Journal Cover Child Development
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0009-3920 - ISSN (Online) 1467-8624
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Housing Interventions and the Chronic and Acute Risks of Family
           Homelessness: Experimental Evidence for Education
    • Authors: J. J. Cutuli; Janette E. Herbers
      Abstract: This study considers risk associated with family homelessness for school functioning and experimental evidence on the effects of different housing interventions over time. Students in homeless families (N = 172; Mage = 7.31; SD = 4.15) were randomized to housing interventions that focus on acute risks (community-based rapid rehousing), chronic risks (permanent subsidy), or usual care (UC). A matched group of low-income, housed students served as an additional reference for effects on attendance, school mobility, and reading and math achievement across 4 years. Findings partially support the chronic-risk hypothesis that family homelessness interferes with achievement through its relation to deep poverty. Children randomly assigned to UC perform as well or better than children assigned to housing interventions in this municipality.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21T23:20:34.527203-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13041
       
  • Parental Depression, Overreactive Parenting, and Early Childhood
           Externalizing Problems: Moderation by Social Support
    • Authors: Lindsay Taraban; Daniel S. Shaw, Leslie D. Leve, Misaki N. Natsuaki, Jody M. Ganiban, David Reiss, Jenae M. Neiderhiser
      Abstract: This study used a large (N = 519), longitudinal sample of adoptive families to test overreactive parenting as a mediator of associations between parental depressive symptoms and early childhood externalizing, and parents’ social support satisfaction as a moderator. Maternal parenting (18 months) mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms (9 months) and child externalizing problems (27 months). Paternal parenting was not a significant mediator. Unexpectedly, we found a cross-over effect for the moderating role of social support satisfaction, such that partners’ social support satisfaction reduced the strength of the association between each parent's own depressive symptoms and overreactive parenting. Results point to the importance of accounting for broader family context in predicting early childhood parenting and child outcomes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20T00:15:10.61189-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13027
       
  • The Development of Empathic Concern in Siblings: A Reciprocal Influence
           Model
    • Authors: Marc Jambon; Sheri Madigan, André Plamondon, Ella Daniel, Jennifer M. Jenkins
      Abstract: This study utilized actor–partner interdependence modeling to examine the bidirectional effects of younger (Mage = 18 months) and older siblings (Mage = 48 months) on later empathy development in a large (n = 452 families), diverse (42% immigrant) Canadian sample. Controlling for parenting, demographic characteristics, sibling relationship quality, and within-child stability in empathic concern, both younger and older siblings’ observed empathic concern uniquely predicted relative increases in the other's empathy over a period of 18 months. The strength of the partner effects did not differ by birth order. Sex composition moderated the younger sibling partner effect, whereas age gap moderated the older sibling partner effect. This study highlights the important role that siblings play in enhancing the development of care and concern for others.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20T00:15:09.408558-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13015
       
  • Getting a Read on Ready To Learn Media: A Meta-analysis Review of
           Effects on Literacy
    • Authors: Lisa B. Hurwitz
      Abstract: Most U.S. preschoolers have consumed media created with funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Ready To Learn (RTL) initiative, which was established to promote school readiness among children ages 2–8. Synthesizing data from 45 evaluations (N = 24,624 unique child participants), this meta-analysis examined the effects of RTL media exposure on young children's literacy skills. Results indicate positive effects of RTL media exposure on children's literacy outcomes, especially vocabulary and phonological concepts. These effects are equivalent to about one-and-a-half months of literacy learning above and beyond typical growth. Findings are robust across a variety of research designs and for exposure to both television and new media. These results are discussed in terms of accountability evidence for RTL and larger debates in scholarly understanding of educational media effects.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:21:18.433012-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13043
       
  • Adolescents’ Friendships, Academic Achievement, and Risk Behaviors:
           Same-Behavior and Cross-Behavior Selection and Influence Processes
    • Authors: Mariola C. Gremmen; Christian Berger, Allison M. Ryan, Christian E.G. Steglich, René Veenstra, Jan K. Dijkstra
      Abstract: This study examined to what extent adolescents’ and their friends’ risk behaviors (i.e., delinquency and alcohol use) hinder or promote their academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]), and vice versa. Longitudinal data were used (N = 1,219 seventh- to ninth-grade adolescents; Mage = 13.69). Results showed that risk behaviors negatively affected adolescents’ GPA, whereas GPA protected against engaging in risk behaviors. Moreover, adolescents tended to select friends who have similar behaviors and friends’ behaviors became more similar over time (same-behavior selection and influence). Furthermore, although same-behavior effects seemed to dominate, evidence was found for some cross-behavior selection effects and a tendency in seventh grade for cross-behavior influence effects. Concluding, it is important to investigate the interplay between different behaviors with longitudinal social network analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:26:34.090265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13045
       
  • Development of Children's Use of External Reminders for Hard-to-Remember
           Intentions
    • Authors: Jonathan Redshaw; Johanna Vandersee, Adam Bulley, Sam J. Gilbert
      Abstract: This study explored under what conditions young children would set reminders to aid their memory for delayed intentions. A computerized task requiring participants to carry out delayed intentions under varying levels of cognitive load was presented to 63 children (aged between 6.9 and 13.0 years old). Children of all ages demonstrated metacognitive predictions of their performance that were congruent with task difficulty. Only older children, however, set more reminders when they expected their future memory performance to be poorer. These results suggest that most primary school-aged children possess metacognitive knowledge about their prospective memory limits, but that only older children may be able to exercise the metacognitive control required to translate this knowledge into strategic reminder setting.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15T05:05:28.755352-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13040
       
  • Dynamic Changes in Peer Victimization and Adjustment Across Middle School:
           Does Friends’ Victimization Alleviate Distress'
    • Authors: Hannah L. Schacter; Jaana Juvonen
      Abstract: Although some adolescents are chronically bullied throughout middle school, others may only experience peer victimization temporarily. This study examined the effects of time-invariant (average level) and time-varying (year-to-year) victimization experiences across middle school on adolescents’ depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, and self-blame. A key question was whether friends’ victimization buffered students from their victimization-related distress. The diverse sample (n = 5,991) was surveyed four times between sixth and eighth grade (Mage at sixth grade = 11.54 years). Three-level multilevel models revealed both time-invariant and time-varying effects of victimization on adjustment, but these maladaptive associations were attenuated when adolescents’ friends experienced more victimization across middle school. The results suggest that even temporarily victimized youth may have unmet mental health needs, and sharing social plight with friends can protect victims.
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T23:20:54.857331-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13038
       
  • Preschoolers' Saving Behavior: The Role of Planning and Self-Control
    • Authors: Deepthi Kamawar; Kimberly Connolly, Andrea Astle-Rahim, Serena Smygwaty, Corrie Vendetti
      Abstract: Planning and self-control were examined in relation to preschoolers' (41- to 74-months) saving behavior. Employing a marble run paradigm, 54 children participated in two trials in which they could use their marbles immediately on a less desirable run, or save for a more desirable run. Twenty-nine children received the opportunity to create a budget. On Trial 1, children in the budgeting condition saved significantly more than did children in the control condition, and their planning ability related to saving (after controlling for age and language). Those who consistently budgeted at least one marble for the more desirable run were more likely to save. Control children's performance improved across trials, with no between-condition differences on Trial 2. Self-control was not related to saving.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31T00:16:31.468174-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13037
       
  • Neural Correlates of Risk Processing Among Adolescents: Influences of
           Parental Monitoring and Household Chaos
    • Authors: Nina Lauharatanahirun; Dominique Maciejewski, Christopher Holmes, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Brooks King-Casas
      Abstract: Adolescent risky behavior is related to developmental changes in decision-making processes and their neural correlates. Yet, research investigating how the family environment relates to risk processing in the adolescent brain is limited. In this study, longitudinal data were collected from 167 adolescents (13–15 years, 53% male) who self-reported household chaos and their parent's monitoring practices, and completed a decision-making task during functional MRI at Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year apart). Parental knowledge was positively related to insular risk processing only among adolescents in low-chaos environments at both time points. Results highlight environmental correlates of insular risk processing in the developing brain.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31T00:15:55.99457-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13036
       
  • Dorsomedial Prefrontal Activity to Sadness Predicts Later Emotion
           Suppression and Depression Severity in Adolescent Girls
    • Authors: Veronika Vilgis; Kristina L. Gelardi, Jonathan L. Helm, Erika E. Forbes, Alison E. Hipwell, Kate Keenan, Amanda E. Guyer
      Abstract: The present study used cross-lagged panel analyses to test longitudinal associations among emotion regulation, prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, and depression severity in adolescent girls. The ventromedial and dorsomedial PFC (vmPFC and dmPFC) were regions of interest given their roles in depression pathophysiology, self-referential processing, and emotion regulation. At ages 16 and 17, seventy-eight girls completed a neuroimaging scan to assess changes in vmPFC and dmPFC activation to sad faces, and measures of depressive symptom severity and emotion regulation. The 1-year cross-lagged effects of dmPFC activity at age 16 on expressive suppression at age 17 and depressive symptomatology at age 17 were significant, demonstrating a predictive relation between dmPFC activity and both suppression and depressive severity.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30T02:02:03.144763-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13023
       
  • Children's Early Decontextualized Talk Predicts Academic Language
           Proficiency in Midadolescence
    • Authors: Paola Uccelli; Özlem Ece Demir-Lira, Meredith L. Rowe, Susan Levine, Susan Goldin-Meadow
      Abstract: This study examines whether children's decontextualized talk—talk about nonpresent events, explanations, or pretend—at 30 months predicts seventh-grade academic language proficiency (age 12). Academic language (AL) refers to the language of school texts. AL proficiency has been identified as an important predictor of adolescent text comprehension. Yet research on precursors to AL proficiency is scarce. Child decontextualized talk is known to be a predictor of early discourse development, but its relation to later language outcomes remains unclear. Forty-two children and their caregivers participated in this study. The proportion of child talk that was decontextualized emerged as a significant predictor of seventh-grade AL proficiency, even after controlling for socioeconomic status, parent decontextualized talk, child total words, child vocabulary, and child syntactic comprehension.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:50:25.470587-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13034
       
  • Sense and Sensitivity: A Response to the Commentary by Keller et al.
           (2018)
    • Authors: Judi Mesman
      Abstract: This reply to the commentary by Keller et al. (2018) on the article “Universality Without Uniformity: A Culturally Inclusive Approach to Sensitive Responsiveness in Infant Caregiving” (Mesman et al., ) highlights key points of agreement emphasizing the sense of investing in synergies across research traditions. These include the importance of distinguishing between different parenting constructs, the need for more studies to test the presented theoretical assumptions, and the value of examining multiple caregiver sensitivity in relation to infants’ developing membership of a community. The only point of disagreement reflects the rigidity versus flexibility of the sensitivity construct. This reply argues that it is exactly the versatility of the sensitivity construct that makes it a valuable building block for bridges between fields.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:35:45.500268-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13030
       
  • The Myth of Universal Sensitive Responsiveness: Comment on Mesman
           et al. (2017)
    • Authors: Heidi Keller; Kim Bard, Gilda Morelli, Nandita Chaudhary, Marga Vicedo, Mariano Rosabal-Coto, Gabriel Scheidecker, Marjorie Murray, Alma Gottlieb
      Abstract: This article considers claims of Mesman et al. (2017) that sensitive responsiveness as defined by Ainsworth, while not uniformly expressed across cultural contexts, is universal. Evidence presented demonstrates that none of the components of sensitive responsiveness (i.e., which partner takes the lead, whose point of view is primary, and the turn-taking structure of interactions) or warmth are universal. Mesman and colleagues’ proposal that sensitive responsiveness is “providing for infant needs” is critiqued. Constructs concerning caregiver quality must be embedded within a nexus of cultural logic, including caregiving practices, based on ecologically valid childrearing values and beliefs. Sensitive responsiveness, as defined by Mesman and attachment theorists, is not universal. Attachment theory and cultural or cross-cultural psychology are not built on common ground.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:35:38.407128-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13031
       
  • Impacts of Adolescent and Young Adult Civic Engagement on Health and
           Socioeconomic Status in Adulthood
    • Authors: Parissa J. Ballard; Lindsay T. Hoyt, Mark C. Pachucki
      Abstract: The present study examines links between civic engagement (voting, volunteering, and activism) during late adolescence and early adulthood, and socioeconomic status and mental and physical health in adulthood. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a propensity score matching approach is used to rigorously estimate how civic engagement is associated with outcomes among 9,471 adolescents and young adults (baseline Mage = 15.9). All forms of civic engagement are positively associated with subsequent income and education level. Volunteering and voting are favorably associated with subsequent mental health and health behaviors, and activism is associated with more health-risk behaviors and not associated with mental health. Civic engagement is not associated with physical health.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:01:04.30223-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12998
       
  • The Nature and Consequences of Essentialist Beliefs About Race in Early
           Childhood
    • Authors: Tara M. Mandalaywala; Gabrielle Ranger-Murdock, David M. Amodio, Marjorie Rhodes
      Abstract: It is widely believed that race divides the world into biologically distinct kinds of people—an essentialist belief inconsistent with reality. Essentialist views of race have been described as early emerging, but this study found that young children (n = 203, Mage = 5.45) hold only the more limited belief that the physical feature of skin color is inherited and stable. Overall, children rejected the causal essentialist view that behavioral and psychological characteristics are constrained by an inherited racial essence. Although average levels of children's causal essentialist beliefs about race were low, variation in these beliefs was related to children's own group membership, exposure to diversity, as well as children's own social attitudes.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:01:03.02018-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13008
       
  • Becoming Kinder: Prosocial Choice and the Development of
           Interpersonal Regret
    • Authors: Brian Uprichard; Teresa McCormack
      Abstract: Three experiments examined children's ability to feel regret following a failure to act prosocially. In Experiment 1, ninety 6- to 7-year-olds and one hundred seven 7- to 9-year-olds were given a choice to donate a resource to another child. If they failed to donate, they discovered that this meant the other child could not win a prize. Children in both age groups then showed evidence of experiencing regret, although not in control conditions where they had not made the choice themselves or their choice did not negatively affect the other child. In Experiment 2, eighty-five 5- to 6-year-olds and one hundred nine 7- to 9-year-olds completed the same task; only the older group showed evidence of regret. In Experiment 3, with one hundred thirty-four 6- to 7-year-olds, experiencing regret was associated with subsequently making other prosocial choices.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T00:05:34.635385-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13029
       
  • Examining Character Structure and Function Across Childhood and
           Adolescence
    • Authors: Jennifer Shubert; Laura Wray-Lake, Amy K. Syvertsen, Aaron Metzger
      Abstract: Character strengths are an integral component of positive youth development that can promote flourishing. Developmental principles posit constructs become increasingly complex with age, yet this process has not been examined with character. Using a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 2,467 youth ages 9–19, bifactor models were estimated across elementary, middle, and high school-age groups to examine age differences in character structure and function. With successive age, a greater number of specific character strength factors were identified, suggesting character structure becomes more differentiated across adolescence. Results linking character bifactor models to indicators of positive functioning also supported differentiation in character function across ages. Findings point to the need for theoretical and empirical considerations of character structure and function across development.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T03:15:39.371238-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13035
       
  • Mothers' Early Mind-Mindedness Predicts Educational Attainment in Socially
           and Economically Disadvantaged British Children
    • Authors: Elizabeth Meins; Charles Fernyhough, Luna C.M. Centifanti
      Abstract: Relations between mothers' mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments) at 8 months (N = 206), and children's educational attainment at ages 7 (n = 158) and 11 (n = 156) were investigated in a British sample. Appropriate mind-related comments were positively correlated with reading and mathematics performance at both ages but only in the low-socioeconomic status (SES) group. Path analyses showed that in the low-SES group, appropriate mind-related comments directly predicted age-11 reading performance, with age-4 verbal ability mediating the relation between appropriate mind-related comments and age-7 reading. In contrast, maternal sensitivity and infant–mother attachment security did not predict children's educational attainment. These findings are discussed in terms of genetic and environmental contributions to reading and mathematics performance.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18T00:55:24.714578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13028
       
  • Trajectories of Infants’ Biobehavioral Development: Timing and Rate of
           A-Not-B Performance Gains and EEG Maturation
    • Authors: Leigha A. MacNeill; Nilam Ram, Martha Ann Bell, Nathan A. Fox, Koraly Pérez-Edgar
      Abstract: This study examined how timing (i.e., relative maturity) and rate (i.e., how quickly infants attain proficiency) of A-not-B performance were related to changes in brain activity from age 6 to 12 months. A-not-B performance and resting EEG (electroencephalography) were measured monthly from age 6 to 12 months in 28 infants and were modeled using logistic and linear growth curve models. Infants with faster performance rates reached performance milestones earlier. Infants with faster rates of increase in A-not-B performance had lower occipital power at 6 months and greater linear increases in occipital power. The results underscore the importance of considering nonlinear change processes for studying infants’ cognitive development as well as how these changes are related to trajectories of EEG power.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17T02:02:02.744283-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13022
       
  • Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: 2017 Redux
    • Authors: Cristine H. Legare; Jennifer M. Clegg, Nicole J. Wen
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:25:44.54722-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13018
       
  • How Children Invented Humanity
    • Authors: David F. Bjorklund
      Abstract: I use the commentaries of Legare, Clegg, and Wen and of Frankenhuis and Tiokhin as jumping-off points to discuss an issue hinted at both in my essay and their commentaries: How a developmental perspective can help us achieve a better understanding of evolution. I examine briefly how neoteny may have contributed to human morphology; how developmental plasticity in great apes, and presumably our common ancestor with them, may have led the way to advances in social cognition; and how the “invention” of childhood contributed to unique human cognitive abilities. I conclude by acknowledging that not all developmentalists have adopted an evolutionary perspective, but that we are approaching a time when an evolutionary perspective will be implicit in the thinking of all psychologists.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:25:37.970785-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13020
       
  • Bridging Evolutionary Biology and Developmental Psychology: Toward An
           Enduring Theoretical Infrastructure
    • Authors: Willem E. Frankenhuis; Leonid Tiokhin
      Abstract: Bjorklund synthesizes promising research directions in developmental psychology using an evolutionary framework. In general terms, we agree with Bjorklund: Evolutionary theory has the potential to serve as a metatheory for developmental psychology. However, as currently used in psychology, evolutionary theory is far from reaching this potential. In evolutionary biology, formal mathematical models are the norm. In developmental psychology, verbal models are the norm. In order to reach its potential, evolutionary developmental psychology needs to embrace formal modeling.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:25:36.536287-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13021
       
  • A Metatheory for Cognitive Development (or “Piaget is Dead”
           Revisited)
    • Authors: David F. Bjorklund
      Abstract: In 1997, I argued that with the loss of Piaget's theory as an overarching guide, cognitive development had become disjointed and a new metatheory was needed to unify the field. I suggested developmental biology, particularly evolutionary theory, as a candidate. Here, I examine the increasing emphasis of biology in cognitive development research over the past 2 decades. I describe briefly the emergence of evolutionary developmental psychology and examines areas in which proximal and distal biological causation have been particularly influential. I argue that developmental biology will continue to increasingly influence research and theory in cognitive development and that evolutionary theory is well on its way to becoming a metatheory, not just for cognitive development, but for developmental psychology generally.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:25:35.050858-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13019
       
  • Youth's Conceptions of Adolescence Predict Longitudinal Changes in
           Prefrontal Cortex Activation and Risk Taking During Adolescence
    • Authors: Yang Qu; Eva M. Pomerantz, Ethan McCormick, Eva H. Telzer
      Abstract: The development of cognitive control during adolescence is paralleled by changes in the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using a three-wave longitudinal neuroimaging design (N = 22, Mage = 13.08 years at Wave 1), this study examined if youth's stereotypes about teens modulate changes in their neural activation during cognitive control. Participants holding stereotypes of teens as irresponsible in the family context (i.e., ignoring family obligations) in middle school showed increases in bilateral ventrolateral PFC activation during cognitive control over the transition to high school, which was associated with increases in risk taking. These findings provide preliminary evidence that youth's conceptions of adolescence play a role in neural plasticity over this phase of development.
      PubDate: 2018-01-15T23:40:50.207889-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13017
       
  • The Legacy of Early Abuse and Neglect for Social and Academic Competence
           From Childhood to Adulthood
    • Authors: K. Lee Raby; Glenn I. Roisman, Madelyn H. Labella, Jodi Martin, R. Chris Fraley, Jeffry A. Simpson
      Abstract: This study used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 267) to investigate whether abuse and neglect experiences during the first 5 years of life have fading or enduring consequences for social and academic competence over the next 3 decades of life. Experiencing early abuse and neglect was consistently associated with more interpersonal problems and lower academic achievement from childhood through adulthood (32–34 years). The predictive significance of early abuse and neglect was not attributable to the stability of developmental competence over time, nor to abuse and neglect occurring later in childhood. Early abuse and neglect had enduring associations with social (but not academic) competence after controlling for potential demographic confounds and early sensitive caregiving.
      PubDate: 2018-01-15T23:30:34.270667-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13033
       
  • Children's Perceptions of Economic Groups in a Context of Limited Access
           to Opportunities
    • Authors: Laura Elenbaas; Melanie Killen
      Abstract: Children (N = 267, ages 8–14 years, M = 11.61 years, middle to upper-middle income) made predictions regarding groups of same-aged peers from high-wealth and low-wealth backgrounds. The context involved granting access to a special opportunity. From middle childhood to early adolescence children increasingly expected both high- and low-wealth groups to want access to opportunities for their own group. However, children viewed high-wealth groups as motivated in part by selfishness and low-wealth groups as concerned in part with broader economic inequality. Finally, the higher children's family income, the more they expected group-serving tendencies. These findings revealed children's perceptions of exclusive preferences between economic groups, negative stereotypes about high-wealth children, and awareness of some of the constraints faced by low-wealth children.
      PubDate: 2018-01-15T01:40:28.593524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13024
       
  • Bilingualism Narrows Socioeconomic Disparities in Executive Functions and
           Self-Regulatory Behaviors During Early Childhood: Evidence From the Early
           Childhood Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Andree Hartanto; Wei X. Toh, Hwajin Yang
      Abstract: Socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism have been shown to influence executive functioning during early childhood. Less is known, however, about how the two factors interact within an individual. By analyzing a nationally representative sample of approximately 18,200 children who were tracked from ages 5 to 7 across four waves, both higher SES and bilingualism were found to account for greater performance on the inhibition and shifting aspects of executive functions (EF) and self-regulatory behaviors in classroom. However, only SES reliably predicted verbal working memory. Furthermore, bilingualism moderated the effects of SES by ameliorating the detrimental consequences of low-SES on EF and self-regulatory behaviors. These findings underscore bilingualism's power to enrich executive functioning and self-regulatory behaviors, especially among underprivileged children.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T01:25:32.236306-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13032
       
  • Gaze Following Is Not Dependent on Ostensive Cues: A Critical Test of
           Natural Pedagogy
    • Authors: Gustaf Gredebäck; Kim Astor, Christine Fawcett
      Abstract: The theory of natural pedagogy stipulates that infants follow gaze because they are sensitive to the communicative intent of others. According to this theory, gaze following should be present if, and only if, accompanied by at least one of a set of specific ostensive cues. The current article demonstrates gaze following in a range of contexts, both with and without expressions of communicative intent in a between-subjects design with a large sample of 6-month-old infants (n = 94). Thus, conceptually replicating prior results from Szufnarowska et al. (2014) and falsifying a central pillar of the natural pedagogy theory. The results suggest that there are opportunities to learn from others’ gaze independently of their displayed communicative intent.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T02:32:02.747401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13026
       
  • Personality Traits Are Associated With Cortical Development Across
           Adolescence: A Longitudinal Structural MRI Study
    • Authors: Lia Ferschmann; Anders M. Fjell, Margarete E. Vollrath, Håkon Grydeland, Kristine B. Walhovd, Christian K. Tamnes
      Abstract: How personality traits relate to structural brain changes in development is an important but understudied question. In this study, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were investigated in 99 participants aged 8–19 years. Follow-up MRI data were collected after on average 2.6 years for 74 individuals. The Big Five personality traits were related to longitudinal regional CT or SA development, but limited cross-sectional relations were observed. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, and imagination were associated with more age-expected cortical thinning over time. The results suggest that the substantial individual variability observed in personality traits may partly be explained by cortical maturation across adolescence, implying a developmental origin for personality–brain relations observed in adults.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T03:15:47.867255-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13016
       
  • Development of Social Working Memory in Preschoolers and Its Relation to
           Theory of Mind
    • Authors: Jie He; Dong Guo, Shuyi Zhai, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
      Abstract: Social working memory (WM) has distinct neural substrates from canonical cognitive WM (e.g., color). However, no study, to the best of our knowledge, has yet explored how social WM develops. The current study explored the development of social WM capacity and its relation to theory of mind (ToM). Experiment 1 had sixty-four 3- to 6-year-olds memorize 1–5 biological motion stimuli, the processing of which is considered a hallmark of social cognition. The social WM capacity steadily increased between 3- and 6-year-olds, with the increase between 4 and 5 years being sharp. Furthermore, social WM capacity positively predicted preschoolers' ToM scores, while nonsocial WM capacity did not; this positive correlation was particularly strong among 4-year-olds (Experiment 2, N = 144).
      PubDate: 2018-01-01T21:00:43.24184-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13025
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 4
      PubDate: 2018-01-12T21:37:21.501648-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12962
       
  • The Trouble With Quantifiers: Exploring Children's Deficits in Scalar
           Implicature
    • Authors: Alexandra C. Horowitz; Rose M. Schneider, Michael C. Frank
      Abstract: Adults routinely use the context of utterances to infer a meaning beyond the literal semantics of their words (e.g., inferring from “She ate some of the cookies” that she ate some, but not all). Contrasting children's (N = 209) comprehension of scalar implicatures using quantifiers with contextually derived ad hoc implicatures revealed that 4- to 5-year-olds reliably computed ad hoc, but not scalar, implicatures (Experiment 1). Unexpectedly, performance with “some” and “none” was correlated (Experiments 1 and 2). An individual differences study revealed a correlation between quantifier knowledge and implicature success (Experiment 3); a control study ruled out other factors (Experiment 4). These findings suggest that some failures with scalar implicatures may be rooted in a lack of semantic knowledge rather than general pragmatic or processing demands.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29T02:31:00.518055-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13014
       
  • Distinguishing Polemic From Commentary in Science: Some Guidelines
           Illustrated With the Case of Sage and Burgio (2017)
    • Authors: David Robert Grimes; Dorothy V. M. Bishop
      Abstract: Exposure to nonionizing radiation used in wireless communication remains a contentious topic in the public mind—while the overwhelming scientific evidence to date suggests that microwave and radio frequencies used in modern communications are safe, public apprehension remains considerable. A recent article in Child Development has caused concern by alleging a causative connection between nonionizing radiation and a host of conditions, including autism and cancer. This commentary outlines why these claims are devoid of merit, and why they should not have been given a scientific veneer of legitimacy. The commentary also outlines some hallmarks of potentially dubious science, with the hope that authors, reviewers, and editors might be better able to avoid suspect scientific claims.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T02:05:33.577358-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13013
       
  • Differential Associations of Distinct Forms of Childhood Adversity With
           Neurobehavioral Measures of Reward Processing: A Developmental Pathway to
           Depression
    • Authors: Meg J. Dennison; Maya L. Rosen, Kelly A. Sambrook, Jessica L. Jenness, Margaret A. Sheridan, Katie A. McLaughlin
      Abstract: Childhood adversity is associated with altered reward processing, but little is known about whether this varies across distinct types of adversity. In a sample of 94 children (6–19 years), we investigated whether experiences of material deprivation, emotional deprivation, and trauma have differential associations with reward-related behavior and white matter microstructure in tracts involved in reward processing. Material deprivation (food insecurity), but not emotional deprivation or trauma, was associated with poor reward performance. Adversity-related influences on the integrity of white matter microstructure in frontostriatal tracts varied across childhood adversity types, and reductions in frontostriatal white matter integrity mediated the association of food insecurity with depressive symptoms. These findings document distinct behavioral and neurodevelopmental consequences of specific forms of adversity that have implications for psychopathology risk.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T02:00:45.948362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13011
       
  • Marital Conflict Predicts Mother-to-Infant Adrenocortical Transmission
    • Authors: Leah C. Hibel; Evelyn Mercado
      Abstract: Employing an experimental design, mother-to-infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Results indicate maternal cortisol reactivity and recovery to the conflict (but not positive) discussion predicted infant cortisol reactivity to the infant challenge. Mothers’ positive affect during the discussion buffered, and intrusion during the free-play potentiated, mother-to-infant adrenocortical transmission. These findings advance our understanding of the social and contextual regulation of adrenocortical activity in early childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T02:00:38.984524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13010
       
  • Interactive Contributions of Attribution Biases and Emotional Intensity to
           Child–Friend Interaction Quality During Preadolescence
    • Authors: Xi Chen; Nancy L. McElwain, Jennifer E. Lansford
      Abstract: Using data from a subsample of 913 study children and their friends who participated in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the interactive contributions of child-reported attribution biases and teacher-reported child emotional intensity (EI) at Grade 4 (M = 9.9 years) to observed child–friend interaction at Grade 6 (M = 11.9 years) were examined. Study children's hostile attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more negative child–friend interaction. In contrast, benign attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more positive child–friend interaction. The findings are discussed in light of the “fuel” interpretation of EI, in which high-intensity emotions may motivate children to act on their cognitive biases for better or for worse.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T03:15:38.949845-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13012
       
  • Attachment Security Priming Decreases Children's Physiological Response to
           Threat
    • Authors: Brandi Stupica; Bonnie E. Brett, Susan S. Woodhouse, Jude Cassidy
      Abstract: Ninety 6- and 7-year-olds (49.3% White, mostly middle class) from greater Washington, DC were randomly assigned to a subliminal priming condition (secure, happy, or neutral) to determine if attachment security priming decreases physiological, expressive, and self-reported fear reactions to threatening stimuli. Dispositional attachment security was also assessed. Secure priming and attachment security each decreased electrodermal reactivity, increased vagal augmentation, and decreased fearful facial expressions compared to control conditions. Examination of a statistical interaction between security priming and child attachment indicated that, although secure children had increased vagal augmentation and fewer fearful expressions than insecure children, the effects of priming were constant across secure and insecure children. There were no priming or attachment effects associated with children's self-reported fear.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T03:10:25.029729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13009
       
  • Impact of Contact With Grandparents on Children's and Adolescents’
           Views on the Elderly
    • Authors: Allison Flamion; Pierre Missotten, Manon Marquet, Stéphane Adam
      Abstract: Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination against the elderly (ageism) may manifest themselves in children at an early age. However, the factors influencing this phenomenon are not well known. Using both explicit and open-ended questions, this study analyzed the influence of personal and familial parameters on the views of 1,151 seven- to sixteen-year-old Belgian children and adolescents on the elderly. Four factors were found to affect these views: gender (girls had slightly more positive views than boys), age (ageism was lowest in 10- to 12-year-old, reminiscent of other forms of stereotypes and cognitive developmental theories), grandparents’ health, and most importantly, quality of contact with grandparents (very good and good contacts correlated with more favorable feelings toward the elderly, especially in children with frequent contacts).
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T02:05:03.687699-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12992
       
  • Enlisting Peer Cooperation in the Service of Alcohol Use Prevention in
           Middle School
    • Authors: Mark J. Van Ryzin; Cary J. Roseth
      Abstract: This article reports on a cluster randomized trial of cooperative learning (CL) as a way to prevent escalation in alcohol use during middle school (N = 1,460 seventh-grade students, age 12–13, seven intervention and eight control schools). We hypothesized that CL, by bringing students together in group-based learning activities using positive interdependence, would interrupt the process of deviant peer clustering, provide at-risk youth with prosocial influences, and in turn, reduce escalations in alcohol use. Results indicated that CL significantly reduced growth in deviant peer affiliation and actual alcohol use, and effects for willingness to use alcohol were at the threshold of significance (p = .05). CL also attenuated the link between willingness to use alcohol and later alcohol use.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T02:05:02.627928-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12981
       
  • Creepiness Creeps In: Uncanny Valley Feelings Are Acquired in Childhood
    • Authors: Kimberly A. Brink; Kurt Gray, Henry M. Wellman
      Abstract: The uncanny valley posits that very human-like robots are unsettling, a phenomenon amply demonstrated in adults but unexplored in children. Two hundred forty 3- to 18-year-olds viewed one of two robots (machine-like or very human-like) and rated their feelings toward (e.g., “Does the robot make you feel weird or happy'”) and perceptions of the robot's capacities (e.g., “Does the robot think for itself'”). Like adults, children older than 9 judged the human-like robot as creepier than the machine-like robot—but younger children did not. Children's perceptions of robots’ mental capacities predicted uncanny feelings: children judge robots to be creepy depending on whether they have human-like minds. The uncanny valley is therefore acquired over development and relates to changing conceptions about robot minds.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T08:07:08.302077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12999
       
  • Digital Screen Time Limits and Young Children's Psychological Well-Being:
           Evidence From a Population-Based Study
    • Authors: Andrew K. Przybylski; Netta Weinstein
      Abstract: There is little empirical understanding of how young children's screen engagement links to their well-being. Data from 19,957 telephone interviews with parents of 2- to 5-year-olds assessed their children's digital screen use and psychological well-being in terms of caregiver attachment, resilience, curiosity, and positive affect in the past month. Evidence did not support implementing limits (
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T08:06:58.606344-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13007
       
  • Shyness and Trajectories of Functional Network Connectivity Over Early
           Adolescence
    • Authors: Chad M. Sylvester; Diana J. Whalen, Andy C. Belden, Shana L. Sanchez, Joan L. Luby, Deanna M. Barch
      Abstract: High shyness during early adolescence is associated with impaired peer relationships and risk for psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the relation between shyness and trajectories of brain development over early adolescence. The current study longitudinally examined trajectories of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within four brain networks in 147 adolescents. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at three different time points, at average ages 10.5 (range = 7.8–13.0), 11.7 (range = 9.3–14.1), and 12.9 years (range = 10.1–15.2). Multilevel linear modeling indicated that high shyness was associated with a less steep negative slope of default mode network (DMN) rs-fc over early adolescence relative to low shyness. Less steep decreases in DMN rs-fc may relate to increased self-focus in adolescents with high shyness.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T23:46:31.550036-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13005
       
  • Learning to Individuate: The Specificity of Labels Differentially Impacts
           Infant Visual Attention
    • Authors: Charisse B. Pickron; Arjun Iyer, Eswen Fava, Lisa S. Scott
      Abstract: This study examined differences in visual attention as a function of label learning from 6 to 9 months of age. Before and after 3 months of parent-directed storybook training with computer-generated novel objects, event-related potentials and visual fixations were recorded while infants viewed trained and untrained images (n = 23). Relative to a pretraining, a no-training control group (n = 11), and to infants trained with category-level labels (e.g., all labeled “Hitchel”), infants trained with individual-level labels (e.g., “Boris,” “Jamar”) displayed increased visual attention and neural differentiation of objects after training.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T07:28:04.970784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13004
       
  • Development of Episodic Prospection: Factors Underlying Improvements in
           Middle and Late Childhood
    • Authors: Christine Coughlin; Richard W. Robins, Simona Ghetti
      Abstract: Episodic prospection is the mental simulation of a personal future event in rich contextual detail. This study examined age-related differences in episodic prospection in 5- to 11-year-olds and adults (N = 157), as well as factors that may contribute to developmental improvements. Participants’ narratives of past, future, and make-believe events were coded for episodic content, and self-concept coherence (i.e., how coherently an individual sees himself or herself) and narrative ability were tested as predictors of episodic prospection. Although all ages provided less episodic content for future event narratives, age-related improvements were observed across childhood, suggesting future event generation is particularly difficult for children. Self-concept coherence and narrative ability each independently predicted the episodic content of 5- and 7-year-olds’ future event narratives.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T02:20:33.881192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13001
       
  • Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Privacy Invasion and Adolescent
           Secrecy: An Illustration of Simpson's Paradox
    • Authors: Evelien Dietvorst; Marieke Hiemstra, Manon H.J. Hillegers, Loes Keijsers
      Abstract: Adolescents’ secrecy is intertwined with perception of parents’ behaviors as acts of privacy invasion. It is currently untested, however, how this transactional process operates at the within-person level—where these causal processes take place. Dutch adolescents (n = 244, Mage = 13.84, 38.50% boys) reported three times on perceived parental privacy invasion and secrecy. Cross-lagged panel models (CLPM) confirmed earlier findings. Privacy invasion predicted increased secrecy, but a reverse effect was found from increased secrecy to increased privacy invasion. Controlling for confounding positive group-level associations with a novel random intercept CLPM, negative within-person associations were found. Higher levels of secrecy predicted lower levels of privacy invasive behaviors at the within-person level. These opposing findings within- versus between-persons illustrate a Simpson's paradox.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:25:53.702259-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13002
       
  • Multiracial in Middle School: The Influence of Classmates and Friends on
           Changes in Racial Self-Identification
    • Authors: Leslie Echols; Jerreed Ivanich, Sandra Graham
      Abstract: In the present research, the influence of racial diversity among classmates and friends on changes in racial self-identification among multiracial youth was examined (n = 5,209; Mage = 10.56 years at the beginning of sixth grade). A novel individual-level measure of diversity among classmates based on participants’ course schedules was utilized. The findings revealed that although there was some fluidity in multiracial identification at the beginning of middle school, changes in multiracial identification were more evident later in middle school. In addition, although diversity among classmates and friends both increased the likelihood of multiracial identification in the beginning of middle school, only diversity among friends mattered later in middle school, when fluidity in multiracial identification was at its peak.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:25:25.784784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13000
       
  • A Within-Family Examination of Interparental Conflict, Cognitive
           Appraisals, and Adolescent Mood and Well-Being
    • Authors: Gregory M. Fosco; David M. Lydon-Staley
      Abstract: Interparental conflict (IPC) is a well-established risk factor across child and adolescent development. This study disentangled situational (within-family) and global (between-family) appraisal processes to better map hypothesized processes to adolescents’ experiences in the family. This 21-day daily dairy study sampled 151 caregivers and their adolescents (61.5% female). Using multilevel mediation analyses indicated that, on days when IPC was elevated, adolescents experienced more threat and self-blame. In turn, when adolescents experienced more threat appraisals, they experienced diminished positive well-being; whereas days when adolescents felt more self-blame, they experienced increased negative mood and diminished positive well-being. Statistically significant indirect effects were found for threat as a mediator of IPC and positive outcomes. Daily blame appraisals mediated IPC and adolescent angry mood.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T06:40:36.910962-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12997
       
  • Exposure to Parental Depression in Adolescence and Risk for Metabolic
           Syndrome in Adulthood
    • Authors: Katherine B. Ehrlich; Edith Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gregory E. Miller, Gene H. Brody
      Abstract: The psychosocial consequences of living with a depressed parent have been well characterized. Less well known, however, is how this exposure is predictive of later physical health problems. The present study evaluated how parental depression across youths’ adolescence (ages 11–18) was associated with youth metabolic syndrome at age 25 (n = 391). Youth self-regulation and health behaviors were considered as possible moderators of the link between parental depression and youth metabolic syndrome. Analyses revealed that parental depression in adolescence was associated with a composite score reflecting metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood. Furthermore, self-regulation and health behaviors moderated this link, such that links between parental depression and the metabolic syndrome existed only for youth with low self-regulation or unhealthy behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T06:40:28.350271-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13003
       
  • Is There a Downside to Anticipating the Upside' Children's and
           Adults’ Reasoning About How Prior Expectations Shape Future Emotions
    • Authors: Karen Hjortsvang Lara; Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J. Kramer
      Abstract: Four- to 10-year-olds and adults (N = 205) responded to vignettes involving three individuals with different expectations (high, low, and no) for a future event. Participants judged characters’ pre-outcome emotions, as well as predicted and explained their feelings following three events (positive, attenuated, and negative). Although adults rated high-expectation characters more negatively than low-expectation characters after all outcomes, children shared this intuition starting at 6–7 years for negative outcomes, 8–10 years for attenuated, and never for positive. Comparison to baseline (no expectation) indicated that understanding the costs of high expectations emerges first and remains more robust across age than recognition that low expectations carry benefits. Explanation analyses further clarified this developing awareness about the relation between thoughts and emotions over time.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T00:00:41.289809-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12994
       
  • High-Ability Grouping: Benefits for Gifted Students’ Achievement
           Development Without Costs in Academic Self-Concept
    • Authors: Franzis Preckel; Isabelle Schmidt, Eva Stumpf, Monika Motschenbacher, Katharina Vogl, Vsevolod Scherrer, Wolfgang Schneider
      Abstract: Effects of full-time ability grouping on students’ academic self-concept (ASC) and mathematics achievement were investigated in the first 3 years of secondary school (four waves of measurement; students’ average age at first wave: 10.5 years). Students were primarily from middle and upper class families living in southern Germany. The study sample comprised 148 (60% male) students from 14 gifted classes and 148 (57% male) students from 25 regular classes (matched by propensity score matching). Data analyses involved multilevel and latent growth curve analyses. Findings revealed no evidence for contrast effects of class-average achievement or assimilation effects of class type on students’ ASC. ASC remained stable over time. Students in gifted classes showed higher achievement gains than students in regular classes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T23:50:34.652099-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12996
       
  • The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Universal Preschool: Evidence From
           a Spanish Reform
    • Authors: Thomas Huizen; Lisa Dumhs, Janneke Plantenga
      Abstract: This study provides a cost–benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education, focusing on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. Benefits in terms of child development and maternal employment are estimated using evidence on the causal effects of this reform. In the baseline estimation the benefit–cost ratio is over 4, indicating sizeable net societal benefits of the preschool investment. The results show that the child development effects are the major determinant of the cost–benefit ratio; the employment gains for parents appear to play a relatively minor role. Overall, the cost–benefit analysis provides support for investing in high-quality preschool education.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T07:05:26.963147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12993
       
  • Promoting Resilience Among African American Girls: Racial Identity as a
           Protective Factor
    • Authors: Sheretta T. Butler-Barnes; Seanna Leath, Amber Williams, Christy Byrd, Rona Carter, Tabbye M. Chavous
      Abstract: This study examines school climate, racial identity beliefs, and achievement motivation beliefs within a cultural-ecological and risk and resilience framework. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 733 (Mage = 14.49) African American adolescent girls. A linear mixed effects model was used to determine if racial identity dimensions moderated the relationship between school climate and achievement motivation beliefs across four waves. Results revealed that racial identity (private regard and racial centrality) and ideology (nationalist) beliefs were associated with higher achievement motivation beliefs over time, while racial centrality and private regard, and a sense of belonging served as protective factors. The findings contribute to the importance of racial identity beliefs and increase the visibility of African American girls.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T07:05:22.474515-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12995
       
  • Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and
           North African French Adolescents
    • Authors: Adam J. Hoffman; Florence Dumas, Florence Loose, Annique Smeding, Beth Kurtz-Costes, Isabelle Régner
      Abstract: Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (Mage = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:15:45.15027-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12959
       
  • Seeing Iconic Gestures While Encoding Events Facilitates Children's Memory
           of These Events
    • Authors: Suzanne Aussems; Sotaro Kita
      Abstract: An experiment with 72 three-year-olds investigated whether encoding events while seeing iconic gestures boosts children's memory representation of these events. The events, shown in videos of actors moving in an unusual manner, were presented with either iconic gestures depicting how the actors performed these actions, interactive gestures, or no gesture. In a recognition memory task, children in the iconic gesture condition remembered actors and actions better than children in the control conditions. Iconic gestures were categorized based on how much of the actors was represented by the hands (feet, legs, or body). Only iconic hand-as-body gestures boosted actor memory. Thus, seeing iconic gestures while encoding events facilitates children's memory of those aspects of events that are schematically highlighted by gesture.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T08:25:47.426757-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12988
       
  • Examining Children's Implicit Racial Attitudes Using Exemplar and
           Category-Based Measures
    • Authors: Amanda Williams; Jennifer R. Steele
      Abstract: The goal of this research was to examine children's implicit racial attitudes. Across three studies, a total of 359 White 5- to 12-year-olds completed child-friendly exemplar (Affective Priming Task; Affect Misattribution Procedure) and category-based (Implicit Association Test) implicit measures of racial attitudes. Younger children (5- to 8-year-olds) showed automatic ingroup positivity toward White child exemplars, whereas older children (9- to 12-year-olds) did not. Children also showed no evidence of automatic negativity toward Black exemplars, despite demonstrating consistent pro-White versus Black bias on the category-based measure. Together, the results suggest that (a) implicit ingroup and outgroup attitudes can follow distinct developmental trajectories, and (b) the spontaneous activation of implicit intergroup attitudes can depend on the salience of race.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T08:25:40.976538-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12991
       
  • Peer Problems Among Postinstitutionalized, Internationally Adopted
           Children: Relations to Hypocortisolism, Parenting Quality, and ADHD
           Symptoms
    • Authors: Clio E. Pitula; Carrie E. DePasquale, Shanna B. Mliner, Megan R. Gunnar
      Abstract: Seventy-eight postinstitutionalized (PI) children adopted at ages 17–36 months were assessed 2, 8, 16, and 24 months postadoption on measures of cortisol and parenting quality, and compared to same-aged children adopted from foster care (FC, n = 45) and nonadopted children (NA, n = 45). In kindergarten (Mage = 6.0 years), teachers, parents, and trained observers completed measures of peer relationships and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. PI children had more peer problems and ADHD symptoms according to teachers and observers than NA children with FC children in between, whereas both PI and FC children were at significantly greater risk of hypocortisolism (i.e., blunted cortisol diurnal rhythm and reactivity). Hypocortisolism and ADHD symptoms mediated the association between preadoption adversity and peer difficulties. Higher postadoption parenting quality was protective.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T08:25:37.512797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12986
       
  • Let's Talk: Parents’ Mental Talk (Not Mind-Mindedness or Mindreading
           Capacity) Predicts Children's False Belief Understanding
    • Authors: Rory T. Devine; Claire Hughes
      Abstract: Although one might expect parents’ mind-mindedness (MM; the propensity to view children as mental agents) to relate to everyday mental-state talk (MST) and theory-of-mind capacity, evidence to support this view is lacking. In addition, both the uniqueness and the specificity of relations between parental MM, parental MST, and children's false belief understanding (FBU) are open to question. To address these three gaps, this study tracked 117 preschoolers (60 boys) and their parents across a 13-month period (Mage = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53, at Time 1). Parental MM, MST, and theory-of-mind capacity showed little overlap. Both MM and MST were weakly associated with children's concurrent FBU, but in line with social constructivist accounts, only MST predicted later FBU.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T08:25:33.386777-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12990
       
  • Parental Sexual Orientation and Children's Psychological Well-Being:
           2013–2015 National Health Interview Survey
    • Authors: Jerel P. Calzo; Vickie M. Mays, Charlotte Björkenstam, Emma Björkenstam, Kyriaki Kosidou, Susan D. Cochran
      Abstract: Debate persists about whether parental sexual orientation affects children's well-being. This study utilized information from the 2013 to 2015 U.S., population-based National Health Interview Survey to examine associations between parental sexual orientation and children's well-being. Parents reported their children's (aged 4–17 years old, N = 21,103) emotional and mental health difficulties using the short form Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children of bisexual parents had higher SDQ scores than children of heterosexual parents. Adjusting for parental psychological distress (a minority stress indicator) eliminated this difference. Children of lesbian and gay parents did not differ from children of heterosexual parents in emotional and mental health difficulties, yet, the results among children of bisexual parents warrant more research examining the impact of minority stress on families.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T02:35:41.937661-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12989
       
  • Can Bilingualism Mitigate Set-Shifting Difficulties in Children With
           Autism Spectrum Disorders'
    • Authors: Ana Maria Gonzalez-Barrero; Aparna S. Nadig
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of bilingualism on set-shifting and working memory in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Bilinguals with ASD were predicted to display a specific bilingual advantage in set-shifting, but not working memory, relative to monolinguals with ASD. Forty 6- to 9-year-old children participated (20 ASD, 20 typically-developing). Set-shifting was measured using a computerized dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, and by parent report of executive functioning in daily life. Results showed an advantage for bilingual relative to monolingual children with ASD on the DCCS task, but not for set-shifting in daily life. Working memory was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals with ASD. These findings suggest that bilingualism may mitigate some set-shifting difficulties in children with ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T08:15:29.135673-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12979
       
  • Sometimes It's Good to be Short: The Serotonin Transporter Gene, Positive
           Parenting, and Adolescent Depression
    • Authors: Keriann Little; Craig A. Olsson, Sarah Whittle, Jacqui A. Macdonald, Lisa B. Sheeber, George J. Youssef, Julian G. Simmons, Ann V. Sanson, Debra L. Foley, Nicholas B. Allen
      Abstract: In threatening environments, the short (S) allele of 5-HTTLPR is proposed to augment risk for depression. However, it is unknown whether 5-HTTLPR variation increases risk for depression in environments of deprivation, lacking positive or nurturant features. Two independent longitudinal studies (n = 681 and 176, respectively) examined whether 5-HTTLPR moderated associations between low levels of positive parenting at 11–13 years and subsequent depression at 17–19 years. In both studies only LL homozygous adolescents were at greater risk for depression with decreasing levels of positive parenting. Thus, while the S allele has previously been identified as a susceptible genotype, these findings suggest that the L allele may also confer sensitivity to depression in the face of specific environmental challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:55:38.425998-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12987
       
  • Child-Directed Speech Is Infrequent in a Forager-Farmer Population: A Time
           Allocation Study
    • Authors: Alejandrina Cristia; Emmanuel Dupoux, Michael Gurven, Jonathan Stieglitz
      Abstract: This article provides an estimation of how frequently, and from whom, children aged 0–11 years (Ns between 9 and 24) receive one-on-one verbal input among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia. Analyses of systematic daytime behavioral observations reveal
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:15:33.955377-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12974
       
  • An Experimental Investigation of Antisocial Lie-Telling Among Children
           With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Typically Developing Children
    • Authors: Allison P. Mugno, Lindsay C. Malloy, Daniel A. Waschbusch, William E. Pelham Jr; Victoria Talwar
      Abstract: Children's lie-telling is surprisingly understudied among children with significant behavioral problems. In the present study, experimental paradigms were used to examine antisocial lie-telling among ethnically diverse 5- to 10-year-old children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD; n = 71) and a typically developing (TD) comparison sample (n = 50) recruited from a southeastern state from 2013 to 2014. Children completed two games that measured the prevalence and skill of their lies: (a) for personal gain and (b) to conceal wrongdoing. Children with DBD were more likely to lie for personal gain than TD children. With age, children were more likely to lie to conceal wrongdoing, but the reverse was true regarding lies for personal gain. Results advance knowledge concerning individual differences in children's lie-telling.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T06:00:30.450811-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12985
       
  • Child and Adolescent Use of Mobile Phones: An Unparalleled Complex
           Developmental Phenomenon
    • Authors: Zheng Yan
      Pages: 5 - 16
      Abstract: This article addresses why children's use of mobile phones is an unparalleled complex developmental phenomenon in hopes of providing a broad context for this special section. It first outlines mobile phones as a sophisticated personalized and multifunction technology. Then it presents mobile phone use by children as an unparalleled complex developmental phenomenon on the basis of its four behavioral elements, two mobile cultures, and two developmental processes. It further illustrates the existing knowledge about children's mobile phones use that has been accumulated over the past 23 years and highlights 12 most studied topics, especially distracted driving and radiation exposure. It concludes with three types of scientific contributions made by the 12 articles in the special section.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T00:15:27.805877-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12821
       
  • Developing Digital Privacy: Children's Moral Judgments Concerning Mobile
           GPS Devices
    • Authors: Susan A. Gelman; Megan Martinez, Natalie S. Davidson, Nicholaus S. Noles
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: New technology poses new moral problems for children to consider. We examined whether children deem object tracking with a mobile GPS device to be a property right. In three experiments, 329 children (4–10 years) and adults were asked whether it is acceptable to track the location of either one's own or another person's possessions using a mobile GPS device. Young children, like adults, viewed object tracking as relatively more acceptable for owners than nonowners. However, whereas adults expressed negative evaluations of someone tracking another person's possessions, young children expressed positive evaluations of this behavior. These divergent moral judgments of digital tracking at different ages have profound implications for how concepts of digital privacy develop and for the digital security of children.
      PubDate: 2017-05-07T11:08:44.490247-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12826
       
  • Look At That! Video Chat and Joint Visual Attention Development Among
           Babies and Toddlers
    • Authors: Elisabeth R. McClure; Yulia E. Chentsova-Dutton, Steven J. Holochwost, W. G. Parrott, Rachel Barr
      Pages: 27 - 36
      Abstract: Although many relatives use video chat to keep in touch with toddlers, key features of adult–toddler interaction like joint visual attention (JVA) may be compromised in this context. In this study, 25 families with a child between 6 and 24 months were observed using video chat at home with geographically separated grandparents. We define two types of screen-mediated JVA (across- and within-screen) and report age-related increases in the babies’ across-screen JVA initiations, and that family JVA usage was positively related to babies’ overall attention during video calls. Babies today are immersed in a digital world where formative relationships are often mediated by a screen. Implications for both infant social development and developmental research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:00:51.440971-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12833
       
  • Peer Influence Via Instagram: Effects on Brain and Behavior in Adolescence
           and Young Adulthood
    • Authors: Lauren E. Sherman; Patricia M. Greenfield, Leanna M. Hernandez, Mirella Dapretto
      Pages: 37 - 47
      Abstract: Mobile social media often feature the ability to “Like” content posted by others. This study examined the effect of Likes on youths' neural and behavioral responses to photographs. High school and college students (N = 61, ages 13–21) viewed theirs and others' Instagram photographs while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Participants more often Liked photographs that appeared to have received many (vs. few) Likes. Popular photographs elicited greater activity in multiple brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a hub of the brain's reward circuitry. NAcc responsivity increased with age for high school but not college students. When viewing images depicting risk-taking (vs. nonrisky photographs), high school students, but not college students, showed decreased activation of neural regions implicated in cognitive control.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T06:30:23.761294-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12838
       
  • Viewing Fantastical Events Versus Touching Fantastical Events: Short-Term
           Effects on Children's Inhibitory Control
    • Authors: Hui Li; Kaveri Subrahmanyam, Xuejun Bai, Xiaochun Xie, Tao Liu
      Pages: 48 - 57
      Abstract: Three pretest–posttest experiments were conducted to compare the effects of viewing versus interacting with either fantastical or real events on 4- and 6-year-old children's inhibitory control. Experiment 1 (N = 72) suggested that although viewing fantastical events had a negative effect on inhibitory control, interacting with them produced no such disruption. Experiment 2 (N = 17) also found that children's inhibitory control decreased after viewing fantastical events but not after interacting with them. In addition, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data showed that viewing fantastical events resulted in greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Experiment 3 (N = 72) showed that children's inhibitory control increased after viewing and interacting with real events. The implications for studying the effects of mobile devices are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-07T11:14:01.608902-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12820
       
  • Mobile Phones in the Bedroom: Trajectories of Sleep Habits and Subsequent
           Adolescent Psychosocial Development
    • Authors: Lynette Vernon; Kathryn L. Modecki, Bonnie L. Barber
      Pages: 66 - 77
      Abstract: Mobile phones are an essential part of an adolescent's life, leading them to text, phone, or message into the night. Longitudinal latent growth models were used to examine relations between changes in adolescent night-time mobile phone use, changes in sleep behavior, and changes in well-being (depressed mood, externalizing behavior, self-esteem, and coping) for 1,101 students (43% male) between 13 and 16 years old. Both night-time mobile phone use and poor sleep behavior underwent positive linear growth over time. Increased night-time mobile phone use was directly associated with increased externalizing behavior and decreased self-esteem and coping. Changes in sleep behavior mediated the relation between early changes in night-time mobile phone use and later increases in depressed mood and externalizing behavior and later declines in self-esteem and coping.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T23:45:37.182425-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12836
       
  • Concurrent and Subsequent Associations Between Daily Digital Technology
           Use and High-Risk Adolescents’ Mental Health Symptoms
    • Authors: Madeleine J. George; Michael A. Russell, Joy R. Piontak, Candice L. Odgers
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Adolescents are spending an unprecedented amount of time using digital technologies (especially mobile technologies), and there are concerns that adolescents’ constant connectivity is associated with poor mental health, particularly among at-risk adolescents. Participants included 151 adolescents at risk for mental health problems (Mage = 13.1) who completed a baseline assessment, 30-day ecological momentary assessment, and 18 month follow-up assessment. Results from multilevel regression models showed that daily reports of both time spent using digital technologies and the number of text messages sent were associated with increased same-day attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Adolescents’ reported digital technology usage and text messaging across the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) period was also associated with poorer self-regulation and increases in conduct problem symptoms between the baseline and follow-up assessments.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:20:27.202077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12819
       
  • Cyberbullying and Cybervictimization Within a Cross-Cultural Context:
           A Study of Canadian and Tanzanian Adolescents
    • Authors: Jennifer D. Shapka; Hezron Z. Onditi, Rebecca J. Collie, Noam Lapidot-Lefler
      Pages: 89 - 99
      Abstract: This study explored cyberbullying and cybervictimization (CBCV), for adolescents aged 11–15 from Tanzania (N = 426) and Canada (N = 592). Measurement invariance and model invariance was found for CBCV. In addition, multigroup structural equation modeling was used to explore several variables: age, gender, average hours online each day, accessing the Internet in a private location, having online privacy concerns, going online for social purposes, and motivation for cyberbullying. Results found interesting patterns within each country. It was found that cellphone ownership moderated the relation between these predictor variables and reported incidences of CBCV uniquely for each country. These findings provide evidence for the global nature of cyberbullying.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19T00:59:05.832539-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12829
       
  • Technoference: Parent Distraction With Technology and Associations With
           Child Behavior Problems
    • Authors: Brandon T. McDaniel; Jenny S. Radesky
      Pages: 100 - 109
      Abstract: Heavy parent digital technology use has been associated with suboptimal parent–child interactions, but no studies examine associations with child behavior. This study investigates whether parental problematic technology use is associated with technology-based interruptions in parent–child interactions, termed “technoference,” and whether technoference is associated with child behavior problems. Parent reports from 170 U.S. families (child Mage = 3.04 years) and actor–partner interdependence modeling showed that maternal and paternal problematic digital technology use predicted greater technoference in mother–child and father–child interactions; then, maternal technoference predicted both mothers’ and fathers’ reports of child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results suggest that technological interruptions are associated with child problem behaviors, but directionality and transactional processes should be examined in future longitudinal studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T23:35:24.718398-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12822
       
  • Associations Between Sexting Behaviors and Sexual Behaviors Among Mobile
           Phone-Owning Teens in Los Angeles
    • Authors: Eric Rice; Jaih Craddock, Mary Hemler, Joshua Rusow, Aaron Plant, Jorge Montoya, Timothy Kordic
      Pages: 110 - 117
      Abstract: The implications of teen sexting for healthy development continue to concern parents, academics, and the general public. Using a probability sample of high school students (N = 1,208) aged 12–18, the prevalence of sexting, associations with sexting, and associations between sexing and sexual activity were assessed. Seventeen percent both sent and received sexts, and 24% only received sexts. Sending and receiving sexts were positively associated with each other and both behaviors were associated with having peers who sext. Lifetime reports of sexual intercourse, anal sex, oral sex, and recent unprotected sex were positively associated with reports of texting 300 or more times per day, only receiving sexts, and both sending and receiving sexts.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T23:45:35.228869-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12837
       
  • Distracted Walking, Bicycling, and Driving: Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis of Mobile Technology and Youth Crash Risk
    • Authors: Despina Stavrinos; Caitlin N. Pope, Jiabin Shen, David C. Schwebel
      Pages: 118 - 128
      Abstract: This article examined the impact of mobile technology on young pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers. A systematic search yielded 41 articles meeting inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed, published before February 1, 2016, behavioral outcome related to pedestrian, bicycling, or driving in the presence of mobile technology use, youth sample. Eleven studies were meta-analyzed to evaluate increased risk for crash/near-crash while distracted. Risk of bias and quality of research were assessed. Across methodologies, developmental stages, and type of distracting task, mobile technology use impairs youth safety on the road. Quality of evidence was low (pedestrian) to moderate (driving). Findings are discussed from the perspective of cognitive and visual distractions. Policy and behavioral efforts should continue to reduce mobile technology use in transportation settings.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T07:22:02.803172-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12827
       
  • Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics:
           How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development
    • Authors: Cindy Sage; Ernesto Burgio
      Pages: 129 - 136
      Abstract: Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes due to exposure to wireless technologies. Symptoms of retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral problems have been reported in numerous studies and are similarly manifested in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, as a result of EMF and RFR exposures where both epigenetic drivers and genetic (DNA) damage are likely contributors. Technology benefits can be realized by adopting wired devices for education to avoid health risk and promote academic achievement.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T07:06:18.804771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12824
       
  • Effects of Mobile Phones on Children's and Adolescents’ Health: A
           Commentary
    • Authors: Lennart Hardell
      Pages: 137 - 140
      Abstract: The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization. The scientific panel reached the conclusion that RF radiation from devices that emit nonionizing RF radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz–300 GHz is a Group 2B, that is, a “possible” human carcinogen. With respect to health implications of digital (wireless) technologies, it is of importance that neurological diseases, physiological addiction, cognition, sleep, and behavioral problems are considered in addition to cancer. Well-being needs to be carefully evaluated as an effect of changed behavior in children and adolescents through their interactions with modern digital technologies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T07:05:49.091169-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12831
       
  • The Role of Generic Language in the Early Development of Social
           Categorization
    • Authors: Marjorie Rhodes; Sarah-Jane Leslie, Lydia Bianchi, Lisa Chalik
      Pages: 148 - 155
      Abstract: Classifying people into categories not only helps humans simplify a complex social world but also contributes to stereotyping and discrimination. This research examines how social categorization develops by testing how language imbues with meaning otherwise arbitrary differences between people. Experimental studies (N = 129) with 2-year-olds showed that generic language—language that refers to abstract kinds—guides the development of social categorization. Toddlers learned a new category after hearing generic language about individuals who shared an arbitrary perceptual feature but not after hearing matched specific language, simple labels, or plural (but nongeneric) language about the same set of individuals. These findings show how subtle linguistic cues shape the development of social categorization.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T12:40:34.988319-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12714
       
  • Reciprocal Relations Between Harsh Discipline and Children's Externalizing
           Behavior in China: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Meifang Wang; Li Liu
      Pages: 174 - 187
      Abstract: This research examined the overtime reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh discipline and children's externalizing behavior. Seven hundred two father–mother dyads of children (6–9 years of age at baseline) completed measures of parental harsh discipline and children's externalizing behavior at five time points, 1 year apart. Autoregressive latent trajectory models revealed that maternal and paternal corporal punishment predicted subsequent children's externalizing behavior (parent-driven effects), whereas children's externalizing behavior predicted subsequent maternal and paternal psychological aggression (child-driven effects). The parent-driven effects became stronger, whereas the child-driven effects were equally strong across time. Furthermore, the parent-driven effects for corporal punishment were found for both boys and girls, whereas the child-driven effects for psychological aggression were found only for boys.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T09:30:48.489753-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12724
       
  • Probability Learning: Changes in Behavior Across Time and Development
    • Authors: Rista C. Plate; Jacqueline M. Fulvio, Kristin Shutts, C. Shawn Green, Seth D. Pollak
      Pages: 205 - 218
      Abstract: Individuals track probabilities, such as associations between events in their environments, but less is known about the degree to which experience—within a learning session and over development—influences people's use of incoming probabilistic information to guide behavior in real time. In two experiments, children (4–11 years) and adults searched for rewards hidden in locations with predetermined probabilities. In Experiment 1, children (n = 42) and adults (n = 32) changed strategies to maximize reward receipt over time. However, adults demonstrated greater strategy change efficiency. Making the predetermined probabilities more difficult to learn (Experiment 2) delayed effective strategy change for children (n = 39) and adults (n = 33). Taken together, these data characterize how children and adults alike react flexibly and change behavior according to incoming information.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T07:40:26.912058-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12718
       
  • Children's Use of Memory Editing Strategies to Reject Source
           Misinformation
    • Authors: Kara N. Moore; James M. Lampinen, David A. Gallo, Eryn J. Adams, Ana J. Bridges
      Pages: 219 - 234
      Abstract: This is the first reported study of children's use of two metacognitive strategies, recollection rejection and diagnostic monitoring, to reject misinformation. Recollection rejection involves the retrieval of details that disqualify an event, whereas diagnostic monitoring involves the failure to retrieve expected details. First (n = 56, age 7 years) and third graders (n = 52, age 9 years) witnessed a staged classroom interaction involving common and bizarre accidents, were presented with misinformation about the source of these events, and took a memory test. Both age groups used recollection rejection, but third graders were more effective. There was little evidence that diagnostic monitoring influenced responses for bizarre events, potentially because these events were not sufficiently bizarre in the context of the stereotype induction.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T04:45:45.2149-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12716
       
  • An Examination of the Sibling Training Hypothesis for Disruptive Behavior
           in Early Childhood
    • Authors: Ella Daniel; André Plamondon, Jennifer M. Jenkins
      Pages: 235 - 247
      Abstract: Sibling training for disruptive behavior (one sibling teaching another disruptive behavior) is examined during early childhood. We used a conservative, recently developed, statistical model to identify sibling training. Sibling training was operationalized as the cross-lagged association between earlier child behavior and later sibling behavior, and differentiated from other reasons that contribute to sibling similarity. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked 916 children (Mage = 3.46, SD = 2.23) in 397 families using multi-informant data. Evidence for sibling training was found. Earlier younger siblings’ disruptive behavior predicted later lower levels of older siblings’ disruptive behavior. Thus, the sibling training found in early childhood was producing greater dissimilarity, rather than similarity, on disruptive behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13T08:15:45.983882-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12754
       
  • Peer Groups as a Context for School Misconduct: The Moderating Role of
           Group Interactional Style
    • Authors: Wendy Ellis; Lynne Zarbatany, Xinyin Chen, Megan Kinal, Lisa Boyko
      Pages: 248 - 263
      Abstract: Peer group interactional style was examined as a moderator of the relation between peer group school misconduct and group members' school misconduct. Participants were 705 students (Mage = 11.59 years, SD = 1.37) in 148 peer groups. Children reported on their school misconduct in fall and spring. In the winter, group members were observed in a limited-resource task and a group conversation task, and negative and positive group interactional styles were assessed. Multilevel modeling indicated that membership in groups that were higher on school misconduct predicted greater school misconduct only when the groups were high on negative or low on positive interactional style. Results suggest that negative laughter and a coercive interactional style may intensify group effects on children's misconduct.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T04:35:45.757897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12722
       
  • Question, Explanation, Follow-Up: A Mechanism for Learning From
           Others'
    • Authors: Katelyn E. Kurkul; Kathleen H. Corriveau
      Pages: 280 - 294
      Abstract: This study explored differences in caregiver–child interactions following children's information-seeking questions. Naturalistic speech from thirty-seven 4-year-olds and their caregivers was used to explore children's information-seeking questions, the caregiver's response, and children's subsequent follow-up. Half of the families were low-socioeconomic status (SES) and the other half were mid-SES. Although children across socioeconomic groups asked a similar proportion of questions, mid-SES caregivers offered significantly more explanatory responses to causal questions as well as more noncircular explanations than low-SES caregivers. No differences were found in children's follow-up to responses given to fact-based questions; however, after hearing unsatisfactory responses to causal questions, mid-SES children were significantly more likely to provide their own explanation. Such variability in caregiver–child interaction may have implications for subsequent learning.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T05:20:31.890335-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12726
       
  • Early Home Activities and Oral Language Skills in Middle Childhood: A
           Quantile Analysis
    • Authors: James Law; Robert Rush, Tom King, Elizabeth Westrupp, Sheena Reilly
      Pages: 295 - 309
      Abstract: Oral language development is a key outcome of elementary school, and it is important to identify factors that predict it most effectively. Commonly researchers use ordinary least squares regression with conclusions restricted to average performance conditional on relevant covariates. Quantile regression offers a more sophisticated alternative. Using data of 17,687 children from the United Kingdom's Millennium Cohort Study, we compared ordinary least squares and quantile models with language development (verbal similarities) at 11 years as the outcome. Gender had more of an effect at the top of the distribution, whereas poverty, early language, and reading to the child had a greater effect at the bottom. The picture for TV watching was more mixed. The results are discussed in terms of the provision of universal and targeted interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T06:19:16.049106-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12727
       
  • Age of Bilingual Exposure Is Related to the Contribution of Phonological
           and Semantic Knowledge to Successful Reading Development
    • Authors: Kaja K. Jasińska; Laura-Ann Petitto
      Pages: 310 - 331
      Abstract: Bilingual children's reading as a function of age of first bilingual language exposure (AoE) was examined. Bilingual (varied AoE) and monolingual children (N = 421) were compared in their English language and reading abilities (6–10 years) using phonological awareness, semantic knowledge, and reading tasks. Structural equation modeling was applied to determine how bilingual AoE predicts reading outcomes. Early exposed bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on phonological awareness and word reading. Phonology and semantic (vocabulary) knowledge differentially predicted reading depending on the bilingual experience and AoE. Understanding how bilingual experiences impact phonological awareness and semantic knowledge, and in turn, impact reading outcomes is relevant for our understanding of what language and reading skills are best to focus on, and when, to promote optimal reading success.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T05:10:33.610917-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12745
       
 
 
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