarian attitudinal legacies emerge and persist. First, we define the nature of attitudinal legacies and their driving mechanisms, developing a framework of competing socialization. Second, we use the competing socialization framework to explain two potential sources of heterogeneity in attitudinal and behavioral legacies: varieties of institutional features of authoritarian regimes, which affect the nature of regime socialization efforts; and variations across different subgroups of (post-)authoritarian citizens, which reflect the nature and strength of alternative socialization efforts. This new framework can help us to better understand contradictory findings in this emerging literature as well as set a new agenda for future research.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T05:58:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020926203
  • The Gender Gap in Political Clientelism: Problem-Solving Networks and the
           Division of Political Work in Argentina
    • Authors: Mariela Daby
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The literature on clientelism has recognized the importance of problem-solving networks, but ignored their gendered nature. Contrary to what is often assumed, I argue that female brokers have fewer opportunities to use clientelism for building, enlarging, and sustaining political networks than male brokers. First, I find that female brokers invest heavily in a nonvoting constituency because their work centers on children. The gendered division of political work hence reduces women’s chances of building a following. Second, female brokers are less able to distribute resources beyond their political network, diminishing their chances of enlarging the size of their constituency. Third, female brokers have a harder time punishing those who receive benefits but fail to participate in politics, limiting their ability to recruit new followers. Drawing on two decades of fieldwork in Argentina, this article studies the gender gap in political clientelism and the consequences of the division of political work for political representation. The article shows how these differences in opportunities, over time, translate into a political underrepresentation of female brokers and an impoverished quality of democracy.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T08:07:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020926194
  • Ethnic Coalitions and the Logic of Political Survival in Authoritarian
    • Authors: Janina Beiser-McGrath, Nils W. Metternich
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Why do authoritarian governments exclude ethnic groups if this jeopardizes their regime survival' We generalize existing arguments that attribute exclusion dynamics to ethnic coalition formation. We argue that a mutual commitment problem, between the ethnic ruling group and potential coalition members, leads to power-balanced ethnic coalitions. However, authoritarian regimes with institutions that mitigate credible commitment problems facilitate the formation of coalitions that are less balanced in power. We test our arguments with a k-adic conditional logit approach, using data on ethnic groups and their power status. We demonstrate that in autocracies, the ruling ethnic group is more likely to form and maintain coalitions that balance population sizes among all coalition members. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the extent to which balancing occurs is conditional on authoritarian regime type.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T08:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020920656
  • Incentives for Organizational Participation: A Recruitment Experiment in
    • Authors: Brian Palmer-Rubin, Candelaria Garay, Mathias Poertner
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      While the presence of a strong civil society is recognized as desirable for democracies, an important question is what motivates citizens to join organizations. This article presents novel experimental evidence on the conditions under which citizens join interest organizations. We presented 1,400 citizens in two Mexican states with fliers promoting a new local interest organization. These fliers contain one of four randomly selected recruitment appeals. We find evidence that both brokerage of state patronage and demand-making for local public goods are effective recruitment appeals. The effect for patronage brokerage is especially pronounced among respondents with prior organizational contact, supporting our hypothesis of a “particularistic socialization” effect wherein organizational experience is associated with greater response to selective material benefits. Our findings suggest that under some conditions, rather than generating norms of other-regarding, interest organizations can reinforce members’ individualistic tendencies.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T06:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020919927
  • Campaign Effects and the Elusive Swing Voter in Modern Machine Politics
    • Authors: Kenneth F. Greene
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Are vote-choice buying attempts successful' Much research across the social sciences argues that political machines expertly turn citizens into clients, undermining core aspects of democracy. Using insights from behavioral theories of vote choice, I argue that standard partisan campaigns can diminish vote-choice buying’s efficiency. Machines face a targeting problem: Local brokers identify good clients using long-term markers but then campaigns shift many citizens’ vote-relevant attitudes in ways that brokers cannot detect, leading to targeting errors. Vote-choice buying remains effective on recipients who are unmoved by the campaigns, but this group is small where campaigns are influential. Tests using panel surveys from Mexico’s 2000 and 2012 elections measure vote-buying attempts with direct questions and list experiments, employ various measures of campaign influence, and rely on new and existing estimation techniques. The findings yield a more optimistic view of the quality of elections in new democracies than current literature implies.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T12:35:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020919919
  • Network Ties and the Politics of Renationalization: Embeddedness,
           Political-Business Relations, and Renationalization in Post-Milosevic
    • Authors: Milos Resimic
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Based on an original large-N data set of Serbian firms privatized between 2002 and 2011, and qualitative evidence, this article applies survival modeling to network data to analyze the political foundations of renationalization. I build on embeddedness scholarship and hypothesize that renationalization is influenced by varying patterns of embeddedness of firms in political and ownership networks. In contrast with expectations of the state capture literature, I find that politically connected firms are more likely to be renationalized than non-politicized ones, whereas firms owned by domestic corporate owners are less likely to be renationalized than those owned by non-corporate owners. I theorize my findings as the logic of extraction, showing that renationalization in politically connected firms happens either as an unintended consequence of extraction or of predation, and as the logic of reciprocity, which demonstrates that domestic corporate owners are more likely to avoid renationalization because they can offer favors to political parties.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T05:54:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020926223
  • Attitudes Toward Migrants in a Highly Impacted Economy: Evidence From the
           Syrian Refugee Crisis in Jordan
    • Authors: Ala’ Alrababa’h, Andrea Dillon, Scott Williamson, Jens Hainmueller, Dominik Hangartner, Jeremy Weinstein
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      With international migration at a record high, a burgeoning literature has explored the drivers of public attitudes toward migrants. However, most studies to date have focused on developed countries, which have relatively fewer migrants and more capacity to absorb them. We address this sample bias by conducting a survey of public attitudes toward Syrians in Jordan, a developing country with one of the largest shares of refugees. Our analysis indicates that neither personal- nor community-level exposure to the economic impact of the refugee crisis is associated with antimigrant sentiments among natives. Furthermore, an embedded conjoint experiment validated with qualitative evidence demonstrates the relative importance of humanitarian and cultural concerns over economic ones. Taken together, our findings weaken the case for egocentric and sociotropic economic concerns as critical drivers of antimigrant attitudes and demonstrate how humanitarian motives can sustain support for refugees when host and migrant cultures are similar.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T04:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020919910
  • Chaos on Campus: Universities and Mass Political Protest
    • Authors: Sirianne Dahlum, Tore Wig
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      History suggests universities are hotbeds of political protest. However, the generality and causal nature of this relationship has never been quantified. This article investigates whether universities give rise to political protest, drawing on geocoded information on the location and characteristics of universities and protest events in the 1991–2016 period, at the subnational level in 62 countries in Africa and Central America. Our analysis indicates that university establishments increase protest. We use a difference-in-differences and fixed-effect framework leveraging the temporal variation in universities within subnational grid-cells to estimate the effect of universities on protest. Our analysis indicates that localities with increases in number of universities experience more protest. We suggest a causal interpretation, after performing different tests to evaluate whether this reflects confounding trends specific to locations that establish universities, finding no support for this. We also provide descriptive evidence on the nature of university-related protests, showing that they are more likely to emerge in dictatorships and that protests in university locations are more likely to concern democracy and human rights. These findings yield important general insights into universities’ role as drivers of contentious collective action.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-05-11T06:39:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020919902
  • Legislatures and Legislative Politics Without Democracy
    • Authors: Jennifer Gandhi, Ben Noble, Milan Svolik
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      What do authoritarian legislatures and legislators do' Would outcomes in dictatorships be different if they were absent' Why do dictatorships have legislatures in the first place' These questions represent central puzzles in the study of authoritarian politics and institutions. The introductory article to this special issue on legislatures in nondemocracies discusses what we now know about these assemblies; what the issue’s articles contribute to this body of knowledge; and what future work might fruitfully look at. The special issue as a whole aims to advance the research agendas of both authoritarian institutions and legislative studies.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-05-11T06:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020919930
  • The Role of Corporate Political Connections in Commercial Lawsuits:
           Evidence From Chinese Courts
    • Authors: Jian Xu
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Like courts in democratic regimes, courts under authoritarianism play an important role in the regulation of complex economies. In particular, scholars suggest that authoritarian judiciaries are commonly encouraged to provide independent adjudication in the context of economic disputes between firms. Yet because regime insiders are often connected to firms, judges have strong incentives to consider the political implications of their decisions even in areas of the law where they are allegedly more independent. In this article, I propose a new theory about the role of corporations’ political background in commercial lawsuits. Using a data set on the litigation outcomes of firms in China, I find that the composition of a firm’s board membership is a significant predictor of its lawsuit outcomes. A higher percentage of corporate board members with political connections leads to a higher probability of lawsuit success. The results point to the limitations of the selective judicial independence theory.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-05-05T08:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020919962
  • What Drives Unequal Policy Responsiveness' Assessing the Role of
           Informational Asymmetries in Economic Policy-Making
    • Authors: Mads Andreas Elkjær
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Recent scholarship on inequality and political representation argues that economic elites are dominating democratic policy-making, yet it struggles to explain the underlying mechanisms. This article proposes that unequal responsiveness reflects asymmetries in information about fiscal policy across income classes, as opposed to being a structural bias inherent in capitalist democracy. I test the argument in a pathway case study of economic policy-making in Denmark, using a new data set that combines preference and spending data spanning 18 spending domains between 1985 and 2017. I find that governments that pursue standard macroeconomic policies coincidentally respond more strongly to the preferences of the affluent, owing to a closer adjustment of preferences to the state of the economy among citizens in upper income groups. These findings have important democratic and theoretical implications, as they suggest that unequal responsiveness may not reflect substantive misrepresentation of majority interests, but rather differences in information levels across groups.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T11:57:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912282
  • The Effect of Election Proximity on Government Responsiveness and
           Citizens’ Participation: Evidence From English Local Elections
    • Authors: Gemma Dipoppa, Guy Grossman
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Does political engagement depend on government responsiveness' Identifying the drivers of political action is challenging because it requires disentangling instrumental from expressive motives for engagement and because government responsiveness is likely endogenous. We overcome the first challenge by studying citizens’ reporting of street-problems—a form of participation arguably driven by instrumental considerations. We overcome the second challenge by taking advantage of variation in local elections timing in England’s district authorities. We report three key results. First, local governments address requests faster in the months leading to elections. Second, street-problem reporting increases in (pre)electoral periods. Third, the increase in requests sent in preelection periods is driven by districts in which government responsiveness is higher. These findings show that, individuals consider expected benefits when choosing to undertake at least some instrumental forms of participation. Our results also underscore the importance of temporal factors that increase the perceived benefits of one’s political engagement.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-27T05:41:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912290
  • External Intervention, Identity, and Civil War
    • Authors: Nicholas Sambanis, Stergios Skaperdas, William Wohlforth
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      We examine how external intervention interacts with ethnic polarization to induce rebellion and civil war. Previous literature views polarization as internally produced—the result of demographic characteristics or intergroup differences made salient by ethnic entrepreneurs. We complement these approaches by showing that polarization is also affected by international politics. We model intervention’s effect on civil war via the pathway of ethnic identification—a mechanism not previously identified in the literature. In our model, local actors representing different groups are emboldened by foreign patrons to pursue their objectives violently. This, in turn, makes ethnic identity salient and induces polarization. Without the specter of intervention, polarization is often insufficient to induce war and, in turn, in the absence of polarization, intervention is insufficient to induce war. We illustrate the model with case evidence from Ukraine.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-27T05:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912279
  • The Price of Collaboration: How Authoritarian States Retain Control
    • Authors: Barbara Maria Piotrowska
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      How does access to foreign or independent media affect the operation of a state security apparatus' This article answers this question concentrating on two characteristics of the informant network of the East German Stasi: the number of informants and their “price.” Exposure to West German TV (WGTV) had the potential to decrease the supply of informants and increase the demand for them, pushing up the value of the payments the informants received, but leaving their quantity theoretically ambiguous. I verify this reasoning using a rare original data set of Stasi informants. Results show that informants were given approximately 70 East German marks worth of rewards more per year in the areas that had access to WGTV, as compared with areas with no reception—ironically an amount roughly equivalent to the cost of an annual East German TV subscription. These findings demonstrate how an authoritarian state can counteract the potentially destabilizing effect of foreign media.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T04:50:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912277
  • Disaggregating “China, Inc.”: The Hierarchical Politics of WTO
    • Authors: Yeling Tan
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      How does state structure affect responses to globalization' This article examines why some parts of the Chinese state enacted more liberalizing policies than others in response to World Trade Organization (WTO) entry. It shows that, despite single-party rule, China’s WTO-era policy trajectories were neither top-down nor monolithic. Instead, central and subnational governments diverged in their policy responses. The study identifies three competing economic strategies from which these responses are drawn: market-replacing (directive), market-shaping (developmental), and market-enhancing (regulatory). The analysis uses an original dataset of Chinese industry regulations from 1978 to 2014 and employs machine learning methods in text analysis to identify words associated with each strategy. Combining tariff, industry, and textual data, the article demonstrates that the divergent strategies adopted by central and subnational governments are driven by each unit’s differential accountability to the WTO and by the diversity of that unit’s industrial base.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T04:49:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912267
  • Civilian Contention in Civil War: How Ideational Factors Shape Community
           Responses to Armed Groups
    • Authors: Juan Masullo
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Why do some communities overtly declare their opposition to violent groups, while others disguise it by engaging in seemingly unrelated activities' Why do some communities manifest their dissent using nonviolent methods instead of organizing violence of their own' I argue that ideational factors are crucial to answering these questions: normative commitments can restrict civilian contention to nonviolent forms of action, while exposure to oppositional ideologies can push civilians toward more confrontational forms of noncooperation with armed groups. Furthermore, I contend that the role of political entrepreneurs activating and mobilizing this ideational content is crucial for it to shape contention. I support this argument with a wealth of microlevel evidence collected in various warzones in Colombia, analyzed within a purposively designed comparative structure. My findings support the growing conflict scholarship that stresses that ideology matters in war, but extends its application beyond armed actors’ behavior to that of civilian communities.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-14T05:04:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912285
  • Bureaucracy and Growth
    • Authors: Agnes Cornell, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Jan Teorell
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      We revisit the hypothesis that a Weberian bureaucracy enhances economic growth. Theoretically, we develop arguments for why such a bureaucracy may enhance growth and discuss plausible counterarguments. Empirically, we use new measures capturing various Weberian features in countries across the world, with some time series extending back to 1789. The evidence base from previous large-N studies is surprisingly thin, but our extensive data enable us to move beyond the problematic cross-country correlations used in previous studies. Hence, we conduct tests that control for country-specific characteristics while ensuring sufficient variation on the slow-moving bureaucracy variables to enable precise estimation. Our analysis suggests that previous cross-country regressions have vastly overstated the strength of the relationship. While this casts uncertainty on the proposition that there is an effect of Weberian bureaucracy on growth, our further analysis suggests that—if an effect exists—it may operate in the short term and be stronger in recent decades.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-13T04:22:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912262
  • The Declining Middle: Occupational Change, Social Status, and the Populist
    • Authors: Thomas Kurer
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the political consequences of occupational change in times of rapid technological advancement and sheds light on the economic and cultural roots of right-wing populism. A growing body of research shows that the disadvantages of a transforming employment structure are strongly concentrated among semiskilled routine workers in the lower middle class. I argue that individual employment trajectories and relative shifts in the social hierarchy are key to better understand recent political disruptions. A perception of relative economic decline among politically powerful groups—not their impoverishment—drives support for conservative and, especially, right-wing populist parties. Individual-level panel data from three postindustrial democracies and original survey data demonstrate this relationship. A possible interpretation of the findings is that traditional welfare policy might be an ineffective remedy against the ascent of right-wing populism.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T08:44:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912283
  • Resisting Displacement: Leveraging Interpersonal Ties to Remain despite
           Criminal Violence in Medellín, Colombia
    • Authors: Jerome F. Marston
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Although civilians across the globe are fleeing conflict in record numbers, the reality is that far more remain behind. In addition to traditional wars, people stay in territories governed by criminal organizations. How might individuals threatened with displacement by a criminal gang manage to resist' Drawing on intensive participant observation and interviews in marginal neighborhoods of Medellín, Colombia, I argue that the urban residents most likely to remain despite being at risk of displacement are the “well connected.” Despite threats, they leverage ties to a community figure or member of the armed group to stay. I test a number of related hypotheses using an original survey and survey experiment. Unlike other work stressing that residents are trapped by scant resources or remain only by joining local associations or belligerents, my theory reveals residents’ agency and neutrality as they seek safety and security in conditions of state absence.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T08:43:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912276
  • Countering Violence Against Women by Encouraging Disclosure: A Mass Media
           Experiment in Rural Uganda
    • Authors: Donald P. Green, Anna M. Wilke, Jasper Cooper
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Violence against women (VAW) is widespread in East Africa, with almost half of married women experiencing physical abuse. Those seeking to address this issue confront two challenges: some forms of domestic violence are widely condoned and it is the norm for witnesses to not report incidents. Building on a growing literature showing that education-entertainment can change norms and behaviors, we present experimental evidence from a media campaign attended by more than 10,000 Ugandans in 112 rural villages. In randomly assigned villages, video dramatizations discouraged VAW and encouraged reporting. Results from interviews conducted several months after the intervention show no change in attitudes condoning VAW yet a substantial increase in willingness to report to authorities, especially among women, and a decline in the share of women who experienced violence. The theoretical implication is that interventions that affect disclosure norms may reduce socially harmful behavior even if they do not reduce its acceptability.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T08:43:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912275
  • The Power to Resist: Mobilization and the Logic of Terrorist Attacks in
           Civil War
    • Authors: Sara M. T. Polo, Belén González
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research has argued that terrorism is common in civil war because it is “effective.” Surprisingly, however, only some groups use terrorism during civil wars, while many refrain altogether. We also see considerable variation in the use of terrorism over time. This article presents a theory of terrorism as a mobilization strategy in civil war, taking into account benefits, costs, and temporal dynamics. We argue that the choice and the timing of terrorism arise from the interaction between conditions for effective mobilization and battlefield dynamics. Terrorism can mobilize support when it provokes indiscriminate government repression or when it radicalizes rebels’ constituency by antagonizing specific societal groups. The timing of attacks, however, is influenced by battlefield losses, which increase rebels’ need to rally civilian support. The analyses of new disaggregated data on rebels’ terrorist attacks during conflicts (1989–2009) and of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) tactics in Iraq and Syria support our theoretical argument.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T08:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912264
  • Legislatures and Policy Making in Authoritarian Regimes
    • Authors: Scott Williamson, Beatriz Magaloni
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-03-30T06:51:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912288
  • Geographic Divides and Cosmopolitanism: Evidence From Switzerland
    • Authors: Rahsaan Maxwell
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Large cities are cosmopolitan environments where people embrace inter-national connections whereas small towns, villages, and the countryside are more likely to prioritize the maintenance of national traditions. These geographic divides are at the center of contemporary politics but we do not know why they exist. One possibility is that cities make people more cosmopolitan while smaller areas make people less cosmopolitan. However, credibly measuring geographic effects is difficult because people sort across geography in ways that are correlated with political attitudes. I address these methodological challenges with longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel. My central result is that evidence of contextual effects is limited and unlikely to account for the broad geographic divides. Instead, sorting is likely to be the most important explanation for spatial polarization over cosmopolitanism. These findings have several implications for our understanding of geographic divides.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T06:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912289
  • Mobilizing From Scratch: Large-Scale Collective Action Without Preexisting
           Organization in the Syrian Uprising
    • Authors: Wendy Pearlman
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Core social movement research argues that large-scale challenges to authority build upon preexisting organization and civil society resources. How do dissenters mobilize masses in repressive settings where, given curtailment of civil society, autonomous associations scarcely exist and norms discourage trust more than encourage it' Testimonials from the Syrian uprising illustrate how protest can become widespread under such conditions, yet occurs through processes different from what dominant theory expects. Activists get demonstrations off the ground by planning around awareness of their organizational deficits. Once in motion, contention propels both organization and increasing organizational sophistication. To be effective, mobilization sometimes evades or obscures established social relationships, even as it produces new forms of sociability. Bridging literatures on mass and clandestine mobilization, this research reconsiders the assumed sequential logic of movement development from organization to protest, rather than vice versa. It also shifts attention from movement antecedents toward the resourcefulness and strategy that enable mobilizing both from scratch and at grave risk.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T06:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912281
  • How Dictators Control the Internet: A Review Essay
    • Authors: Eda Keremoğlu, Nils B. Weidmann
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of research has studied how autocratic regimes interfere with internet communication to contain challenges to their rule. In this review article, we survey the literature and identify the most important directions and challenges for future research. We structure our review along different network layers, each of which provides particular ways of governmental influence and control. While current research has made much progress in understanding individual digital tactics, we argue that there is still a need for theoretical development and empirical progress. First, we need a more comprehensive understanding of how particular tactics fit into an overall digital strategy, but also how they interact with traditional, “offline” means of autocratic politics, such as cooptation or repression. Second, we discuss a number of challenges that empirical research needs to address, such as the effectiveness of digital tactics, the problem of attribution, and the tool dependence of existing research.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-03-24T06:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912278
  • Discreet Inequality: How Party Agendas Embrace Privileged Interests
    • Authors: Till Weber
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      A growing literature documents that public policy in modern democracies fails to represent the preferences of traditionally marginalized subconstituencies. By dissecting party agendas, I show that inequality already permeates the very politicization of issues before democratic decision-making even begins. Election platforms worldwide predominantly reflect the concerns of male, educated and affluent citizens. That parties disregard large voter groups at this early stage seems surprising given that campaign agendas are inherently public. My analysis reveals that looming electoral backlash is anticipated by a strategy of “discreet” inequality. In particular, agendas are designed to appear inconspicuous and agreeable by exempting issues from unequal responsiveness that voters perceive as divisive or threatening. Discreet inequality thus appeases marginalized groups while ignoring their views on the large majority of more ordinary issues. The article demonstrates these patterns for gender, education, and income using comparative survey and manifesto data covering 42 countries.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-03-23T07:28:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912286
  • Who Trusts' Ethnicity, Integration, and Attitudes Toward Elected
           Officials in Urban Nigeria
    • Authors: Adrienne LeBas
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In the developing world, politicians often use public office to redistribute resources to their core constituencies. This form of clientelistic exchange motivates ethnic voting in Africa and may also shape broader attitudes toward the state. But does clientelism retain its power as cross-ethnic contact increases, or might new forms of political linkage emerge' This article uses public opinion data from urban Nigeria to investigate how social position affects trust in elected local officials. The article finds that local ethnic minorities are less trusting of local officials, but this trust deficit does not diminish as cross-ethnic contact rises. For members of locally dominant ethnic groups, however, greater cross-ethnic contact and lessened ethnic attachment dampen expressed trust in local elected officials. The article argues that ethnic clientelism is resilient in urban contexts but that scholarship must take a more nuanced approach to assessing membership in clientelistic coalitions.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-03-20T04:59:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414020912269
  • Consequences of Authoritarian Party Exit and Reinvention for Democratic
    • Authors: Anna Grzymala-Busse
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      How do the successors to authoritarian ruling parties influence subsequent democratic party competition' The existing literature does not distinguish among these parties, nor does it differentiate among the distinct strategies of their adaptation to the collapse of authoritarian rule. As a result, the impact of these parties on democracy has been unclear and difficult to discern. Yet, using a novel data set with observations from postcommunist Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America, I find that the exit of authoritarian ruling parties from power and their subsequent reinvention as committed democratic competitors are powerfully associated with robust democratic party competition. Mixed effects regressions and estimates of treatment effects show that authoritarian exit and reinvention promote the success of democratic party competition.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-02-17T06:18:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414019897683
  • Globalization and Willingness to Support the Poor in Developing Countries:
           An Experiment in India
    • Authors: Sera Linardi, Nita Rudra
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Does an individual’s exposure to aspects of globalization impact their willingness to redistribute to the poor' We hypothesize that the “glitter” of foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries leads relatively better-off citizens to perceive that the poor now have more opportunities and are thereby less deserving of help. Findings from an experiment across three states in India reveal that subjects lower their financial support for the poor upon learning a foreign firm in a low-skilled sector is located in the vicinity. Text analysis of subjects’ responses supports the mechanism underlying our hypothesis: FDI reduces support for redistribution when subjects believe that foreign firms offer the uneducated poor higher wages and increased job opportunities.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-02-07T04:34:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414019897686
  • A Tournament Theory of Pork Barrel Politics: The Case of Japan
    • Authors: Amy Catalinac, Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, Alastair Smith
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      How do politicians motivate voters to turn out and support them' We posit that incumbents construct tournaments between groups and distribute rewards to groups based on the levels of electoral support provided. We test our propositions in Japan, where incumbents can discern relative levels of support provided by municipalities in their districts and influence spending in ways that reward certain municipalities over others. Using new data on approximately 3,300+ Japanese municipalities in 1980 to 2000, we show that when municipalities are ranked according to their levels of support for Liberal Democratic Party winners in their district, those at higher ranks get larger rewards, the difference in size of the reward increases at higher ranks, and those in districts where municipalities vary more in size also receive larger rewards. Our findings support the theory and help explain other features of Japanese politics, including why pork tends to flow to relatively unsupportive districts.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-01-27T06:00:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414019897677
  • Building Credibility and Cooperation in Low-Trust Settings: Persuasion and
           Source Accountability in Liberia During the 2014–2015 Ebola Crisis
    • Authors: Lily L. Tsai, Benjamin S. Morse, Robert A. Blair
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      How can governments in low-trust settings overcome their credibility deficit when promoting public welfare' To answer this question, we evaluate the effectiveness of the Liberian government’s door-to-door canvassing campaign during the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic, which aimed to persuade residents to voluntarily comply with policies for containing the disease. Combining data from an original representative survey of Monrovia during the crisis with variation in the campaign’s reach and using multiple identification strategies, we find that the informational campaign was remarkably effective at increasing adherence to safety precautions, support for contentious control policies, and general trust in government. To uncover the pathways through which the campaign proved so effective, we conducted over 80 in-depth qualitative interviews in 40 randomly sampled communities. This investigation suggests that local intermediaries were effective because their embeddedness in communities subjected them to monitoring and sanctioning, thereby assuring their fellow residents that they were accountable and thus credible.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T06:35:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414019897698
  • The Unintended Consequences of Democracy Promotion: International
           Organizations and Democratic Backsliding
    • Authors: Anna M. Meyerrose
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Since the end of the Cold War, international organizations (IOs) have engaged in unprecedented levels of democracy promotion, and research overwhelmingly links them to positive democratic outcomes. However, this increased emphasis on democracy has more recently been accompanied by rampant illiberalism and a sharp rise in cases of democratic backsliding in new democracies. What explains democratic backsliding in an age of unparalleled international support for democracy' Backsliding occurs when democratic institutions are weakened or eroded by elected officials, resulting in an illiberal or diminished form of democracy. I argue that IOs that support democracy unintentionally make backsliding more likely by neglecting to promote democratic institutions other than executives and elections, increasing executive power, and limiting states’ domestic policy options, which stunts institutional development. I find membership in IOs associated with democracy promotion makes backsliding more likely, decreases checks on executive power, and limits domestic policy options and party development in new democracies.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T06:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414019897689
  • Protests of Abundance: Distributive Conflict Over Agricultural Rents
           During the Commodities Boom in Argentina, 2003–2013
    • Authors: Jorge Mangonnet, María Victoria Murillo
      First page: 1223
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Whereas the scholarship on rural contention mostly focuses on austerity and busts, we study protests by agricultural export producers in times of high agricultural prices. Aware of price volatility, farmers seek to take advantage of cycles’ upswings to maximize their income and resist sharing the rents generated by higher prices. When farmers lack the formal political influence to avert redistribution, they are more likely to protest as their tax burden increases although they benefit from higher prices. Their strongest protest tool is lockouts, which halt commercialization activities and have significant economic consequences, but require coordination by farmer associations. Membership homogeneity and lower exposure to state retaliation by these organizations heightens contention. We test this argument using a local-level data set on rural lockouts across Argentine departments between 2003 and 2013, a time of high prices for Argentina’s key export commodity: soybeans. We complement our empirical strategy with in-depth, semi-structured elite interviews.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T06:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414019897417
  • Great Expectations, Financialization, and Bank Bailouts in Democracies
    • Authors: Jeffrey M. Chwieroth, Andrew Walter
      First page: 1259
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Accelerating financialization and rising societal wealth have meant that democratic governments increasingly provide bailouts following banking crises. Using a new long-run data set, we show that despite frequent and virulent crises before World War II, bank bailouts to protect wealth were then exceptionally rare. In recent decades, by contrast, governments have increasingly opted for extensive bailouts—well before the major interventions of 2007–2009. We argue that this policy shift is the consequence of the “great expectations” of middle-class voters overlooked in existing accounts. Associated with the growing financialization of wealth, rising leverage, and accumulating ex ante financial stabilization commitments by governments, these expectations are suggestive of substantially altered policy preferences and political cleavages. Since the 1970s, when severe banking crises returned as an important threat to middle-class wealth, this “pressure from below” has led elected governments to provide increasingly costly bailouts with no historical precedent.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-01-24T04:38:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414019897418
  • Candidacy Eligibility Criteria and Party Unity
    • Authors: Jochen Rehmert
      First page: 1298
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Extant research suggests that candidate selection methods can be consequential for party unity in legislative voting. Yet thus far, only variations in the selectorate and the degree of centralization have been examined. This article argues that Candidacy Eligibility Criteria (CEC), too, have implications for party unity. I theorize that with stricter formal requirements, parties avoid adverse selection and ensure the nomination of committed candidates. By using roll-call vote data from 16 industrial democracies, candidate surveys and an original data set consisting of nearly 500 historical party constitutions, I show that parties demanding prior membership and nudging aspirants to maintain networks within the party tend to be more unified in parliamentary voting. Moreover, their candidates, too, express greater loyalty when compared with parties without formal CEC. Thus, this article contributes to the literatures on party unity and on candidate selection by showing how certain party rules, hitherto neglected, affect party unity.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-01-13T05:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414019897700
  • On the Social Construction of Legal Grievances: Evidence From Colombia and
           South Africa
    • Authors: Whitney K. Taylor
      First page: 1326
      Abstract: Comparative Political Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Leveraging comparisons within and across cases, this article investigates legal mobilization for social rights in Colombia and South Africa. This kind of rights contestation represents a new phenomenon, in which both ordinary citizens and judicial actors have come to view problems related to access to health care, housing, education, and social security through the lens of the law. Research on legal mobilization has tended toward one-sided examinations of this complex phenomenon, focusing primarily on either legal claims-making or judicial decision-making, and neglecting to fully theorize the relationship between the two. Drawing on an analysis of rights claims and 178 interviews, this article aims to correct these imbalances. In doing so, it offers a generalizable model that accounts for the social construction of legal grievances and the development of judicial receptivity to particular kinds of claims, and explains both the emergence and continuation of legal mobilization for social rights.
      Citation: Comparative Political Studies
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T06:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0010414019897685
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